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Sample records for health related behaviors

  1. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  2. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  3. Health-related behavior and adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; James, Kathy; Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Shu-Wen; Huang, Lian-Hua; Wang, Edward K

    2005-01-01

    To explore health-related behaviors among adolescent mothers living in the rural area of Taoyuan, Taiwan. A cross-sectional descriptive design and nonrandom survey method were used. The sample consisted of 37 adolescent mothers, identified by public health nurses. Standardized interview and Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) questionnaire. Findings revealed a pattern of economic disadvantage. Nearly half of the participants still lived with their biological parents. Two-thirds needed economic support from their parents (generally coming from their biological mother). Thirty-five percent of participants reported never using contraceptives, two-thirds had never had a Pap smear, and 44% did not breast-feed their infants. Nearly 60% of the children were cared for by the biological mothers of the participants. Adolescent mothers with high school education, and who were employed, married, and received parental economic support had better health-related behaviors than adolescent mothers without these characteristics. Although the study sample has geographic limitations, future international studies with similar populations of adolescent mothers in rural settings will help public health nurses understand adolescent mothers' stressors and needs which in turn affect their health-related behaviors. Intervention strategies are needed to encourage behaviors to keep this population healthy.

  4. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  5. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  6. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  8. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  9. Health-related behaviors and technology usage among college students.

    PubMed

    Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p < .05). As technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.

  10. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Gaston; Kok, Gerjo

    1996-01-01

    The literature review discussed here located 56 studies examining 87 behaviors that predicted future health-related behaviors using the theory of planned behavior. About 41% of variance in intentions and 34% of variance in future behavior were explained by the theory. Perceived behavioral control explained 11.5% of variance in behavior above…

  11. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin

    2017-01-01

    Background To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. Methods A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. Results The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). Conclusions The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion. PMID:28746400

  12. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.

  13. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  14. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  15. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  16. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    PubMed

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  17. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  18. Social relationships and health related behaviors among older US adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health behaviors are a key determinant of health and well-being that are influenced by the nature of the social environment. This study examined associations between social relationships and health-related behaviors among a nationally representative sample of older people. Methods We analyzed data from three waves (1999–2004) of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were 4,014 older Americans aged 60 and over. Log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the associations between social relationships and each of the following health behaviors: alcohol use, smoking, physical activity and dental attendance. Results Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking and less frequent dental visits) were related to marital status, while physical activity, a health-promoting behavior, was associated with the size of friendship networks. Smoking was more common among divorced/separated (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) and widowed (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) respondents than among those married or cohabiting, after adjusting for socio-demographic background. Heavy drinking was 2.6 times more common among divorced/separated and 1.7 times more common among widowed men compared to married/cohabiting men, while there was no such association among women. For women, heavy drinking was associated with being single (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Being widowed was related to a lower prevalence of having visited a dentist compared to being married or living with a partner (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). Those with a larger circle of friends were more likely to be physically active (PR = 1.17; 95% CI:1.06, 1.28 for 5–8 versus less than 5 friends). Conclusions Social relationships of older Americans were independently associated with different health-related behaviors, even after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Availability of emotional support did not however

  19. Longitudinal correlated changes in conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W; Jackson, Joshua J; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately three years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Longitudinal Correlated Changes in Conscientiousness, Preventative Health-related Behaviors, and Self-perceived Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Method Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately 3 years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Results Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. Conclusion This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. PMID:23072269

  1. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  2. 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    to be sociable (33.4%). The most commonly ES-8 Executive Summary to the 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel 20...standards and current best practices in the field of survey research. Although the target population and the topics addressed in the 2011 HRB were...enlisted, active duty military personnel to identify any items or survey instructions that were unclear. It is a best practice to pretest the survey

  3. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social environmental factors and preteen health-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, Pamela K

    2005-01-01

    To examine associations among risk and protective factors with negative (substance use, delinquent behavior, sedentary recreation, empty calorie consumption, suicidal behavior) and positive behaviors (prosocial recreation, productive behavior, exercise, nutrition behavior, academic achievement, seatbelt use). Data were from sixth-grade public school students (n = 133,629) in 2001. Factor analysis produced five risks, five protectors, seven negative and six positive behaviors. Associations were tested among single and cumulative risks and protectors with behaviors (linear, logit regression) and combinations of high and low risks and protectors with behaviors (analysis of variance, Chi-square). Individual and cumulative risks were related to higher and protectors were related to lower negative behaviors. Protectors were associated with higher positive behaviors, with some exceptions. Risks and their sum were associated with lower academic achievement and seatbelt use, but were linked to higher, rather than lower productive behavior. Being bullied or victimized was correlated with higher levels of exercise, good nutrition, and prosocial recreation. The high risk/low protection combination had the highest negative behaviors and low risk/high protection the lowest, but for positive behaviors, high protectors with either high or low risks showed higher positive behaviors. These findings provide new information about how (a) risks and protectors are associated with negative behaviors besides substance use and delinquency, (b) cumulative protectors, as well as risks, are related to negative and positive behaviors, and (c) combinations of high and low risks and protectors are related to behaviors. The unusual findings for positive behaviors merit further exploration.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  7. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk F; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; de Leeuw, Johannes R J

    2013-12-04

    Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial and physical health. These findings have

  8. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  9. Family Relational Health, Psychological Resources, and Health Behaviors: A Dyadic Study of Military Couples.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses.

  10. [Social class, health inequalities, and health-related behaviors of working people in Chile].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; González Rodríguez, María José; Baksai, Pamela Bernales; Vallebuona, Clelia; Borrell, Carme; Solar, Orielle

    2013-05-01

    To analyze links between social class and health-related indicators and behaviors in Chilean workers, from a neo-Marxian perspective. A cross-sectional study based on the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Health, and Quality of Life of Workers in Chile, done in 2009-2010 (n = 9 503). Dependent variables were self-perceived health status and mental health, examined using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Health-related behavior variables included tobacco use and physical activity. The independent variable was neo-Marxian social class. Descriptive analyses of prevalence were performed and odds ratio (OR) models and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. Medium employers (between 2 and 10 employees) reported a lower prevalence of poor health (21.6% [OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.46-0.99]). Unskilled managers had the lowest mental health risk (OR 0.43; 95%CI 0.21-0.88), with differences between men and women. Large employers (more than 10 employees) reported smoking the least, while large employers, expert supervisors, and semi-skilled workers engaged in significantly more physical activity. Large employers and expert managers have the best health-related indicators and behaviors. Formal proletarians, informal proletarians, and unskilled supervisors, however, have the worst general health indicators, confirming that social class is a key determinant in the generation of population health inequalities.

  11. Impact of a school health coordinator intervention on health-related school policies and student behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Liam M; Polacsek, Michele; Macdonald, Pamela B; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-04-01

    Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams and implemented annual work plans to address health risk behaviors. This study evaluates the impact of the Healthy Maine Partnerships SHC (HMPSHC) intervention on school policies and student risk behaviors after its first 5 years. Data sources include the Maine School Health Profiles Survey and the Maine Youth Drug and Alcohol Use Survey/Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 2006 data to assess physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco-related policy associations with the HMPSHC intervention. Finally, policy and student behavior analyses were conducted to assess associations. Intervention schools were more likely to be associated with physical activity intramural offerings, improved nutritional offerings, and tobacco cessation programs. In intervention schools, supportive school policies were associated with decreased soda consumption, decreased inactivity, and decreased tobacco use. Required school health education curricula were more predictive of decreased risk behavior in intervention schools than in nonintervention schools. In schools with SHCs, there exists a stronger association with improved school programs. Improved policies and programs were associated with decreases in risk behavior among students in intervention schools. The HMPSHC intervention may be a viable CSHP model to replicate and evaluate in other settings.

  12. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  13. Factor structure of health and oral health-related behaviors among adolescents in Arusha, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mbawalla, Hawa

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of health and oral health-related behaviors and it's invariance across gender and to identify factors associated with behavioral patterns. A cross-sectional study included 2412 students attending 20 secondary schools in Arusha. Self-administered questionnaires were completed at school. Principal component analysis of seven single health and oral health-related behaviors (tooth brushing, hand wash after latrine, hand wash before eating, using soap, intake of sugared mineral water, intake of fast foods and intake of sweets) suggested two factors labeled hygiene behavior and snacking. Confirmatory factor analyses, CFA, provided acceptable fit for the hypothesized two-factor model; CFI = 0.97. Multiple group CFA across gender showed no statistically significant difference in fit between unconstrained and constrained models (p = 0.203). Logistic regression revealed ORs for hygiene behaviors of 1.5, 0.5, 1.5, 1.5 and 0.6 if being a girl, current smoker, reporting good relationship with school, access to hygiene facilities and bad life satisfaction, respectively. ORs for snacking were 1.3, 1.4, 0.4 and 0.5 if female, in the least poor household quartile, low family socio-economic status and high perceived control, respectively. The two factors suggest that behaviors within each might be approached jointly in health promoting programs. A positive relationship with school and access to hygiene facilities might play a role in health promotion. Provision of healthy snacks and improved perceived behavioral control regarding sugar avoidance might restrict snacking during school hours.

  14. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  15. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  16. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  17. Telephone intervention promoting weight-related health behaviors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent national surveys have documented that the majority of adults in the United States do not meet the recommended levels of healthy lifestyle-related behaviors. The Nutrition and Physical Activity (NuPA) study was designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight ...

  18. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life, Health Risk Behaviors, and Disability Among Adults With Pain-Related Activity Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Strine, Tara W.; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Okoro, Catherine A.; Balluz, Lina

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between pain-related activity difficulty (PRAD) in the past 30 days and health-related quality of life, health behaviors, disability indices, and major health impairments in the general US population. Methods. We obtained data from 18 states in the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, an ongoing, cross-sectional, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 years or older. Results. Nearly one quarter of people in the 18 states and the District of Columbia reported at least 1 day of PRAD in the past 30 days. PRAD was associated with obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, impaired general health, infrequent vitality, and frequent occurrences of physical distress, mental distress, depressive symptoms, sleep insufficiency, and anxiety symptoms. Moreover, a general dose–response relationship was noted between increased days of PRAD and increased prevalence of impaired health-related quality of life, disability indices, and health risk behaviors. Conclusion. Pain negatively influences various domains of health, not only among clinical populations, but also in the general community, suggesting a critical need for the dissemination of targeted interventions to enhance recognition and treatment of pain among adult community-dwellers. PMID:16195508

  20. The health-related behaviors and attitudes of student nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vowell, Maribeth

    Nurses are an important component of primary medical care, and patient education is a common and important role of most nurses. Patient education and positive role modeling by nurses have the potential to influence patients' life style choices and the serious diseases that may be affected by those choices. A greater understanding of the ways nurses think about their own health could help facilitate healthier choices for them and in their patients. The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of student nurses related to their personal health, and to investigate those experiences, attitudes and beliefs as they relate to their education, relationships, values and career choice. The purpose was achieved through phenomenological interviews with eleven senior nursing students, nine females and two males, encouraging them to provide in as much detail as possible their attitudes and values about their personal health. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and phenomenologically analyzed. A thematic structure emerged such that the nursing students experiences were represented by the four interrelated themes of caring for myself/caring for others ; I control my health/my world controls my health; I have energy/I'm tired; and feeling good/looking good. The contextual grounds for the themes that emerged during the analysis were the Body and Time. This structure was presented in terms of its relationship to health education, other research and to current theory.

  1. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  2. Does More Schooling Improve Health Outcomes and Health Related Behaviors? Evidence from U.K. Twins

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R.; Spector, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies using instrumental variables based on changes in compulsory schoolleaving age laws have estimated the causal effect of schooling on health outcomes and health-related behaviors in the U.K. Despite using the same identification strategy and similar datasets, no consensus has been reached. We contribute to the literature by providing results for the U.K. using a different research design and a different dataset. Specifically, we estimate the effect of schooling on health outcomes (obesity and physical health) and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise) for women through within-MZ twins estimates using the TwinsUK database. For physical health, alcohol consumption and exercise, the within-MZ twins estimates are uninformative about whether there is a causal effect. However, we find (1) that the significant association between schooling and smoking status is due to unobserved endowments that are correlated with schooling and smoking (2) there is some indication that more schooling reduces the body mass index for women, even once these unobserved endowments have been controlled for. PMID:24415826

  3. Health behaviors of victims and related factors in Wenchuan earthquake resettlement sites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolan; Zhou, Hongyu; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lingyun; Qiu, Peiyuan; Ma, Xiao

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the health behaviors of earthquake victims related to gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious diseases in the centralized transitional earthquake resettlement sites in Wenchuan, China; and to identify key factors related to health behaviors that may inform local infectious diseases prevention and control strategies. Data were collected using a questionnaire that included questions about socio-demographic characteristics and health beliefs and behaviors. In total, 1411 participants were included through a two-stage random sampling strategy. A bivariate multilevel model was used to explore the related factors. Approximately 67% of the participants wash their hands after going to lavatories every time, and 87% felt uncomfortable spitting on the ground. The more the participants perceived their susceptibility to and the severity of infectious diseases, the better their health-related behaviors (P < 0.05). Both health-related behaviors were influenced by communication modes of health education (P = 0.01) and socio-demographic characteristics. There was heterogeneity of health-related behaviors among different resettlement sites (P < 0.01). Health education intervention, based on the Health Belief Model, is one of the main preventative strategies that should be implemented to inspire self-efficacy and to enhance better health-related behaviors among earthquake victims. Appropriate health education communication modes should be considered among different resettlement sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

  5. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

  6. Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Northern Plains American Indians: Prominence of Physical Activity as a Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Holm, Jeffrey; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; McDonald, Leander

    2010-01-01

    Associations of behavioral health risks and healthy behaviors with self-reported health-related quality of life measures were investigated in a Northern Plains American Indian sample. Participants were surveyed in person using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. The results showed that regular physical activity was significantly…

  7. Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Tiu, Georgianne F; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Lee, Sarah M; Bohm, Michele K; Annor, Francis; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2017-09-08

    Studies have shown links between educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, or other measures of academic achievement, and health-related behaviors (1-4). However, as reported in a 2013 systematic review, many of these studies have used samples that are not nationally representative, and quite a few studies are now at least 2 decades old (1). To update the relevant data, CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial, cross-sectional, school-based survey measuring health-related behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses assessed relationships between academic achievement (i.e., self-reported letter grades in school) and 30 health-related behaviors (categorized as dietary behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, violence-related behaviors, and suicide-related behaviors) that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States (5). Logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school found that students who earned mostly A's, mostly B's, or mostly C's had statistically significantly higher prevalence estimates for most protective health-related behaviors and significantly lower prevalence estimates for most health-related risk behaviors than did students with mostly D's/F's. These findings highlight the link between health-related behaviors and education outcomes, suggesting that education and public health professionals can find their respective education and health improvement goals to be mutually beneficial. Education and public health professionals might benefit from collaborating to achieve both improved education and health outcomes for youths.

  8. Sources of health information related to preventive health behaviors in a national study.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J; Clark, Cheryl R; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S

    2010-06-01

    Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. This study aims to determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers) with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sources of Health Information Related to Preventive Health Behaviors in a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Clark, Cheryl R.; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. Purpose To determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers); with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Conclusions Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. PMID:20494238

  10. Greek Christian Orthodox Ecclesiastical lifestyle: could it become a pattern of health-related behavior?

    PubMed

    El Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Drakou, Ismini; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Galariotou, Sofia; Carra, Helene; Chliaoutaki, Myrsini

    2002-04-01

    Although past research has globally supported the salutary impact of religion on health and health-related behaviors, it has not extensively examined the impact of the Christian Orthodox Church's way of living on people's health and health-related behavior. Semistructured personal interviews were used to investigate a stratified sample of 20- to 65-year-old individuals in the greater Athens area. Constructs were compared to single items and indices, which varied across data sets. Multiple-regression analysis specify that persons adopting the Christian Orthodox Church's lifestyle were more likely to behave in ways that enhance their health (e.g., relaxation, life satisfaction, healthful nutrition, personal hygiene, and physical activity), after controlling for a set of socio-demographic factors and their current health status. These results suggest that the Christian Orthodox Church's lifestyle constitutes a pattern of health-related behavior. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. Playing for real: video games and stories for health-related behavior change.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe I; Baranowski, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health-related behavior change through December 2006. Most of the articles demonstrated positive health-related changes from playing the video games. Variability in what was reported about the games and measures employed precluded systematically relating characteristics of the games to outcomes. Many of these games merged the immersive, attention-maintaining properties of stories and fantasy, the engaging properties of interactivity, and behavior-change technology (e.g., tailored messages, goal setting). Stories in video games allow for modeling, vicarious identifying experiences, and learning a story's "moral," among other change possibilities. Research is needed on the optimal use of game-based stories, fantasy, interactivity, and behavior change technology in promoting health-related behavior change.

  12. Weight status misperception as related to selected health risk behaviors among middle school students.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian C; Dalton, William T; Williams, Stacey L; Slawson, Deborah L; Dunn, Michael S; Johns-Wommack, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    Weight misperception has been documented among children although the impact on health risk behaviors is less understood, particularly among middle school students. The goals of this study were to describe sociodemographic differences in actual and perceived weight, correspondence between actual and perceived weight, and weight-related health risk behaviors, as well as to examine weight misperception and interactions with sociodemographic variables in explaining weight-related health risk behaviors. Participants were recruited at 11 public school districts participating in the Tennessee Coordinated School Health (CSH) pilot program. A total of 10,273 middle school students completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey administered by teachers in the school setting. Findings revealed sociodemographic differences in actual and perceived weight as well as weight misperception. Although overestimating one's weight was significantly related to greater likelihood of weight-related health risk behaviors, significant interactions showed this relationship to be especially pronounced in females. Additional distinctions based on sociodemographic variables are indicated. Results highlight the importance of screening for health risk behaviors including weight misperception among middle school students. The CSH program offers an opportunity to understand health risk behaviors among students while also informing and evaluating methods for intervention. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  13. Relations of behavioral autonomy to health outcomes among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Reynolds, Kerry A; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Obesity, Diet, and Physical Activity Behaviors of Students in Health- Related Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Cynthia M.; Nobrega, Cheryl; Dulfan, Faina

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined incidence of obesity and healthy lifestyle behaviors in college students in health-related (HM) compared to other majors (NH). Since individuals are more likely to follow health promotion advice if the health care professional lives a healthy lifestyle, this information may be important in determining compliance of…

  15. Obesity, Diet, and Physical Activity Behaviors of Students in Health- Related Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Cynthia M.; Nobrega, Cheryl; Dulfan, Faina

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined incidence of obesity and healthy lifestyle behaviors in college students in health-related (HM) compared to other majors (NH). Since individuals are more likely to follow health promotion advice if the health care professional lives a healthy lifestyle, this information may be important in determining compliance of…

  16. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Setting an Example: The Health, Medical Care, and Health-Related Behavior of American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zill, Nicholas

    This report details a national survey study of parents, age 54 or younger, living with children under age 18. The study examined parents' physical health status, stress levels and negative feelings, health habits, and access to health care. Findings indicated that one in eight parents reported health problems, with health related to education,…

  18. Socioeconomic differences in adolescent health-related behavior differ by gender.

    PubMed

    Pitel, Lukas; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2013-01-01

    Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential modification of those differences by gender. Data were collected in 2006 (n = 3547; 49.4% boys; mean [SD] age, 14.3 [0.6] years; response rate, 93.5%). The sample comprised students in the eighth and ninth grades of randomly selected elementary schools in Slovakia. Gender-specific prevalence rates for 9 types of health-related behaviors, including nutritional behavior, physical activity and substance use, were calculated for 3 socioeconomic groups, which were defined by the highest educational level attained by both parents. Gender differences in socioeconomic gradients for health-related behaviors were tested. Socioeconomic differences were found in nutritional behavior, physical activity, and smoking. Adolescents with lower parental education behaved less healthily. The largest relative socioeconomic difference was no daily vegetable consumption among girls (90.3% of those with high SEP vs 95.2% of those with middle SEP; odds ratio, 2.33). Regarding no daily fruit consumption, differences among girls were 1.51 times and 1.92 times as large as those among boys for children with medium and low SEP, respectively, as compared with those with high SEP. Socioeconomic differences in health-related behavior were small, especially for nutritional behavior and physical activity. Interventions that aim to improve health-related behaviors among adolescents with lower SEP should focus on these 2 behaviors, particularly on healthy nutrition in girls with low SEP.

  19. Spread of Health Behaviors in Young Couples: How Relationship Power Shapes Relational Influence

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Talea; Desrosiers, Alethea; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Romantic relationships provide a context in which partners can influence each other’s health behaviors (e.g., weight-related behaviors, substance use). Partner influence may be especially pronounced among newly parenting adolescent and young adult couples because of the desire to maintain relationships (and therefore openness to influence), and because parenting-related challenges can pose risk for uptake of unhealthy behaviors. Two understudied factors that might affect partner influence on health behaviors include relative power within the relationship and prior levels of engagement in health behaviors. Methods The current study explored longitudinal partner influence effects in a sample of newly parenting adolescent and young adult females and their male partners (Ncouples = 157) recruited from four obstetrics/gynecology clinics in Connecticut between July 2007 and February 2011. Five health behaviors in two domains were explored: weight-related behaviors (unhealthy eating, exercise) and substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use). Relationship power and previous levels of health behaviors were examined as moderators. Variations across gender were also examined. Results Results of dyadic analysis showed partner influences for alcohol use. Partner influence depended on relationship power for eating, alcohol, and marijuana use, and on previous behavior for cigarette use. Results also varied by gender – only female-to-male influence was found for unhealthy eating and cigarette use. Higher relationship power was protective against smoking escalation for females. Discussion These results differ from previous research findings mainly on male-to-female influences. Such asymmetries may reflect traditional female dominance in food preparation, as well as shifts in power balances postpartum. Targeting relational power dynamics may buffer the spread and escalation of unhealthy behaviors in young parents, with implications for the health of both

  20. Spread of health behaviors in young couples: How relationship power shapes relational influence.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Talea; Desrosiers, Alethea; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-09-01

    Romantic relationships provide a context in which partners can influence each other's health behaviors (e.g., weight-related behaviors, substance use). Partner influence may be especially pronounced among newly parenting adolescent and young adult couples because of the desire to maintain relationships (and therefore openness to influence), and because parenting-related challenges can pose risk for uptake of unhealthy behaviors. Two understudied factors that might affect partner influence on health behaviors include relative power within the relationship and prior levels of engagement in health behaviors. The current study explored longitudinal partner influence effects in a sample of newly parenting adolescent and young adult females and their male partners (Ncouples = 157) recruited from four obstetrics/gynecology clinics in Connecticut between July 2007 and February 2011. Five health behaviors in two domains were explored: weight-related behaviors (unhealthy eating, exercise) and substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use). Relationship power and previous levels of health behaviors were examined as moderators. Variations across gender were also examined. Results of dyadic analysis showed partner influences for alcohol use. Partner influence depended on relationship power for eating, alcohol, and marijuana use, and on previous behavior for cigarette use. Results also varied by gender - only female-to-male influence was found for unhealthy eating and cigarette use. Higher relationship power was protective against smoking escalation for females. These results differ from previous research findings mainly on male-to-female influences. Such asymmetries may reflect traditional female dominance in food preparation, as well as shifts in power balances postpartum. Targeting relational power dynamics may buffer the spread and escalation of unhealthy behaviors in young parents, with implications for the health of both members of a couple as well as their

  1. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  2. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  3. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  4. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  5. Future health-related behavioral intention formation: the role of affect and cognition.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jessica G; Trafimow, David; Madson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the differential contribution of affect and cognition to behavioral intention formation during pursuit of future health-related goals. Cognitive evaluations, affective evaluations and behavioral intentions were measured for each of 32 health-related behaviors. The timeframes of the cognitive/affective measures and the behavioral intention measure were varied between current and future timeframes creating four different conditions. Within-participants correlations between affect and intentions and cognition and intentions were calculated to determine the contribution of each factor to behavioral intention formation in the different timeframes. Results did not support the hypothesis that a shift from a reliance on affect to a reliance on cognition would occur as temporal distance increased. Within-participants analyses revealed a decrease in the contribution of cognition to behavioral intention formation when forming attitudes in the future condition.

  6. Presidential promotion of health-related behaviors through words and example.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marc A

    2013-04-01

    This article addresses a topic that is part of the public consciousness yet is seldom explored in the public health literature: presidential promotion of health-related behaviors through words and example. The article explores the history of what some American presidents, as individuals, have conveyed to the population about health through their own actions (presidential modeling of health behavior) and words. The nature of such messages and how they are received has changed with advances in technology and will likely continue to evolve.

  7. Measuring determinants of occupational health related behavior in Flemish farmers: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Colémont, A; Van den Broucke, S

    2008-01-01

    Preventive interventions to reduce occupational injuries and health problems in farmers require the identification of factors that contribute to unsafe and health damaging behavior. This paper describes the development and validation of a self-report questionnaire, which measures the determinants of occupational health-related behaviors in farmers. A representative sample of 283 Flemish farmers completed a provisional 135 item questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, measuring four behaviors related to occupational health (machinery use, animal handling, preventing falls, and pesticide use), as well as the intentions, attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy for each of these behaviors. The fit indices of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis turned out not to be sufficient to reproduce the dimensions of the TPB. Therefore exploratory factor analysis was use to determine the underlying dimensions. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) on the behavioral items yielded single component solutions explaining a considerable proportion of the variance for each behavior and for behavioral intentions. Principal component analyses toward an a priori three-component structure reflecting the TPB dimensions did not produce sufficient congruence for the determinants of the four behaviors. Subsequent Varimax rotations and discarding of redundant items resulted in three component solutions explaining 50% to 69% of the variance in the determinants of each behavior, corresponding with the dimensions of the TPB. Internal consistencies ranged from .25 to .89. Scale scores accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in intention and self-reported behavior. The study demonstrates the validity of the TPB in predicting behavior related to occupational safety and health in farmers, and provides a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure the cognitive concepts featured in this model. Both authors share the same view on this study's impact on industry. In

  8. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Gallè, Francesca; Dallolio, Laura; Marotta, Manfredo; Raggi, Alessandra; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Liguori, Giorgio; Toni, Francesco; Leoni, Erica

    2016-05-19

    Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users' health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being.

  9. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gallè, Francesca; Dallolio, Laura; Marotta, Manfredo; Raggi, Alessandra; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Liguori, Giorgio; Toni, Francesco; Leoni, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being. PMID:27213417

  10. Self-perceived health, quality of life, and health-related behavior in obesity: is social status a mediator?

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Freidl, Wolfgang; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Stronegger, Willibald J; Rásky, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and is associated with a high health risk. Unfavorable psychological factors, lower self-ratings of health, and worse health-related behavior can be found in individuals with a low socioeconomic status (SES). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether obese subjects with a high SES differ from those with a low SES depending on these outcomes. Data of the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/2007-precisely of 760 obese subjects with a low SES and 851 with a high SES-were analyzed stratified by sex and adjusted by age with regard to differences in self-perceived health, quality of life (regarding physical and psychological health, environment, and social relationships), and health-related behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, eating behavior, physical exercise). The results have shown that obese subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those with a high SES in terms of self-perceived health, quality of life, and intensity of physical activities. Furthermore, differences were found in obese women as to smoking behavior, alcohol consumption, and continuance of physical exercise. It seems that not only obesity but also the socioeconomic status plays a role in health, and the risk assessment of obese individuals in the primary health care setting should include socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, public health programs which focus on obese subjects with a low SES are urgently needed.

  11. Limited common origins of multiple adult health-related behaviors: Evidence from U.S. twins.

    PubMed

    Sudharsanan, Nikkil; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2016-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality in the United States, yet evidence on the underlying causes of the vast within-population variation in behaviors is mixed. While many potential causes of health-related behaviors have been identified-such as schooling, genetics, and environments-little is known on how much of the variation across multiple behaviors is due to a common set of causes. We use three separate datasets on U.S. twins to investigate the degree to which multiple health-related behaviors correlate and can be explained by a common set of factors. We find that aside from smoking and drinking, most behaviors are not strongly correlated among individuals. Based on the results of both within-identical-twins regressions and multivariate behavioral genetics models, we find some evidence that schooling may be related to smoking but not to the covariation between multiple behaviors. Similarly, we find that a large fraction of the variance in each of the behaviors is consistent with genetic factors; however, we do not find strong evidence that a single common set of genes explains variation in multiple behaviors. We find, however, that a large portion of the correlation between smoking and heavy drinking is consistent with common, mostly childhood, environments. This suggests that the initiation and patterns of these two behaviors might arise from a common childhood origin. Research and policy to identify and modify this source may provide a strong way to reduce the population health burden of smoking and heavy drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mainuddin, Akm; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, S M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox's Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women's education, husband's education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women's working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs.

  13. Playing for Real: Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe I.; Baranowski, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Background Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Method Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health-related behavior change through December 2006. Results Most of the articles demonstrated positive health-related changes from playing the video games. Variability in what was reported about the games and measures employed precluded systematically relating characteristics of the games to outcomes. Many of these games merged the immersive, attention-maintaining properties of stories and fantasy, the engaging properties of interactivity, and behavior-change technology (e.g., tailored messages, goal setting). Stories in video games allow for modeling, vicarious identifying experiences, and learning a story’s “moral,” among other change possibilities. Conclusions Research is needed on the optimal use of game-based stories, fantasy, interactivity, and behavior change technology in promoting health-related behavior change. PMID:18083454

  14. Are primary-care physician practices related to health behaviors likely to reduce social inequalities in health?

    PubMed

    Thebault, Jean-Laurent; Ringa, Virginie; Bloy, Géraldine; Pendola-Luchel, Isabelle; Paquet, Sylvain; Panjo, Henri; Delpech, Raphaëlle; Bucher, Sophie; Casanova, Fanny; Falcoff, Hector; Rigal, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Our objective was to examine patients' health behaviors and the related practices of their primary-care physicians to determine whether physicians' actions might help to reduce the social inequalities in health behaviors among their patients. Fifty-two general practitioners, who were also medical school instructors in the Parisian area, volunteered to participate. A sample of 70 patients (stratified by sex) aged 40-70years was randomly chosen from each physician's patient panel and asked to complete a questionnaire about their social position and health behaviors: tobacco and alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and participation in breast and cervical cancer screening. Each physician reported their practices related to each such behavior of each patient. Mixed models were used to test for social differences. Questionnaires were collected in 2008-2009 from both patient and physician for 71% of the 3640 patients. Our results showed social inequalities disfavored those at the bottom of the social scale for all but one of the health behaviors studied among both men and women (exception: excessive alcohol consumption among women). Physicians' practices related to these health behaviors also appeared to be socially differentiated. Among men, this differentiation favored those with the lowest social position for all behaviors except physical activity. Among women, however, practices favored the most disadvantaged only for breast cancer screening. In all other cases, they were either socially neutral or unfavorable to the most disadvantaged. Physicians' practices related to their patients' health behaviors should focus more on those lowest in the social hierarchy, especially among women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding of School Related Factors Associated with Emotional Health and Bullying Behavior among Jordanian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    SHAHEEN, Abeer; NASSAR, Omayyah; SALEH, Mohammad; ARABIA T, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students’ health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables. Results Significant correlations (P value was ≤.05) were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying. Conclusion Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students’ emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:26060720

  16. Clustering of Five Health-Related Behaviors for Chronic Disease Prevention Among Adults, United States, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Janet B.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Kanny, Dafna; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Lu, Hua; Onufrak, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann M.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five key health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention are never smoking, getting regular physical activity, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body weight, and obtaining daily sufficient sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the clustering of these 5 health-related behaviors among adults aged 21 years or older in each state and the District of Columbia and to assess geographic variation in clustering. Methods We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess the clustering of the 5 behaviors among 395,343 BRFSS respondents aged 21 years or older. The 5 behaviors were defined as currently not smoking cigarettes, meeting the aerobic physical activity recommendation, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body mass index (BMI), and sleeping at least 7 hours per 24-hour period. Prevalence of having 4 or 5 of these behaviors, by state, was also examined. Results Among US adults, 81.6% were current nonsmokers, 63.9% obtained 7 hours or more sleep per day, 63.1% reported moderate or no alcohol consumption, 50.4% met physical activity recommendations, and 32.5% had a normal BMI. Only 1.4% of respondents engaged in none of the 5 behaviors; 8.4%, 1 behavior; 24.3%, 2 behaviors; 35.4%, 3 behaviors; and 24.3%, 4 behaviors; only 6.3% reported engaging in all 5 behaviors. The highest prevalence of engaging in 4 or 5 behaviors was clustered in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain states. Lowest prevalence was in the southern states and along the Ohio River. Conclusion Additional efforts are needed to increase the proportion of the population that engages in all 5 health-related behaviors and to eliminate geographic variation. Collaborative efforts in health care systems, communities, work sites, and schools can promote all 5 behaviors and produce population-wide changes, especially among the socioeconomically disadvantaged. PMID:27236381

  17. Leave taking and overtime behavior as related to demographic, health, and job variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldi, L. B.; Townsend, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    An intra-installation model is formulated that correlates demographic, health and job related variables to the various types and amounts of leave and overtime taking behavior of employees. Statistical comparison of composite health ratings assigned to subjects based upon clinical criteria and bio-statistical data show that those employees who take the most annual leave as well as sick leave are the ones that have the poorest health ratings; employees who put in the most overtime have also the poorest health records. Stress effects of peak activity periods increase use of sick leave immediately after peak activity but not the use of annual leave.

  18. The Mediating Role of Mental Health in the Relations between Dietary Behaviors and General Health: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a pathway to explaining the relations between dietary behaviors with mental health and psychological functioning. This cross-sectional study contains 4763 participants from the employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, four questionnaires were administered which were provided as follows: demographic characteristics, 21-item dietary behaviors questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We started the analysis with the structural equation modeling (SEM) model with 4 unobserved latent and 16 observed variables. The results show that the regression coefficient (standard error) of diet behavior on mental health and mental health on GHQ were - 1 (0.37) and 0.02 (0.01) with their P values as 0.007 and 0.01, respectively. For this model, the estimated root mean square error of approximation is 0.062 with 90% confidence interval of (0.060-0.065). In addition, the comparative fit indices (CFIs) were as 0.866 for incremental fit index and 0.866 for CFI. All these indices represent fairly good fit of the model to the data. We can conclude that "lower scores on diet behavior - higher scores on mental health problems" and "higher mean scores in depression and/or anxiety - higher scores in GHQ domains." The SEM results showed that dietary behaviors have significance related to depression and/or anxiety and general health status.

  19. Self-efficacy for health-related behaviors among deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elaine G; Renger, Ralph; Kang, Youngmi

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, pre-post-test study was to test the effectiveness of the Deaf Heart Health Intervention (DHHI) in increasing self-efficacy for health-related behaviors among culturally deaf adults. The DHHI targets modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A sample of 84 participants completed time-1 and time-2 data collection. The sign language version of the Self-Rated Abilities Scale for Health Practices (SRAHP) was used to measure self-efficacy for nutrition, psychological well-being/stress management, physical activity/exercise, and responsible health practices. Total self-efficacy scores were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group at time-2, controlling for scores at baseline (F [1, 81] = 26.02, p < .001). Results support the development of interventions specifically tailored for culturally deaf adults to increase their self-efficacy for health behaviors.

  20. [Effects of family and peer support upon the stages of health-related behavior in adolescent].

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingzhu; Xu, Liangwen; Huang, Xianhong; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Ming; Luo, Xiangxiang

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the stages of health-related behaviors, family and peer support situation about adolescent in Wuhan, and to provide evidence for health intervention and health promotion. Based on the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, extracted two junior middle school and two high school in two cities in Wuhan from March 2012 to May. A total of 1 200 students, which were part of the first and second grade class in middle school and high school, toke as the investigation object. The study surveyed following content, including the demographic situation, adolescent health-related behavior (physical activity, sedentary behavior, high-fat diet behavior, fruit and vegetable intaking behavior), stages of adolescent health related behavior (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) and adolescent support got from family and peer. The questionnaire was distributed in 1 200 copies, the valid questionnaires were 1 052 and the effective rate was 87.67%. Using χ² test to compare the different stages of change in health related behavior, t test was used to compare different groups of social support and using analysis of variance and post test to analyze social support of the four types behavior. In 1 052 students, there was 555 (52.8%) middle school students, 497 (47.2%) high school students, and 553 (52.6%) boys, 499 (47.4%) girls. In physical exercise and sedentary behavior, numbers of precontemplation was respectively accounting for 42.2% (444/1 200) and 28.4% (299/1 200). In high-fat diet behavior, the stages of preparation and maintain was occupied 46.7% (492/1 200). In fruit and vegetable intake behavior, there was 32.9% (346/1200) students in contemplation. Numbers in action stage was both less in the above four behavior, accounting for 6.2% (65/1 200), 8.9% (94/1 200), 14.0% (147/1 200) and 6.3% (66/1 200) separately. Adolescent peer support score respectively (2.9 ± 0.7), (2.8 ± 0.8) and (2.9 ± 0.9), which was higher than

  1. Health behaviors of Korean female nursing students in relation to obesity and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Da-In; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Han, Kihye

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that young adults' dietary habits and health behaviors have significant effects on obesity and bone health. However, there is a lack of thorough understanding of the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors and potential relationships to obesity and osteoporosis among young females. This cross-sectional study examined dietary habits, health behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and bone mineral density of 160 female nursing students. A relatively large number of students had vitamin D (n = 104, 65%) and calcium (n = 84, 52.5%) deficiencies but displayed excessive cholesterol (n = 86, 53.8%) and sodium (n = 137, 85.6%) intakes. Unhealthy dietary and health habits such as nighttime snacking, coffee drinking, low milk drinking, and lack of exercise were also noted. Despite their knowledge on health, a large portion of nursing students displayed unhealthy dietary habits and health. Tailored strategies and education to narrow the gap between health behavioral knowledge and practice are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Health-Related Anxiety in Youth: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2005-01-01

    Although illness phobias are fairly common disorders, their treatment has been scarcely addressed in the literature. The current article discusses the treatment of a 9-year-old female diagnosed with health-related anxiety--specifically, a phobia of vomiting. A variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as relaxation training (e.g., deep…

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Health-Related Anxiety in Youth: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2005-01-01

    Although illness phobias are fairly common disorders, their treatment has been scarcely addressed in the literature. The current article discusses the treatment of a 9-year-old female diagnosed with health-related anxiety--specifically, a phobia of vomiting. A variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as relaxation training (e.g., deep…

  4. Greek Environments: An Update on the Effects of Fraternities and Sororities on Health-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Greek affiliation and living in Greek housing significantly influence college students' health-related behaviors. In addition, based on the findings, this study provides some important implications about the current practice of Greek society in higher education. The authors empirically tested a path model using…

  5. The Relationship of Daily Stress and Health-Related Behaviors to Adolescents' Cholesterol Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris A.; Friedman, Alice G.; Burright, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between daily life events and total cholesterol levels among high school students (N=104) and examines contributions of health-related behaviors. Analyses showed that scores on a scale of daily life events explained a significant portion of variance in cholesterol levels. Females reported a greater degree of negative…

  6. Greek Environments: An Update on the Effects of Fraternities and Sororities on Health-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Greek affiliation and living in Greek housing significantly influence college students' health-related behaviors. In addition, based on the findings, this study provides some important implications about the current practice of Greek society in higher education. The authors empirically tested a path model using…

  7. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. Objective To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. Methods We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. Results The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in

  8. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  9. Health-risk behaviors in agriculture and related factors, southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Hasret; Simsek, Zeynep; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2014-01-01

    Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to determine the risky behaviors of farm operators selected from a province of Turkey's southeastern Anatolian region, as well as the factors related to risky behaviors. In this cross-sectional analysis, 380 farm operators were enrolled through simple random selection method, and the response rate was 85%. Health-risk behavior was measured using the Control List of Occupational Risks in Agriculture. Of 323 farm operators, 85.4% were male. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to measures of environmental risks were higher in animal husbandry, transportation, transportation and maintenance of machinery, pesticide application, child protection, thermal stress, and psychosocial factors in the work place. Education, age, duration of work, and size of agricultural area were associated with risky behaviors in a multiple linear regression (P < .05). Findings showed that a certified training program and a behavior surveillance system for agriculture should be developed.

  10. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761

  11. Perceptions of health care services and HIV-related health-seeking behavior among Uganda adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hampanda, Karen; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    Youth represent almost half of all new HIV infections globally. Although condom use is an effective method of HIV prevention among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), they face substantial barriers in obtaining condoms in environments where adults hold attitudes condemning premarital sex. More research is needed to better understand the multitude of factors that affect SSA youths' behaviors regarding safe sex practices, including factors that may influence their ability to obtain condoms, and decisions to be tested for HIV. In this study of Uganda youth (n = 1503) from five secondary schools, logistic regression models highlight factors that influence perceptions regarding respect and confidentiality at health centers, condom acquisition, and HIV testing. Family support appears to be an especially important factor that affects youth perceptions about how they will be treated when seeking condoms and HIV testing. Condom acquisition and HIV-testing behaviors are also associated with peer influence, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics, such as age.

  12. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  13. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko; Tabuchi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6%) than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%). Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage]) were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys) and attitudes on RH (girls) as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls. PMID:27866406

  14. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent.

    PubMed

    Susanto, Tantut; Rahmawati, Iis; Wuryaningsih, Emi Wuri; Saito, Ruka; Syahrul; Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Sugama, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6%) than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%). Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage]) were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys) and attitudes on RH (girls) as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  15. Alcohol use, Mental Health, and HIV-related Risk Behaviors Among Adult Men in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Benegal, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    This study critically examined associations among past year alcohol use, self-rated mental health and HIV risk-related behaviors for men and their partners, i.e., two or more partners and/or perpetration of partner violence. Data are reported from a population sample of 1137 men aged 16 to 49 in Karnataka. Overall, 9.5% of all men reported HIV risk-related behaviors, 38.1% consumed alcohol, and about half (54.5%) of all current drinkers met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Hazardous alcohol use and poorer mental health remained significantly associated with HIV-risk related behaviors after controlling for socio-demographics and psychosocial risk factors. More severe alcohol misuse, specifically alcohol dependence, and co-morbid hazardous alcohol use and poorer mental health, was associated with over 2 and 5 fold increases respectively in men’s HIV risk-related behaviors. Implications of findings for HIV prevention and intervention programs for men and their partners and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20567896

  16. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  17. Screening and Health Behaviors among Persons Diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Their Relatives

    PubMed Central

    James, Aimee S.; Chisholm, Phillip; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Baxter, Melanie; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2012-01-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited colorectal cancer syndrome. Individuals with FAP often undergo colectomy and are recommended to follow several surveillance protocols. Biological relatives of persons with FAP may also be at risk and thus should undergo genetic counseling. Screening adherence, genetic testing, and other health behaviors among individuals with FAP and their relatives are not well characterized. We conducted a cross-sectional self-report survey with individuals who have FAP (n = 35) and their biological relatives (n = 15). Respondents were recruited through a cancer center registry for inherited colon cancers. Most relatives had undergone colon cancer screening; 40% had undergone genetic testing. One fifth of respondents with FAP had not undergone an upper endoscopy, contrary to usual recommendations. Cigarette smoking rates were above average and were higher among FAP respondents. Use of vitamin supplements was fairly common, more so among those with FAP. Although most people had been screened, there are areas for improvement, notably for upper endoscopy among individuals with FAP and genetic testing among family members. Several other health-risk behaviors and health concerns other than FAP were identified. Further research into factors contributing to screening rates and other health behaviors in this high-risk population is warranted. PMID:22899922

  18. Parent health literacy and "obesogenic" feeding and physical activity-related infant care behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Sanders, Lee M; Rothman, Russell L; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E; Cruzatte, Evelyn F; Perrin, Eliana M

    2014-03-01

    To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and "obesogenic" infant care behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English- and Spanish-speaking parents of 2-month-old children were enrolled (n = 844). The primary predictor variable was parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults; adequate ≥ 23; low <23). Primary outcome variables involving self-reported obesogenic behaviors were: (1) feeding content (more formula than breast milk, sweet drinks, early solid food introduction), and feeding style-related behaviors (pressuring to finish, laissez-faire bottle propping/television [TV] watching while feeding, nonresponsiveness in letting child decide amount to eat); and (2) physical activity (tummy time, TV). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (binary, proportional odds models) performed adjusting for child sex, out-of-home care, Women, Infants, and Children program status, parent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Eleven percent of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk, (aOR = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (aOR = 1.8 [1.1-2.8]), bottle prop (aOR = 1.8 [1.002-3.1]), any infant TV watching (aOR = 1.8 [1.1-3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (<30 min/d), (aOR = 3.0 [1.5-5.8]). Low parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parent Health Literacy and “Obesogenic” Feeding and Physical Activity-related Infant Care Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Rothman, Russell L.; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E.; Cruzatte, Evelyn F.; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and “obesogenic” infant care behaviors. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based, early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English and Spanish-speaking parents of 2 month old children enrolled (n=844). The primary predictor variable was a parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); adequate>=23; low<23). Primary outcome variables involving self-reported obesogenic behaviors: (1) feeding content (more formula than breastmilk, sweet drinks, early solid food introduction) and feeding style-related behaviors (pressuring to finish, laissez-faire bottle propping/television [TV] watching while feeding, non-responsiveness in letting child decide amount to eat); and (2) physical activity (tummy time, TV). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (binary, proportional odds models) performed adjusting for child sex, out of home care, WIC status, parent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Results 11.0% of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk (AOR=2.0 [95%CI:1.2–3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (AOR=1.8[1.1–2.8]), bottle prop (AOR=1.8 [1.002–3.1]), any infant TV watching (AOR=1.8 [1.1–3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (<30 minutes/day) (AOR=3.0[1.5–5.8]). Conclusions Low parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. PMID:24370343

  20. Clustering of multiple lifestyle behaviors and health-related fitness in European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Ottevaere, Charlene; González-Gross, Marcela; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Molnár, Denés; Polito, Angela; Manios, Yannis; Plada, Maria; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-01-01

    To explore the clustering of different lifestyle behaviors and whether this clustering differs by gender, age, and health-related fitness. Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study. Ten European cities. A total of 2,084 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years). Four lifestyle behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires: moderate to vigorous physical activity, homework time, screen time, and diet. Health-related fitness components (aerobic capacity, strength, speed-agility, and body composition) were assessed. Hierarchical method and κ-means cluster analysis. Analysis of variance tests. Five clusters were identified: Healthy diet and Active, Healthy diet and Academic, Healthy diet and Inactive, Unhealthy diet and Screen user, and Unhealthy diet and Active. Younger adolescents were more active and followed a healthier diet than older adolescents. Older boys devoted more time to screen use, whereas older girls devoted more time to homework. Boys in the Healthy diet and Active cluster presented higher aerobic capacity and speed-agility, whereas girls presented higher aerobic capacity, strength, and speed-agility. Clustering of different lifestyle behaviors is observed. Different healthy lifestyles do not always come together and clusters are associated with gender, age, and health-related fitness, but not with body composition. These differences need to be considered when developing intervention strategies for the prevention of unhealthy habits. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups.

  2. The association between optimal lifestyle-related health behaviors and employee productivity.

    PubMed

    Katz, Abigail S; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Lowry, Marcia

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the association between lifestyle-related health behaviors including sleep and the cluster of physical activity, no tobacco use, fruits and vegetables intake, and alcohol consumption termed the "Optimal Lifestyle Metric" (OLM), and employee productivity. Data were obtained from employee health assessments (N = 18,079). Regression techniques were used to study the association between OLM and employee productivity, sleep and employee productivity, and the interaction of both OLM and sleep on employee productivity. Employees who slept less or more than 7 or 8 hours per night experienced significantly more productivity loss. Employees who adhered to all four OLM behaviors simultaneously experienced less productivity loss compared with those who did not. Adequate sleep and adherence to the OLM cluster of behaviors are associated with significantly less productivity loss.

  3. Behavioral Health Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    The project goal is to develop behavioral health prevention and maintenance system for continued crew health, safety, and performance for exploration missions. The basic scope includes a) Operationally-relevant research related to clinical cognitive and behavioral health of crewmembers; b) Ground-based studies using analog environments (Antarctic, NEEMO, simulations, and other testbeds; c) ISS studies (ISSMP) focusing on operational issues related to behavioral health outcomes and standards; d) Technology development activities for monitoring and diagnostic tools; and e) Cross-disciplinary research (e.g., human factors and habitability research, skeletal muscle, radiation).

  4. Preference for immediate reinforcement over delayed reinforcement: relation between delay discounting and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Melanko, Shane; Larkin, Kevin T

    2013-02-01

    Reinforcement from engaging in health behaviors is often delayed by several months or years, a circumstance partly responsible for some people's increased preference for engaging in unhealthy behaviors associated with immediate reinforcement. To examine whether individuals who discount the future engage in fewer health behaviors, 72 young adults completed questionnaires assessing health behaviors and impulsiveness and laboratory-behavioral measures of impulsive decision making. Regression analyses of impulsivity measures predicting health behavior were only significant for one measure, the Experiential Discounting Task, a task in which monetary consequences of choice were actually experienced by study participants. Participants who discounted most by delay (i.e., exhibited impulsive choice) engaged in fewer health behaviors than those who showed less impulsive responding. This task, in contrast to a hypothetical choice task or self-reported impulsiveness, measures the actual behavior of discounting by delay, and was the facet of impulsive decision making most closely associated with adopting a range of health behaviors.

  5. Work-related measures of physical and behavioral health function: Test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Marino, Molly Elizabeth; Meterko, Mark; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton

    2015-10-01

    The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), developed for potential use by the US Social Security Administration to assess work-related function, currently consists of five multi-item scales assessing physical function and four multi-item scales assessing behavioral health function; the WD-FAB scales are administered as Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the WD-FAB Physical Function and Behavioral Health CATs. We administered the WD-FAB scales twice, 7-10 days apart, to a sample of 376 working age adults and 316 adults with work-disability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to measure the consistency of the scores between the two administrations. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC90) were also calculated to measure the scales precision and sensitivity. For the Physical Function CAT scales, the ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.89 in the working age adult sample, and 0.77-0.86 in the sample of adults with work-disability. ICCs for the Behavioral Health CAT scales ranged from 0.66 to 0.70 in the working age adult sample, and 0.77-0.80 in the adults with work-disability. The SEM ranged from 3.25 to 4.55 for the Physical Function scales and 5.27-6.97 for the Behavioral Health function scales. For all scales in both samples, the MDC90 ranged from 7.58 to 16.27. Both the Physical Function and Behavioral Health CATs of the WD-FAB demonstrated good test-retest reliability in adults with work-disability and general adult samples, a critical requirement for assessing work related functioning in disability applicants and in other contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of occupational stress on nurses' caring behaviors and their health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Sarafis, Pavlos; Rousaki, Eirini; Tsounis, Andreas; Malliarou, Maria; Lahana, Liana; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Niakas, Dimitris; Papastavrou, Evridiki

    2016-01-01

    Nursing is perceived as a strenuous job. Although past research has documented that stress influences nurses' health in association with quality of life, the relation between stress and caring behaviors remains relatively unexamined, especially in the Greek working environment, where it is the first time that this specific issue is being studied. The aim was to investigate and explore the correlation amidst occupational stress, caring behaviors and their quality of life in association to health. A correlational study of nurses (N = 246) who worked at public and private units was conducted in 2013 in Greece. The variables were operationalized using three research instruments: (1) the Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS), (2) the Health Survey SF-12 and (3) the Caring Behaviors Inventory (CBI). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Contact with death, patients and their families, conflicts with supervisors and uncertainty about the therapeutic effect caused significantly higher stress among participants. A significant negative correlation was observed amidst total stress and the four dimensions of CBI. Certain stress factors were significant and independent predictors of each CBI dimension. Conflicts with co-workers was revealed as an independent predicting factor for affirmation of human presence, professional knowledge and skills and patient respectfulness dimensions, conflicts with doctors for respect for patient, while conflicts with supervisors and uncertainty concerning treatment dimensions were an independent predictor for positive connectedness. Finally, discrimination stress factor was revealed as an independent predictor of quality of life related to physical health, while stress resulting from conflicts with supervisors was independently associated with mental health. Occupational stress affects nurses' health-related quality of life negatively, while it can also be considered as an influence on patient outcomes.

  7. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  8. Effect of dental education on Peruvian dental students' oral health-related attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manuel; Camino, Javier; Oyakawa, Harumi Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Lyly; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Bird, William F; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dental education on oral health-related attitudes and behavior of students in a five-year dental program in Peru. A survey using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), which consists of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding oral health behavior and attitudes, was completed by Year 1 and Year 5 dental students at the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in Lima, Peru. A total of 153 Year 1 students and 120 Year 5 students responded to the Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the Year 1 students, the Year 5 dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58); "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36); and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69). Overall, the data showed that the curriculum in this dental school in Peru resulted in more positive oral health-related attitudes and behavior among Year 5 dental students compared to those of Year 1 dental students.

  9. Effect of Dental Education on Peruvian Dental Students' Oral Health-Related Attitudes and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Manuel; Camino, Javier; Oyakawa, Harumi Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Lyly; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dental education on oral health-related attitudes and behavior of students in a five-year dental program in Peru. A survey using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), which consists of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding oral health behavior and attitudes, was completed by Year 1 and Year 5 dental students at the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in Lima, Peru. A total of 153 Year 1 students and 120 Year 5 students responded to the Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the Year 1 students, the Year 5 dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58); “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36); and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69). Overall, the data showed that the curriculum in this dental school in Peru resulted in more positive oral health-related attitudes and behavior among Year 5 dental students compared to those of Year 1 dental students. PMID:24002856

  10. [Socioeconomic status, toothbrushing frequency, and health-related behaviors in adolescents: an analysis using the PeNSE database].

    PubMed

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.

  11. The Mediating Role of Mental Health in the Relations between Dietary Behaviors and General Health: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to find a pathway to explaining the relations between dietary behaviors with mental health and psychological functioning. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study contains 4763 participants from the employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, four questionnaires were administered which were provided as follows: demographic characteristics, 21-item dietary behaviors questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We started the analysis with the structural equation modeling (SEM) model with 4 unobserved latent and 16 observed variables. Results: The results show that the regression coefficient (standard error) of diet behavior on mental health and mental health on GHQ were − 1 (0.37) and 0.02 (0.01) with their P values as 0.007 and 0.01, respectively. For this model, the estimated root mean square error of approximation is 0.062 with 90% confidence interval of (0.060–0.065). In addition, the comparative fit indices (CFIs) were as 0.866 for incremental fit index and 0.866 for CFI. All these indices represent fairly good fit of the model to the data. Conclusion: We can conclude that “lower scores on diet behavior – higher scores on mental health problems” and “higher mean scores in depression and/or anxiety – higher scores in GHQ domains.” The SEM results showed that dietary behaviors have significance related to depression and/or anxiety and general health status. PMID:28349024

  12. Supplement use is associated with health status and health-related behaviors in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Paul, Alison A; Prynne, Celia J; Wadsworth, Mike E J

    2005-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements may be one of a number of health-related behaviors that cluster together. The current study investigated the underlying diet, health-related characteristics, and behaviors of users and nonusers of dietary supplements in a longitudinal study of health. Participants (n = 1776) completed a 5-d food diary including information on dietary supplement use (vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals) at age 53 y. Sociodemographic information and data on smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were obtained along with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and a blood sample (nonfasting subjects). A significantly greater percentage of women reported supplement use compared with men (45.1 vs. 25.2%). Supplement use was associated with lower BMI, lower waist circumference, higher plasma folate and plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations, nonsmoking, participation in physical activity, and nonmanual social class in women and with plasma folate concentrations and participation in physical activity in men. Nonsupplement users tended to be nonconsumers of breakfast cereals, fruit, fruit juice, yogurt, oily fish, and olive oil and had lower dietary intakes of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin C even after adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Overall, supplement users tended to differ from nonsupplement users on a range of health-related behaviors and health status indicators, although there were fewer significant associations in men. Similarly, dietary supplements users tended to have underlying diets that, were healthier and those taking supplements may be the least likely to need them. These results support the notion of a clustering of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors, particularly for women.

  13. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  14. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  15. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  16. Basic concepts in the taxonomy of health-related behaviors, habits and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-05-13

    Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  17. A Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems model of SES-related health and behavioral disparities.

    PubMed

    Bickel, W K; Moody, L; Quisenberry, A J; Ramey, C T; Sheffer, C E

    2014-11-01

    We propose that executive dysfunction is an important component relating to the socio-economic status gradient of select health behaviors. We review and find evidence supporting an SES gradient associated with (1) negative health behaviors (e.g., obesity, excessive use of alcohol, tobacco and other substances), and (2) executive dysfunction. Moreover, the evidence supports that stress and insufficient cognitive resources contribute to executive dysfunction and that executive dysfunction is evident among individuals who smoke cigarettes, are obese, abuse alcohol, and use illicit drugs. Collectively these data support the dual system model of cognitive control, referred to here as the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems hypothesis. The implications of these relationships for intervention and social justice considerations are discussed.

  18. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  19. Study-related health and behavior patterns of medical students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G; Spahn, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about specific health risks and resources and their development influencing medical students' stress. To evaluate the development of quality of life and study-related behavior and experience patterns among medical students. Data were collected in the first (n = 112 of 182 in 2006) and the fourth semesters (n = 164 of 176 in 2008). The instruments "Work-Related Behavior and Experience Patterns" (AVEM, including four main patterns: "Health", "Unambitious," "Overexertion," "Burnout") and "Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12)" were used at both points in time. The medical students scored significantly lower on mental health compared with reference samples of young adults. The proportion of students with a healthy pattern decreased from 47.3% (95% CI 38.1-56.5%) in the first semester to 36.9% (29.4-44.4%) in the fourth semester. This corresponded to an increase in the proportion of students at risk for burnout from 7.1% (2.3-11.9%) to 20% (13.8-26.2%). At both time points, female students had a higher risk for overexertion and a lower prevalence of a healthy pattern than male students. Our data provide evidence for a decrease in the healthy pattern and an increase in the burnout pattern. Intervention is needed, especially for students at risk for burnout.

  20. Impact of the economic crisis on health-related behaviors in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Giorgio; De Vogli, Roberto; Ferrari, Silvia; Pingani, Luca; Rigatelli, Marco; Galeazzi, Gian Maria

    2017-08-01

    Evidence exists supporting the impact of the Great Recession on health-related behaviors internationally, though few studies are available concerning the Italian population. To assess the impact of the late 2000s economic crisis on health-related behaviors linked to population mental health in Italy. Descriptive study. Health indicators came from the Italian Institute of Statistics database (years 2000-2015). Statistics performed by means of linear regression models. Increased smokers (β = 1.68, p = .03), heavy smokers, that is, people smoking 11-20 cigarettes per day (β = 2.18, p = .04) or more than 20 cigarettes per day (β = 1.04, p < .01) and mean number of smoked cigarettes per day (β = 0.56, p = .02) were noticeable. Also, prevalence of overweight increased (β = 0.91, p = .04), while the Italian families' expenditure for alcoholic beverages decreased (β = -812.80, p = .01). Alcohol consumption decreased (β = -0.60, p < .01), especially in men (β = -0.95, p < .01); binge drinking increased in years 2009-2010. No change was noticeable in the diet indicators collected. The economic crisis may have increased smoking, overweight and binge drinking in Italy (though data on the latter phenomenon are not conclusive), and reduced overall alcohol consumption.

  1. Validating a health consumer segmentation model: behavioral and attitudinal differences in disease prevention-related practices.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Lisa S; Massett, Holly A; Maibach, Edward W; Weber, Deanne; Hassmiller, Susan; Mockenhaupt, Robin E

    2010-03-01

    While researchers typically have segmented audiences by demographic or behavioral characteristics, psychobehavioral segmentation schemes may be more useful for developing targeted health information and programs. Previous research described a four segment psychobehavioral segmentation scheme-and a 10-item screening instrument used to identify the segments-based predominantly on people's orientation to their health (active vs. passive) and their degree of independence in health care decision making (independent vs. dependent). This study builds on this prior research by assessing the screening instrument's validity with an independent dataset and exploring whether people with distinct psychobehavioral orientations have different disease prevention attitudes and preferences for receiving information in the primary care setting. Data come from 1,650 respondents to a national mail panel survey. Using the screening instrument, respondents were segmented into four groups-independent actives, doctor-dependent actives, independent passives, and doctor-dependent passives. Consistent with the earlier research, there were clear differences in health-related attitudes and behaviors among the four segments. Members of three segments appear quite receptive to receiving disease prevention information and assistance from professionals in the primary care setting. Our findings provide further indication that the screening instrument and corresponding segmentation strategy may offer a simple, effective tool for targeting and tailoring information and other health programming to the unique characteristics of distinct audience segments.

  2. Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures.

    PubMed

    Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J

    2017-03-01

    Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P < .001 for both). When controlling for gender, at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P < .05 for both). Further, at high levels of authoritarian parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P < .001). This study provides evidence that the development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Children's Understanding of Health and Health-Related Behavior: The Influence of Age and Information Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Kay; Hebert, Edward; Humphries, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Health is recognized as an important factor in children's educational achievement, and school-based health education programs are recognized for their potential long-term impact. However, the extent to which children conceptualize health similarly as adults, and the nature of their understandings of health, remain cloudy. Purpose:…

  4. Burnout and behavior-related health risk factors: results from the population-based Finnish Health 2000 study.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Kirsi; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Kouvonen, Anne; Rossi, Helena; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship between burnout and behavior-related health risk factors. We collected data from a population-based sample (n = 3264) through interviews, questionnaires, and health examinations. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were self-reported. Obesity was based on measurements at screening. Burnout and exhaustion were associated with a higher likelihood of risk factors. More specifically, burnout syndrome was related to low physical activity and obesity, exhaustion dimension to low physical activity and heavy drinking, cynicism dimension to low physical activity, and diminished professional efficacy to low physical activity, obesity, and lower likelihood of heavy drinking. Improving working conditions and psychoeducation on recommended ways of coping and recovery could help to prevent negative health consequences of chronic work stress.

  5. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social

  6. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.

    PubMed

    Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Pham, Luu; Wesche-Thobaben, Jacqueline; Patricio, Jennifer; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Brown, Arleen F; Jones, LaShanda; Brancati, Frederick L

    2010-06-04

    Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social environment with weight control

  7. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  8. Co-Occurring Health-Related Behavior Pairs in College Students: Insights for Prioritized and Targeted Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Katelyn; Makela, Carole; Kennedy, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on strategies for addressing multiple health-related behaviors (HRBs) in one intervention are needed because resources are sparse and clarification is needed regarding the relationship between multiple HRBs. Purpose: Determine undergraduate students' health behavior co-occurring pairs of smoking cigarettes (SC), alcohol…

  9. Co-Occurring Health-Related Behavior Pairs in College Students: Insights for Prioritized and Targeted Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Katelyn; Makela, Carole; Kennedy, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on strategies for addressing multiple health-related behaviors (HRBs) in one intervention are needed because resources are sparse and clarification is needed regarding the relationship between multiple HRBs. Purpose: Determine undergraduate students' health behavior co-occurring pairs of smoking cigarettes (SC), alcohol…

  10. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  11. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    PubMed

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Health-related behavior as a mechanism behind the relationship between neighborhood social capital and individual health - a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although various studies have found a positive association between neighborhood social capital and individual health, the mechanism explaining this direct effect is still unclear. Neighborhood social capital is the access to resources that are generated by relationships between people in a friendly, well-connected and tightly knit neighborhood community. We expect that the resources generated by cohesive neighborhoods support and influence health -improving behaviors in daily life. We identify five different health-related behaviors that are likely to be affected by neighborhood social capital and test these behaviors separately as mediators. Methods The data set pertaining to individual health was taken from the 'health interview' in the 'Second Dutch national survey of general practice' (DNSGP-2, 2002). We combine these individual-level data with data from the 'Dutch housing demand survey' (WBO, 1998 and WoON, 2002) and statistical register information (1995-1999). Per neighborhood 29 WBO respondents, on average, had answered questions regarding social capital in their neighborhood. These variables have been aggregated to the neighborhood level by an ecometric methodology. In the main analysis, in which we tested the mediation, multilevel (ordered) logistic regressions were used to analyze 9253 adults (from the DNSGP-2 data set) from 672 Dutch neighborhoods. In the Netherlands, on average, neighborhoods (4-digit postcodes) comprise 4,000 inhabitants at highly variable population densities. Individual- and neighborhood-level controls have been taken into account in the analyses. Results In neighborhoods with a high level of social capital, people are more physically active and more likely to be non-smokers. These behaviors have positive effects on their health. The direct effect of neighborhood social capital on health is significantly and strongly reduced by physical activity. This study does not support nutrition and sleep habits or moderate alcohol

  13. Health Related Quality of Life, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Intervention Preferences of Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Hoda; Chandra, Joya; Paxton, Raheem J.; Ater, Joann L.; Urbauer, Diana; Cruz, Cody Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions -- both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population. METHOD Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 170 CCSs who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) and treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 1992 and 2007. Questionnaires addressed weight status, lifestyle behaviors, aspects of HRQOL, and intervention preferences. RESULTS Adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAs) and survivors of CNS tumors or lymphoma reported significantly (p<.05) poorer HRQOL across multiple domains compared to those diagnosed at an earlier age, survivors of leukemia or sarcoma, and healthy populations. A significant proportion also failed to meet national recommendations for dietary intakes (39–94%) and physical activity (65%). Female survivors reported poorer physical functioning and consumed less dietary fiber and fruits and vegetables than did male survivors. They also expressed the strongest interest in participating in diet and exercise interventions. CONCLUSION Findings support the premise that females, AYAs, and survivors of cancers of the CNS or lymphoma are “at risk” subgroups within the CCS population for poor dietary practices, sedentary behaviors, and poor HRQOL. Future research should focus on developing diet and PA interventions to improve HRQOL that target these groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS Greater consideration of the role of gender, developmental stage, and the HRQOL challenges facing CCSs may help researchers to develop targeted behavioral interventions

  14. Relationship of Interpersonal Behaviors and Health-Related Control Appraisals to Patient Satisfaction and Compliance in a University Health Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Thomas A.; Auerbach, Stephen M.; Kiesler, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' aim was to evaluate patient-provider relationships in a college health center. Participants: Eighty student patients and their health-care providers. Methods: Patients completed a measure of perceived health competence before a consultation and measures of provider participatory behavior and interpersonal behavior before…

  15. Prevalence of Health-Related Behaviors among Physicians and Medical Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Sharon K.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Dorsey, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the prevalence of health-promoting and health-risking behaviors among physicians and physicians-in-training. Given the significant potential for negative outcomes to physicians' own health as well as the health and safety of their patients, examination of the natural history of this acculturation process about…

  16. Prevalence of Health-Related Behaviors among Physicians and Medical Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Sharon K.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Dorsey, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the prevalence of health-promoting and health-risking behaviors among physicians and physicians-in-training. Given the significant potential for negative outcomes to physicians' own health as well as the health and safety of their patients, examination of the natural history of this acculturation process about…

  17. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses.

    PubMed

    Hagger, M S; Hardcastle, S J; Chater, A; Mallett, C; Pal, S; Chatzisarantis, N L D

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  18. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  19. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes.

  20. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  1. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  2. Health education and marketing processes: 2 related methods for achieving health behavior change.

    PubMed

    Stellefson, Michael; Eddy, James M

    2008-01-01

    To make salient the striking similarities between the program planning processes used in both health education and contemporary marketing. Through a discussion of the analogous nature of both processes and a review of the literature, the authors (1) illustrate why marketing principles should be embraced and (2) suggest how marketing strategies can be integrated into health education needs assessments. Core health-marketing concepts are proposed along with 4 recommendations for future marketing activities in health education. To facilitate an advance in health education process and practice, scholars and practitioners should adopt a more consumer-centered, marketing mind-set.

  3. The mediating roles of perceived stress and health behaviors in the relation between objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of (a) SES on health through stress and (b) SES on health through stress and health-compromising behaviors. Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals.

  4. Influence of obesogenic behaviors on health-related quality of life in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the combined effects of obesogenic behaviors on quality of life (QOL) in adolescents. Of 2353 Sydney schoolchildren surveyed (median age 12.7 years), 1,213 were re-examined 5 years later at age 17-18. Children completed activity and food-frequency questionnaires. An unhealthy behavior score was calculated, allocating 1 point for the following: <60 minutes of total physical activity/ day; ≥2 hours of screen time/ day; consumed salty snack foods and/or confectionery ≥5 times per week; ≥1 serves of soft drinks and/or cordial/ day; and not consuming both ≥2 serves of fruit and ≥3 serves of vegetables/ day. Health-related QOL was assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lifestyle risk factors was 4.2%, 17.1%, 30.7%, 30.5%, 13.9% and 3.6%, respectively. After multivariable- adjustment, children engaging in 5 versus 0 unhealthy behaviors had 9.2-units lower PedsQL physical summary score (ptrend=0.001), five years later. Boys reporting 4 or 5 lifestyle risk factors compared to their peers reporting none or one at baseline, had lower total and physical summary scores at follow-up, ptrend=0.02 and 0.01, respectively. Girls engaging in 4 or 5 versus 0 or 1 unhealthy behaviors, had 4.6-units lower physical summary score (ptrend=0.04), five years later. The number of obesogenic lifestyle risk factors was independently associated with subsequent poorer QOL, particularly physical health, during adolescence. These findings underscore the importance of targeting lifestyle behaviors to promote general well-being and physical functioning in adolescents.

  5. How Health Behaviors Relate to Academic Performance via Affect: An Intensive Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students’ affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. Methods On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Results Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Conclusion Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students. PMID:25353638

  6. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  7. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  8. Associations Between Cardiovascular Health and Health-Related Quality of Life, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013.

    PubMed

    Odom, Erika C; Fang, Jing; Zack, Matthew; Moore, Latetia; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2016-07-28

    The American Heart Association established 7 cardiovascular health metrics as targets for promoting healthier lives. Cardiovascular health has been hypothesized to play a role in individuals' perception of quality of life; however, previous studies have mostly assessed the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on quality of life. Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of adults 18 years or older (N = 347,073). All measures of cardiovascular health and health-related quality of life were self-reported. The 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics were normal blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, not having diabetes, not smoking, being physically active, and having adequate fruit or vegetable intake. Cardiovascular health was categorized into meeting 0-2, 3-5, or 6-7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Logistic regression models examined the association between cardiovascular health, general health status, and 3 measures of unhealthy days per month, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and annual income. Meeting 3 to 5 or 6 to 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a 51% and 79% lower adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of fair/poor health, respectively (aPR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.47-0.50], aPR = 0.21, 95% CI [0.19-0.23]); a 47% and 72% lower prevalence of ≥14 physically unhealthy days (aPR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.51-0.55], aPR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.26-0.20]); a 43% and 66% lower prevalence of ≥14 mentally unhealthy days (aPR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.55-0.60], aPR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.31-0.37]); and a 50% and 74% lower prevalence of ≥14 activity limitation days (aPR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.48-0.53], aPR = 0.26, 95% CI [0.23-0.29]) in the past 30 days. Achieving a greater number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics may be associated with less impairment in health-related quality of life.

  9. Associations Between Cardiovascular Health and Health-Related Quality of Life, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; Zack, Matthew; Moore, Latetia; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The American Heart Association established 7 cardiovascular health metrics as targets for promoting healthier lives. Cardiovascular health has been hypothesized to play a role in individuals’ perception of quality of life; however, previous studies have mostly assessed the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on quality of life. Methods Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of adults 18 years or older (N = 347,073). All measures of cardiovascular health and health-related quality of life were self-reported. The 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics were normal blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, not having diabetes, not smoking, being physically active, and having adequate fruit or vegetable intake. Cardiovascular health was categorized into meeting 0–2, 3–5, or 6–7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Logistic regression models examined the association between cardiovascular health, general health status, and 3 measures of unhealthy days per month, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and annual income. Results Meeting 3 to 5 or 6 to 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a 51% and 79% lower adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of fair/poor health, respectively (aPR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.47–0.50], aPR = 0.21, 95% CI [0.19–0.23]); a 47% and 72% lower prevalence of ≥14 physically unhealthy days (aPR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.51–0.55], aPR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.26–0.20]); a 43% and 66% lower prevalence of ≥14 mentally unhealthy days (aPR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.55–0.60], aPR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.31–0.37]); and a 50% and 74% lower prevalence of ≥14 activity limitation days (aPR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.48–0.53], aPR = 0.26, 95% CI [0.23–0.29]) in the past 30 days. Conclusion Achieving a greater number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics may be associated with less impairment in health-related quality of life. PMID:27468158

  10. Determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brouwer-Goossensen, Dorien; Genugten, Lenneke van; Lingsma, Hester; Dippel, Diederik; Koudstaal, Peter; Hertog, Heleen den

    2016-04-01

    To assess determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke. In this prospective cohort study, 100 patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke completed questionnaires on behavioral intention and sociocognitive factors including perception of severity, susceptibility, fear, response-efficacy and self-efficacy at baseline. Questionnaires on physical activity, diet and smoking were completed at baseline and at 3 months. Associations between sociocognitive factors and behavioral intention and actual change were studied with multivariable linear and logistic regression. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and fear were independently associated with behavioral intention, with self-efficacy as the strongest determinant of intention to increase physical activity (aBeta 0.40; 95% CI 0.12-0.71), adapt a healthy diet (aBeta 0.49; 95% CI 0.23-0.75), and quit smoking (aBeta 0.51; 95% CI 0.13-0.88). Intention to change tended to be associated with actual health-related behavior change. Self-efficacy, fear, and response-efficacy were determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke. These determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke should be taken into account in the development of future interventions promoting health-related behavior change in these group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in Affective and Behavioral Health-Related Variables Associated with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Although considerable data exist linking individual lifestyle variables to health outcomes, little is known about how the elderly differ from younger adults with respect to both their health seeking behavior and their beliefs about health. A national survey contrasted 155 persons aged 65 years of age or older with 1100 younger adults in order to…

  12. Behavioral Health & Performance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Summary of the Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group’s work including an overview of astronaut selection, behavioral health services provided to astronauts, the psychological aspects o...

  13. Health risk behaviors in relation to making a smoking quit attempt among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Lee, Christina S; MacPherson, Laura; Strong, David R; Borrelli, Belinda; Brown, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine youth risk behaviors in relation to: (a) making a smoking quit attempt, and (b) successful cessation among adolescent smokers. Data were analyzed from the public use dataset of the 2003 national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of 2,033 students (weighted mean age of 16.3 years, 49.8% female, 73.6% White) who reported a history of daily smoking. While almost two-thirds (63.5%) of adolescent smokers reported making a quit attempt in the last year, only 10% of those were able to successfully quit. Factors associated with making a quit attempt included depression and participating in sports while high-risk sexual activity and engaging in substance use other than alcohol or marijuana were negatively related to making a quit attempt. Externalizing health behaviors (e.g., fighting, drug use, and high risk sexual activity) were associated with decreased likelihood of cessation. Findings from this study may inform efforts to develop more effective smoking prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  14. [Association analysis between urbanization and non-communicable diseases and health-related behavior].

    PubMed

    Liu, G F; Sun, M P; Wang, Z Y; Jian, W Y

    2016-06-18

    To explore the association between different urbanization levels and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in China and provide suggestions on designing relevant health policies in the urbanization process. We obtained health-related data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011. This study used multistage sampling in design stage and covered 150 districts/counties, representative at the levels of the country. Geo-information system (GIS) method was used to get district areas data, and in combination with the Sixth National Census population data, we computed the population density which was regarded as the proxy variable of urbanization level in every city. The Logistic model was used to explore the effect of urbanization level on hypertension, diabetes, smoking, drinking, overweight and obesity. Compared with other cities in China, Shanghai and Shenzhen, with the population density of more than 3 000 people per km(2), were the cities with highest urbanization level. From the map of urbanization distribution across China, it was found that the urbanization levels of the northwestern districts were lower than those of the southeastern and coastal districts. The hypertension rate increased with the development of urbanization but there was no statistical significance. The proportion of patients with diabetes went up first and then saw a decrease trend in the process of urbanization. Drinking rate, overweight rate and obesity rate had similar trends, falling to their lowest point when urbanization level equaled 737,1 186 and 1 353 people per km(2) respectively and then experienced upward trends. By contrast, smoking rate declined first and then went up (the turning point was 1 029 people per km(2)). Different urbanization levels have different effects on NCDs, health-related behavior, overweight and obesity. Low urbanization level may create negative impact on health while high level can pose positive effect and increase people's health condition

  15. Differences in Eating Behavior, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Lifestyle Choices between Users and Nonusers of Mobile Health Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarcona, Alessandra; Kovacs, Laura; Wright, Josephine; Williams, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight gain and lifestyle behaviors during college may contribute to future health problems. This population may not have sufficient self-monitoring skills to maintain healthy lifestyle behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between usages of mobile health applications (apps) designed to track…

  16. Parental encouragement of healthy behaviors: adolescent weight status and health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health concern for adolescents, with one in four being overweight or obese in Australia. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderation effect of parental encouragement of healthy behaviors on the relationship between adolescent weight status and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Methods Baseline data were collected from 3,040 adolescents participating in the It’s Your Move project, conducted in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, in 2005. The Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory was used to measure HRQoL, and parental encouragement was derived from purposely designed self-report items. Weight status was calculated according to World Health Organization growth standards from measured weight and height. Linear regression analyses modeled direct relationships and interaction terms. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, physical activity level, nutrition and school attended. Results Higher levels of parental encouragement, as compared to low encouragement, were positively associated with higher global HRQoL scores, particularly in the physical functioning domain. To a lesser degree, high parental encouragement was also associated with higher scores on the psychosocial domain. Obese weight status showed a significant association with lower HRQoL on all scales. Parental encouragement significantly moderated the inverse relationship between overweight status and physical wellbeing. Conclusions Findings suggest that parental encouragement of healthy behavior is associated with increased HRQoL scores for adolescents. Whilst more research is needed to validate the significant interaction effect, main effects suggest that parental encouragement of healthy behavior is an important factor in adolescent wellbeing and should be considered when developing prevention and clinical interventions for obesity. PMID:24735656

  17. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  18. Behavior of College Students in Health Related Departments Towards Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Nesrin; Çöl, Ayşe Gülnur; Tanboğa, Emine; Şengül, Alaattin; Batmaz, Makbule

    2014-07-01

    The study was performed in order to determine the behavior of college students studying in health related departments for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. This study is a cross sectional study. 336 female students studying in School of Nursing and School of Health Sciences at a foundation university in Istanbul were included. A questionnaire directed to collect data regarding the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and their behavior on the early diagnosis of breast cancer was used. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The mean age of students was 21.26±1.94, and 30.7% of the participants majored in nutrition, 29.2% in nursing, 22.9% in midwifery, 17.3% in physical therapy and rehabilitation departments. It was determined that 53.3% of the students made regular breast self-examination (BSE), and 88.1% did not get a clinical breast examination (CBE) within the last year. It was noticed that students who had BSE training, made more BSE and CBE as compared to those who did not get any education. Students with family history of breast cancer was performing more BSE that those without a family history. It was identified that students with BSE training and family history of breast cancer used BSE at a higher rate. It was identified that students with BSE training and family history of breast cancer usage of techniques to perform a BSE at a higher rate.

  19. Health-related quality of life and adaptive behaviors of adolescents with sickle cell disease: stress processing moderators.

    PubMed

    Ziadni, Maisa S; Patterson, Chavis A; Pulgarón, Elizabeth R; Robinson, M Renée; Barakat, Lamia P

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine resilience among adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), focusing on the interaction of health-related quality of life with stress processing to explain adaptive behavior. Forty-four adolescents with SCD completed paper-and-pencil measures of health-related quality of life, appraisals (hope), pain coping strategies (e.g. adherence), and adaptive behavior. Self-reported health-related quality of life was significantly associated with adaptive behavior, as was adherence. Findings for moderation were mixed. Pain coping strategies moderated the association of health-related quality of life with adaptive behavior such that at lower levels of Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) Adherence, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior. Similarly, at higher levels of hope, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior, and poorer quality of life was associated with lower adaptive behavior. Adolescents with SCD showed resilience, particularly in terms of personal adjustment, that may be explained by their appraisals and stress processing strategies. Interventions to support an optimistic or hopeful outlook and improve adherence to recommendations for medical management of sickle cell pain may result in improved resilience/adaptive behavior.

  20. Family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perceived CVD risk, and health-related behavior: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 82 million Americans have one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for 32.8% of all deaths in the United States. Although the evidence for the familial aggregation of CVD is strong, the relationship between family history (FH) of CVD, perceived risk for CVD and their relationship to health-related behavior is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this article is to review and summarize the published research on the relationship between a FH of CVD, an individual’s perceived risk, and health-related behavior in order to make recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO to identify articles that examined the relationship between a FH of CVD, perceived CVD risk, and health-promoting behaviors. A total of 263 unique articles were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-eight were excluded, resulting in a total of 25 articles included in the paper. Results There was a positive relationship between a reported FH of CVD and perceived risk. However, the relationship between a FH of CVD and health-related behavior change and perceived risk and behavior change was inconsistent. Conclusions A person’s awareness of their FH of CVD or their own risk for CVD is not a sufficient predictor of changes in their health-related behavior. Future studies are needed to better explain the processes by which perceived CVD risk or FH of CVD can be used to affect health-related behavior changes. It appears that both FH and perceived personal risk for CVD are necessary but not sufficient conditions to change health-related behavior in high-risk populations. Future studies should also test interventions that help individuals with a FH of CVD attribute increased personal risk to themselves for developing CVD, while providing lifestyle management options to minimize their risk. PMID:23321782

  1. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men’s experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this population. This study sought to understand preferences for health-related services among behaviorally bisexual men in the Midwestern United States. Using a community-based research approach, a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men was recruited for in-depth interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed utilizing inductive coding through established team-based protocols to ensure reliability. Themes emerged involving the importance of privacy and trust when reaching, recruiting, and engaging behaviorally bisexual men in health services. Findings suggest that multifaceted approaches are needed, including those that provide relevant and confidential services while allowing for the development and ongoing maintenance of trust. PMID:22676463

  2. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  3. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  4. Playing for Real, Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health...

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life and Behavioral Functioning after Intrauterine Transfusion for Alloimmune Anemia.

    PubMed

    van Klink, Jeanine M M; Lindenburg, Irene T M; Inklaar, Marloes J; Verduin, Esther; Koopman, Hendrik M; van Kamp, Inge L; Schonewille, Henk; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioral functioning in children and adolescents treated before birth with intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for alloimmune anemia. Cross-sectional cohort study conducted at the Dutch referral center for the management of fetal alloimmune anemia. Follow-up data were available for 285 children at a mean age of 10.5 years (range, 3-21.5 years) with a response rate for questionnaires of 97%. Child-, adolescent-, and parent-rated HRQOL was evaluated with The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research Child/Adult Quality of Life Questionnaire (TACQOL/TAAQOL). Parents reported on behavioral functioning with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scores were compared with Dutch norm data. Significantly lower scores were reported by parents of children 6-11 years of age compared with Dutch norms on 3 scales: cognitive functioning, social functioning, and positive emotions (P < .00, P = .02, and P = .04). In children aged 8-11 years only the cognitive functioning scale score was significantly lower compared with Dutch norms (P = .01). The children aged 12-15 years reported higher scores on the negative emotions scale (P = .02). When corrected for multiple testing, only the parent-rated cognitive functioning scale remained significant (P < .001). Regarding the HRQOL scores of adolescents aged ≥16 years, no differences were detected. Overall, behavioral difficulties were reported in 37/246 (15%) children aged 3-16 years, and were associated with maternal educational levels (P < .001). Parents reported lower scores on cognitive functioning in their children aged 6-11 years compared with norms. Behavioral difficulties were more prevalent than norms, and were associated with maternal educational level. Outcomes of children after intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion were quite good overall. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Drive for leanness and health-related behavior within a social/cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Hall, Gareth

    2013-09-01

    We examined relationships between drive for leanness and perceived media pressure to change appearance, internalization of an ideal physique, exercise frequency, and dieting. Men and women (N=353) completed the Drive for Leanness Scale, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, the Eating Attitudes Test-26, and a demographic inventory. Drive for leanness was significantly correlated with athletic internalization (.52), pressure to attain an ideal physique (.25), exercise frequency (.36), and dieting (.25). Structural equation modeling revealed a good fitting model (χ(2)=2.85, p<.241; CFI=.99; NNFI=.98; RMSEA=.04; SRMR=.02) with internalization predicting drive for leanness, which in turn predicted dieting and exercise. Results reveal social/cultural theory helps enhance the understanding of the drive for leanness and its relationship with health-related behavior.

  7. Russian speaking immigrants: drug use, infectious disease and related health behavior.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    This article focuses on drug use, infectious disease and other factors comparing FSU males who became addicted before and after immigration to Israel. 810 drug users were surveyed in treatment centers from January 2002 to January 2012. The Addiction Severity Index and other data collection instruments were used. Those addicted before immigration have a higher level of infectious disease (i.e., HCV, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and opiate use other than heroin. Those addicted after immigration reported higher rates of last 30 days sedative; cocaine and opiates other than heroin use. Injection drug use and ASI domain problem behavior were more prevalent among those addicted before immigration. Results evidence the impact of country of addiction origin on drug use patterns, infectious disease rates as well as other health related factors. Additional research of the relationship between acculturation and drug use is needed.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life and Lifestyle Behavior Clusters in School-Aged Children from 12 Countries.

    PubMed

    Dumuid, Dorothea; Olds, Timothy; Lewis, Lucy K; Martin-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Barreira, Tiago; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Onywera, Vincent O; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Gillison, Fiona; Maher, Carol

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between children's lifestyles and health-related quality of life and to explore whether this relationship varies among children from different world regions. This study used cross-sectional data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Children (9-11 years) were recruited from sites in 12 nations (n = 5759). Clustering input variables were 24-hour accelerometry and self-reported diet and screen time. Health-related quality of life was self-reported with KIDSCREEN-10. Cluster analyses (using compositional analysis techniques) were performed on a site-wise basis. Lifestyle behavior cluster characteristics were compared between sites. The relationship between cluster membership and health-related quality of life was assessed with the use of linear models. Lifestyle behavior clusters were similar across the 12 sites, with clusters commonly characterized by (1) high physical activity (actives); (2) high sedentary behavior (sitters); (3) high screen time/unhealthy eating pattern (junk-food screenies); and (4) low screen time/healthy eating pattern and moderate physical activity/sedentary behavior (all-rounders). Health-related quality of life was greatest in the all-rounders cluster. Children from different world regions clustered into groups of similar lifestyle behaviors. Cluster membership was related to differing health-related quality of life, with children from the all-rounders cluster consistently reporting greatest health-related quality of life at sites around the world. Findings support the importance of a healthy combination of lifestyle behaviors in childhood: low screen time, healthy eating pattern, and balanced daily activity behaviors (physical activity and sedentary behavior). ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01722500. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

  10. Behavior of College Students in Health Related Departments Towards Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    İlhan, Nesrin; Çöl, Ayşe Gülnur; Tanboğa, Emine; Şengül, Alaattin; Batmaz, Makbule

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study was performed in order to determine the behavior of college students studying in health related departments for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Materials and Methods This study is a cross sectional study. 336 female students studying in School of Nursing and School of Health Sciences at a foundation university in Istanbul were included. A questionnaire directed to collect data regarding the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and their behavior on the early diagnosis of breast cancer was used. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The mean age of students was 21.26±1.94, and 30.7% of the participants majored in nutrition, 29.2% in nursing, 22.9% in midwifery, 17.3% in physical therapy and rehabilitation departments. It was determined that 53.3% of the students made regular breast self-examination (BSE), and 88.1% did not get a clinical breast examination (CBE) within the last year. It was noticed that students who had BSE training, made more BSE and CBE as compared to those who did not get any education. Students with family history of breast cancer was performing more BSE that those without a family history. It was identified that students with BSE training and family history of breast cancer used BSE at a higher rate. Conclusion It was identified that students with BSE training and family history of breast cancer usage of techniques to perform a BSE at a higher rate. PMID:28331661

  11. [Comparison of Health-related Behavior Patterns of Boys and Girls in Germany: Results of the MoMo Study].

    PubMed

    Spengler, S; Mess, F; Woll, A

    2015-12-22

    Aim of the study: For optimal health promotion in adolescents, it is important to know their typical behavior patterns. The aims of this study were to identify and compare sex-specific health-related behavior patterns of adolescents in Germany. Methods: The KiGGS Survey and the MoMo Study assessed the health behavior of 832 boys and 811 girls by means of a questionnaire. The indices physical activity, diet quality and media use were included in cluster analyses for boys and girls separately. Results: For each sex, 4 clusters with similar characteristics on the three included indices were identified. However, cluster size, level of the characteristics and correlates were different in boys and girls: fewer girls showed high activity levels. Overall, physical activity and media use were less pronounced in the behavior pattern of girls. There was a stronger association of behavior patterns with socio-economic status in girls. In boys, behavior patterns were significantly associated with prevalence of overweight. Conclusions: The similar cluster solutions for boys and girls support the assumption that there are typical health-related behavior patterns among German adolescents. This finding might facilitate the precise definition of homogeneous target groups for health promotion programs. Furthermore, it seems that sex-specific foci should be set. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Health-related behavior and quality of life among the elderly: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés; Carandina, Luana; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2011-06-01

    To assess the association between health-related behaviors and quality of life among the elderly. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out including 1,958 elderly living in four areas in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 2001/2002. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument. This instrument's eight subscales and two components were the dependent variables. Independent variables were physical activity, weekly frequency of alcohol consumption and smoking. Multiple linear regression models were used to control for the effect of gender, age, schooling, work, area of residence and number of chronic conditions. Physical activity was positively associated with the eight SF-36 subscales. The stronger associations were found for role-physical (β=11.9), physical functioning (β=11.3) and physical component. Elderly individuals who consumed alcohol at least once a week showed a better quality of life than those did not consume alcohol. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a poorer quality of life for the mental component (β=-2.4). The study results showed that physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption and no smoking are positively associated with a better quality of life in the elderly.

  13. A latent class modeling approach to evaluate behavioral risk factors and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongwen; Zack, Matthew M

    2011-11-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) monitors multiple health indicators related to 4 domains: risky behaviors, health conditions, health care access, and use of preventive services. When evaluating the effect of these indicators on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), conventional analytical methods focus only on individual risks and thus are not ideally suited for analyzing complex relationships among many health indicators. The objectives of this study were to 1) summarize and group multiple related health indicators within a health domain by using latent class modeling and 2) analyze how 24 health indicators in 4 health domains were associated with 2 HRQOL outcomes to identify Rhode Island adult populations at highest risk for poor HRQOL. The 2008 Rhode Island BRFSS, a population-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey, collected responses from 4,786 adults aged 18 years or older. We used latent class modeling to assign 24 health indicators to high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups within 4 domains. The effects of all risks on HRQOL were then assessed with logistic regression modeling. The latent class model with 3 classes fitted the 4 domains best. Respondents with more health conditions and limited health care access were more likely to have frequent physical distress. Those with more health conditions, risky behaviors, and limited health care access were more likely to have frequent mental distress. Use of preventive health services did not affect risk for frequent physical or mental distress. The latent class modeling approach can be applied to identifying high-risk subpopulations in Rhode Island for which interventions may have the most substantial effect on HRQOL.

  14. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  15. Reading About the Flu Online: How Health-Protective Behavioral Intentions Are Influenced by Media Multitasking, Polychronicity, and Strength of Health-Related Arguments.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Anastasia; Yuan, Shupei; Joo, Eunsin

    2017-06-01

    As health organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate medical information and advice (Shortliffe et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2013), studying factors that affect health information processing and health-protective behaviors becomes extremely important. The present research applied the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore the effects of media multitasking, polychronicity (preference for multitasking), and strength of health-related arguments on health-protective behavioral intentions. Participants read an online article about influenza that included strong and weak suggestions to engage in flu-preventive behaviors. In one condition, participants read the article and checked Facebook; in another condition, they were exposed only to the article. Participants expressed greater health-protective behavioral intentions in the media multitasking condition than in the control condition. Strong arguments were found to elicit more positive behavioral intentions than weak arguments. Moderate and high polychronics showed greater behavioral intentions than low polychronics when they read the article in the multitasking condition. The difference in intentions to follow strong and weak arguments decreased for moderate and high polychronics. The results of the present study suggest that health communication practitioners should account for not only media use situations in which individuals typically read about health online but also individual differences in information processing, which puts more emphasis on the strength of health-protective suggestions when targeting light multitaskers.

  16. Dental caries in 3-year-old children is associated more with child-rearing behaviors than mother-related health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Fukuda, Hideki; Kawasaki, Koji; Kitamura, Masayasu; Hayashida, Hideaki; Furugen, Reiko; Fukumoto, Emiko; Iijima, Youichi; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether child- or mother-related health behaviors were associated more strongly with dental caries in 3-year-old children. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed on dental caries' presence as the dependent variable with independent variables from the results of examination and a self-administered questionnaire of 396 mother-child pairs. Dental caries of 3-year-old children was more strongly associated with child-related health behavior than mother-related health behavior. Of the child-related variables, "a habit of feeding in bed" [OR (odds ratio) 10.14; 95 percent class interval (CI) 1.80-56.97], "eating between meals three times a day or more" (OR 3.33; 95 percent CI 1.56-7.10), "consuming a sports drink three times a week or more" (OR 4.47; 95 percent CI 1.60-12.49), "having both home and professional preventive dental care" (OR 3.02; 95 percent CI 1.44-6.32), and "having professional preventive dental care" (OR 3.79; 95 percent CI 1.75-8.21) were significantly associated with dental caries in children. Of the mother-related variables, "brushing teeth once a day or less" (OR 2.72; 95 percent CI 1.19-6.20) and "drinking alcohol three times a week or more" (OR 0.38; 95 percent CI 0.16-0.93) had significant effects. Dental caries of 3-year-old children was more strongly associated with child-related health behavior than mother-related health behavior. The results of this study suggest that encouraging good child-rearing behavior among mothers could result in better dental health among their children regardless of the mother's dental health status.

  17. Bone mineral densitometry substantially influences health-related behaviors of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Marci, C D; Anderson, W B; Viechnicki, M B; Greenspan, S L

    2000-02-01

    Although bone mineral density measurements are helpful in predicting future risk for osteoporotic fractures, there is limited information available on how the results of bone densitometry influence a woman's use of therapeutic alternatives. To assess the role of bone mineral densitometry in influencing postmenopausal women to change health behaviors associated with osteoporosis, we prospectively followed, for an average of 2.9 years, 701 postmenopausal women over 50 years of age referred to an osteoporosis prevention program in a large metropolitan area. Assessments included bone mineral densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (with classification of skeletal health), medical history, use of hormone replacement therapy, calcium intake, caffeine intake, exercise, smoking habits, and fall precaution measures. Women classified at baseline with moderate low bone mass were twice as likely (33%), and women with severe low bone mass more than three times as likely (47%) to start hormone replacement therapy compared with women with a normal result (13%, P < 0.001). This was true regardless of whether they had taken hormone replacement therapy in the past. Below-normal BMD was a strong predictor of a woman's initiation of hormone replacement therapy (OR 4.2; 95% CI 2.7-6.4; P < 0.05) even after adjustment for age, education, history of osteoporosis or fracture, and medical condition related to osteoporosis. Women with moderate or severe low bone mass were also much more likely to start calcium supplements (81-90% versus 67%), increase dietary calcium (71-82% versus 60%), decrease use of caffeine (44-60% versus 34%), start exercising (61-76% versus 52%), and quit smoking (22-24% versus 11%) relative to their behaviors prior to testing (P < 0.01). In conclusion, postmenopausal women report that the results of bone densitometry substantially influence the decision to begin hormone replacement therapy and calcium supplements, increase dietary calcium, decrease caffeine

  18. Social network type and health-related behaviors: Evidence from an American national survey

    PubMed Central

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between social network type and engagement in physical activity, alcohol abuse and use of complementary and alternative medicine by older Americans. Data from the National Social Life, Health & Aging Project were employed. Multivariate logistic regressions conducted separately for each health behavior showed that older people embedded in less resourceful network types were at greater risk for alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and less use of complementary and alternative medicine, net of the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, health, and the quality of the social relationships. The study underscores the importance of the construct of social network type for understanding healthy lifestyle in late life. PMID:22682660

  19. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  20. Weight Status Misperception as Related to Selected Health Risk Behaviors among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian C.; Dalton, William T., III; Williams, Stacey L.; Slawson, Deborah L.; Dunn, Michael S.; Johns-Wommack, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight misperception has been documented among children although the impact on health risk behaviors is less understood, particularly among middle school students. The goals of this study were to describe sociodemographic differences in actual and perceived weight, correspondence between actual and perceived weight, and weight-related…

  1. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  2. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623

  3. Parental self-efficacy and oral health-related knowledge are associated with parent and child oral health behaviors and self-reported oral health status.

    PubMed

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Ashbolt, Rosie; Green, Julie; Calache, Hanny; Keith, Benedict; Riggs, Elisha; Waters, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to advance understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on oral health by examining how parental self-efficacy (with regard to acting on their child's oral health needs) and oral health knowledge relate to parental and child oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Parents of children in grades 0/1 and 5/6 (n = 804) and children in grades 5/6 (n = 377, mean age 11.5 ± 1.0, 53.9% female) were recruited from a stratified random sample of 11 primary (elementary) schools. Participants completed surveys capturing psychosocial factors, oral health-related knowledge, and parental attitudes about oral health. Parents also rated their own oral health status and the oral health of their child. Correlations and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for socioeconomic status, child age, and gender) examined associations between psychosocial factors and the outcomes of interest (parent and child behaviors and self-rated oral health status). Higher parental self-efficacy was associated with more frequent toothbrushing (by parent and child), and more frequent visits to a dental professional. These associations were particularly strong with regard to dental visits for children, with parents with the highest tertile for self-efficacy 4.3 times more likely to report that their child attended a dentist for a checkup at least once a year (95%CI 2.52-7.43); and 3 times more likely to report their child brushing their teeth at least twice a day (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.04, 95%CI 1.64-5.64) compared with those parents in the lowest tertile for self-efficacy. No associations with oral health knowledge were found when examined by tertile of increasing knowledge. Oral health self-efficacy and knowledge are potentially modifiable risk factors of oral health outcomes, and these findings suggest that intervening on these factors could help foster positive dental health habits in families. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Is health literacy related to health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns among the text4baby target population?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Results Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Conclusions Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations

  5. Is health literacy related to health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns among the text4baby target population?

    PubMed

    Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Elon, Lisa; Parker, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations use their cell phones, including: sharing

  6. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although youth in the United States remain substantially more violent than adolescents and young adults in most industrial countries, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents identified many reasons for optimism about our capacity to…

  7. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Although youth in the United States remain substantially more violent than adolescents and young adults in most industrial countries, the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) State-of-the-Science Conference on Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking Social Behaviors in Adolescents identified many reasons for optimism about our capacity to…

  8. Trends in health-related behaviors of Korean adults: study based on data from the 2008-2014 Community Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yun Sil; Sung, Changhyun; Lee, Dong Han

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity (multiple risks) often lead to serious health consequence and impaired health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the trend in health-related behavioral factors over time among adults in South Korea (hereafter Korea). The data of 1,595,842 Koreans older than 19 years who participated in the 2008-2014 Korea Community Health Survey were analyzed to assess the trend in the prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Individual or clustering health-related behaviors were assessed according to sex, age, and region among 228,712 adults who participated in the 2014 survey. From 2008 to 2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and high-risk alcohol use increased the prevalence of male current smoking and marginally decreased walking ability. Over 7 years, the percentage of adults who reported having all three healthy behaviors (i.e., currently not smoking, not consuming alcohol or having high-risk alcohol use, and engaging in walking) decreased from 35.2% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014. Increased efforts to emphasize multiple health-related behavioral risk factors, including reducing alcohol use and smoking, and to encourage walking are needed in the thirties and forties age groups in Korea. PMID:26493778

  9. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688

  10. The association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health-related quality of life among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muros, José J; Salvador Pérez, Federico; Zurita Ortega, Félix; Gámez Sánchez, Vanesa M; Knox, Emily

    The aim of this research was to examine the association between body mass index, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and health-related quality of life in a sample of Spanish adolescents. The study involved 456 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years. They completed questionnaires on the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED), physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children [PAQ-C]), and quality of life (KIDSCREEN-27). Body mass index was calculated. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to determine whether health-related quality of life could be predicted by the measured variables. The variables were analyzed in a stepwise manner, with Mediterranean diet entered in the first step, body mass index in the second, and physical activity in the third. Mediterranean diet accounted for 4.6% of the variance in adolescent's health-related quality of life, with higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet predicting higher health-related quality of life-scores. Body mass index accounted for a further 4.1% of the variance, with a higher body mass index predicting lower health-related quality of life scores. Finally, physical activity explained an additional 11.3% of the variance, with a higher level of physical activity being associated with higher health-related quality of life scores. Together, these variables explained 20% of the variance in the adolescents' health-related quality of life. Physical activity, body mass index, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet are important components to consider when targeting improvements in the health-related quality of life of adolescents, with physical activity representing the component with the greatest influence. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.

  12. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  13. A cluster-analytic approach towards multidimensional health-related behaviors in adolescents: the MoMo-Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Mewes, Nadine; Mensink, Gert B M; Woll, Alexander

    2012-12-31

    Although knowledge on single health-related behaviors and their association with health parameters is available, research on multiple health-related behaviors is needed to understand the interactions among these behaviors. The aims of the study were (a) to identify typical health-related behavior patterns in German adolescents focusing on physical activity, media use and dietary behavior; (b) to describe the socio-demographic correlates of the identified clusters and (c) to study their association with overweight. Within the framework of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo), 1,643 German adolescents (11-17 years) completed a questionnaire assessing the amount and type of weekly physical activity in sports clubs and during leisure time, weekly use of television, computer and console games and the frequency and amount of food consumption. From this data the three indices 'physical activity', 'media use' and 'healthy nutrition' were derived and included in a cluster analysis conducted with Ward's Method and K-means analysis. Chi-square tests were performed to identify socio-demographic correlates of the clusters as well as their association with overweight. Four stable clusters representing typical health-related behavior patterns were identified: Cluster 1 (16.2%)--high scores in physical activity index and average scores in media use index and healthy nutrition index; cluster 2 (34.6%)--high healthy nutrition score and below average scores in the other two indices; cluster 3 (18.4%)--low physical activity score, low healthy nutrition score and very high media use score; cluster 4 (30.5%)--below average scores on all three indices. Boys were overrepresented in the clusters 1 and 3, and the relative number of adolescents with low socio-economic status as well as overweight was significantly higher than average in cluster 3. Meaningful and stable clusters of health-related behavior were

  14. A cluster-analytic approach towards multidimensional health-related behaviors in adolescents: the MoMo-Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although knowledge on single health-related behaviors and their association with health parameters is available, research on multiple health-related behaviors is needed to understand the interactions among these behaviors. The aims of the study were (a) to identify typical health-related behavior patterns in German adolescents focusing on physical activity, media use and dietary behavior; (b) to describe the socio-demographic correlates of the identified clusters and (c) to study their association with overweight. Methods Within the framework of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the “Motorik-Modul” (MoMo), 1,643 German adolescents (11–17 years) completed a questionnaire assessing the amount and type of weekly physical activity in sports clubs and during leisure time, weekly use of television, computer and console games and the frequency and amount of food consumption. From this data the three indices ‘physical activity’, ‘media use’ and ‘healthy nutrition’ were derived and included in a cluster analysis conducted with Ward’s Method and K-means analysis. Chi-square tests were performed to identify socio-demographic correlates of the clusters as well as their association with overweight. Results Four stable clusters representing typical health-related behavior patterns were identified: Cluster 1 (16.2%)—high scores in physical activity index and average scores in media use index and healthy nutrition index; cluster 2 (34.6%)—high healthy nutrition score and below average scores in the other two indices; cluster 3 (18.4%)—low physical activity score, low healthy nutrition score and very high media use score; cluster 4 (30.5%)—below average scores on all three indices. Boys were overrepresented in the clusters 1 and 3, and the relative number of adolescents with low socio-economic status as well as overweight was significantly higher than average in cluster 3. Conclusions

  15. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  16. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  17. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  18. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  19. Methodological Issues Related to the Use of P Less than 0.05 in Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias; Graner, Stephen P.; Becker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews methodological issues related to the use of P less than 0.05 in health behavior research and suggests how application and presentation of statistical significance may be improved. Assessment of sample size and P less than 0.05, the file drawer problem, the Law of Large Numbers and the statistical significance arguments in…

  20. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  1. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  2. The Covariation and Factor Structure of Substance Use and Other Health-Related Behaviors in Two Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron; And Others

    Research has revealed relationships among a wide range of substance use behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, and drug use. To investigate whether a substance use factor emerges when different indicators of substance use, different samples, and three health related issues, (i.e., meal regularity, exercise and hours of sleep) are examined, the…

  3. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  4. The Covariation and Factor Structure of Substance Use and Other Health-Related Behaviors in Two Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron; And Others

    Research has revealed relationships among a wide range of substance use behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, and drug use. To investigate whether a substance use factor emerges when different indicators of substance use, different samples, and three health related issues, (i.e., meal regularity, exercise and hours of sleep) are examined, the…

  5. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  6. A Review of the Literature on Remote Monitoring Technology in Incentive-Based Interventions for Health-Related Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Allison N.; Davis, Danielle R.; Redner, Ryan; Jarvis, Brantley P.; Zvorsky, Ivori; Keith, Diana R.; Bolivar, Hypatia A.; White, Thomas J.; Rippberger, Peter; Markesich, Catherine; Atwood, Gary; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Use of technology (e.g., Internet, cell phones) to allow remote implementation of incentives interventions for health-related behavior change is growing. To our knowledge, there has yet to be a systematic review of this literature reported. The present report provides a systematic review of the controlled studies where technology was used to remotely implement financial incentive interventions targeting substance use and other health behaviors published between 2004 and 2015. For inclusion in the review, studies had to use technology to remotely accomplish one of the following two aims alone or in combination: (a) monitor the target behavior, or (b) deliver incentives for achieving the target goal. Studies also had to examine financial incentives (e.g., cash, vouchers) for health-related behavior change, be published in peer-reviewed journals, and include a research design that allowed evaluation of the efficacy of the incentive intervention relative to another condition (e.g., non-contingent incentives, treatment as usual). Of the 39 reports that met inclusion criteria, 18 targeted substance use, 10 targeted medication adherence or home-based health monitoring, and 11 targeted diet, exercise, or weight loss. All 39 (100%) studies used technology to facilitate remote monitoring of the target behavior, and 26 (66.7%) studies also incorporated technology in the remote delivery of incentives. Statistically significant intervention effects were reported in 71% of studies reviewed. Overall, the results offer substantial support for the efficacy of remotely implemented incentive interventions for health-related behavior change, which have the potential to increase the cost-effectiveness and reach of this treatment approach. PMID:27777964

  7. Investigating the relationship among self-reported oral health status, oral health-related behaviors, and self-consciousness in Romanian dental patients.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Kawamura, M; Zetu, L; Teslaru, S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-consciousness, self-reported oral health status, and oral health-related behaviors were associated in a Romanian population. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected between January and March 2008. The sample consisted of 180 Romanian adults (mean age: 35.8 years; 72.6% women; 57% married) who were a random population drawn consecutively from the registry file of a private dental practice in the Iasi area. The questionnaire included information about demographic, psychologic, self-reported oral health, and oral health-related behavior items. The self-consciousness (SC) scale with three subscales (public SC, private SC, and social anxiety) was applied. Significant differences were found on the public SC scale in relation to denture/removable false teeth and on the total SC scale in relation to periodontal problems. When oral health behaviors were analyzed, private SC was associated with oral health behaviors (flossing, use of mouthrinse, and dental visit frequency). There was no association between toothbrushing frequency and the self-consciousness subscales. The moderating effects of self-consciousness should be considered when evaluating risk-reduction interventions and tailoring intervention efforts to oral health promotion.

  8. The association between relative deprivation and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and smoking behavior in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Tung; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2013-07-01

    Relative deprivation has been hypothesized as one explanation for the association between income inequality and health. However, few studies have examined the effect of relative deprivation on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Using a cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Promotion in Taiwan, this study examined the relationship between relative deprivation and physical health (self-rated health), psychosocial health (depressive symptoms), and behavioral health (smoking) among working-age Taiwanese men and women. We found that higher relative deprivation (measured by the Yitzhaki Index) is significantly associated with a higher prevalence of poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and current smoking in both genders. After controlling for demographic variables and absolute income, the prevalence ratios (PRs) of reporting poor health for each 10,000 NT-dollars higher in the Yitzhaki Index are between 1.25 and 1.57, depending on the reference groups. The PRs were between 1.33 and 1.77 for depressive symptoms, and between 1.04 and 1.46 for smoking. Additionally, the depressive symptoms attenuated the association between relative deprivation and self-rated health. The results were consistent with various definitions of reference groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that the psychosocial process of relative deprivation is a crucial mechanism linking income inequality to health. Narrowing the income gap between rich and poor may protect the physical and mental well-being of the population and reduce the prevalence of smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Binge eating in obese adolescents: emotional and behavioral characteristics and impact on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pasold, Tracie L; McCracken, Andy; Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L

    2014-04-01

    This study explored binge eating among an adolescent obese population to ascertain the prevalence of bingeing, the relationship between binge eating and body mass index (BMI), and to evaluate significant relationships between binge eating, emotional/behavioral functioning, and health-related quality of life. Participants included 102 overweight adolescents aged 12-17 years presenting to a multidisciplinary outpatient obesity clinic. Data obtained included height, weight, and self-report questionnaire data on emotional and behavioral functioning. Binge eating prevalence included 33% moderate to severe binge eating. Binge eating was significantly positively related to BMI and depression, negative mood, feelings of ineffectiveness, negative self-esteem and significantly negatively related to somatic complaints and all aspects of health-related quality of life. Important demographic differences emerged with regard to the impact of binge eating on health-related quality of life with Caucasians, females, and older groups experiencing more pervasive impact. This research suggests that bingeing behaviors have pervasive and important implications for health-related quality of life for obese adolescents.

  10. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study.

    PubMed

    Philips, Nele; Sioen, Isabelle; Michels, Nathalie; Sleddens, Ester; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2014-07-23

    Exploring associations between parenting behavior and children's health related behavior including physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet and sleep. We recruited 288 parents and their children (6-12y old). Children's weight and height were measured. Fat percentage was determined by air displacement plethysmography. Parents reported socio-demographic data, sleep information, physical activity and sedentary behavior of their child and completed the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire (CGPQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Children completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Associations between parenting behavior (CGPQ) and children's health related behavior were assessed with univariate and multiple regression analyses. A small positive correlation was found between sweet food consumption frequency and "coercive control" (r = 0.139) and a small negative correlation between fruit and vegetables consumption frequency and "overprotection" (r = -0.151). Children consumed more frequently soft drinks when their parents scored lower on "structure" (r = -0.124) and higher on "overprotection" (r = 0.123); for the light soft drinks separately, a small positive correlation with "behavioral control" was found (r = 0.172). A small negative correlation was found between "emotional eating" and "structure" (r = -0.172) as well as "behavioral control" (r = -0.166). "Coercive control" was negatively correlated with the child's sleep duration (r = -0.171). After correction for confounding factors, the following significant associations were found: (1) a small negative association between "structure" and soft drinks consumption (β = -0.17 for all soft drinks and -0.22 for light soft drinks), (2) a small positive association between "behavioral control" and light soft drinks (β = 0.34), (3) a small positive association of "nurturance" and "coercive control" with sedentary behavior (β = 0.16 for both parent

  11. Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported racism and its association with cancer-related health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Klassen, Ann C; Bowie, Janice V

    2010-02-01

    We used population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of self-reported racism across racial/ethnic groups and to evaluate the association between self-reported racism and cancer-related health behaviors. We used cross-sectional data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey. Questions measured self-reported racism in general and in health care. The cancer risk behaviors we assessed were smoking, binge drinking, not walking, being overweight or obese, and not being up to date with screenings for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Analyses included descriptive analyses and logistic regression. Prevalences of self-reported racism varied between and within aggregate racial/ethnic groups. In adjusted analyses, general racism was associated with smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight or obese; health care racism was associated with not being up to date with screening for prostate cancer. Associations varied across racial/ethnic groups. Associations between general racism and lifestyle behaviors suggest that racism is a potential stressor that may shape cancer-related health behaviors, and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity.

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Racism and Its Association With Cancer-Related Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Ann C.; Bowie, Janice V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of self-reported racism across racial/ethnic groups and to evaluate the association between self-reported racism and cancer-related health behaviors. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey. Questions measured self-reported racism in general and in health care. The cancer risk behaviors we assessed were smoking, binge drinking, not walking, being overweight or obese, and not being up to date with screenings for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Analyses included descriptive analyses and logistic regression. Results. Prevalences of self-reported racism varied between and within aggregate racial/ethnic groups. In adjusted analyses, general racism was associated with smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight or obese; health care racism was associated with not being up to date with screening for prostate cancer. Associations varied across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions. Associations between general racism and lifestyle behaviors suggest that racism is a potential stressor that may shape cancer-related health behaviors, and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:20019302

  13. Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Shemilt, Ian; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P T; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-06-01

    Uncertainty remains about whether personal financial incentives could achieve sustained changes in health-related behaviors that would reduce the fast-growing global non-communicable disease burden. This review aims to estimate whether: i. financial incentives achieve sustained changes in smoking, eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity; ii. effectiveness is modified by (a) the target behavior, (b) incentive value and attainment certainty, (c) recipients' deprivation level. Multiple sources were searched for trials offering adults financial incentives and assessing outcomes relating to pre-specified behaviors at a minimum of six months from baseline. Analyses included random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions grouped by timed endpoints. Of 24,265 unique identified articles, 34 were included in the analysis. Financial incentives increased behavior-change, with effects sustained until 18months from baseline (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.23) and three months post-incentive removal (OR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.21-3.67). High deprivation increased incentive effects (OR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.22-3.85), but only at >6-12months from baseline. Other assessed variables did not independently modify effects at any time-point. Personal financial incentives can change habitual health-related behaviors and help reduce health inequalities. However, their role in reducing disease burden is potentially limited given current evidence that effects dissipate beyond three months post-incentive removal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Social Behavioral Problems and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Song E; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific behavioral problems on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Methods Children and adolescents with epilepsy (n=92; age range=6–17 years) and their mothers completed questionnaires about behavioral problems, HRQOL, socio-demographics, and epilepsy-related variables. To determine significant predictor variables of the HRQOL, the stepwise regression analyses and partial correlations were performed to adjust for other behavioral problems and covariates. Results The analyses revealed that an increase in social behavioral problems and delinquent behavior was associated with a decrease in the HRQOL. Lower levels of maternal education and the number of antiepileptic drugs were also associated with a decline in the HRQOL; the HRQOL and social behavioral problems remained significantly correlated after adjusting for maternal education level, number of antiepileptic drugs, and non-social behavioral problems. Conclusion Parents and practitioners should provide intervention if behavioral problems, particularly social behavioral problems, are observed in children or adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:27757126

  15. Type-D personality mechanisms of effect: the role of health-related behavior and social support.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lynn; O'Connor, Rory C; Howard, Siobhan; Hughes, Brian M; Johnston, Derek W; Hay, Julia L; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lewis, Christopher A; Ferguson, Eamonn; Sheehy, Noel; Grealy, Madeleine A; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2008-01-01

    To (a) investigate the prevalence of type-D personality (the conjoint effects of negative affectivity and social inhibition) in a healthy British and Irish population; (b) to test the influence of type-D on health-related behavior, and (c) to determine if these relationships are explained by neuroticism. A cross-sectional design was employed; 1012 healthy young adults (225 males, 787 females, mean age 20.5 years) from the United Kingdom and Ireland completed measures of type-D personality, health behaviors, social support, and neuroticism. The prevalence of type-D was found to be 38.5%, significantly higher than that reported in other European countries. In addition, type-D individuals reported performing significantly fewer health-related behaviors and lower levels of social support than non-type-D individuals. These relationships remained significant after controlling for neuroticism. These findings provide new evidence on type-D and suggest a role for health-related behavior in explaining the link between type-D and poor clinical prognosis in cardiac patients.

  16. Health-related quality of life in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: contribution of demographic factors, disease-related factors, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Krab, Lianne C; Oostenbrink, R; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K; Elgersma, Ype; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2009-03-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with parental reports and children's self-reports, and to investigate the potential contribution of demographic factors, disease-specific factors, and problems in school performance or behavior. In a prospective observational study, parents of 58 children with NF1 (32 boys, 26 girls, age 12.2 +/- 2.5 years) visiting a university clinic, and their 43 children 10 years or older were assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Potential determinants of domain scores were assessed in 3 explorative regression models. Parents reported a significant impact of NF1 on 9/13 CHQ scales, with moderate effect sizes on 8 (general health perceptions, physical functioning, general behavior, mental health, self esteem, family activities, role functioning emotional/behavioral, and parent emotional impact). Children report an impact on bodily pain, and an above average general behavior. Multiple CHQ scales were sensitive to demographic factors and behavioral problems, and 1 to NF1 severity. NF1 visibility and school problems did not influence HR-QOL. Parents, but not the children with NF1, report a profound impact of NF1 on physical, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects of HR-QOL. Multiple HR-QOL domains were most sensitive to behavioral problems, which points to an exciting potential opportunity to improve HR-QOL in children with NF1 by addressing these behavioral problems.

  17. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Peer-Based Interventions on Health-Related Behaviors in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Okonsky, Jennifer; Trompeta, Joyce; Holzemer, William L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed 25 randomized clinical trials that assessed the effect of peer-based interventions on health-related behaviors in adults. Effect sizes were calculated as odds ratios or standardized mean differences. We grouped most of the studies by 7 measured outcomes, with effect sizes ranging from −0.50 to 2.86. We found that peer-based interventions facilitated important changes in health-related behaviors, including physical activity, smoking, and condom use, with a small- to medium-sized effect. However, the evidence was mixed, possibly because of the heterogeneity we found in methods, dose, and other variables between the studies. Interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding, medication adherence, women's health screening, and participation in general activities did not produce significant changes. PMID:20019321

  18. A systematic review of the effectiveness of peer-based interventions on health-related behaviors in adults.

    PubMed

    Webel, Allison R; Okonsky, Jennifer; Trompeta, Joyce; Holzemer, William L

    2010-02-01

    We reviewed 25 randomized clinical trials that assessed the effect of peer-based interventions on health-related behaviors in adults. Effect sizes were calculated as odds ratios or standardized mean differences. We grouped most of the studies by 7 measured outcomes, with effect sizes ranging from -0.50 to 2.86. We found that peer-based interventions facilitated important changes in health-related behaviors, including physical activity, smoking, and condom use, with a small- to medium-sized effect. However, the evidence was mixed, possibly because of the heterogeneity we found in methods, dose, and other variables between the studies. Interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding, medication adherence, women's health screening, and participation in general activities did not produce significant changes.

  19. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  20. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and family characteristics among Finnish schoolchildren with and without active initial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Seppä, Liisa; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of active initial caries lesions among 11 to 12-year-old schoolchildren is associated with parental and child-related factors and whether there are gender differences in these associations. The data were gathered by questionnaires from children and their parents, who replied without knowing the other's answers. All the children were invited to participate in a screening for the presence or absence of active initial caries lesions. Factors associated with children's initial caries were studied with logistic regression analyses. The parents' self-assessed poor dental health, the parents' and the child's poor oral health-related behavior, and the child's response "I don't know" to the question concerning his/her parents' possible dental caries were associated with the presence of active initial caries lesions. The results of logistic regression analyses were different between girls and boys. Among the girls, many parent-related factors were associated with the presence of initial caries. Among the boys, most factors were related to the child; and of the parent-related factors, only parents' poor self-assessed dental health was associated with initial caries; the effect was modified by the father's occupational level. Parental factors affect boys' and girls' dental health differently. Among boys, the effect of the fathers was seen as the father's occupational level; among girls, parental knowledge and behavior were important. When school interventions to promote health are planned, the important role of the parents should be emphasized.

  1. Differences in health-related behaviors between middle school, high school, and college students in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weina; He, Mike Z; Wang, Yunle; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Yonglin; Wu, Ming; Tang, Zhen; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Baojun; Zhen, Shiqi; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    Increasing rates of obesity among Chinese adolescents has become a major public health concern in recent years. Studies have shown that factors such as food choices, physical activity, and screen time play important roles in fostering obesity. We examined a number of biological and social determinants that influence these factors. To determine whether dietary behavior, physical activity, and screen time varied among students in different stages of their education. Students in 13 cities across Jiangsu Province completed an anonymous survey assessing demographics and various health-related behaviors in a controlled setting. The survey population ranged from middle school students to undergraduates. 55,361 surveys were returned, and 46,611 (84.2%) were usable for the analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between four behavioral factors (dietary behavior, screen time, physical activity, and moderate exercise) and seven predictors (gender, age, BMI, mother's education, nearsightedness, allowance, and geographic region). Baseline characteristics of the survey population analyzed by education level (middle school, high school, college and beyond) showed moderate differences in demographics among the three groups. Physical activity, moderate exercise, and dietary behavior decreased with educational level, while screen time increased. All predictors in the four considered regression models were statistically significant. This unique, large-scale survey of Chinese students in a region of contrasting economic development revealed numerous relationships between health-related diet and physical-activity, region, and education level. These findings can inform the development of measures to counteract the rise of obesity in China.

  2. HBV-Related Health Behaviors in a Socio-Cultural Context: Perspectives from Khmers and Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Tang, Shirley S.; Yang, JinHwang; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Hann, Hie-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore factors influencing health and health care within the sociocultural context of Cambodian Americans (CAs or Khmers) and Korean Americans (KA) and to examine intergroup similarities and differences between CAs and KAs, focusing on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cancer prevention behaviors. Methods The study used a qualitative design guided by the revised Network Episode Model (NEM) and informed by ethnographic analysis. Focus group interviews with key informants among CA community health leaders (CHLs, n=14) and individual interviews with key informants of KA CHLs (n=9) were audiotaped and transcribed. Results Three categories that influenced HBV and liver cancer prevention emerged from both CAs and KAs: the socio-cultural, individual, and behavioral. Four additional sub-categories (sub-themes) of sociocultural were identified as socio-history, socio-medicine, socio-linguistic, and socio-health resources. Both CAs and KAs, however, have low levels of knowledge and significant misunderstandings about HBV infection. Conclusions The study identifies and compares the social-cultural determinant for HBV and liver cancer and highlights the factors of education, intercultural communication, and interactions within socio-cultural contexts of CA and KA subgroups. In general, conceptual overlaps are apparent between Khmers (from now on, the terms, CA and Khmer, will be used interchangeably) and Koreans except for the sub-theme of socio-history. However, differences in concept-specific attributes point to the need to account for differing conceptualizations and implications of specific ethnic groups’ sociocultural contexts, and to design contextually-relevant outreach and educational interventions for targeted AAPI subgroups. PMID:24355416

  3. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p < 0.05). Specifically, psychological HRQoL was associated with regular exercise, stress management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  4. Evaluation of an mHealth intervention aiming to improve health-related behavior and sleep and reduce fatigue among airline pilots.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile Rl; Hlobil, Hynek; Twisk, Jos Wr; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an mHealth intervention (intervention using mobile technology) consisting of tailored advice regarding exposure to daylight, sleep, physical activity, and nutrition, and aiming to improve health-related behavior, thereby reducing sleep problems and fatigue and improving health perception of airline pilots. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 502 airline pilots. The intervention group was given access to both the MORE Energy mobile application (app) with tailored advice and a website with background information. The control group was directed to a website with standard information about fatigue. Health-related behavior, fatigue, sleep, and health perception outcomes were measured through online questionnaires at baseline and at three and six months after baseline. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined using linear and Poisson mixed model analyses. After six months, compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant improvement on fatigue (β= -3.76, P<0.001), sleep quality (β= -0.59, P=0.007), strenuous physical activity (β=0.17, P=0.028), and snacking behavior (β= -0.81, P<0.001). No significant effects were found for other outcome measures. The MORE Energy mHealth intervention reduced self-reported fatigue compared to a minimal intervention. Some aspects of health-related behavior (physical activity and snacking behavior) and sleep (sleep quality) improved as well, but most did not. The results show offering tailored advice through an mHealth intervention is an effective means to support employees who have to cope with irregular flight schedules and circadian disruption. This kind of intervention might therefore also be beneficial for other working populations with irregular working hours.

  5. Beliefs about health and illness and health-related behavior among urban women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the south east of China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; Albin, Björn; Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina; Rask, Mikael

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes among Chinese women is 4.3%. No study has previously been conducted about beliefs and health-related behavior among urban Chinese women with this disease. This article aims to explore beliefs about health and illness and health-related behavior among women in this group in a Chinese sociocultural context. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted and semistructured individual interviews (n = 15) were processed by content analysis. Beliefs about health and illness among these women were foremost attributed to the individual, social, and natural worlds. They feared the negative influence of gestational diabetes, but some of them believed in "letting nature take its course" and "living in the present." Their care-seeking behavior varied between the professional, popular, and folk sectors. They sought a balance between following professionals' advice and avoiding practical difficulties. The beliefs and health-related behavior among them were influenced by Chinese culture, which can sometimes but not always reduce the effect of the disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Symptom reporting in cancer patients II: relations to social desirability, negative affect, and self-reported health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Koller, M; Heitmann, K; Kussmann, J; Lorenz, W

    1999-10-15

    Patients' appraisal of somatic symptoms is correlated with their negative affect. The authors have investigated whether social desirability is associated with patients' symptom and health behavior reporting. One hundred fourteen surgical cancer patients who participated in either an outpatient or an inpatient follow-up care program filled out the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, the New Social Desirability Scale, and a health behavior checklist. Patients' reports of somatic symptoms were correlated inversely with social desirability (r = -0.50) and positively with negative affect (r = 0.72). When objective health and demographic variables (e.g., prognosis, adjuvant therapy prior to follow-up, and gender) were entered first in hierarchical multiple regression analyses, social desirability and negative affect accounted for an additional 16% and 36% of the symptom variance, respectively. Similar results were found when global quality of life was the dependent variable. Self-reported health behaviors were explained only through the set of health and demographic variables (14%), and social desirability and negative affect did not account for additional variance. On the average, patients reported that they had a median of 4.7 (out of a list of 21) self-initiated health behaviors, and 11% of the patients admitted to having used unproven therapies. Symptom reports do not give a pure picture of patients' health status, but they are strongly correlated with social desirability and negative affect. Detection of such psychologic variables is essential to understanding the dynamics of quality of life. In applied settings, quality-of-life measures should be used together with conventional criteria. As practical experience and scientific understanding grow, the relative positioning of these patient-oriented versus clinic-oriented endpoints will become clear. Copyright 1999 American Cancer Society.

  7. HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bisol, Cláudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was simultaneous video translation of questions to Brazilian Sign Language.) A branched decision-tree structure was used to determine level of sexual experience and hearing status. Deaf participants scored lower on HIV/AIDS knowledge, demonstrating a need to improve school-based instruction and develop campaigns tailored to this group's requirements. Though the hearing students reported more sexual activity than the deaf students, no other significant differences were found in health-related attitudes and behaviors. Two findings of concern are the high rate of sexual abuse reported by deaf participants and the large number of deaf adolescents reporting having a friend with AIDS.

  8. Factors related to adopting healthy behaviors by patients with tuberculosis in Isfahan: Application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Maryam; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Alahverdipoor, Hamid; Hasanzade, Akbar; Farid, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex. It is one of the most common infectious diseases largely resulting from the patient's lifestyle. The purpose of the present study is to investigate factors related with adopting health behaviors by patients with tuberculosis based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 196 patients with tuberculosis. Data was collected using a 47-item, self-designed, questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 73.9. The Pearson test was used to study the correlation between independent variables and adopting a healthy behavior. Results: The mean score for adopting healthy behaviors by patients was 87.52 ± 13.8. The Pearson correlation test indicated a statistically significant relation between adopting healthy behaviors and scores of knowledge (P < 0.001, r = 0.536), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), perceived benefits (P < 0.001, r = 0.347), and perceived barriers (P = 0.046, r = 0.143). Conclusion: Direct relationship was found between adoptinga healthy behavior and scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and perceived benefit. Although the results of this study can be the basis of educational interventions, any generalizations should be performed cautiously. PMID:25250352

  9. The Relations among Maternal Health Status, Parenting Stress, and Child Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Families

    PubMed Central

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556

  10. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2-and 4-Year College Students and Associated Risk of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2-and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health…

  11. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2-and 4-Year College Students and Associated Risk of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2-and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health…

  12. [The patterns of the health care seeking behavior and related factors in the schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Yang, D

    1992-08-01

    Three hundreds schizophrenic out-patients, from 6 different socioculture background psychiatric facilities in Hunan were investigated by structured interview with definite schedule. The results show that after the recognition of the problem by decision maker, 45% subjects were delayed at least one month for help-seeking, 61.3% subjects first visited the non-psychiatric agencies, and 74.3% subjects has counselled with non-psychiatric doctors or healers at least one time, especially to the healer providing superstitious or religious therapy. The help-seeking styles mainly attributes to the lower socioeconomic status of the family, inconvenient referral to the psychiatric facilities, especially if the decision maker is a female, rural resided under-educated person knowing nothing of modern psychiatry. Based on these findings, the authors urge to improve scientific psychiatric care knowledge in population, develop the resource of mental health service to facilitate the radical change of help seeking behavior of the population.

  13. Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Shemilt, Ian; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P.T.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Uncertainty remains about whether personal financial incentives could achieve sustained changes in health-related behaviors that would reduce the fast-growing global non-communicable disease burden. This review aims to estimate whether: i. financial incentives achieve sustained changes in smoking, eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity; ii. effectiveness is modified by (a) the target behavior, (b) incentive value and attainment certainty, (c) recipients' deprivation level. Methods Multiple sources were searched for trials offering adults financial incentives and assessing outcomes relating to pre-specified behaviors at a minimum of six months from baseline. Analyses included random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions grouped by timed endpoints. Results Of 24,265 unique identified articles, 34 were included in the analysis. Financial incentives increased behavior-change, with effects sustained until 18 months from baseline (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23) and three months post-incentive removal (OR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.21–3.67). High deprivation increased incentive effects (OR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.22–3.85), but only at > 6–12 months from baseline. Other assessed variables did not independently modify effects at any time-point. Conclusions Personal financial incentives can change habitual health-related behaviors and help reduce health inequalities. However, their role in reducing disease burden is potentially limited given current evidence that effects dissipate beyond three months post-incentive removal. PMID:25843244

  14. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  15. Associations between Mental Health and Ebola-Related Health Behaviors: A Regionally Representative Cross-sectional Survey in Post-conflict Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Brennan, Robert T; Vinck, Patrick; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Spencer-Walters, Dayo; Jeong, Joshua; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Pham, Phuong

    2016-08-01

    Little attention has been paid to potential relationships between mental health, trauma, and personal exposures to Ebola virus disease (EVD) and health behaviors in post-conflict West Africa. We tested a conceptual model linking mental health and trauma to EVD risk behaviors and EVD prevention behaviors. Using survey data from a representative sample in the Western Urban and Western Rural districts of Sierra Leone, this study examines associations between war exposures, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, anxiety, and personal EVD exposure (e.g., having family members or friends diagnosed with EVD) and EVD-related health behaviors among 1,008 adults (98% response rate) from 63 census enumeration areas of the Western Rural and Western Urban districts randomly sampled at the height of the EVD epidemic (January-April 2015). Primary outcomes were EVD risk behaviors (14 items, Cronbach's α = 0.84) and EVD prevention behaviors (16 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88). Main predictors comprised war exposures (8 items, Cronbach's α = 0.85), anxiety (10 items, Cronbach's α = 0.93), depression (15 items, Cronbach's α = 0.91), and PTSD symptoms (16 items, Cronbach's α = 0.93). Data were analyzed using two-level, population-weighted hierarchical linear models with 20 multiply imputed datasets. EVD risk behaviors were associated with intensity of depression symptoms (b = 0.05; 95% CI 0.00, 0.10; p = 0.037), PTSD symptoms (b = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03, 0.17; p = 0.008), having a friend diagnosed with EVD (b = -0.04; 95% CI -0.08, -0.00; p = 0.036), and war exposures (b = -0.09; 95% CI -0.17, -0.02; p = 0.013). EVD prevention behaviors were associated with higher anxiety (b = 0.23; 95% CI 0.06, 0.40; p = 0.008), having a friend diagnosed with EVD (b = 0.15; 95% CI 0.04, 0.27; p = 0.011), and higher levels of war exposure (b = 0.45; 95% CI 0.16, 0.74; p = 0.003), independent of mental health. PTSD symptoms were associated with lower levels of EVD prevention behavior

  16. Associations between Mental Health and Ebola-Related Health Behaviors: A Regionally Representative Cross-sectional Survey in Post-conflict Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Vinck, Patrick; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Spencer-Walters, Dayo; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Pham, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to potential relationships between mental health, trauma, and personal exposures to Ebola virus disease (EVD) and health behaviors in post-conflict West Africa. We tested a conceptual model linking mental health and trauma to EVD risk behaviors and EVD prevention behaviors. Methods and Findings Using survey data from a representative sample in the Western Urban and Western Rural districts of Sierra Leone, this study examines associations between war exposures, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, anxiety, and personal EVD exposure (e.g., having family members or friends diagnosed with EVD) and EVD-related health behaviors among 1,008 adults (98% response rate) from 63 census enumeration areas of the Western Rural and Western Urban districts randomly sampled at the height of the EVD epidemic (January–April 2015). Primary outcomes were EVD risk behaviors (14 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.84) and EVD prevention behaviors (16 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.88). Main predictors comprised war exposures (8 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.85), anxiety (10 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.93), depression (15 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.91), and PTSD symptoms (16 items, Cronbach’s α = 0.93). Data were analyzed using two-level, population-weighted hierarchical linear models with 20 multiply imputed datasets. EVD risk behaviors were associated with intensity of depression symptoms (b = 0.05; 95% CI 0.00, 0.10; p = 0.037), PTSD symptoms (b = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03, 0.17; p = 0.008), having a friend diagnosed with EVD (b = −0.04; 95% CI −0.08, −0.00; p = 0.036), and war exposures (b = −0.09; 95% CI −0.17, −0.02; p = 0.013). EVD prevention behaviors were associated with higher anxiety (b = 0.23; 95% CI 0.06, 0.40; p = 0.008), having a friend diagnosed with EVD (b = 0.15; 95% CI 0.04, 0.27; p = 0.011), and higher levels of war exposure (b = 0.45; 95% CI 0.16, 0.74; p = 0.003), independent of mental health. PTSD symptoms

  17. Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Scully, Maree L; Morley, Belinda C

    2013-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear.

  18. Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Results Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Conclusions Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear. PMID:24088327

  19. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exploring associations between parenting behavior and children’s health related behavior including physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet and sleep. Methods We recruited 288 parents and their children (6-12y old). Children’s weight and height were measured. Fat percentage was determined by air displacement plethysmography. Parents reported socio-demographic data, sleep information, physical activity and sedentary behavior of their child and completed the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire (CGPQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Children completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Associations between parenting behavior (CGPQ) and children’s health related behavior were assessed with univariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A small positive correlation was found between sweet food consumption frequency and “coercive control” (r = 0.139) and a small negative correlation between fruit and vegetables consumption frequency and “overprotection” (r = −0.151). Children consumed more frequently soft drinks when their parents scored lower on “structure” (r = −0.124) and higher on “overprotection” (r = 0.123); for the light soft drinks separately, a small positive correlation with “behavioral control” was found (r = 0.172). A small negative correlation was found between “emotional eating” and “structure” (r = −0.172) as well as “behavioral control” (r = −0.166). “Coercive control” was negatively correlated with the child’s sleep duration (r = −0.171). After correction for confounding factors, the following significant associations were found: (1) a small negative association between “structure” and soft drinks consumption (β = −0.17 for all soft drinks and −0.22 for light soft drinks), (2) a small positive association between “behavioral control” and light soft drinks (β = 0.34), (3) a small positive association of

  20. Influence of Cancer Worry on Four Cancer Related Health Protective Behaviors among a Nationally Representative Sample: Implications for Health Promotion Efforts.

    PubMed

    Amuta, Ann O; Mkuu, Rahma S; Jacobs, Wura; Ejembi, Agbenu Z

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess what sociodemographic characteristics are associated with cancer worry and what the influence of cancer worry is on four cancer-related protective health behaviors. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (4th cycle of the 4th iteration) were used. Multiple regression models were used for all analyses. Behaviors analyzed were as follows: physical activity, diets, smoking, and routine medical screening. Demographics controls included participant age, income, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and education. N = 2630, Older participants (OR = .99, p < .001), participants with higher BMI (OR = 1.01, p = .017), females (OR = 1.39, p < .001), and highly educated participants were more likely to worry about cancer. Cancer worry was not a significant predictor of exercise, healthy eating, or cancer screening behaviors. However, participants who worried about cancer were more likely to be current smokers (RRR = 1.20, p < .001) compared to participants who never smoked. Although, worry is only an emotional influence on health behavior and may be short-lived, the influence of worry on health-related decision making is likely to be lasting even when the emotions are no longer present.

  1. The influence of weather on health-related help-seeking behavior of senior citizens in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiu, Marcus Yu Lung; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Lee, Tsz Cheung

    2015-03-01

    It is believed that extreme hot and cold weather has a negative impact on general health conditions. Much research focuses on mortality, but there is relatively little community health research. This study is aimed at identifying high-risk groups who are sensitive to extreme weather conditions, in particular, very hot and cold days, through an analysis of the health-related help-seeking patterns of over 60,000 Personal Emergency Link (PE-link) users in Hong Kong relative to weather conditions. In the study, 1,659,716 PE-link calls to the help center were analyzed. Results showed that females, older elderly, people who did not live alone, non-subsidized (relatively high-income) users, and those without medical histories of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes were more sensitive to extreme weather condition. The results suggest that using official government weather forecast reports to predict health-related help-seeking behavior is feasible. An evidence-based strategic plan could be formulated by using a method similar to that used in this study to identify high-risk groups. Preventive measures could be established for protecting the target groups when extreme weather conditions are forecasted.

  2. The influence of weather on health-related help-seeking behavior of senior citizens in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiu, Marcus Yu Lung; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Lee, Tsz Cheung

    2015-03-01

    It is believed that extreme hot and cold weather has a negative impact on general health conditions. Much research focuses on mortality, but there is relatively little community health research. This study is aimed at identifying high-risk groups who are sensitive to extreme weather conditions, in particular, very hot and cold days, through an analysis of the health-related help-seeking patterns of over 60,000 Personal Emergency Link (PE-link) users in Hong Kong relative to weather conditions. In the study, 1,659,716 PE-link calls to the help center were analyzed. Results showed that females, older elderly, people who did not live alone, non-subsidized (relatively high-income) users, and those without medical histories of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes were more sensitive to extreme weather condition. The results suggest that using official government weather forecast reports to predict health-related help-seeking behavior is feasible. An evidence-based strategic plan could be formulated by using a method similar to that used in this study to identify high-risk groups. Preventive measures could be established for protecting the target groups when extreme weather conditions are forecasted.

  3. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. ANCOVA showed that after adjusting for effects of pretest scores, the difference between mean scores on the scale of lifestyle related to

  4. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. Objectives This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Methods The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results ANCOVA showed that after adjusting for effects of pretest scores, the difference between mean

  5. Behavior and Behaviorism in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainbrook, Gene; Green, Lawrence W.

    1982-01-01

    The issue of the degree to which behavioral objectives and behavior change should be emphasized in health education is discussed. Topics included in the discussion concern the health educator's responsibilities and accountability, needs for behavioral sciences in health education, the behaviorism controversy, and dissemination of behavioral…

  6. [Behavioral types in relation to burnout, mobbing, personality, and adaptation of self-conduct in health care workers].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Fernández, Julián Manuel; Padilla Segura, Inés; Domínguez Fernández, Javier; Domínguez Padilla, María

    2013-04-01

    To define the different patterns of behavior among workers in health care in Ceuta. Cross-sectional and descriptive. SITES AND PARTICIPANTS: 200 randomly selected workers in the Ceuta Health Care Area using a stratified sampling of workplace, job and sex. The instruments used were the MBI, the LIPT by Leymann, a reduced version of the Pinillos CEP, Musitu self concept and adaptation behavior, all adapted in the context of occupational health examinations. Principal components analysis allowed us to define 5 components, one strictly related to the scale of mobbing with 85% of weight; another for burnout with 70% weight; a third to adaptation and family satisfaction with a weight of 64%; a fourth with adaptation, control, emotional self, professional achievement and occupational self-weight of 52%; and a fifth component defined by social evaluations in the levels of extraversion and social adjustment with 73%. Highlights five different behavioral characteristics peculiar interest for clinical work are highlighted: burnout, mobbing, family work satisfaction; individual occupational and sociable satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Denney, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been well demonstrated empirically but encompass diverse underlying causal mechanisms. These mechanisms have special theoretical importance because disparities in health behaviors, unlike disparities in many other components of health, involve something more than the ability to use income to purchase good health. Based on a review of broad literatures in sociology, economics, and public health, we classify explanations of higher smoking, lower exercise, poorer diet, and excess weight among low-SES persons into nine broad groups that specify related but conceptually distinct mechanisms. The lack of clear support for any one explanation suggests that the literature on SES disparities in health and health behaviors can do more to design studies that better test for the importance of the varied mechanisms. PMID:21909182

  8. Health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamaga, Keiko; Hirano, Takako; Onoue, Kazue; Uehara, Akihiko

    2017-01-28

    ObjectivesSleep disturbances are related to somatic and mental disorders, industrial accidents, absenteeism, and retirement because of disability. We aimed to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers.MethodsThis cross-sectional study included 5,297 employees (mean age: 43.6 ± 11.3 years; 4,039 men). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency.ResultsOverall, 28.2% of participants experienced subjective sleep insufficiency. There was a significant difference between the genders in the proportion of participants with subjective sleep insufficiency (male: 26.4%; female: 34.3%; p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female or ≥40 years, experiencing a weight change of ≥3 kg during the preceding year, not exercising regularly, not walking quickly, and eating a late-evening or fourth meal were associated with subjective sleep insufficiency. After stratifying by gender, age ≥40 years, not exercising regularly, and eating a late-evening or fourth meal were significantly associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in both genders. Not walking quickly, experiencing a weight change, and eating quickly were positively associated with subjective sleep insufficiency only for males. Females who did not engage in physical activity were more likely to have experienced subjective sleep insufficiency, but this relationship was not observed in males.ConclusionsThe results indicated that certain health-related behaviors, specifically not exercising regularly and nocturnal eating habits, were associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in a group of Japanese workers.

  9. The association of self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Jung, Ju Youn; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Young Woo; Oh, Jae Hwan; Ro, Jung Sil; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Sang Jae; Cho, Kwan Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Bae, Yeon Min; Kim, Si Young; Jung, Kyung Hae; Zo, Zae Ill; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Soon Nam

    2014-12-01

    We tried to evaluate the association of self-leadership, effective health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We recruited survivors of cancer from seven hospitals in Korea between 2011 and 2012. The patients completed the Seven Habits Profile (7HP) to evaluate leadership competency, the 10 rules for highly effective health behavior to evaluate health behavior, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to evaluate posttraumatic growth, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) to evaluate HRQOL, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate anxiety and depression. We performed multiple logistic regressions to identify significant associations. A total of 668 patients with cancer participated in the study. Patients who scored high on the leadership subscales of Be Proactive, Begin with the End in Mind, Put First Things First, Think Win-Win, Synergize, and Sharpen the Saw in 7HP tried to practice and keep their health behaviors more. The Begin with the End in Mind, Put First Things First, Synergize, and Sharpen the Saw subscales of the 7HP were also significantly correlated with subscales on the PTGI. Patients who scored high on the leadership subscales of Life Balance, Be Proactive, Begin with the End in Mind, Think Win-Win, and Sharpen the Saw had higher physical and mental component scale scores on the SF-36 and lower anxiety and depression subscale scores on the HADS. Self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth are associated with QOL in survivors of cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Impairment of Executive Cognitive Control in Type 2 Diabetes, and its Effects on Health-Related Behavior and Use of Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dinh; Baxter, Judith; Hamman, Richard F.; Grigsby, Jim

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether, among persons with type 2 diabetes: 1) impaired executive cognitive functioning (ECF) is more common than among people without diabetes; 2) ECF is associated with the capacity to engage in instrumental health-related behaviors; and 3) worse ECF is associated with increased health services utilization. A population-based sample of 1,063 older people was interviewed regarding medical history and health services utilization; participants were administered the Mini Mental State Exam and the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale, a measure of ECF. Participants with diabetes performed more poorly on cognitive measures than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, lower ECF was associated with more outpatient care and with ever having been in a nursing home. Impaired behavioral self-regulation may affect the capacity to engage in behaviors that could improve clinical status, resulting in greater health services use. The findings suggest the possibility of a positive feedback loop, with ECF deficits adversely affecting adherence, in turn leading to greater cognitive impairment—an issue for future research. PMID:23430355

  11. Health Behaviors of Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royak-Schaler, Renee; Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the health behaviors practiced by psychotherapists (N=86) themselves and the extent to which they focus on these behaviors with their clients. Results indicated that psychotherapists actively evaluate and make recommendations to their clients in the areas of diet, physical exercise, and relaxation practice. (JAC)

  12. Impact of cognitive behavior therapy on health-related quality of life among adult hypnotic users with chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Simon; Morgan, Kevin; Mathers, Nigel; Thompson, Joanne; Tomeny, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Results were combined from representative surveys of health related quality of life (HRQoL; n=11,877; age range=16-104) with data from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia (n=209; age range=31-92). Secondary analyses of scores from the SF-36 measure of HRQoL were conducted in order: (a) to compare the health related quality of life profiles of adult hypnotic users with chronic insomnia with those of population norms, and (b) to assess the impact of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia on HRQoL outcomes over 6 months. Compared with the primary care reference values, HRQoL among the trial participants at baseline was generally poorer. The magnitude of these decrements reduced markedly with advancing age. In the evaluation of the CBT intervention, statistically significant differences in SF-36 scores in favor of the intervention were present for physical functioning, emotional role limitation, and mental health over 6 months. Overall, this study shows that the SF-36 can play an important role in describing HRQoL in this patient group, and in the evaluation of interventions within this group.

  13. Intake and blood concentrations of folate and their association with health-related behaviors in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Jang, Han-Byul; Han, Young-Hee; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Heon; Hyun, Taisun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess folate intake, and serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations, and investigate the association between folate status and health-related behaviors among Korean college students. A total of 169 students, aged between 18 and 27 years, participated in this study. Dietary intake data were collected by trained interviewers using a 24-hour recall method for three non-consecutive days in 2009. Information on health-related behaviors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum and RBC folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The average intakes of folate were 456 µgDFE and 347 µgDFE in male and female students, respectively. While the average serum folate concentration was significantly lower in male students (8.9 ng/mL) compared to female students (12.5 ng/mL), RBC concentrations were not significantly different between male (398.6 ng/mL) and female students (405.3 ng/mL). In male students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with total folate intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement, non-use of folic acid supplements, smoking, alcohol drinking at least once a week and low physical activity. In female students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with smoking and alcohol drinking at least two drinks at a time and BMI ≥ 25. Alcohol drinking and low physical activity were also associated with low RBC folate concentrations in both male and female students. In order to improve folate nutritional status of college students, the practice of desirable health-related behaviors, such as non-smoking, moderate alcohol drinking, regular physical activity, and maintenance of healthy BMI should be encouraged along with consumption of folate-rich foods and supplements.

  14. Intake and blood concentrations of folate and their association with health-related behaviors in Korean college students

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han-Byul; Han, Young-Hee; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess folate intake, and serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations, and investigate the association between folate status and health-related behaviors among Korean college students. A total of 169 students, aged between 18 and 27 years, participated in this study. Dietary intake data were collected by trained interviewers using a 24-hour recall method for three non-consecutive days in 2009. Information on health-related behaviors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum and RBC folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The average intakes of folate were 456 µgDFE and 347 µgDFE in male and female students, respectively. While the average serum folate concentration was significantly lower in male students (8.9 ng/mL) compared to female students (12.5 ng/mL), RBC concentrations were not significantly different between male (398.6 ng/mL) and female students (405.3 ng/mL). In male students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with total folate intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement, non-use of folic acid supplements, smoking, alcohol drinking at least once a week and low physical activity. In female students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with smoking and alcohol drinking at least two drinks at a time and BMI ≥ 25. Alcohol drinking and low physical activity were also associated with low RBC folate concentrations in both male and female students. In order to improve folate nutritional status of college students, the practice of desirable health-related behaviors, such as non-smoking, moderate alcohol drinking, regular physical activity, and maintenance of healthy BMI should be encouraged along with consumption of folate-rich foods and supplements. PMID:23766883

  15. Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers

  16. Health behaviors of Operating Engineers.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sonia A; Missel, Amanda L; Waltje, Andrea H; Ronis, David L; Fowler, Karen E; Hong, OiSaeng

    2011-07-01

    Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators in construction) may be at particular risk for heart disease and cancer related to their exposure to environmental dust and smoking, the sedentary nature of their job, and long hours of exposure to the sun. The aim of this study was to characterize the health behaviors of Operating Engineers. This cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of Operating Engineers (N = 498) used validated instruments to measure smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, sleep, and sun exposure. Univariate and bivariate analyses to detect differences by age were conducted. The sample scored significantly worse on all five health behaviors compared to population norms. Those who were older were less likely to smoke and chew tobacco and more likely to eat fruits and vegetables. Many were interested in services to improve their health behaviors. Health behavior interventions are needed and wanted by Operating Engineers. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Health-related quality of life and health behaviors in a population-based sample of older, foreign-born, Chinese American adults living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Laura C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S; Kwon, Simona C

    2014-10-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged ≥ 65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged ≥ 65 years and foreign-born. Four health-related quality of life and three behavioral risk factor outcome variables were examined. Descriptive statistics were conducted by gender, and logistic regression models assessed sociodemographic and health factors associated with each outcome. Few women were current smokers (1.3% vs. 14.8% of men), 19% of respondents ate fruits and vegetables more than or equal to five times daily, and one-third of individuals received sufficient weekly physical activity. Days of poor health were similar to the national population aged ≥ 65 years, while self-reported fair or poor health was much greater among our Chinese sample; over 60% of respondents rated their health as fair or poor. Lower education and lower obesity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking among men, and older age was significantly associated with insufficient physical activity overall. Female gender was significantly associated with all poor health days; older age was significantly associated with poor days of physical health, and lower income was significantly associated with poor days of physical health and fair or poor self-reported health. This study provides important health-related information on a rapidly growing older population and highlights future research areas to inform culturally appropriate health promotion and disease prevention strategies and policies within community-based settings.

  18. The psychological characteristics and health related behavior of adolescents: the possible of social physique anxiety and gender.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Emine; Bilgili, Naile; Karaca, Ayda; Ayaz, Sultan; Aşçi, F Hülya

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the social physique anxiety level and gender have an influence on psychological characteristics and health related behavior of adolescents. Five hundred and ninety eight female (M(age) = 14.95, SD = .70 years) and three hundred and eighty four male (M(age) = 15.08, SD = .76 years) adolescents voluntarily participated in this study. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), three subscales of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale as indicators of psychological characteristics were administered to all participants. The Eating Attitude Test and Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire were used to determine health related behavior. It was found that adolescents with high levels of SPA (HSPA) had more unfavourable eating attitudes, higher scores in socially-prescribed perfectionism, negative global physical self-worth and negative body related perceptions than those with low levels of SPA (LSPA). Physical activity levels of adolescents did not differ in the two SPA groups (high/low level). In addition, male adolescents in the present study were more physically active and had favorable eating attitudes and more positive self-perceptions of body fat and general physical self-worth than their female counterparts.

  19. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of

  20. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  1. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD); as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25–34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society. PMID:26230389

  2. [Knowledge, perceptions, and behavior related to salt consumption, health, and nutritional labeling in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Germana; Peña, Lorena; Varea, Soledad; Mogrovejo, Patricia; Goetschel, María Lorena; Montero-Campos, María de los Ángeles; Mejía, Raúl; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    To identify the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior related to the consumption of salt and sodium in food and its relationship to health and the nutritional labeling of food in three countries of the Region. Qualitative-exploratory study based on semi-structured interviews, according to the categories of the Health Belief Model. Thirty-four interviews and six focus groups were conducted with community leaders (71 total respondents) in rural and urban areas of Argentina, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. Salt consumption varies in the rural and urban areas of the three countries. Most interviewees felt that food could not be consumed unsalted and that only people who consume an excessive amount of salt would have health risks. They did not know that processed food contains salt and sodium. Although they did not measure the amount of aggregate salt in foods, the participants believed that they consumed little salt and did not perceive that their health was at risk. The majority of the participants did not review nutritional information, and those who did said that they did not understand it. There is public awareness about salt, but not about the term "sodium." More salt and sodium are consumed than what is reported and there are no prospects of reducing that consumption. Although it is understood that excessive consumption of salt is a health risk, participants do not perceive that they are at risk. Replacing the word "sodium" with the word "salt" would facilitate food selection.

  3. Chronotype Differences in Health Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Population-Based Study Among Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sooyeon; Yang, Hae-Chung; Kim, Nanhee; Yu, Ji Hee; Choi, Sungwon; Yun, Chang-Ho; Shin, Chol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates health behaviors, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep among chronotypes in a community-based sample (n = 2,976). Analysis of covariance indicated evening types (E-types) had a significantly higher percentage of current smokers and more sleep-interfering behaviors compared to intermediate and morning types (M-type), and also lower physical activity and more sleep disturbance compared to M-types. E-types also had worse mental HRQOL compared to both chronotypes, and worse physical HRQOL compared to M-types. Exploratory analyses indicated E-types consumed more caffeinated beverages at night, smoked or ate heavy meals before bedtime, kept irregular sleep-wake schedules, and took more naps. Mediational analyses indicated that sleep-interfering behavior partially mediated the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and physical activity partially mediated the relationship between chronotype and mental HRQOL. E-types had more unhealthy behaviors, which may subsequently place them at higher risk for health problems.

  4. Health-related variables and academic performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors.

    PubMed

    Trockel, M T; Barnes, M D; Egget, D L

    2000-11-01

    The authors analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on grade point averages of a random sample of 200 students living in on-campus residence halls at a large private university. The set of variables included exercise, eating, and sleep habits; mood states; perceived stress; time management; social support; spiritual or religious habits; number of hours worked per week; gender; and age. Of all the variables considered, sleep habits, particularly wake-up times, accounted for the largest amount of variance in grade point averages. Later wake-up times were associated with lower average grades. Variables associated with the 1st-year students' higher grade point averages were strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. The number of paid or volunteer hours worked per week was associated with lower average grades.

  5. Health-related behavior as a mechanism behind the relationship between neighborhood social capital and individual health--a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohnen, Sigrid M; Völker, Beate; Flap, Henk; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2012-02-10

    Although various studies have found a positive association between neighborhood social capital and individual health, the mechanism explaining this direct effect is still unclear. Neighborhood social capital is the access to resources that are generated by relationships between people in a friendly, well-connected and tightly knit neighborhood community. We expect that the resources generated by cohesive neighborhoods support and influence health -improving behaviors in daily life. We identify five different health-related behaviors that are likely to be affected by neighborhood social capital and test these behaviors separately as mediators. The data set pertaining to individual health was taken from the 'health interview' in the 'Second Dutch national survey of general practice' (DNSGP-2, 2002). We combine these individual-level data with data from the 'Dutch housing demand survey' (WBO, 1998 and WoON, 2002) and statistical register information (1995-1999). Per neighborhood 29 WBO respondents, on average, had answered questions regarding social capital in their neighborhood. These variables have been aggregated to the neighborhood level by an ecometric methodology. In the main analysis, in which we tested the mediation, multilevel (ordered) logistic regressions were used to analyze 9253 adults (from the DNSGP-2 data set) from 672 Dutch neighborhoods. In the Netherlands, on average, neighborhoods (4-digit postcodes) comprise 4,000 inhabitants at highly variable population densities. Individual- and neighborhood-level controls have been taken into account in the analyses. In neighborhoods with a high level of social capital, people are more physically active and more likely to be non-smokers. These behaviors have positive effects on their health. The direct effect of neighborhood social capital on health is significantly and strongly reduced by physical activity. This study does not support nutrition and sleep habits or moderate alcohol intake as possible

  6. Health-Related Lifestyle Behaviors among Male and Female Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; He, Fang; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Tu, Yimin; Wang, Tianying; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yumiao; Xia, Xiuping; Xu, Donghao; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Methods In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression. Results Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR) = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275–2.559) or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379–4.435); and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154–1.752), working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137–2.303). Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664–2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072–1.602, respectively). Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454–3.930) and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024–3.252). Conclusions There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure), working conditions (e.g. long hours) and abnormal mental

  7. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men's experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this…

  8. Challenges and opportunities for developing and implementing incentives to improve health-related behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eran; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-09-01

    There is growing interest in using patient-directed incentives to change health-related behaviors. Advocates of incentive programs have proposed an ambitious research agenda for moving patient incentive programs forward. The unique cognitive and psychological features of older adults, however, present a challenge to this agenda. In particular, age-related changes in emotional regulation, executive function, and cognitive capacities, and a preference for collaborative decision-making raise questions about the suitability of these programs, particularly the structure of current financial incentives, for older adults. Differences in decision-making in older adults need to be accounted for in the design and implementation of financial incentive programs. Financial incentive programs adjusted to characteristics of older adult populations may be more likely to improve the lives of older persons and the economic success of programs that serve them.

  9. Stress, mental health, and job performance among active duty military personnel: findings from the 2002 Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors Survey.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Thomas V; Kress, Amii M

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which high levels of occupational and family stress were associated with mental health problems and productivity loss among active duty military personnel. We analyzed data from the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, which provided extensive population-based information on 12,756 active duty personnel in all branches of the military worldwide. Military personnel reported higher levels of stress at work than in their family life. The personnel reporting the highest levels of occupational stress were those 25 or younger, those who were married with spouses not present, and women. Personnel with high levels of stress had significantly higher rates of mental health problems and productivity loss than those with less stress. We recommend that prevention and intervention efforts geared toward personnel reporting the highest levels of stress be given priority for resources in this population.

  10. Health-related behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents who study asboarders and day-students.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Emine Ela; Günay, Osman

    2016-06-23

    Boarders and day-students study together in regional boarding schools. This study was carried out to compare the health and nutritional status of boarders and day-students who study at regional boarding schools in Turkey. A total 634 boarders and 492 day-students in the 4th-8th years of nine boarding schools in Giresun Province of Turkey were included. A questionnaire including 49 questions about sociodemographic characteristics and health and nutritional status was completed by the students. Height and weight measurements of the students were also taken. The chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. The boarders evaluated their health status as worse than the day-students. The proportion of the students having three meals a day was higher among the boarders than the day-students. According to BMI values, 11% of the boarders were evaluated as underweight, 77% as normal, 9.5% as overweight, and 2.5% as obese. These proportions were respectively 15.5%, 67.3%, 12.8%. and 4.5% for the day-students. The boarders have more regular diets and the proportion of normal-weighed boarders was higher than that of the day-students. However, they perceived their health as worse than the day-tudents.

  11. Case-control study of disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographic characteristics in young adults with and without diet-related chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-08-01

    Young adults with diet-related chronic health conditions (DRCHCs; i.e., type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) face challenges complying with dietary restrictions required to effectively manage their health condition. These restrictions could put them at risk for disturbed eating. The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults with and without DRCHCs differed with regard to disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographics characteristics (i.e., body image attributes, mental disorders, intrapersonal characteristics and sociocultural environment [i.e., media and family]). Each DRCHC participant (cases=166) was matched to 4 healthy participants (controls=664) based on gender and BMI (±0.50 BMI units). Conditional logistic regression analyses indicate cases were twice as likely to have been diagnosed by a healthcare provider with an eating disorder (p=0.08, OR=1.99, CI(90) [1.03-3.83]). Cases were significantly more likely to use Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors to manage their weight, i.e., excessive exercise (p=0.04, OR=1.41, CI(95) [1.02-1.94]) and misuse medication (p=0.04, OR=1.14, CI(95) [1.00-1.29]) than controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly higher, and health status was significantly poorer in cases compared with controls. DRCHC participants were less likely to report feeling body image pressures from the media, placed a greater value on their health, used social diversion, and recalled a greater emphasis being placed on their mothers' weights and mealtimes being less structured than control participants. Findings indicate that nutrition and other healthcare professionals should incorporate screening DRCHC patients for disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in their standards of care.

  12. The links between health-related behaviors and life satisfaction in elderly individuals who prefer institutional living

    PubMed Central

    Inal, Serap; Subasi, Feryal; Ay, Serap M; Hayran, Osman

    2007-01-01

    Background Life satisfaction among residents of institutions is becoming an important issue in a rapidly aging population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the links between life satisfaction and health-related behaviors amongst functionally independent elderly people who prefer institutional living in İstanbul, Turkey. Methods The socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, leisure-time activities and fall histories of 133 residents of an institution in Istanbul were assessed by a structured questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. A validated life-satisfaction index questionnaire (LSI-A) was completed. Results The mean age of the study group was 73.9 ± 8.0 (range 60–90 years). Within the group, 22.6% had never married and 14.3% had university degrees. The majority (71.4%) were in the low income bracket. The overall mean LSI-A score was 20.3 ± 5.9. Participants who declared moderate/high income levels had a significantly higher mean LSI-A score than those in the low-income bracket (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis of the data suggested that leisure-time activities and participation in regular physical activities are significant predictors of LSI-A scores (R2: 0.112; p = 0.005 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion The findings imply that regular physical activity and leisure-time activities are significantly related to life satisfaction among residents in institutions. Participation in physical activity and leisure-time activity programs may help to improve the life satisfaction of elderly people living in institutions. PMID:17326842

  13. Oral Health Status Related to Social Behaviors among 6 - 11 Year Old Schoolchildren in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Ferizi, Lulëjeta; Dragidella, Fatmir; Staka, Gloria; Bimbashi, Venera; Mrasori, Shefqet

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index), for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05). The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman's rank. The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed. The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.

  14. The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: relative deprivation matters.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Ryan Charles; Restivo, Emily

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents. 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (N=15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Twelve outcomes were examined, ranging from weapon carrying to obesity. The primary independent variable was a self-reported measure of average number of hours slept on school nights. Participants who reported deprivations in sleep were at an increased risk of a number of negative outcomes. However, this varied considerably across different degrees of sleep deprivation. For each of the outcomes considered, those who slept less than 5h were more likely to report negative outcomes (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.72; p<.05 across all models) relative to sleeping 8 or more hours. However, less extreme forms of sleep deprivation were, in many instances, unrelated to the outcomes considered. Among U.S. high school students, deficits in sleep are significantly and substantively associated with a variety of negative outcomes, and this association is particularly pronounced for students achieving fewer than 5h of sleep at night. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental divorce: long-term effects on mental health, family relations and adult sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, F H; Njardvik, U; Olafsdóttir, G; Grétarsson, S J

    2000-06-01

    Specific long term effects of parental divorce were examined in a sample of 179 Icelanders, 20 to 30 years of age. The participants answered the Borromean Family Index, the Affect Balance Scale and a number of questions on sexual behavior and attitudes towards marriage and divorce. Results showed that compared to adults whose parents remained married, those of divorced parents reported more negative emotional experiences at the time of the study and had looser family ties. They also had greater number of short love affairs, had their first love affair at a younger age, had a greater number of sexual partners, and were younger at the time of their first sexual intercourse than adults whose parents remained married.

  16. Adolescents as health agents and consumers: results of a pilot study of the health and health-related behaviors of adolescents living in a high-poverty urban neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Robert; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Read, Nichole; Pittsley, Jerri; Hart, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Although there is a considerable literature on how adolescents make decisions which lead to risky behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use) and adversely affect the health and well-being of youth, little is known about the routine behaviors youth engage in which influence their health (e.g., having permanent teeth extracted, discontinuing antibiotics prematurely, delaying or going without treatment of subacute illnesses and minor injuries) and concomitantly the factors which influence these behaviors. In an effort to begin to fill this gap, we have undertaken a study of routine health behaviors and the factors which bear on them in adolescents from a high-poverty urban neighborhood. In this article, we present the results of the pilot phase of the study in which we documented the behavior of 10 adolescents from Camden, New Jersey, the fifth poorest city in the United States, and explored with them their perceptions of the decisions they made and the factors that gave rise to them. We found that participants had an insufficient understanding of their health problems and consequences of their health actions, problems in understanding and being understood by health care professionals, and reluctance to involve parents in routine health care decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to improving the health of vulnerable youth.

  17. Education, cognition, health knowledge, and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Naci; Altindag, Duha T

    2014-04-01

    Using data from NLSY97, we analyze the impact of education on health behavior. Controlling for health knowledge does not influence the impact of education on health behavior, supporting the productive efficiency hypothesis. Accounting for cognitive ability does not significantly alter the relationship between education and health behavior. Similarly, the impact of education on health behavior is the same between those with and without a learning disability, suggesting that cognition is not likely to be a significant factor in explaining the impact of education on health behavior.

  18. Association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with health related quality of life in healthy children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Cantarero, Alberto; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Torres-Costoso, Ana Isabel; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is a subjective, multidimensional and changing over time construct. When HRQoL is decreased, a child is less likely to be able to develop normally and mature into a healthy adult. Physical inactivity is a priority public health problem. Evidence suggests how even moderate levels of physical activity or high fitness levels are associated with benefits for the health in children and adolescents. The aims of this systematic review are to examine the evidence about the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with HRQoL, and estimate the effects of interventions that have tested the effectiveness of the increase of the physical activity, the improvement of the physical fitness or the avoidance of sedentary behaviors in HRQoL in healthy subjects aged under 18 years old. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and PEDro. Reference lists of relevant studies will be examined for links to potential related articles. The methodological quality of the observational included studies will be scored using a quality assessment checklist. For the intervention studies, the risk of bias will be estimated using The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Reviewers will determine whether a meta-analysis is possible when data have been extracted. If it is, subgroup analyses will be carried out by age and socioeconomic status, and by the different dimensions of the HRQoL. If is not possible, a descriptive analysis will be conducted. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this systematic review and meta-analysis will be the first that synthesizes the existing results about the relationship between physical activity

  19. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  20. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Health Related Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chan, June M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Kenfield, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many prostate cancer survivors experience compromised health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as a result of prostate cancer. We examined relationships between types and intensities of activity and sedentary behavior and prostate cancer-related HRQOL, overall, and by demographic, disease, and treatment characteristics. Methods Associations between post-diagnosis activity and sedentary behavior and HRQOL domains (urinary incontinence, urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual and vitality/hormonal) were prospectively examined in men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=1917) using generalized linear models. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher duration of total, non-vigorous, and walking activity was associated with higher vitality/hormonal functioning scores (p-trends,< 0.0001). Effects were small (d= 0.16–0.20), but approached clinical significance for men in the highest versus lowest activity categories. Survivors who walked ≥90 minutes/week at a normal pace, or faster, reported higher hormone/vitality scores (p=0.001) than men walking <90 minutes at an easy pace. Weight lifting was associated with increased urinary incontinence (p-trend,0.02). Total activity was associated with higher hormone/vitality functioning in men who were ≥5 years post-treatment, had more advanced disease (Gleason score ≥7), and had ≥1 comorbid condition. No relationships were observed between vigorous activity or sedentary behavior and HRQOL. Conclusions Increased duration of non-vigorous activity and walking post-diagnosis was positively associated with better hormone/vitality functioning. Specifically, engaging in ≥5 hours of non-vigorous activity or ≥3 hours of walking per week may be beneficial. Implications for Cancer Survivors Encouraging men to engage in non-vigorous activity and walking may be helpful for managing prostate cancer-related HRQOL. PMID:25876555

  1. Longitudinal associations of health-related behavior patterns in adolescence with change of weight status and self-rated health over a period of 6 years: results of the MoMo longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Schmocker, Eliane; Woll, Alexander

    2014-09-30

    Promoting a healthy lifestyle especially in adolescents is important because health-related behaviors adopted during adolescence most often track into adulthood. Longitudinal studies are necessary for identifying health-related risk groups of adolescents and defining target groups for health-promoting interventions. Multiple health behavior research may represent a useful approach towards a better understanding of the complexity of health-related behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association of health-related behavior patterns with change of weight status and self-rated health in adolescents in Germany. Within the framework of the longitudinal German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the Motorik-Modul (MoMo), four clusters of typical health-related behavior patterns of adolescents have been previously identified. Therefor the variables 'physical activity', 'media use' and 'healthy nutrition' were included. In the current study longitudinal change of objectively measured weight status (N = 556) and self-rated health (N = 953) in the four clusters was examined. Statistical analyses comprised T-tests for paired samples, McNemar tests, multinomial logistic regression analysis and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The prevalence of overweight increased in all four clusters. The health-related behavior pattern of low activity level with high media use and low diet quality had the strongest increase in prevalence of overweight, while the smallest and non-significant increase was found with the behavior pattern of a high physical activity level and average media use and diet quality. Only some significant relationships between health-related behaviour patterns and change in self-rated health were observed. High-risk patterns of health-related behavior were identified. Further, cumulative as well as compensatory effects of different health-related behaviors on each other were found. The

  2. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  3. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-07-27

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  4. THE USE OF PROTECTIVE BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES IS RELATED TO REDUCED RISK IN HEAVY DRINKING COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH POORER MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH*

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample of heavy drinking college students (N = 1,820). In this high risk sample, multiple regression analyses showed that stronger social health was related to increased drinking, while poorer physical, mental, and social health were related to increased alcohol negative consequences. Further, moderation effects revealed that increasing the use of protective behaviors was associated with significantly less drinking in those with stronger social health, as well as significantly lower numbers of negative consequences among participants with poorer physical and mental health. Implications for college counselors and medical personnel are discussed. PMID:21381463

  5. [Changes of both knowledge levels and health-related behaviors of preventing cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases in population after intervention].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Wang, Wenzhi; Wu, Shengping; Hong, Zhen

    2002-06-01

    Comprehensive intervention measures for preventing cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases of community population were carried out in Beijing, Shanghai and Changsha urban areas, and then was evaluated to its effects on knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) levels and health-related behaviors of population by quasi-trial designation. Results showed that the net KAB leveling were separately 9.89 in 1995, 4.74 in 1997 and 10.66 in 2000 in comparison with base investigation, and statistically significant difference was found. Of 6 health-related behaviors, caring to health knowledge, being influenced by health knowledge and exercising were significantly influenced, next controlling salt consumption. No change of smoking and alcohol drinking was found. Among different target population, these changes among women were higher than man as well as at home or retired than at work, and hypertension than normtension. As aging and education time decreasing, both absolute and relative effects of health education were better. It suggests that comprehensive intervention with health education as its main measure promote KAB levels and transfer health-related behaviors of population. It is great important to preventing cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases of community population.

  6. Does parental warmth and responsiveness moderate the associations between parenting practices and children's health-related behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ray, Carola; Kalland, Mirjam; Lehto, Reetta; Roos, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether a higher number of parenting practices, such as those concerning meals, bedtime, and limited screen time, is associated with children's health behaviors. In addition, to determine whether perceived parental warmth and responsiveness toward the child strengthens (moderates) the associations between parenting practices and health behaviors. Cross-sectional study. School-based survey in which children completed questionnaires at school, and parents at home. A total of 805 child-parent dyads were used in analyses. Intake of nutrient-dense and energy-rich foods, meal frequency per day, sleep duration, and screen time. Linear and logistic regression analyses. Moderation was tested by adding the interaction term of parenting practices and parental warmth/responsiveness to the models. When moderation occurred, stratified analyses were conducted. A higher number of parenting practices was associated with more favorable health behaviors. Stronger associations between parenting practices and nutrient-dense food intake and meal frequency were found when children perceived high parental warmth/responsiveness. Stronger associations between parenting practices and energy-rich food intake and screen time were found when children perceived low parental warmth/responsiveness. Parental warmth/responsiveness seems to strengthen the associations between parenting practices and favorable health behaviors. This knowledge could be used in family-focused obesity interventions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Suicide Ideation and Attempts and Being an Immigrant among Adolescents, and the Role of Socioeconomic Factors and School, Behavior, and Health-Related Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-01-01

    The risk of suicide behaviors in immigrant adolescents varies across countries and remains partly understood. We conducted a study in France to examine immigrant adolescents’ likelihood of experiencing suicide ideation in the last 12 months (SI) and lifetime suicide attempts (SA) compared with their native counterparts, and the contribution of socioeconomic factors and school, behavior, and health-related difficulties. Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including various risk factors, SI, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course (except SI). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models for SI and Cox regression models for SA (retaining only school, behavior, and health-related difficulties that started before SA). Immigrant adolescents had a two-time higher risk of SI and SA than their native counterparts. Using nested models, the excess SI risk was highly explained by socioeconomic factors (27%) and additional school, behavior, and health-related difficulties (24%) but remained significant. The excess SA risk was more highly explained by these issues (40% and 85%, respectively) and became non-significant. These findings demonstrate the risk patterns of SI and SA and the prominent confounding roles of socioeconomic factors and school, behavior, and health-related difficulties. They may be provided to policy makers, schools, carers, and various organizations interested in immigrant, adolescent, and suicide-behavior problems. PMID:27809296

  8. Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  9. Integrated Behavioral Health in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Wanjiku F M; Hostutler, Cody A; Schwartz, Billie S; Mautone, Jennifer A

    2016-12-01

    There are multiple barriers to accessing high quality, evidence-based behavioral health care for children and adolescents, including stigma, family beliefs, and the significant paucity of child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although equal access continues to be an unmet need in the USA, there is growing recognition that integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care have the potential to reduce health disparities and improve service utilization. In a joint position paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) highlighted the multiple benefits of children receiving initial behavioral health screening, assessment, and evidence-based behavioral health treatments in the medical home. The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of the literature related to integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care. Specifically, innovative models of integrated behavioral health care are discussed.

  10. Health Education and Behavioral Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prue, Donald M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A review of theoretical and experimental literature on school health education indicates that most programs have focused on health knowledge despite conflicting information on the impact of knowledge based programs on health behaviors. Needed are interventions that include environmental engineering to support health behaviors and use of…

  11. Relationship between Peer Status and Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relative influence of background characteristics (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, family type) and peer status on health-related behaviors (physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students. Peer popularity provided no significant increment in prediction of…

  12. The impact of environmental, parental and child factors on health-related behaviors among low-income children.

    PubMed

    Musaad, Salma M A; Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Mobley, Amy R; Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Jones, Blake L; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2017-05-01

    Multi-level factors act in concert to influence child weight-related behaviors. This study examined the simultaneous impact of variables obtained at the level of the home environment (e.g., mealtime ritualization), parent (e.g., modeling) and child (e.g., satiety responsiveness) with the outcomes of practicing healthy and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (PHCB and LUCB, respectively) in a low-income U.S.

  13. Acculturation and overweight-related behaviors among Hispanic immigrants to the US: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Ward, Dianne S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the factors underlying the striking increase in overweight occurring between first and second generation US immigrants. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addressed two goals. First, we determined which measures of acculturation (defined as the acquisition of dominant cultural norms by members of a non-dominant group) were important. Second, we determined how the acculturation process affected differences in overweight and its proximate determinants (e.g., physical activity, diet, and smoking) as immigrants acculturated to American society. In addition, we sought to elucidate the role of underlying structural factors (e.g., family income and crime) and acculturation factors (e.g., language spoken at home and proportion of foreign-born neighbors) in generation differences in overweight. Results showed clear structural and acculturation differences between foreign and US-born immigrants to the US. Foreign-born immigrants were more likely to have lower family income and maternal education, and to live in areas of higher immigrant density and greater linguistic isolation. In addition, results suggested rapid acculturation of overweight-related behaviors, such as diet, smoking, and inactivity, in US-born relative to foreign-born immigrants. Multivariate analysis indicated that longer US residence was associated with increased overweight among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. Predicted probabilities showed that controlling for acculturation and proximate factors increased overweight among foreign-born adolescents, but had minimal impact for US-born adolescents. Thus, without the beneficial pattern of: acculturation factors, diet, and physical activity, first generation Hispanic adolescents would have higher overweight prevalence. We found important generation differences in structural, acculturation, and proximate overweight determinants. These lifestyle differences between foreign- and US-born Hispanic

  14. Relationship between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior among 15-16-year-old adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu; Miettunen, Jouko; Hausen, Hannu

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the previously observed attitudinal factor structure related to behavioral change and the knowledge-attitude-behavior model on dental health and hygiene among adolescents. The study population consisted of all 8(th) and 9(th) graders (15-16 years) who started the 2004-2005 school year in Rauma, Finland (n = 827). Data on knowledge, attitudes, toothbrushing and using fluoride toothpaste were gathered by questionnaires. Hypothesized structure included four attitudinal factors related to dental health and hygiene: 'importance of toothbrushing when participating in social situations' (F1), 'importance of toothbrushing for health-related reasons and better appearance' (F2), 'being concerned about developing caries lesions' (F3) and 'importance of toothbrushing for feeling accepted' (F4). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized model: pathways lead from knowledge to behavior both directly and via attitudes. The hypothesized model was also modified by removing non-significant pathways and studying the inter-relationships between attitudes. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that factor F4 had to be removed. In the final model, knowledge influenced behavior directly and via two attitude factors, F1 and F2, which were inter-related. 'Concern about developing caries lesions' was a background factor influencing only knowledge. The final factor structure and SEM model were acceptable-to-good fit. Knowledge had a smaller effect on behavior than on attitudes. Our results support theories about the causal knowledge-attitudes-behavior chain, also for adolescents' oral health-related behaviors.

  15. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    PubMed

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  16. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kann, Laura; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; McManus, Tim; Harris, William A; Shanklin, Shari L; Flint, Katherine H; Queen, Barbara; Lowry, Richard; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Thornton, Jemekia; Lim, Connie; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Brener, Nancy; Zaza, Stephanie

    2016-08-12

    Sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts can both be used to identify sexual minority youth. Significant health disparities exist between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. However, not enough is known about health-related behaviors that contribute to negative health outcomes among sexual minority youth and how the prevalence of these health-related behaviors compare with the prevalence of health-related behaviors among nonsexual minorities. September 2014-December 2015. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-related behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health-related behaviors. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. For the 2015 YRBSS cycle, a question to ascertain sexual identity and a question to ascertain sex of sexual contacts was added for the first time to the national YRBS questionnaire and to the standard YRBS questionnaire used by the states and large urban school districts as a starting point for their YRBS questionnaires. This report summarizes results for 118 health-related behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma by sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts from the 2015 national survey, 25 state surveys, and 19 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Across the 18 violence-related risk behaviors nationwide, the prevalence of 16 was higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual

  18. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  19. Well-Being in Adolescence--An Association with Health-Related Behaviors: Findings from "Understanding Society," the UK Household Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Cara L.; Skew, Alexandra J.; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the demographic distribution of selected health-related behaviors and their relationship with different indicators of well-being. The data come from Wave 1 of the youth panel of "Understanding Society" household panel study. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measured…

  20. Well-Being in Adolescence--An Association with Health-Related Behaviors: Findings from "Understanding Society," the UK Household Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Cara L.; Skew, Alexandra J.; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the demographic distribution of selected health-related behaviors and their relationship with different indicators of well-being. The data come from Wave 1 of the youth panel of "Understanding Society" household panel study. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measured…

  1. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  2. Friends and social contexts as unshared environments: A discordant sibling analysis of obesity- and health-related behaviors in young adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective. This study uses a weight-discordant sibling design to examine the relationships between best friend’s body mass index z-score (zBMI) and siblings’ zBMI and obesity-related health behaviors (energy intake, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB], physical activity and sedentary time...

  3. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  4. Stress and Depression in Relation to Functional Health Behaviors in African American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Penfield, Megan; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C

    While increased psychological distress in SLE has been clinically and empirically reported, the relationship between emotional distress, treatment adherence, and disease activity are complex and even more unclear in African American lupus patients. In an effort to elucidate this phenomenon in these patients, this exploratory study aimed to investigate relationships between stress, depression, and various health behaviors in this group. Thirty patients invited to participate in this study were African American systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients attending rheumatology clinics at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). This study was part of a larger interventional pilot study, the Balancing Lupus Experiences with Stress Strategies (BLESS) study, that included a comprehensive battery of psychosocial, quality of life, and behavior change measures. When looking at the association between anxiety/stress and functionality, levels of reported stress had strong effects upon functionality, especially between health distress and functionality. When looking at the association between depressive symptoms and functionality, depressive symptoms had moderate effects upon social/role limitations and nights spent in the hospital. Not only did the larger pilot project demonstrate significant reductions in stress and depression as a result of workshop participation; this nested study also showed that those improvements were positively associated with improved health behaviors. These results could have implications for developing interventions to improve disease experience and quality of life in SLE patients with stress and depression.

  5. Food likes and their relative importance in human eating behavior: review and preliminary suggestions for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Eertmans, A; Baeyens, F; Van den Bergh, O

    2001-08-01

    The present article reviews research about the psychological determinants of human eating behavior. A hypothetical model of food choice and intake is introduced, presenting various factors influencing eating behavior. Internal factors include sensory food aspects. Among the external factors are information, the social context and the physical environment. Processes such as mere exposure, Pavlovian conditioning and social learning shape the relationships between these factors, food liking and eating behavior. The relative contribution of the various determinants is discussed. In spite of a scarcity of studies, liking for the sensory aspects of food seems to be at the center of the development, maintenance and change of dietary patterns. Consequently, efforts for promoting healthy eating behavior might benefit from an increased attention towards learning principles and food likes in the development of interventions. Existing intervention strategies are criticized and preliminary suggestions are formulated to enhance their effectiveness.

  6. Health behavior and related factors in adolescents with a history of abortion and never-pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Felton, G M; Parsons, M A; Hassell, J S

    1998-01-01

    Although prevention of unintended births among adolescents is health promoting, abortion, as one of those methods, has not been examined from a health promotion perspective. The authors describe and compare health behaviors, problem-solving appraisal, self-image, age, and use of contraceptives at first and most recent coitus in adolescents with a history of abortion and never-pregnant adolescents. A cross-sectional design with 26 pairs of adolescents matched on age, race, grade level, and Medicaid status was used. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups. The matched pairs' health behaviors and problem-solving scores were less favorable than those reported in the literature for nonmetropolitan women. Although the 2 groups of adolescents had similar self-image scores, they were significantly below those of the norm reference group. The matched pairs initiated coitus at an earlier age, and a smaller proportion used contraceptives at first and last coitus than national norms. These findings support the need for early intervention to enhance self-image, problem-solving confidence, and coitus delay. The findings point to the importance of aggressive family planning interventions and maintenance of access to abortion services.

  7. Risk perceptions and health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Rebecca; Klein, William M

    2015-01-01

    Risk perceptions – or an individual’s perceived susceptibility to a threat – are a key component of many health behavior change theories. Risk perceptions are often targeted in health behavior change interventions, and recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that interventions that successfully engage and change risk perceptions produce subsequent increases in health behaviors. Here, we review recent literature on risk perceptions and health behavior, including research on the formation of risk perceptions, types of risk perceptions (including deliberative, affective, and experiential), accuracy of risk perceptions, and associations and interactions among types of risk perceptions. Taken together, existing research suggests that disease risk perceptions are a critical determinant of health behavior, although the nature of the association among risk perceptions and health behavior may depend on the profile of different types of risk perceptions and the accuracy of such perceptions. PMID:26258160

  8. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families

  9. Pregnancy-related health information-seeking behaviors among rural pregnant women in India: validating the Wilson model in the Indian context.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-09-01

    Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi

  10. Immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the growing number of transnational marriages in Taiwan, oral health disparities have become a public health issue. This study assessed immigrant-native differences in oral health behaviors of urban mothers and their children. Methods We used the baseline data of an oral health promotion program to examine the immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from mothers in urban area, Taiwan. A total of 150 immigrant and 440 native mothers completed the self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models analyzed the racial differences in oral health behaviors. Results Approximately 37% of immigrant mothers used dental floss, 25% used fluoride toothpaste, and only 13.5% of them regularly visited a dentist. Less that 40% of immigrant mothers brush their children’s teeth before aged one year, 45% replaced child’s toothbrush within 3 months, and only half of the mothers regularly took their child to the dentist. Immigrant mothers had lower level of caries-related knowledge and attitudes than native mothers (p < .001). Compared to native group, the immigrant mothers were less likely to use of dental floss ([Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =0.35], fluoride toothpaste (aOR = 0.29), visit a dentist in the past 2 years (aOR = 0.26), and take their children to regular dental check-up (aOR = 0.38); whereas, they were more likely to not consume sweeten beverages (aOR = 3.13). Conclusions The level of caries-related knowledge, attitudes and oral health behaviors were found lower in immigrant mothers than native ones. The findings suggested cross-cultural caries prevention programs aimed at reducing immigrant-native disparities in child oral health care must be developed for these immigrant minorities. PMID:24423385

  11. Effect of Financial Stress and Positive Financial Behaviors on Cost-Related Nonadherence to Health Regimens Among Adults in a Community-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the role of positive financial behaviors (behaviors that allow maintenance of financial stability with financial resources) in mitigating cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to health regimens. This study examined the relationships between positive financial behaviors, financial stress, and CRN. Methods Data came from the 2011 Speak to Your Health! Community Survey (n = 1,234). Descriptive statistics were computed to examine financial stress and CRN, by chronic condition and health insurance status. We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between positive financial behaviors and financial stress and their interaction on a composite score of CRN, controlling for health insurance status, educational level, age, marital status, number of chronic conditions, and employment status. Results Thirty percent of the sample engaged in CRN. Participants reported moderate financial stress (mean, 13.85; standard deviation [SD] = 6.97), and moderate positive financial behavior (mean, 8.84; SD = 3.24). Participants with employer-sponsored insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, the Genesee Health Plan, high blood pressure, asthma, and diabetes had the highest proportion of CRN. The relationship between financial stress and CRN was not significantly different between those who reported lower versus higher levels of positive financial behavior (P = .32). Greater financial stress was associated with a greater likelihood of CRN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08–2.99). Higher level of positive financial behavior was associated with a lower likelihood of CRN (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67–0.94). Conclusion Financial literacy as a means of promoting positive financial behavior may help reduce CRN. An intervention strategy focused on improving financial literacy may be relevant for high-risk groups who report high levels of financial stress. PMID:27055263

  12. Effect of Financial Stress and Positive Financial Behaviors on Cost-Related Nonadherence to Health Regimens Among Adults in a Community-Based Setting.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal R; Kruger, Daniel J; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-04-07

    Little is known about the role of positive financial behaviors (behaviors that allow maintenance of financial stability with financial resources) in mitigating cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to health regimens. This study examined the relationships between positive financial behaviors, financial stress, and CRN. Data came from the 2011 Speak to Your Health! Community Survey (n = 1,234). Descriptive statistics were computed to examine financial stress and CRN, by chronic condition and health insurance status. We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between positive financial behaviors and financial stress and their interaction on a composite score of CRN, controlling for health insurance status, educational level, age, marital status, number of chronic conditions, and employment status. Thirty percent of the sample engaged in CRN. Participants reported moderate financial stress (mean, 13.85; standard deviation [SD] = 6.97), and moderate positive financial behavior (mean, 8.84; SD = 3.24). Participants with employer-sponsored insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, the Genesee Health Plan, high blood pressure, asthma, and diabetes had the highest proportion of CRN. The relationship between financial stress and CRN was not significantly different between those who reported lower versus higher levels of positive financial behavior (P = .32). Greater financial stress was associated with a greater likelihood of CRN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.99). Higher level of positive financial behavior was associated with a lower likelihood of CRN (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94). Financial literacy as a means of promoting positive financial behavior may help reduce CRN. An intervention strategy focused on improving financial literacy may be relevant for high-risk groups who report high levels of financial stress.

  13. Cross-sectional survey of women in Taiwan with first-degree relatives with osteoporosis: knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Hong, Chin-Ming; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2007-09-01

    No previous investigation has explored preventive behaviors among women with First-Degree Relatives (FDRs) diagnosed with osteoporosis, particularly Asian women. This study investigates osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs and preventive behaviors of women with a family history of osteoporosis, and the different knowledge and health beliefs regarding preventive behaviors of women with such a history. Women were recruited at a large public health center in northern Taiwan. A questionnaire was administered to women with FDRs with osteoporosis with a focus on osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs and preventive behaviors. Descriptive analysis was initially conducted. Correlation and differences between demographics, knowledge, health beliefs and preventive behaviors were rated for continuous variables, and the chi2 test was performed for categorical variables. A total of 251 who women satisfied the sampling criteria were invited to engage in the study. Two hundred and one women agreed to take part in the study, and the participation rate was around 80%. This work stresses the insufficiency of information on osteoporosis, constraining beliefs and ignorance of healthy preventive behaviors among women with FDRs with osteoporosis. Overall, the likelihood that women would take positive preventive behaviors is associated with their demographics and knowledge. The variables most strongly correlated with preventive behaviors for community-dwelling women are, in order, knowledge, number of children, educational level, knowledge of osteoporosis, experience of bone density examination, and whether or not women believed they had kyphosis. The results of this work can be applied to provide effective implementation guidelines for preventing osteoporosis, especially for women with a family history of the disease.

  14. A Study of Suicide-Related Behaviors among Colombian Youth: Reflections on Prevention and Implications for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 10th graders from 32 Colombian public schools to examine risk behaviors related to depression and suicide. About 21 percent of respondents expressed suicidal feelings. This transcended to actual plans in 19 percent of respondents, while 16 percent reported at least one attempt in the previous 30 days. Suicidal thoughts and attempts…

  15. Health-related quality of life and its related factors in HIV(+) patients referred to Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center, Iran in 2012.

    PubMed

    Haseli, Najmeh; Esmaeelzadeh, Firooz; Ghahramani, Fariba; Alimohamadi, Yousef; Hayati, Ramin; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole. Nowadays, using anti-viral medication delays the onset of the disease cycle and increases the patients' life time. From the psychological point of view, however, such patients are faced with a great number of social and cultural limitations which affect various dimensions of their health as well as quality of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the quality of life and its related factors in HIV patients in Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center. The present analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 129 HIV patients in Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center who were selected through convenience sampling. The data were gathered using demographic as well as SF-36 questionnaires and analyzed through T-test, ANOVA, X(2), and Schiff's post hoc test. In this study, the patients' mean score of quality of life was 48.8+14. In addition, the mean scores of males' and females' life quality were 47.7+16.2 and 59.5+20.4, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean difference of the patients' quality of life was also found to be significant based on employment status, marital status, and history of drug abuse (p<0.05), while it was not significant regardin gage, level of education, length of disease, and the distance between the house and the service providing center. In comparison to the physical dimension, the HIV-positive individuals' quality of life mean score was lower in the mental dimension. In addition, the mean difference revealed to be significant based on marital as well as employment status. These findings show such patients' needs for psychological support, more psychological interventions, and creation of appropriate job opportunities.

  16. Health-related quality of life and its related factors in HIV+ patients referred to Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center, Iran in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Haseli, Najmeh; Esmaeelzadeh, Firooz; Ghahramani, Fariba; Alimohamadi, Yousef; Hayati, Ramin; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole. Nowadays, using anti-viral medication delays the onset of the disease cycle and increases the patients’ life time. From the psychological point of view, however, such patients are faced with a great number of social and cultural limitations which affect various dimensions of their health as well as quality of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the quality of life and its related factors in HIV patients in Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center. Methods: The present analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 129 HIV patients in Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center who were selected through convenience sampling. The data were gathered using demographic as well as SF-36 questionnaires and analyzed through T-test, ANOVA, X2, and Schiff's post hoc test. Results: In this study, the patients’ mean score of quality of life was 48.8+14. In addition, the mean scores of males’ and females’ life quality were 47.7+16.2 and 59.5+20.4, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean difference of the patients’ quality of life was also found to be significant based on employment status, marital status, and history of drug abuse (p<0.05), while it was not significant regardin gage, level of education, length of disease, and the distance between the house and the service providing center. Conclusion: In comparison to the physical dimension, the HIV-positive individuals’ quality of life mean score was lower in the mental dimension. In addition, the mean difference revealed to be significant based on marital as well as employment status. These findings show such patients’ needs for psychological support, more psychological interventions, and creation of appropriate job opportunities. PMID:25250258

  17. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  18. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  19. Cross-Sectional Associations between Multiple Lifestyle Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 10,000 Steps Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Kline, Christopher E.; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Sargent, Charli; Rogers, Naomi L.; Di Milia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background The independent and combined influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, sitting time, and sleep duration and quality on health status is not routinely examined. This study investigates the relationships between these lifestyle behaviors, independently and in combination, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Adult members of the 10,000 Steps project (n = 159,699) were invited to participate in an online survey in November-December 2011. Participant socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors, and HRQOL (poor self-rated health; frequent unhealthy days) were assessed by self-report. The combined influence of poor lifestyle behaviors were examined, independently and also as part of two lifestyle behavior indices, one excluding sleep quality (Index 1) and one including sleep quality (Index 2). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine relationships between lifestyle behaviors and HRQOL. Results A total of 10,478 participants provided complete data for the current study. For Index 1, the Prevalence Ratio (p value) of poor self-rated health was 1.54 (p = 0.001), 2.07 (p≤0.001), 3.00 (p≤0.001), 3.61 (p≤0.001) and 3.89 (p≤0.001) for people reporting two, three, four, five and six poor lifestyle behaviors, compared to people with 0–1 poor lifestyle behaviors. For Index 2, the Prevalence Ratio (p value) of poor self-rated health was 2.26 (p = 0.007), 3.29 (p≤0.001), 4.68 (p≤0.001), 6.48 (p≤0.001), 7.91 (p≤0.001) and 8.55 (p≤0.001) for people reporting two, three, four, five, six and seven poor lifestyle behaviors, compared to people with 0–1 poor lifestyle behaviors. Associations between the combined lifestyle behavior index and frequent unhealthy days were statistically significant and similar to those observed for poor self-rated health. Conclusions Engaging in a greater number of poor lifestyle behaviors was associated with a higher prevalence of poor HRQOL. This association

  20. Relationship between peer status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Terre, L; Drabman, R S; Meydrech, E F; Hsu, H S

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade, univariate studies have identified peer-rated popularity/sociability as a correlate of individual health practices (e.g., alcohol and drug use, exercise habits). Yet, the relationship between multiple health habits and broader social competencies rarely has been systematically examined. Accordingly, using a multivariate approach, the present study investigated the relative influence of background characteristics (i.e., age, gender, race, family type, and socioeconomic status) and peer status on health-related behaviors (i.e., physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, and stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students (ages 11-13). In this sample, peer popularity provided no significant increment in the prediction of health habits over and above the effects explained by demographics. These results are consistent with current perspectives on health and interpersonal behaviors, and have important practical implications for the initiation and maintenance of healthful and risky practices in the natural environment.

  1. Effects of a training program for home health care workers on the provision of preventive activities and on the health-related behavior of their clients: A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Walters, Maaike E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Meulen, Anja; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2017-05-21

    Because home health care workers repeatedly visit the same older adults, they are in an excellent position to improve the health-related behavior of older adults, their clients, by providing preventive activities. The objective of this study was to determine the short- and medium term effects of an intervention to support workers in providing preventive activities for older adults. To do this, the number of activities undertaken by workers and the health-related behavior of their clients were assessed. A quasi-experimental study was performed with a pre-post design and inclusion of one control group. The study took place in a deprived, semi-rural area in The Netherlands (2011-2013). Data in three districts served by one home health care organization were gathered. The participants were home health care workers (registered nurses and nurse aides) and home health care clients aged 55 and over (community-dwelling, dependent older adults receiving home health care). 205 home health care workers participated in the study, 97 of them in the first effect measurement; and 83 of them in the second effect measurement. A total of 304 home health care clients participated, 214 of them in the first effect measurement; and 186 of them in the second effect measurement. Differences in change were determined in health-related behavior between groups of older adults as a result of training home health care workers in preventive activities RESULTS: In the control group of home health care professionals a significant increase was found regarding the provision of preventive activities for the domain 'weight' (partial eta squared: 0.05 and 0.08 at first and second effect measurements, respectively). We found preventive activities performed by home health care professionals to have no significant effects on older adult-reported health-related behavior, but observed in the intervention group a non-significant trend in improvement of physical activity of, respectively, 85 and 207min for

  2. The Relationship of Built Environment to Health-Related Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Elderly Community Residents in a Middle Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of the built environment (BE) on health behaviours and health outcomes in middle income countries. This study examines associations between self-assessed characteristics of the home and neighbourhood environment and health-related behaviours and health outcomes in an elderly population in Brazil Design and methods In a community sample of 6963 community dwellers 60 years old and older living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associations between self-reported BE conditions and health behaviours and health outcomes were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to investigate these associations while accounting for other relevant characteristics. Results We found significant positive associations between adverse BE conditions and pulmonary, urinary conditions, gastrointestinal, problems, headache and depression. There were mixed associations between adverse BE conditions and musculoskeletal and sensory conditions, inverse associations with metabolic disorders. and no associations with dermatologic problems and cancer. After accounting for health related behaviours, results suggest a modest association between adverse BE conditions and hypertension, with no significant associations with other indicators of cardiovascular conditions (heart problems, stroke, varicose veins). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest links between adverse conditions in the BE and health related behaviours in the hypothesized direction. Associations with the health conditions examined here are mixed. We find the strongest evidence for effects of adverse BE conditions for pulmonary and infectious conditions. Significant associations between the adverse BE indicators and health outcomes persist after accounting for health related behaviours, suggesting that BE conditions are linked to health pathways above and beyond the health related behaviours assessed in this study. Significance for

  3. The person-based approach to intervention development: application to digital health-related behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Lucy; Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-30

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the "person-based" approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify "guiding principles" that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in trials

  4. The Person-Based Approach to Intervention Development: Application to Digital Health-Related Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the “person-based” approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify “guiding principles” that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in

  5. The evaluation of school of health students' knowledge and behavior of healthy life-styles of related to importance to prevent cancer.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Ayden; Kavlak, Oya; Özbasaran, Ferda

    2010-01-01

    This study was planned as a descriptive evaluation of School of Health students knowledge and healthy lifestyle behavior related to prevention of cancer. The study has been carried out in Nursing, Midwifery and Health Official Departments at Celal Bayar University School of Health, between November 2007 and January 2008. The subjects comprised 345 volunteer students. The data were collected using a questionnaire covering nutritional status and attitudes related to the prevention from cancer, and results were assessed using the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale. The mean age was 20.9 ∓ 2.01 years and 22.6% were male. Some 88.4% of the students considered cancer to be a preventable illness and 70.1% of them believed that it could be prevented by healthy nutrition. The mean score of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale was 124.8 (SD, 19.9). In conclusion, it was found that students participating in this study have good level of knowledge on cancer prevention. Health behavior was found to be moderate.

  6. A latent class analysis of weight-related health behaviors among 2- and 4-year college students and associated risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2- and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health behaviors that represent multiple theoretically/clinically relevant dimensions of obesity risk among 2- versus 4-year college students using cross-sectional statewide surveillance data (N = 17,584). Additionally, differences in class membership on selected sociodemographic characteristics were examined using a model-based approach. Analysis was conducted separately for both college groups, and five and four classes were identified for 2- and 4-year college students, respectively. Four classes were similar across 2- and 4-year college groups and were characterized as "mostly healthy dietary habits, active"; "moderately high screen time, active"; "moderately healthy dietary habits, inactive"; and "moderately high screen time, inactive." "Moderately healthy dietary habits, high screen time" was the additional class unique to 2-year college students. These classes differed on a number of sociodemographic characteristics, including the proportion in each class who were classified as obese. Implications for prevention scientists and future intervention programs are considered. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Obesity in relation to oral health behaviors: An analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Beom; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with an increased incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behaviors and obesity in South Korean adults. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2010 was used to assess this and a total of 15,666 participants were included in the analysis performed. Oral behaviors, including the time of day and rate of tooth brushing, and usage of secondary oral products, were considered in this analysis. Obesity was defined using the following three methods: Body mass index, waist circumference and percentage body fat (PBF). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association of oral health behavior with obesity after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The frequency of daily tooth brushing and usage of secondary oral products was lower in individuals with obesity, irrespective of the method used to define obesity. Conversely, the risk of general obesity, abdominal obesity and high PBF was higher in individuals with a lower daily frequency of tooth brushing and usage of secondary oral products. PMID:27882123

  8. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  9. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  10. Health behavior: issues, contradictions and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, A A

    1993-10-01

    American medicine faces many contradictions and dilemmas. This is especially the case with regard to preventive health behavior. This paper explores the effects of several issues, contradictions and dilemmas on the American experience with primary preventive health behavior. These issues include: individualism, victim blaming, therapeutic nihilism, the over abundance of health information, America as a culture of risk takers, and the dilemma of the jungle vs the zoo. Four types of health behavior are defined. The first type of health behavior is the primary prevention of disease, defect, injury or disability. The second type is detection of asymptomatic disease, injury and defect. Third, is the promotion of enhanced levels of health, wellness and quality of life. And the fourth, at a more societal level, protective behaviors to make environmental transactions safe from disease, injury, defect and disability. These four types of health behavior are each explored in relation to societal values, technology and economics to determine which of these facilitate or impede health behavior at both the individual and societal levels.

  11. Hypertension Education: Impact on Parent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Peter; Portnoy, Barry

    This study sought to determine the effects of a high blood pressure education program for sixth graders on the preventive hypertension health attitudes and behaviors of their parents. Attention was focused on the role of students ("significant others") in affecting parental attitude and behavior changes relating to the three risk factors of…

  12. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Sahiti; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-02-02

    Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the "social support" perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual's efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. In this paper, we describe grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual's efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include "sleepiness," "pledge," "patch," "spouse," and "slip." Examples of themes include "traditions," "social support

  13. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  14. Health seeking behaviors of African Americans: implications for health administration.

    PubMed

    Hewins-Maroney, Barbara; Schumaker, Alice; Williams, Ethel

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in health care and good health between African Americans and other populations while established in the literature are traditionally based on socioeconomic measures of race, income, age, and education (Bailey, 2000; Lillie-Blanton, Brodie, Rowland, Altman and McIntosh, 2000; Ren and Amick, 1996; Watson, 2001; Weinick, Zuvekas, and Cohen, 2000). This study broadens the scope by exploring how sociocultural (poverty, racism, prejudice, and discrimination) and psychosocial factors (perceived health status, the lack of personal efficacy in contributing to decisions about health care. feelings of helplessness, and the lack of trust in the health care providers) relate to health-seeking behaviors of African Americans (Bailey, 1991; Ren and Amick, 1996, Watson, 2001). Interviews were conducted with 111 African American adult patients at a community health center, focusing on health-seeking behaviors, and sociocultural and psychosocial factors. Results suggest that when these negative factors are removed, the health seeking behaviors of African Americans closely mirror the behaviors of the majority population. Subjects did not view themselves in poorer health, fail to seek medical attention when needed, or distrust their primary health care providers. In general, fears associated with health care were attributed to illness rather than health care providers, although a weak linkage was found between patient self-esteem and fear or dislike of future treatment by physicians (adj R2= .362, S.E. =15, F=21, sig. <.001). The study highlights the need for further study in two areas: cultural competency of health care providers, especially those from Asia and Africa who are often assigned to community health centers, and the impact of an accessible community health center on the health seeking behaviors and health status of predominately African American communities.

  15. Electronic Behavioral Health "Health-E"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    of our organization. The "Health- E Clinic" web enabled behavioral health clinic provides patients access to behavioral health services 24 hours a day...7 days a week. This e -clinic modifies clinical business processes to offer services on-line. Integration with clinical pathways is inherent in this

  16. The Relationship Between Health Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bonnie L.

    This study was undertaken to examine the constellation of attitudes and beliefs felt to be related to health behavior. Two types of health messages were delivered to a group of teenage camp counselors on the disease diabetes. Their attitudes toward the disease in terms of their perception of vulnerability to it, their perception of its severity,…

  17. Differential Trends in Weight-Related Health Behaviors Among American Young Adults by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status: 1984–2006

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Lantz, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated temporal patterns from 1984 to 2006 in 6 weight-related health behaviors by using longitudinal data for multiple cohorts of young adults (aged 19–26 years) from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study. Methods. We used growth curve models to examine historical trends in 6 health behaviors: frequency of eating breakfast, eating green vegetables, eating fruit, exercising, watching television, and sleeping 7 hours each night. Variations across gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were investigated. Results. Frequency of exercising was consistently lower among young adult women than young adult men over this 23-year period. Compared with White women, Hispanic women, and women from other race/ethnic groups, Black women showed declines in the frequency of exercise since 1984. In general, young adult women showed a marked increase in the frequency of eating breakfast over this period, although Black women did not show any net gains. Conclusions. Social disparities in body weight may increase because Black women, Hispanic women, and men with lower socioeconomic status show declining trends in positive weight-related health behaviors compared with White young adults with higher socioeconomic status. PMID:19696395

  18. Determinants of preventive health behavior in relation to cervical cancer screening among the female population of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Matejic, Bojana; Vukovic, Dejana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kesic, Vesna; Markovic, Milica

    2011-04-01

    Identifying the factors that deter or stimulate the women to participate in screening activities is very important in order to design effective education and motivation strategies, particularly in the countries without an organized system. The study employed a case-control design. The participants were recruited in four primary health care institutions in Belgrade over a month. The study group comprised all women aged 18-70 years, who demonstrated an initiative for a PAP- smear. The controls were women with no Pap smears within the last 4 years, matched by age (±2 years), education and marital status with the study group participants. The study instrument was the 62-item self-administered questionnaire. According to multivariate analysis, adherence to cervical cancer screening practices is significantly related to better financial status [odds ratio (OR) = 10.8, P = 0.001], no gender preference for a gynecologist (OR = 3.1, P = 0.015), consultations with a gynecologist (OR = 4.7, P = 0.029), conversation with the women with cervical cancer about that disease (OR = 2.8, P = 0.029) and higher media exposure to information about cervical cancer prevention (OR = 5.0, P = 0.004). Open communication, social networks and improving social-economic status of women in our society are the most prominent factors, most of which are mainly outside the health services' domain and require multisectoral collaboration to improve women's reproductive health.

  19. 'Getting things done': an everyday-life perspective towards bridging the gap between intentions and practices in health-related behavior.

    PubMed

    van Woerkum, Cees; Bouwman, Laura

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we aim to add a new perspective to supporting health-related behavior. We use the everyday-life view to point at the need to focus on the social and practical organization of the concerned behavior. Where most current approaches act disjointedly on clients and the social and physical context, we take the clients' own behavior within the dynamics of everyday context as the point of departure. From this point, healthy behavior is not a distinguishable action, but a chain of activities, often embedded in other social practices. Therefore, changing behavior means changing the social system in which one lives, changing a shared lifestyle or changing the dominant values or existing norms. Often, clients experience that this is not that easy. From the everyday-life perspective, the basic strategy is to support the client, who already has a positive intention, to 'get things done'. This strategy might be applied to those cases, where a gap is found between good intentions and bad behavior.

  20. Heal Thyself...: Faculty Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Kathleen E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was designed to assess faculty health behaviors at the beginning of each of the three years of a Health Promotion/Disease Prevention grant for comparisons over time. This article reports the results of the first comparison between the two faculties. (CT)

  1. Changing Behavioral Lifestyle Risk Factors Related to Cognitive Decline in Later Life Using a Self-Motivated eHealth Intervention in Dutch Adults.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, Teun; Qin, Li; Baars, Maria Ae; de Lange, Annet; Kessels, Roy Pc; Olde Rikkert, Marcel Gm

    2016-06-17

    Our labor force is aging, but aged workers are not yet coached on how to stay cognitively fit for the job. In this study, we tested whether a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention could improve multiple health-related behaviors that are associated with cognitive aging among working Dutch adults. This quasi-experimental prospective study with a pre-post design was conducted with employees of Dutch medium to large companies. All employees with Internet access, a good understanding of the Dutch language, and who provided digital informed consent were eligible to participate. In total, 2972 participants (2110/2972, 71.11% females) with a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 51.8 (SD 12.9) years were recruited; 2305 became active users of the intervention, and 173 completed the 1-year follow-up. This self-motivated eHealth lifestyle intervention stimulates participants to set personally relevant, monthly health behavior change goals using Goal Attainment Scaling and to realize these goals by implementing behavior change techniques grounded in behavior change theory. The primary outcomes were the goal-setting success rate and the change in overall lifestyle score from baseline to the 1-year follow-up; the score was based on physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol, sleep, and stress scores. The secondary outcomes were the changes in body weight, body mass index, specific lifestyle characteristics, and website usage. A total of 1212 participants set 2620 behavior change goals; 392 participants assessed 1089 (1089/2288, 47.59%) goals and successfully achieved 422 (422/1089, 38.75%) of these goals. Among the goal-setting participants in follow-up, this led to a +0.81-point improvement (95% CI 0.49-1.13, P<.001) in overall lifestyle (d=0.32) and weight loss of 0.62 kg (95% CI -1.16 to -0.07, P=.03). These participants also showed significant improvement in 8 out of 11 specific lifestyle components. Among an adult Dutch population, this eHealth intervention resulted

  2. Associations between dental anxiety, sense of coherence, oral health-related quality of life and health behavior--a national Swedish cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2015-09-02

    Dental anxiety (DA) is a common condition associated with avoidance of dental care and subsequent health-related and psychosocial outcomes, in what has been described as the vicious circle of DA. Also, recent studies have found an association between the psychosocial concept of sense of coherence (SOC) and DA. More studies are needed to verify the relationship between DA and SOC, especially using population-based samples. There is also a need for studies including factors related to the vicious circle of DA, such as oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), in order to further establish the correlates of DA in the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between DA and SOC, OHRQoL and health-related behaviour in the general Swedish population. The survey included a randomly selected sample of the adult Swedish population (N = 3500, age 19 - 96 years.). Data was collected by means of telephone interviews. Dental anxiety was measured with a single question. The SOC measure consisted of three questions conceptualising the dimensions of the SOC: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. The data collection also included the five-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-5), as a measure of OHRQoL, as well as questions on oral health-related behaviour and socioeconomic status. Statistical analyses were made with descriptive statistics and inference testing using Chi-square, t--test and logistic regression. High DA was associated with low OHRQoL, irregular dental care and smoking. There was a statistically significant relationship between the SOC and DA in the bivariate, but not in the multivariate, analyses. Dental anxiety was not associated with oral health-related behaviour or socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional national survey gives support to the significant associations between high dental anxiety, avoidance of dental care and health-related outcomes, which may further reinforce the

  3. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  4. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  5. Impact of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention on Health-Related Quality of Life and General Heart Rate Variability in Patients Following Cardiac Surgery: An Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Beresnevaitė, Margarita; Benetis, Rimantas; Taylor, Graeme J; Rašinskienė, Svetlana; Stankus, Albinas; Kinduris, Sarunas

    Although there is evidence supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in decreasing psychologic symptoms and improving health-related quality of life in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery, the effectiveness of these interventions in usual health care practice, and their effect on general heart rate variability (HRV), has not been tested. This study investigated the effectiveness of CBT in improving health-related quality of life and HRV in patients with postcardiac surgery. However, 2 months following surgery, 150 patients were assigned sequentially to a CBT group that received the intervention for 9 months or a comparison group that received usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 10 months with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. HRV was also assessed. In total, 43 patients in the CBT group and 46 in the usual care group completed the study. The CBT group demonstrated significant improvements in health-related quality of life and significant increases in general HRV. Significant group-by-time interaction effects were found for the several 36-item Short Form Health Survey scales and mental component summary and a time-domain HRV parameter indicating that the pattern of change in scores over time differed significantly between the 2 groups. CBT administered in a "real-world" clinical setting can effectively improve health-related quality of life and the general HRV in patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships among factors related to body mass index, healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health indicators for youth in a title 1 school.

    PubMed

    O'Haver, Judith; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2014-01-01

    The effect of being overweight in childhood has both physical and psychological implications. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among body mass index (BMI), healthy lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health indicators for 5th- and 6th-grade children in a Title I school. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design on a convenience sample of youth in an urban school. BMI was calculated. Participants completed surveys that assessed healthy beliefs and behaviors, activity and nutrition knowledge, and mental health indicators. Children with higher BMIs reported difficulty in living a healthy lifestyle. This perceived difficulty affected their ability to make healthy choices. Belief in the ability to live a healthy lifestyle resulted in reported healthier behaviors. Anxiety and depression symptomatology were not significantly related to healthy lifestyle indicators. The results demonstrate that the proposed thinking, feeling, behavior triangle model was supported in this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Sophie; Anclair, Malin; Hiltunen, Arto J

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists at a university clinic, focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) optimism and symptoms. The study was conducted through a repeated measures design and included a treatment group (n = 21), which received cognitive behavioral therapy for an average of 10.7 therapy sessions and a control group (n = 14), that was put on a wait list for 8.6 weeks on average. After treatment, the treatment group improved significantly concerning general health (p = 0.028) and optimism (p = 0.027). In addition, clients improved in several areas within mental health and displayed some reduction in anxiety symptoms. Concurrently, the results also indicated some improvement within the control group, which may have been caused by the initial therapeutic contact, expectancy effects or spontaneous remission. The study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists may have a positive effect on areas within HRQOL and optimism. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  9. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to lung cancer incidence and mortality in older women: The Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ange; Qin, FeiFei; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Chlebowski, Rowan; Gomez, Scarlett; Eaton, Charles B; Johnson, Karen C; Qi, Lihong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Wakelee, Heather A; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2016-11-15

    Physical activity has been associated with lower lung cancer incidence and mortality in several populations. We investigated these relationships in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and Clinical Trial (WHI-CT) prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. The WHI study enrolled 161,808 women aged 50-79 years between 1993 and 1998 at 40 U.S. clinical centers; 129,401 were eligible for these analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of baseline physical activity levels [metabolic equivalent (MET)-min/week: none <100 (reference), low 100 to <500, medium 500 to <1,200, high 1,200+] and sedentary behavior with total lung cancer incidence and mortality. Over 11.8 mean follow-up years, 2,148 incident lung cancer cases and 1,365 lung cancer deaths were identified. Compared with no activity, higher physical activity levels at study entry were associated with lower lung cancer incidence [p = 0.009; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each physical activity category: low, HR: 0.86 (0.76-0.96); medium, HR: 0.82 (0.73-0.93); and high, HR: 0.90 (0.79-1.03)], and mortality [p < 0.0001; low, HR: 0.80 (0.69-0.92); medium, HR: 0.68 (0.59-0.80); and high, HR: 0.78 (0.66-0.93)]. Body mass index (BMI) modified the association with lung cancer incidence (p = 0.01), with a stronger association in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) . Significant associations with sedentary behavior were not observed. In analyses by lung cancer subtype, higher total physical activity levels were associated with lower lung cancer mortality for both overall NSCLC and adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, physical activity may be protective for lung cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women, particularly in non-obese women.

  11. Antisocial behavioral syndromes and past-year physical health among adults in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Ruan, W June; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Stinson, Frederick S; Grant, Bridget F

    2008-03-01

    To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), DSM-IV conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (CD-only), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without conduct disorder before age 15 years (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093, response rate = 81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, CD-only, or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal theory and logistic regression. ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries (all p < .05). ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2) physical component summary, role physical, and bodily pain scales (all p < .05). AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 general health and vitality scales, and, among men, arthritis (all p < .05). CD-only was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries (all p < .05). Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases.

  12. Adolescent health behavior and conventionality-unconventionality: an extension of problem-behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Donovan, J E; Jessor, R; Costa, F M

    1991-01-01

    Examined the relation of psychosocial and behavioral conventionality-unconventionality to health-related behavior in cross-sectional data from 1,588 male and female 7th to 12th graders. Conventionality-unconventionality was represented by personality, perceived social environment, and behavior variables selected from the social-psychological framework of problem-behavior theory (R. Jessor & S. L. Jessor, 1977). Greater psychosocial conventionality correlates with more regular involvement in health-related behavior (regular physical activity, adequate sleep, safety belt use, attention to healthy diet). Greater behavioral conventionality (less involvement in problem behaviors such as marijuana use, problem drinking, delinquent-type behavior, and greater involvement in conventional behaviors such as church attendance) was also associated with greater involvement in health-maintaining behavior. The overall findings provide support for the extension of problem-behavior theory to the domain of adolescent health behavior and for the relevance of the dimension of conventionality-unconventionality.

  13. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  14. Mindfulness and health behaviors: is paying attention good for you?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kimberly C; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    the investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. participants completed questionnaires assessing mindfulness, perceived health, health behaviors, health-related activity restriction, and stress. Data were collected from September 2007 through December 2007. overall perceived health and health-related activity restriction, as well as some health behaviors (eg, binge eating, sleep quality, and physical activity) were related to the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire and were partially mediated by stress. these results suggest that mindfulness is related to decreased stress, which in turn contributes to increased positive health perceptions and health behaviors. The findings support the utility of mindfulness in promoting physical and psychological health in college students.

  15. Behavioral health: the propaedeutic requirement.

    PubMed

    Brady, Joseph V

    2005-06-01

    Concern about the behavioral effects of spaceflight can be traced back a half century to the earliest preparatory bioastronautics experiments in the mid-1 950s. A central focus of the first primate suborbital flights, as well as the orbital chimpanzee pretest flights of Project Mercury, was the effects of such stressful ventures on the learned performances of these space behavioral health pioneers. The hiatus in spaceflight behavioral health experimental investments that followed these early initiatives began with the advent of the 'human astronaut' era of the mid-1960s, and has dominated the last several decades. Contemporary concerns in this regard have most recently been articulated by a turn-of-the-century Committee of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, providing a visionary view of space medicine during travel beyond Earth orbit. This 2-yr study focused on those most complex behavioral health interactions involving humans in extreme, isolated, and confined microsocieties-areas that have not received the necessary level of attention. The evident behavioral health issues raised by the prospect of long-duration exploratory missions beyond Earth orbit, including performance and general living conditions, recovery and support systems, and the screening, selection, and training of candidate participants are reviewed and discussed.

  16. The meaning of behavioral medicine in the public health field-a review of documents related to medical education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    International standardization of medical education requires Japanese medical schools to restructure their curricula to include "behavioral science." Two influential documents for Japanese medical education, the "Model Core Curriculum for Medical Education in Japan" and the "Scope of the Japanese National Examination for Medical Doctors" include some key terms regarding behavioral science. However, they are not systematic and the phrase "behavioral science" itself could not be found in these documents. The new global standards for medical education, the "Basic Medical Education WFME Global Standards," require medical schools to include behavioral science in their curricula. The definition of "behavioral science" in the global standards emphasizes social aspects and determinants of health, which is also a key concept of public health. From the view point of public health, it is hoped that the systematic introduction of behavioral science into Japanese medical education will strengthen the public health mindset of medical doctors, which in turn will support the healthcare system in communities.

  17. Surveillance for disparities in maternal health-related behaviors--selected states, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Phares, Tanya M; Morrow, Brian; Lansky, Amy; Barfield, Wanda D; Prince, Cheryl B; Marchi, Kristen S; Braveman, Paula A; Williams, Letitia M; Kinniburgh, Brooke

    2004-07-02

    state, consistent patterns were observed among the eight states by age, race, ethnicity, education, and income level. Overall, the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy ranged from 9.0% to 17.4%. Younger (aged <25 years) women, white women, American Indian women, non-Hispanic women (except in Hawaii), women with a high school education or less, and women with low incomes consistently reported the highest rates of smoking. Overall, the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy ranged from 3.4% to 9.9%. In seven states, women aged >35 years, non-Hispanic women, women with more than a high school education, and women with higher incomes reported the highest prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy. Overall, the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation ranged from 54.8% to 89.6%. Younger women, black women, women with a high school education or less, and women with low incomes reported the lowest rates of breastfeeding initiation. The size of the black-white disparity in breastfeeding varied among states. Overall, use of the back sleep position for infants ranged from 49.7% to 74.8%. Use of the back sleep position was lowest among younger women, black women, women with lower levels of education, and women with low incomes. Ethnic differences in sleep position varied substantially by state. PRAMS data can be used to identify racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in critical maternal health-related behaviors. Although similar general patterns by age, education, and income were observed in at least seven states, certain racial and ethnic disparities varied by state. Prevalence of the four behaviors among each population often varied by state, indicating the potential impact of state-specific policies and programs. States can use PRAMS data to identify populations at greatest risk for maternal behaviors that have negative consequences for maternal and infant health and to develop policies and plan programs that target populations at high risk.sk. Although prevalence

  18. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  19. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  20. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  1. Health Instruction Packages: Behavioral Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Dianne Dee; And Others

    These four learning modules present text and exercises designed to help allied health students understand various elements of positive interaction with people. The first module, "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" by Dianne Mackey, defines human needs, presents Maslow's theories, and helps the learner identify behaviors that reflect the…

  2. Associations Among Health Behaviors and Time Perspective in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that time perspective relates to health behavior; however, researchers have frequently employed inconsistent operational definitions and have often used projective or unpublished measures. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory was created to provide a sound, objective measure of five distinct time perspective components. We examined the independent prediction of both risky and protective health behaviors from future, hedonistic, and fatalistic time perspective in 1,568 undergraduates using the ZTPI. Health behaviors included alcohol, drug, tobacco, and seat belt use, sex behaviors, and exercise. Future time perspective was related to increased protective and decreased risky health behaviors, whereas hedonism exhibited an opposite pattern though was a stronger predictor; fatalism was related only to health-destructive behaviors. Gender interactions reveal that hedonism is a stronger predictor of risky health behaviors for females. PMID:16421652

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

  5. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement : Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking, Social Behaviors in Adolescents, October 13-15, 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    NIH consensus and state-of-the-science statements are prepared by independent panels of health professionals and public representatives on the basis of (1) the results of a systematic literature review prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), (2) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the conference questions during a 2-day public session, (3) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that are part of the public session, and (4) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of the third. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. The statement reflects the panel's assessment of medical knowledge available at the time the statement was written. Thus, it provides a "snapshot in time" of the state of knowledge on the conference topic. When reading the statement, keep in mind that new knowledge is inevitably accumulating through medical and behavioral research.

  6. Changing Behavioral Lifestyle Risk Factors Related to Cognitive Decline in Later Life Using a Self-Motivated eHealth Intervention in Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Baars, Maria AE; de Lange, Annet; Kessels, Roy PC; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM

    2016-01-01

    Background Our labor force is aging, but aged workers are not yet coached on how to stay cognitively fit for the job. Objective In this study, we tested whether a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention could improve multiple health-related behaviors that are associated with cognitive aging among working Dutch adults. Methods This quasi-experimental prospective study with a pre-post design was conducted with employees of Dutch medium to large companies. All employees with Internet access, a good understanding of the Dutch language, and who provided digital informed consent were eligible to participate. In total, 2972 participants (2110/2972, 71.11% females) with a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 51.8 (SD 12.9) years were recruited; 2305 became active users of the intervention, and 173 completed the 1-year follow-up. This self-motivated eHealth lifestyle intervention stimulates participants to set personally relevant, monthly health behavior change goals using Goal Attainment Scaling and to realize these goals by implementing behavior change techniques grounded in behavior change theory. The primary outcomes were the goal-setting success rate and the change in overall lifestyle score from baseline to the 1-year follow-up; the score was based on physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol, sleep, and stress scores. The secondary outcomes were the changes in body weight, body mass index, specific lifestyle characteristics, and website usage. Results A total of 1212 participants set 2620 behavior change goals; 392 participants assessed 1089 (1089/2288, 47.59%) goals and successfully achieved 422 (422/1089, 38.75%) of these goals. Among the goal-setting participants in follow-up, this led to a +0.81-point improvement (95% CI 0.49-1.13, P<.001) in overall lifestyle (d=0.32) and weight loss of 0.62 kg (95% CI −1.16 to −0.07, P=.03). These participants also showed significant improvement in 8 out of 11 specific lifestyle components. Conclusions Among an adult

  7. Impact of Frontal Lobe Function and Behavioral Changes on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, Xueping; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment may negatively impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, information on the effects of frontal lobe function and behavior changes on the HRQoL of the Chinese PD population is limited. Studies on the associations among frontal lobe function, behavioral changes and the HRQoL may help optimize the treatment and improve the HRQoL of PD patients. A total of 309 PD patients were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery, the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the PD Questionnaire 39-item version (PDQ-39). Patients with worse frontal lobe function were older (p < 0.001), had longer disease durations (p = 0.002), higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) scores (p < 0.001) and higher Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stages (p = 0.001), and exhibited significantly higher PDQ-39 summary index (SI; p = 0.001) compared with those who had better frontal lobe function. In addition, the disease duration (p = 0.008), UPDRS-III scores (p < 0.001), H-Y stage (p < 0.001), PDQ-39 SI and scores for each domain of the PDQ-39 (p < 0.001) were higher as the severity of frontal behavioral changes increased. The total FBI score (p < 0.001) was positively correlated with the PDQ-39 SI. Frontal behavioral changes were closely associated with poor HRQoL in Chinese PD patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Codependency and related health variables.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, D S; Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O

    2000-06-01

    Codependency is a controversial concept especially for feminist scholars who are concerned about pathologizing traditional female roles. This study's purpose was to determine: (1) the prevalence of codependency in a sample of older women who because of age may ascribe to traditional roles; (2) how the Hughes-Hammer/Martsolf theoretical model of codependency relates to other health variables; and (3) whether previous findings about the relationship between codependency and depression replicate. Survey design was used with a sample of 238 women (ages 65 to 91) attending a flu shot clinic. Subjects completed the Codependency Assessment Tool, Beck Depression Inventory, Quality of Life Scale, Perceived Health Report, Measurement of Patient Functional Abilities, and Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist. Of these women, 99% had low codependency scores. Statistically significant correlations existed between codependency and perceived health (p < .01), and functional ability (p < .01). Codependency was not significantly correlated with illness prevention behaviors and quality of life. Codependency and depression, as in previous studies, were significantly correlated (r = .446, p = .0001). Using analysis of variance, 3 codependency subscales had significant positive effect on depression: Low Self-Worth, Medical Problems, and Hiding Self. Further studies should examine the degree of ascribing to traditional female roles in women dealing with codependency issues.

  9. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  10. The association between organizational behavior factors and health-related quality of life among college teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Wang, Shu; Shen, Xue; Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2015-06-20

    College teachers in China are confronted with a lot of pressure from teaching, researching and living. They are suffering from impaired physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between organizational behavior factors and college teachers' health related quality of life (HRQOL), and to confirm whether they are positive resources for improving teachers' HRQOL. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from January to April 2014. Participants were composed of 965 teachers randomly selected from five representative colleges in Shenyang. Self-administrated questionnaires containing the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Chinese version Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), and scales assessing group identification, POS, and psychological empowerment were used to measure HRQOL and organizational behavior variables of college teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the effects of organizational behavior variables on college teachers' HRQOL. The mean (SD) scores of physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) among college teachers were 71.43 (14.70) and 65.46 (16.55) respectively in the study population. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that group identification (β = 0.121, P < 0.001) and PsyCap (β = 0.336, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of PCS, while group identification (β = 0.107, P < 0.001), POS (β = 0.124, P = 0.003), psychological empowerment (β = 0.093, P = 0.017) and PsyCap (β = 0.421, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of MCS. Chinese college teachers experienced relatively low level of HRQOL and their mental quality of life (QOL) were impaired more seriously than physical QOL. Organizational behavior factors (PsyCap, group identification, POS and psychological empowerment) were strong predictors of college teachers' HRQOL and are

  11. Effect of personalized nutrition on health-related behavior change: evidence from the Food4Me randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background - Optimal nutritional choices are linked with better health but most current interventions to improve diet have limited effect. We tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutrition (PN) advice based on collected information on individual diet and lifestyle, phenotype or genotype...

  12. Determinants of Preventive Health Behavior in Relation to Cervical Cancer Screening among the Female Population of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejic, Bojana; Vukovic, Dejana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kesic, Vesna; Markovic, Milica

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the factors that deter or stimulate the women to participate in screening activities is very important in order to design effective education and motivation strategies, particularly in the countries without an organized system. The study employed a case-control design. The participants were recruited in four primary health care…

  13. Determinants of Preventive Health Behavior in Relation to Cervical Cancer Screening among the Female Population of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejic, Bojana; Vukovic, Dejana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kesic, Vesna; Markovic, Milica

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the factors that deter or stimulate the women to participate in screening activities is very important in order to design effective education and motivation strategies, particularly in the countries without an organized system. The study employed a case-control design. The participants were recruited in four primary health care…

  14. Teach Well: The Relation of Teacher Wellness to Elementary Student Health and Behavior Outcomes: Baseline Subgroup Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Tom; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined whether the Teach Well wellness program, offered to elementary teachers, would have an impact on teacher and student cardiovascular health, particularly diet. Evaluation of teachers and students at participating and nonparticipating schools found few significant differences between experimental and control groups but…

  15. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  16. [Education for responsible health behavior].

    PubMed

    Steffens, M C; Bergler, R

    1996-12-01

    34 nursery school teachers, 40 primary school teachers, and 40 parents of primary school children were interviewed. Based on the results of these interviews, standardized questionnaires were developed and answered by 100 mothers of primary school children. Main results are as follows. Most of the nursery school teachers, primary school teachers, and mothers don't show great interest in health-related information, despite the fact that they lack knowledge in this area. Health risks which children could be educated to know, like unhealthy nutrition, are underestimated, whereas ecological risks which cannot be affected are overrated. Nursery and primary school teachers hold that parents are responsible for the health education of their children. Consequently, health-related behaviour in kindergarten and health-related teaching in school are unsatisfactory. Mothers, however, expect schools to teach health-related topics concerning dependencies of all sorts--nicotine, alcohol, illegal drugs, and medication. Nursery school teachers as well as mothers demonstrate little systematic control and few sanctions when it comes to teaching children hygienic behaviour. Therefore, most children show satisfactory preventive behaviour only with regard to brushing their teeth. There are clear deficits in other areas. The mothers act only partly as good role models--for example, many mothers smoke when their children are around. Additionally, mothers don't regularly talk to their children about health-related topics.

  17. Periodontal disease and oral health-related behavior as factors associated with preterm birth: a case-control study in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macedo, J F; Ribeiro, R A; Machado, F C; Assis, N M S P; Alves, R T; Oliveira, A S; Ribeiro, L C

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have suggested a link between periodontal disease and preterm birth, but the mechanism of how this occurs remains controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether periodontal disease, defined according to two commonly used clinical definitions, is associated with preterm birth and to examine the association regarding oral health-related behaviors during pregnancy. This case-control study included women 18-40 years of age. Demographic and socio-economic data, information on current and previous pregnancies, and data on dental health-related behaviors and periodontal clinical parameters were collected within 48 h postpartum. Periodontal disease was assessed according to two definitions: four or more teeth with at least one site showing a probing depth of ≥ 4 mm and clinical attachment level of ≥ 3 mm (Definition 1); or at least one site with probing depth and clinical attachment level of ≥ 4 mm (Definition 2). The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the proportion of categorical variables. Bivariate analysis was performed to analyze the proportion of preterm births with respect to independent variables. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between periodontal disease and preterm birth. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 296 postpartum women met the inclusion criteria. The case group included 74 women who delivered a preterm neonate (< 37 wk of gestation) and the control group included 222 women with deliveries at term (≥ 37 wk). Periodontal disease according to Definition 1 was not associated with fewer weeks of gestation (adjusted OR (OR adjusted ) = 1.62; 95% CI = 0.80-3.29; p = 0.178). However, a significant association was found between periodontal disease, according to Definition 2, and preterm birth (OR adjusted = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.43; p = 0.015). Increased appetite and a low number of daily toothbrushings were

  18. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  19. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  20. Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) Predicts Health-Related Quality of Life (HrQoL) over time among men treated for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Dean G; Benedict, Catherine; Lattie, Emily G; Molton, Ivan; Kinsinger, Dave; Kava, Bruce; Manoharan, Murugesan; Soloway, Mark; Penedo, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment presents multiple challenges that can negatively affect health-related quality of life (HrQoL), and that can be further compromised by maladaptive personality styles and psychological adjustment difficulties. This study examined the utility of a comprehensive psychosocial screening tool to identify psychosocial traits that prospectively predict HrQoL status among men treated for localized prostate cancer. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) was administered to 66 men (M age = 68 years, 59% White) treated by either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy along with standard measures of general and prostate-cancer-specific quality of life assessed at a 12-month follow-up. Higher scores on both summary MBMD Management Guides (Adjustment Difficulties and Psych Referral) and higher scores on personality styles characterized by avoidance, dependency, depression, passive aggressiveness, and self-denigration predicted lower HrQoL (β range = -.21 to -.50). Additionally, higher scores on the MBMD Depression, Tension-Anxiety, and Future Pessimism scales predicted lower HrQoL. Finally, higher scores on the MBMD Intervention Fragility and Utilization Excess scale also consistently predicted poorer mental and physical health functioning over time. These results point to the utility of the MBMD to help screen for potential impairments in mental and physical health functioning in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.

  1. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  2. Sleep, health behaviors, and behavioral interventions: Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Kaar, Jill L; Luberto, Christina M; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2017-05-26

    Numerous health behaviors, including physical activity, diet, smoking, and sleep, play a major role in preventing the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among these behaviors, sleep may play a pivotal role, yet it has been studied somewhat less than other behaviors and there have been few well-designed sleep intervention studies targeting CVD. Furthermore, despite the fact that these behaviors are often interrelated, interventions tend to focus on changing one health behavior rather than concurrently intervening on multiple behaviors. Psychological constructs from depression to positive affect may also have a major effect on these health behaviors and ultimately on CVD. In this review, we summarize the existing literature on the impact of sleep and other cardiac health behaviors on CVD onset and prognosis. We also describe interventions that may promote these behaviors, from established interventions such as motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, to more novel approaches focused on mindfulness and other positive psychological constructs. Finally, we outline population-health-level care management approaches for patients with psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression) that may impact cardiac health, and discuss their potential utility in improving mental health, promoting health behaviors, and reducing CVD-related risk. Much work is still needed to better understand how sleep and other health behaviors may uniquely contribute to CVD risk, and additional high-quality studies of interventions designed to modify cardiac health behaviors are required to improve cardiovascular health in individuals and the population at large.

  3. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions.

  4. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions. PMID:28662120

  5. The Relative Importance of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  6. The Relative Importance of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  7. Racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in urban transit operators: findings from the San Francisco Muni Health and Safety Study.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, I H; Ragland, D R; Greiner, B A; Fisher, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A growing body of literature is documenting the health effects of racial discrimination. The authors investigated the association between racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in a sample of urban transit operators. METHODS: Using data from a 1993-1995 cross-sectional study of transit operators in San Francisco, California, the authors analyzed responses to two sets of questions about racial discrimination; the first set focused on reaction to unfair treatment and the second on arenas, or domains, of discrimination. Alcohol-related variables were: number of drinks per month, heavy drinking, alcohol dependence, and negative consequences of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Operators who reported five or more domains of discrimination drank an average of 13.4 more drinks per month than those who reported no domains of discrimination (P = 0.01). Similarly, they were more likely to be heavy drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14, 4.09) and dependent on alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.08, 3.79) than operators who reported no domains of discrimination. The number of domains in which operators reported having experienced discrimination was not related to sex, age, household income, job seniority, or marital status, but varied significantly by educational level and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Data from a sample of urban transit operators showed an association between the number of domains of discrimination and some alcohol-related outcomes, but not others. PMID:10590767

  8. The Relationships Between Health Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bonnie L.

    1970-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of health attitudes on behavior as well as the effects of a persuasive communication on health attitudes and behavior and the effects of attitudes and behavior on receptivity to health educational materials. Teenagers exposed to two persuasive communications about diabetes exhibited no effects on…

  9. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  10. Exploring Perceptions about and Behaviors Related to Mental Illness and Mental Health Service Utilization among College Students Using the Health Belief Model (HBM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Maykrantz, Sherry Azadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health service is underutilized in the United States. Adolescent and young adults, including college students, are especially unlikely to seek professional help for mental illness. This issue presents a concern, because signs and symptoms commonly appear during this part of growth and development. Purpose: The Health Belief…

  11. Pilot testing a cognitive-behavioral protocol on psychosocial predictors of exercise, nutrition, weight, and body satisfaction changes in a college-level health-related fitness course.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented: Small Groups (n = 34) conditions. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) assessed overall and between-class changes in the behavioral/physiological factors of exercise, fruit/vegetable intake, and body mass index (BMI); and the psychosocial factors of self-regulation, exercise self-efficacy, mood, and body satisfaction. Dependent t tests evaluated within-class changes. Multiple regression analyses tested prediction of exercise by changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood. Significant improvements in self-regulation and fruit/vegetable intake were found in all classes. The Coach Approach-supplemented classes demonstrated significant increases in exercise. Significant improvements in BMI, self-efficacy, and body satisfaction were found in only The Coach Approach-supplemented: Small Groups class. Psychosocial changes predicted increased exercise. Self-regulation was the strongest contributor. Overall, results were positive and warrant more comprehensive testing.

  12. Alcohol Use Among Active Duty Women: Analysis AUDIT Scores From the 2011 Health-Related Behavior Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Diana D; Mattiko, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies document higher substance use among military men after deployment; similar studies focused on military women are limited. This study examines alcohol use of active duty women and deployment factors, social/environmental/attitudinal factors, and psychological/intrapersonal factors. Secondary data analysis of the 2011 Survey of Health-Related Behavior of active duty military personnel was conducted using bivariate statistics and multiple regression analyses with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores as the dependent variable. Nearly 94% had low risk for alcohol use disorders. Length of combat experience and extent of combat exposure were unrelated to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores; noncombat deployment was unrelated after controlling for marital status, age of first drink, pay grade, and branch of service. Significant motivators (p < 0.001) for drinking were "like/enjoy drinking," "drink to cheer up," "drink to forget problems," and significant deterrents were "cost of alcohol" and "fear of upsetting family/friends if used alcohol." Anger propensity, risk propensity, lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, and depressed mood were significant predictors in the regression model after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that some active duty women use alcohol to cope with adverse emotional states, whereas others use alcohol consistent with propensity for high-risk behaviors. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. A Qualitative Study for Understanding Family and Peer Influences on Obesity-Related Health Behaviors in Low-Income African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Methods Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n=45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6±1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000–$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r=0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Results Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer

  14. Relation of depression with health behaviors and social conditions of dependent community-dwelling older persons in the Republic of Chile.

    PubMed

    Sandoval Garrido, Felipe Alfonso; Tamiya, Nanako; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Noguchi, Haruko

    2016-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are a leading cause of disability and emotional suffering, particularly in old age. However, evidence on depression and old age in developing countries remains largely ignored. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between health behavior and social conditions with depression among dependent community-dwelling older persons in the Republic of Chile. This is a cross-sectional and inferential study, using nationally representative secondary data. Two models used logistic regression on 640 dependent community-dwelling older persons from all over Chile, who personally answered a depression assessment, excluding those taking antidepressants. The geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) was used as outcome. The first model aims at any kind of depression (GDS 5>). The second aims at severe depression (GDS 10>). As exposure, we used the health behavior and social conditions of the older persons. Socio-demographic and physical conditions were used as adjustment. 44.5% of the older persons presented depressive symptoms. Among them, 11% had severe depression. Logistic regression showed that significant detrimental factors for being depressed in both models were visiting the doctor five times or over because of acute diseases, feeling uncomfortable with their living arrangement, and feeling discriminated. On the other hand, every additional day of physical exercise and living alone had a beneficial and detrimental effect only in model one. Analyses on ways to support older persons living alone and the promotion of physical exercise to avoid depression are needed, along with a deeper understanding of the comfort with their living arrangement. Finally, ways to address the discrimination among older persons should be further explored.

  15. Traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and health-risk behavior in relation to injury among University of Nairobi students in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Othieno, Caleb J; Okoth, Roselyne; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Malla, Lucas O

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and types of injuries in relation to traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and health-risk behaviors among university students in Kenya. A cross-sectional study collected data on a random sample of university students using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables while injuries experiences recorded using the Centers for Disease control criteria and Breslau's seven-item screener was used to identify post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using Center for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression Scale. Nine hundred and twenty-three students (525 male and 365 female) were included in the study, mean age 23 years (SD 4.0). Serious injury in the previous 12 months was reported by 29.00% of the students. PTSD was present in 15.67% (men 15.39% and women 16.1%). Out of the total, 41.33% of the students had depressive symptoms (35.71% mild-moderate symptoms and 5.62% severe). In the multivariable logistic regression being poor, binge drinking, tobacco use, ever been diagnosed with HIV, physically abused as a child, high PTSD score, and depression (adjusted odds ratio 5.49, 95% confidence interval 4.32-13.21) were significantly (p value<5%) associated with injury in the last 12 months. Unintentional injuries and PTSD symptoms are common in this student population and are positively linked to depression and other risky behaviors. Measures aimed at improving the mental health, such as early identification and treatment of depression, may be useful in reducing the prevalence of such injuries among the youth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A qualitative study for understanding family and peer influences on obesity-related health behaviors in low-income African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K

    2012-10-01

    Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n = 45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6 ± 1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000-$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r = 0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer-adolescent interactions.

  17. Technology-delivered adaptations of motivational interviewing for health-related behaviors: A systematic review of the current research.

    PubMed

    Shingleton, Rebecca M; Palfai, Tibor P

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to describe and evaluate the methods and efficacy of technology-delivered motivational interviewing interventions (TAMIs), discuss the challenges and opportunities of TAMIs, and provide a framework for future research. We reviewed studies that reported using motivational interviewing (MI) based components delivered via technology and conducted ratings on technology description, comprehensiveness of MI, and study methods. The majority of studies were fully-automated and included at least one form of media rich technology to deliver the TAMI. Few studies provided complete descriptions of how MI components were delivered via technology. Of the studies that isolated the TAMI effects, positive changes were reported. Researchers have used a range of technologies to deliver TAMIs suggesting feasibility of these methods. However, there are limited data regarding their efficacy, and strategies to deliver relational components remain a challenge. Future research should better characterize the components of TAMIs, empirically test the efficacy of TAMIs with randomized controlled trials, and incorporate fidelity measures. TAMIs are feasible to implement and well accepted. These approaches offer considerable potential to reduce costs, minimize therapist and training burden, and expand the range of clients that may benefit from adaptations of MI. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Technology-delivered adaptations of motivational interviewing for health-related behaviors: A systematic review of the current research

    PubMed Central

    Shingleton, Rebecca M.; Palfai, Tibor P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this paper were to describe and evaluate the methods and efficacy of technology-delivered motivational interviewing interventions (TAMIs), discuss the challenges and opportunities of TAMIs, and provide a framework for future research. Methods We reviewed studies that reported using motivational interviewing (MI) based components delivered via technology and conducted ratings on technology description, comprehensiveness of MI, and study methods. Results The majority of studies were fully-automated and included at least one form of media rich technology to deliver the TAMI. Few studies provided complete descriptions of how MI components were delivered via technology. Of the studies that isolated the TAMI effects, positive changes were reported. Conclusion Researchers have used a range of technologies to deliver TAMIs suggesting feasibility of these methods. However, there are limited data regarding their efficacy, and strategies to deliver relational components remain a challenge. Future research should better characterize the components of TAMIs, empirically test the efficacy of TAMIs with randomized controlled trials, and incorporate fidelity measures. Practice Implications TAMIs are feasible to implement and well accepted. These approaches offer considerable potential to reduce costs, minimize therapist and training burden, and expand the range of clients that may benefit from adaptations of MI. PMID:26298219

  19. Factors associated with psychological distress, behavioral impact and health-related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Co, Michelle Ang; Tan, Luor Shyuan Maudrene; Tai, E Shyong; Griva, Konstadina; Amir, Mohamed; Chong, Kok Joon; Lee, Yung Seng; Lee, Jeannette; Khoo, Eric Yin-Hao; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Data on psychological distress (DIS), behavioral impact (BI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important yet lacking among Asian patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aim to identify factors associated with DIS, BI and HRQoL among T2DM to better understand patient needs. DIS was measured with Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) Psychological Distress (DHP-PD) subscale, Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) and Kessler-10 (K10), BI with DHP-18 Barriers to Activity and Disinhibited Eating subscales and HRQoL with Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between these outcomes and patient demographic, socioeconomic status, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and comorbidities. 213 T2DM patients (mean (SD) age: 45.0 (12.1) years, mean (SD) HbA1C: 8.3% (1.9%) and 70.0% reported at least one comorbidity) were evaluated. Poorer glycemic control was significantly associated with higher DHP-PD, PAID and worse HRQoL. Taking oral hypoglycemic agents plus insulin was independently associated with Barrier to Activity and Disinhibited Eating. Poorer glycemic control was only associated with diabetes-related distress (measured by DHP-PD and PAID) but not major depressive disorder (measured by K10). It may be more appropriate to screen for diabetes-related distress rather than major depressive disorder for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health, health behaviors, and health dissimilarities predict divorce: results from the HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Torvik, Fartein Ask; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Poor health and health behaviors are associated with divorce. This study investigates the degree to which six health indicators and health behaviors among husbands and wives are prospectively related to divorce, and whether spousal similarities in these factors are related to a reduced risk of marital dissolution. Theoretically, a reduced risk is possible, because spousal similarity can help the couple's adaptive processes. The data come from a general population sample (19,827 couples) and 15 years of follow-up data on marital dissolution. The following characteristics were investigated: Poor subjective health, obesity, heavy drinking, mental distress, lack of exercise, and smoking. Associations between these characteristics among husbands and wives and later divorce were investigated with Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. All the investigated characteristics except obesity were associated with marital dissolution. Moreover, spousal similarities in four of these characteristics (heavy drinking, mental distress, no exercise, and smoking) reduced the risk of divorce, compared to the combined main effects of husbands and wives. Nevertheless, couples concordant in these health issues still had higher risks of divorce than couples without these characteristics. Couples with similar health and health behavior are at a lower risk of divorce than are couples who are dissimilar in health. Health differences may thus be seen as vulnerabilities or stressors, supporting a health mismatch hypothesis. This study demonstrates that people who are similar to each other are more likely to stay together. Harmonizing partners' health behaviors may be a target in divorce prevention.

  1. Using physiological dysregulation to assess global health status: associations with self-rated health and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Vogt, Thomas M; Hillier, Teresa A; Dubanoski, Joan P

    2009-03-01

    Six measures of physiological dysregulation were derived from 11 clinically assessed biomarkers, and related to health outcomes and health behaviors for the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort (N = 470). Measures summing extreme scores at one tail of the biomarker distributions performed better than ones summing both tails, and continuous measures performed better than count scores. Health behaviors predicted men's dysregulation but not women's. Dysregulation and health behaviors predicted self-rated health for both men and women, and depressive symptoms predicted self-rated health only for women. These findings provide preliminary guidelines for constructing valid summary measures of global health status for use in health psychology.

  2. Health Information–Seeking Behaviors, Health Indicators, and Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Weaver, Stephanie Sargent; Hopkins, Gary L.; Eroğlu, Doğan; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how different types of health information–seeking behaviors (HISBs)—no use, illness information only, wellness information only, and illness and wellness information combined—are associated with health risk factors and health indicators to determine possible motives for health information seeking. Methods. A sample of 559 Seattle–Tacoma area adults completed an Internet-based survey in summer 2006. The survey assessed types of HISB, physical and mental health indicators, health risks, and several covariates. Covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models were computed. Results. Almost half (49.4%) of the sample reported HISBs. Most HISBs (40.6%) involved seeking a combination of illness and wellness information, but both illness-only (28.6%) and wellness-only (30.8%) HISBs were also widespread. Wellness-only information seekers reported the most positive health assessments and the lowest occurrence of health risk factors. An opposite pattern emerged for illness-only information seekers. Conclusions. Our findings reveal a unique pattern of linkages between the type of health information sought (wellness, illness, and so on) and health self-assessment among adult Internet users in western Washington State. These associations suggest that distinct health motives may underlie HISB, a phenomenon frequently overlooked in previous research. PMID:20558794

  3. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  4. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  5. Heart rate, health, and hurtful behavior.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J Richard; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-03-01

    Hostility is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. When challenged, individuals high on hostility exhibit a hyperreactive psychophysiological response to stressors, thereby increasing risk for developing cardiovascular disease. However, low resting heart rate (HR) is associated with physical aggression and hostility in children, adolescents, and adults. Based on a community sample of 296 men (mean age = 32.0), we (a) address whether aggression/hostility relates to physical health through relationships with cardiovascular levels at rest and in response to stressors, and (b) determine how relations between aggression and health are altered by including psychophysiological indices in statistical models. The Cook-Medley cynical/hostile attitudes and the Buss-Perry physical aggression and hostility measures assessed aggression. Health was assessed as systolic blood pressure (SBP), report of medical conditions, and a metabolic composite. Reactivity to stressors was assessed with HR, SBP, and diastolic blood pressure. Aggression was negatively related to both resting HR and reactivity. High resting HR and reactivity were, however, positively related to poor health. Thus, the relationship between aggression and HR and reactivity suppressed an overall relationship between high aggression/hostility and poor health. In the presence of covariates for socioeconomic status, race, health behaviors, and medications, the relationship between aggression and health was significantly strengthened when HR level and reactivity were included in models. In sum, at early midlife, low HR among aggressive and hostile individuals is related to less health risk. Aggression and hostility have a deleterious influence on health, but primarily among individuals with higher HR and possibly greater cardiovascular reactivity.

  6. Relationship of maternal knowledge of anemia with maternal and child anemia and health-related behaviors targeted at anemia among families in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Souganidis, Ellie S.; Sun, Kai; de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Rah, Jee-Hyun; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Sari, Mayang; Bloem, Martin W.; Semba, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our specific aim was to characterize maternal knowledge of anemia and its relationship to maternal and child anemia and to behaviors related to anemia reduction. Methods We examined the relationship between maternal knowledge of anemia and anemia in the mother and the youngest child, aged 6–59 mo, in 7,913 families from urban slums and 37,874 families from rural areas of Indonesia. Knowledge of anemia was defined based upon the mother’s ability to correctly name at least one symptom of anemia and at least one treatment or strategy for reducing anemia. Hemoglobin was measured in both the mother and the child. Results In urban and rural areas, respectively, 35.8% and 36.9% of mothers had knowledge of anemia, 28.7% and 25.1% of mothers were anemic (hemoglobin <12 g/dL), and 62.3% and 54.0% of children were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dL). Maternal knowledge of anemia was associated with child anemia in urban and rural areas, respectively, (Odds Ratio [O.R.] 0.90, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 0.79, 1.02, P = 0.10; O.R. 0.93, 95% C.I. 0.87, 0.98, P = 0.01) in multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between maternal knowledge of anemia and maternal anemia. Maternal knowledge of anemia was significantly associated with iron supplementation during pregnancy and child consumption of fortified milk. There was no association of maternal knowledge of anemia with child deworming. Conclusions Maternal knowledge of anemia is associated with lower odds of anemia in children and with some health behaviors related to reducing anemia. PMID:22241619

  7. Depression-Related Behavioral Tests.

    PubMed

    Powell, Timothy R; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2012-06-01

    Overlapping characteristics between human depressive phenotypes and mouse behaviors has led to the creation of mouse models that aim to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of unipolar depression. Behavioral tests in mice are used to assess and quantify the extent to which a mouse model displays a depression-like phenotype. The forced swim test and tail suspension test, sucrose preference test, and novelty suppressed feeding tests all aim to measure different components of depression. However, each one of these tests has different strengths and weaknesses in terms of predictive, face and construct validities. Furthermore, the responses to these tests vary greatly depending on strain of mouse. Depression-related behavioral tests are an extremely useful investigative tool in unearthing causes and predicting treatment outcomes in human depression, but as this review demonstrates, the comprehension of the finer details are extremely important in the design, analysis, and evaluation of such mouse studies. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 2:119-127 © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Maintenance of health behavior change in preventive cardiology. Internalization and self-regulation of new behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bellg, Albert J

    2003-01-01

    Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.

  9. Substance Use and Mental Health Risk Factors for Servicemembers: Findings from U.S. Department of Defense Health Related Behavior Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    methamphetamine, tranquilizers or muscle relaxers, sedatives or barbiturates, pain relievers, and anabolic steroids . “Nonmedical use” was defined as any use of...cognitive injuries, their consequences , and service to assist recovery (pp. 87–161). San Monica, CA Rand Corporation. [9] Seal, K. H., Metzler, T. J... consequences among active duty military personnel. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 608–614. [20] Reiger, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locke, B. Z., Keith, S

  10. Health behavior theory constructs and smoking and cessation-related behavior among survivors of ten cancers nine years after diagnosis: A report from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-I.

    PubMed

    Lee Westmaas, J; Berg, Carla J; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Stein, Kevin

    2015-07-02

    Quitting smoking is important for cancer prognosis, but some cancer survivors continue to smoke. This study examined psychological correlates of smoking status and patterns, likelihood of quitting, and intentions to quit among long-term survivors. Cross-sectional relationships between psychological constructs from health behavior theories (e.g., perceived risk, quitting barriers) and smoking and cessation-related behavior were examined among survivors of 10 cancers. Survivors were recruited by stratified random sampling from cancer registries in a nationwide, longitudinal, quality-of-life study (n=2938). Approximately 9 years post-diagnosis, survivors who currently smoke (compared with those who quit before or after diagnosis) perceived health problems caused by smoking as less severe, perceived fewer benefits of quitting for cancer survivors, greater barriers to quitting, and reported more daily exposure to others' smoking. Survivors intending to quit (vs. those not intending or unsure) perceived greater risks of smoking for cancer prognosis, more severe health effects from smoking, fewer benefits of smoking, and greater social pressure to quit. Nondaily smokers had higher levels of self-efficacy and less exposure to others' smoking compared to daily smokers. Long-term cancer survivors' perceptions of the risks of smoking for cancer prognosis, the severity of health problems from smoking, cessation barriers, and the benefits of quitting are appropriate targets for interventions for continuing smokers. Nondaily smokers may be especially amenable to intervention. Survivors' daily exposure to others' smoking should also be addressed in treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  13. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Preventing Violence and Related Health-Risking, Social Behaviors in Adolescents, October 13-15, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.

    2006-01-01

    NIH consensus and state-of-the-science statements are prepared by independent panels of health professionals and public representatives on the basis of (1) the results of a systematic literature review prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), (2) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to…

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life Domains and Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Strine, Tara W.; Neff, Linda J.; Crawford, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between self-reported levels of household disaster preparedness and a range of physical and mental health quality of life outcomes. Methods Data collected from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey were analyzed (n 5 104 654). Household disaster-preparedness items included having a 3-day supply of food, water, and prescription medications; a working battery-powered radio and flashlight; an evacuation plan; and a willingness to evacuate when instructed to do so. Quality-of-life items were categorized into 2 domains: physical health (general health, unhealthy physical days, and activity-limited days) and mental health (unhealthy mental days, social and emotional support, and life satisfaction). Results Persons with self-reported impaired mental health were generally less likely to report being prepared for a disaster than those who did not report impairment in each domain. Persons with low life satisfaction were among the least likely to be prepared, followed by those with inadequate social and emotional support, and then by those with frequent mental distress. Persons reporting physical impairments also reported deficits in many of the preparedness items. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, some of the associations were attenuated and no longer significant Conclusion Persons reporting impaired quality of life are vulnerable to increased mental and physical distress during a disaster, and their vulnerability is compounded if they are ill-prepared. Therefore, persons reporting impaired quality of life should be included in the list of vulnerable populations that need disaster preparedness and response outreach. PMID:24618171

  15. Modeling how substitution of sedentary behavior with standing or physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eline H; Bours, Martijn J L; Breedveld-Peters, José J L; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Kant, Ijmert; van den Brandt, Piet A; Beets, Geerard L; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2016-04-01

    Previous research indicates that sedentary behavior is unfavorably associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Using isotemporal substitution modeling, we studied how substituting sedentary behavior with standing or physical activity was associated with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2-10 years post-diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 145) diagnosed at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands (2002-2010). Sedentary, standing, and physical activity time were measured by the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor. HRQoL outcomes comprised global quality of life, physical, role, and social functioning, and disability (scales: 0-100), fatigue (20-140), and depression and anxiety (0-21). Isotemporal substitution modeling was applied to analyze associations with HRQoL of substituting sedentary time with equal time in standing or physical activity. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.7), 3.4 h/day standing (1.3), and 1.7 h/day in physical activity (0.8). In confounder-adjusted isotemporal models, substituting sedentary time with standing or with physical activity was associated with significantly better physical functioning (regression coefficient [β], i.e., difference in outcome score per 1 h/day of sedentary time substituted with standing or physical activity, 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 5.7; and 5.6; 0.7, 10.6, respectively). Substituting sedentary time with standing was also associated with significantly lower disability (β, -3.0; 95% CI -4.9, -1.1) and fatigue (-4.0; -7.6, -0.3). Our results suggest that substituting sedentary behavior with standing or physical activity may be beneficially associated with certain HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm whether actual substitution of sedentary behavior with these activities may improve HRQoL in CRC survivors.

  16. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android.

  17. Circadian clocks in mood-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs

    2010-05-06

    The circadian clock organizes biochemical and physiological processes of an organism in a temporal fashion. This temporal organization is crucial to avoid interference of processes that have adverse effects on each other. Thus, disruption of temporal organization can lead to health problems and behavioral disorders related to mood alterations. To alleviate the consequences of a disrupted temporal organization in the body, it is of importance to understand the processes involved in the synchronization of all body clocks and their phase relationship to the environmental day/night cycle at the mechanistic level. This review will focus on internal and external factors affecting synchronization and function of the circadian system and highlight connections to mood-related behavior.

  18. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland.…

  19. African-American Adolescents' Knowledge, Health-Related Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Contraceptive Decisions: Implications for the Prevention of Adolescent HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    1993-01-01

    African-American adolescents (n=195) completed measures on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, condoms, health locus of control, vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus, peer sexual norms, sexual behavior, and contraceptive preferences. Girls were more knowledgeable about AIDS, reported fewer sexual partners, held more…

  20. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland.…

  1. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  2. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  3. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  4. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  5. Determinants of Consumer eHealth Information Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.

  6. Determinants of Consumer eHealth Information Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sandefer, Ryan H.; Westra, Bonnie L.; Khairat, Saif S.; Pieczkiewicz, David S.; Speedie, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access. PMID:26958251

  7. The association of major patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep with health-related quality of life: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Bayán-Bravo, Ana; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; Gutierrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    To examine the prospective association of patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the general population of Spain. A cohort study with 4271 individuals aged ≥ 18 years was recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up prospectively through 2012. Activity patterns were derived from factor analysis. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 questionnaire, and suboptimal HRQL was defined as a score below the sex-specific sample median. Three main activity patterns were identified. A higher adherence to the pattern named "vigorous activity-seated at the computer" was inversely associated with a suboptimal score in the physical-composite summary (PCS) of the SF-12 (multivariate adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for the highest vs. the lowest quartile 0.71; 95% confidence interval [IC] 0.55-0.90; p-trend=0.003). The "light activity-seated for reading" pattern was inversely associated with a suboptimal score in the mental-composite summary (aOR=0.73; 95% CI=0.61-0.89; p-trend=0.002). However, a higher adherence to the "seated for watching TV-daytime sleeping" pattern was directly associated with suboptimal PCS (aOR=1.35; 95% CI=1.10-1.66; p-trend=0.008). Patterns including any physical activity were associated with better physical or mental HRQL. However, a pattern defined by sedentary behavior with diurnal sleep showed worse HRQL and should be a priority target of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do young adults participate in surveys that 'go green'? Response rates to a web and mailed survey of weight-related health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harwood, Eileen M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Hannan, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding the contextual factors that influence health behaviors to inform the development of programs and services for youth during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Researchers are thus in need of efficient strategies for surveying diverse populations of young adults. This study among a population-based sample of young adults aimed to 1) examine response to a mixed-mode survey design (web and mailed surveys) and 2) identify demographic correlates of response mode. Young adults who participated in previous study waves were invited to participate in the third wave of a 10-year longitudinal study (Project EAT-III: 2008-2009) examining factors associated with weight-related behaviors. Participants were mailed invitation letters providing the web address and a unique password for completing the survey. Nonresponders were mailed three reminder invitations; the third mailing included the paper form, and all other mailings included a postage-paid card for requesting the paper form. Most completed surveys (82.1% of n=2,287) were returned by respondents within the first four months of fielding prior to the mailing which included the paper form. Nearly all of these early responders (92.6% of n=1,878) and 86.5% of the full respondent sample (n=1,979 of 2,287) completed the web form. Response to the web versus mailed paper form of the survey was associated with age >25 years, higher socioeconomic status, current employment, student status, and having no children. The combination of web and mailed survey modes is an effective strategy for conducting data collection in demographically diverse, young adult populations.

  9. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    PubMed

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  10. Health Plans' Disease Management Programs: Extending across the Medical and Behavioral Health Spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    While the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes, but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health, and depression program characteristics are highly variable. PMID:18806594

  11. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal…

  12. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal…

  13. Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

  14. Farmworker Health-Related Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Farmworker Organizations, Washington, DC.

    Documents pertaining to migrant and seasonal farmworker health comprise this bibliography of over 300 entries, nearly 100 of them annotated. The purpose of the bibliography is to provide health groups within the National Association of Farmworker Organizations with literature which may guide further research related to the provision of health care…

  15. Hypnosis and related clinical behavior.

    PubMed

    Frankel, F H

    1978-06-01

    The essential aspect in the experience of the hypnotized person is the altered or distorted perception that is suggested to him. Not all people are capable of the experience, but it is possible that spontaneous distortions occur in those with high hypnotizability. These distortions are frequently experienced as frightening symptoms. The author draws attention to the similarity between hysterical symptoms and events in hypnosis and to the high hypnotic responsivity in hysterical subjects reported in the clinical literature of the nineteenth century. Phobic patients have relatively high hypnotic responsivity. The author believes that it is sometimes possible to predict hypnotizability from clinical behavior, and that hypnotic responsivity can be utilized in psychodynamically sensitive therapy to teach such patients that they can learn to gain control of their symptoms.

  16. Predictors of Health Behavior from a Behavior-Analytic Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkimer, John C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers a high correlation between positive emotional states, supportive self talk, and specific healthy behaviors in college students. The correlated health behaviors were vigorous exercise, mild exercise, seat belts, and avoidance of alcohol and junk food. Considers the impact of negative self talk on the avoidance of negative behavior. (MJP)

  17. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  18. Cyberchondria: Parsing Health Anxiety From Online Behavior.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Torstrick, Emily R; Walton, Kate E; Fallon, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with questions about their health often turn to the Internet for information about their symptoms, but the degree to which health anxiety is related to online checking, and clinical variables, remains unclear. The clinical profiles of highly anxious Internet checkers, and the relationship to checking behavior itself, have not previously been reported. In this article, we test the hypothesis, derived from cognitive-behavioral models, that individuals with higher levels of illness anxiety would recall having experienced worsening anxiety after reassurance-seeking on the Internet. Data from 731 volunteers who endorsed engaging in online symptom-searching were collected using an online questionnaire. Severity of health anxiety was assessed with the Whiteley Index, functional impairment with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and distress recall during and after searching with a modified version of the Clinician׳s Global Impairment scale. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine variables contributing to distress during and after Internet checking. Severity of illness anxiety on the Whiteley Index was the strongest predictor of increase in anxiety associated with, and consequent to, online symptom-searching. Individuals with high illness anxiety recalled feeling worse after online symptom-checking, whereas those with low illness anxiety recalled relief. Longer-duration online health-related use was associated with increased functional impairment, less education, and increased anxiety during and after checking. Because individuals with moderate-high levels of illness anxiety recall experiencing more anxiety during and after searching, such searching may be detrimental to their health. If replicated in controlled experimental settings, this would suggest that individuals with illness anxiety should be advised to avoid using the Internet for illness-related information. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  19. Complexities of measuring perfectionism: three popular perfectionism measures and their relations with eating disturbances and health behaviors in a female college student sample.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Ivezaj, Valentina; Downey, Christina A; Kashima, Yuri; Morady, Aviva R

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between three popular measures of perfectionism [the Eating Disorders Inventory - Perfectionism scale (EDI-P), the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS)] and measures of eating disturbances and health behaviors, in a sample of 248 female college students. Results indicated that the adaptiveness or maladaptiveness of certain perfectionism dimensions should still be questioned. Also, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (from the MPS) were consistently found to be the most important predictors of both eating disturbances and health behaviors. Surprisingly, scores on the EDI-P were not found to be significant predictors of eating disturbances when FMPS and MPS scores were included in regression analyses. Implications of the present findings are discussed.

  20. Theory's role in shaping behavioral health research for population health.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C

    2015-11-26

    The careful application of theory often is used in the behavioral health field to enhance our understanding of how the world currently works. But theory also can help us visualize what the world can become, particularly through its potential impacts on population-wide health. Applying a multi-level ecological perspective can help in expanding the field's focus upward toward the population at large. While ecological frameworks have become increasingly popular, arguably such perspectives have fallen short of their potential to actively bridge conceptual constructs and, by extension, intervention approaches, across different levels of population impact. Theoretical and conceptual perspectives that explicitly span levels of impact offer arguably the greatest potential for achieving scientific insights that may in turn produce the largest population health effects. Examples of such "bridging" approaches include theories and models that span behavioral + micro-environment, behavioral + social/cultural, and social + physical environment constructs. Several recommendations are presented related to opportunities for leveraging theories to attain the greatest impact in the population health science field. These include applying the evidence obtained from person-level theories to inform methods for positively impacting the behaviors of community gatekeepers and decision-makers for greater population change and reach; leveraging the potential of residents as "citizen scientists"--a resource for enacting behavioral health changes at the individual, environmental, and policy levels; using empirical observations and theory in equal parts to build more robust, relevant, and solution-oriented behavior change programs; exploring moderators and mediators of change at levels of impact that go beyond the individual; and considering the circumstances in which applying conceptual methods that embrace a "complexity" as opposed to "causality" perspective may lead to more

  1. Relationships Between eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.

  2. The transition to widowhood and the social regulation of health: consequences for health and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi

    2004-11-01

    This study estimates the effects of the transition to widowhood on changes in the social regulation of health and examines the consequences of this association for health and health risk behavior following spousal death. Analysis of longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study tests the following hypotheses: (a) Widowed individuals experience greater declines in health regulation over time than their married counterparts and (b) the extent to which widowhood undermines health and increases health risk behavior depends on whether it is accompanied by a decline in health regulation. Compared with their continually married counterparts, those who experience the transition to widowhood report a significant decline in the frequency of health reminders and health assistance received from others. The decline in the frequency of health regulation has important consequences for health behavior and health outcomes. Widowhood undermines health and increases health risk behaviors only when it is accompanied by a decline in health regulation. Widowed individuals who experience increases in health regulation show improvements in health and declines in health risk behavior. Interventions targeted at improving the health habits of widowed individuals by mobilizing health-related support systems may be effective at minimizing the negative health consequences of spousal loss.

  3. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  4. The Influence of Health Behaviors During Childhood on Adolescent Health Behaviors, Health Indicators, and Academic Outcomes Among Participants from Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Claudio R; Amato, Katie

    2015-08-01

    Health behaviors during childhood may influence adolescent health behaviors and be related to other important outcomes, but no longitudinal research has examined this in a multicultural population in Hawaii to date. This study investigated if childhood moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behavior influence adolescent (1) MVPA, fruit and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behavior; (2) body mass index (BMI) percentile, general health, and stress; and (3) school marks and school absenteeism. Three cohorts of public elementary school children (fourth to sixth graders) who participated in a state-mandated after-school program in 2004, 2005, and 2006 completed baseline (demographics, MVPA, fruit and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behavior) and 5-year follow-up surveys (demographics, MVPA, fruit and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behavior; BMI, general health, stress, school marks, and absenteeism; combined follow-up n = 334; 14.76 ± 0.87 years old; 55.1% female; 53% Asian, 19.8% Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, 15.3% White, and 11.9% other). Regressions found that childhood MVPA (mean [m] = 45.42, standard deviation [SD] = 31.2 min/day) and fruit and vegetable consumption (m = 6.96, SD = 4.54 servings/day) predicted these behaviors in adolescence (m = 47.22, SD = 27.04 min/day and m = 4.63, SD = 3.03 servings/day, respectively, p < 0.05). Childhood sedentary behavior (m = 3.85, SD = 2.85 h/day)) predicted adolescent BMI percentile (m = 60.93, SD = 28.75, p < 0.05). Childhood fruit and vegetable consumption and sedentary behavior negatively predicted adolescent marks (B average, p < 0.05). Childhood health behaviors do influence adolescent health behaviors, some health outcomes, and some academic indicators in this population, especially childhood sedentary behavior, which underlines the importance of sedentary behavior

  5. HIT: time to end behavioral health discrimination.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2012-10-01

    While the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, provided $20.6 billion for incentive payments to support the adoption and meaningful use of health information technology (HIT), behavioral health organizations were not eligible to receive facility payments. The consequences of excluding behavioral health from HIT incentive payments are found in the results of the "HIT Adoption and Meaningful Use Readiness in Community Behavioral Health" survey. The survey found that only 2% of community behavioral health organizations are able to meet federal meaningful use (MU) requirements-compare this to the 27% of Federally Qualified Health Centers and 20% of hospitals that already meet some level of MU requirements. Behavioral health organizations, serving more than eight million adults, children, and families with mental illnesses and addiction disorders, are ready and eager to adopt HIT to meet the goals of better healthcare, better health, and lower costs. But reaching these goals may prove impossible unless behavioral health achieves "parity" within healthcare and receives resources for the adoption of HIT.

  6. Fear-related behaviors in situations of mass threat

    PubMed Central

    Espinola, Maria; Shultz, James M.; Espinel, Zelde; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Cooper, Janice L.; Baingana, Florence; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Cela, Toni; Towers, Sherry; Mazurik, Laurie; Greene, M. Claire; Beck, Alyssa; Fredrickson, Michelle; McLean, Andrew; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This Disaster Health Briefing focuses on the work of an expanding team of researchers that is exploring the dynamics of fear-related behaviors in situations of mass threat. Fear-related behaviors are individual or collective behaviors and actions initiated in response to fear reactions that are triggered by a perceived threat or actual exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. Importantly, fear-related behaviors modulate the future risk of harm. Disaster case scenarios are presented to illustrate how fear-related behaviors operate when a potentially traumatic event threatens or endangers the physical and/or psychological health, wellbeing, and integrity of a population. Fear-related behaviors may exacerbate harm, leading to severe and sometimes deadly consequences as exemplified by the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. Alternatively, fear-related behaviors may be channeled in a constructive and life-saving manner to motivate protective behaviors that mitigate or prevent harm, depending upon the nature of the threat scenario that is confronting the population. The interaction between fear-related behaviors and a mass threat is related to the type, magnitude, and consequences of the population encounter with the threat or hazard. The expression of FRBs, ranging from risk exacerbation to risk reduction, is also influenced by such properties of the threat as predictability, familiarity, controllability, preventability, and intentionality. PMID:28265486

  7. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  8. Total quality management in behavioral health care.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, G V

    1998-01-01

    The literature on total quality management or continuous quality improvement in the behavioral health care field is just beginning to emerge. Although most of the evidence on its effectiveness remains anecdotal, it seems clear that it can work in behavioral health care organizations with strong leadership support and a long-term commitment.

  9. Health-Seeking Behavior Among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker

    1986-01-01

    Compared persons 65 years of age or older (N=177) to younger adults (n=997) with respect to compliance with 20 recommended health-seeking behaviors. Overall, the elderly group reported greater compliance with these behaviors, attributed more importance to their value, but perceived themselves as having less control over their future health.…

  10. Impact of Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Treatment Services on Physical Health-Related Behaviors and Problems among Dually Diagnosed Patients.

    PubMed

    Stein, Judith A; Zane, Jazmin I; Grella, Christine E

    2012-02-13

    OBJECTIVE: Physical health problems are pervasive among patients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. Yet, drug treatment programs often ignore tobacco use and its association with health. Abstinence self-efficacy has been associated with improved outcomes for co-occurring disorders, which in turn may also impact physical health. This study had the goal of assessing whether abstinence self-efficacy for drugs and alcohol, and provision and use of services would influence tobacco use and other health-related outcomes among 351 individuals with co-occurring disorders in residential drug treatment. METHODS: Structural models tested the impact of baseline abstinence self-efficacy and treatment service characteristics on 6-month outcomes of health problems, functional limitations, health perceptions, and cigarette and heavy alcohol use. Demographics and baseline values for outcome variables were included as covariates. RESULTS: Correlations within time for poor health, cigarette use, and heavy alcohol use were substantial. A longer time in drug treatment was associated with less cigarette and heavy alcohol use at a 6-month follow-up. Baseline health problems were associated with more cigarette use and functional limitations at 6-months. Abstinence self-efficacy did not predict less cigarette use, but predicted less heavy alcohol use and fewer functional limitations. Availability of specialized dual-diagnosis groups and more on-site psychological services were not directly associated with outcomes, but had an impact through indirect effects on more psychological service utilization which predicted better subjective health. CONCLUSIONS: Improving overall treatment retention and services utilization among patients with co-occurring disorders may generalize to improved health perceptions, but specific health promotion and smoking-cessation interventions are warranted to improve health outcomes.

  11. Network composition and health behaviors among older Samoan women.

    PubMed

    Levy-Storms, Lené; Lubben, James E

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how kin and nonkin social support networks influence health behaviors among older Samoan women. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 290 Samoan women who were age 50 years and older were interviewed. Using separate logistic regressions, each health behavior was regressed on age and kin and nonkin social support networks after controlling for background characteristics and health status. In multivariate analyses, higher scores on kin increased the likelihood of never salting food, getting screened for diabetes in the past year, and having had a mammogram in the past 2 years, whereas higher scores on nonkin increased the likelihood of exercising at all and ever trying to lose weight. Kin networks positively affect mostly chronic disease-related health behaviors, whereas nonkin networks positively affect mostly lifestyle-related health behaviors.

  12. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  13. [Attitudes and behavior for reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, A M; Martinez-Sanchez, C; Perez-Segura, J

    1993-05-01

    Educational interventions represent an alternative for the reproductive well-being. The objective of this investigation was to identify in a mexican community, attitudes and behaviors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing a specific health education program. The study population consisted of women between 12 and 44 years old, living in non-residential areas of the Delegation Miguel Hidalgo, D.F. Variables of interest were analyzed only in women with parity (n = 300). Data were collected through interview. The mean age was 31 +/- 8 years. 93.3% were married or in consensual union. 63% had elementary, junior high or prevocational studies. 89% answered that would visit the doctor before considering a pregnancy (junior high+, p < .05), 99% would seek prenatal care if they were pregnant, and 92.7% would have a hospital delivery (parity < or = 3, p < .003). 69.5% had a preconceptional visit before their last pregnancy and 89.9% received prenatal care (junior high+, p < .008). 92.5% had only hospital deliveries (< or = 30 years, p < .05, junior high+, p < .0001, primigravida p < .002, with institutionalized medical services, p < .001), 1.7% had only out-of-hospital deliveries, and 5.8% both. Agreement between attitudes and behaviors are presented. An educational program consisting of confirmation and support to positive attitudes, values and beliefs, and reinforcement to decision making, will result in a final behavior: early assistance to medical care.

  14. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Michelle A.; Krause, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  15. Relationship between health literacy, health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people.

    PubMed

    Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  17. The behavioral economics of health and health care.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.

  18. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard.

  19. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    PubMed Central

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  20. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS.

    PubMed

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-09-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one's diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Tho