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Sample records for health related fitness

  1. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  2. Health-Related Fitness and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; LeBlanc, Betty

    Because research indicates that American youth have become fatter since the 1960's, the development of fitness among young children should not be left to chance. Simple games, rhythms, and dance are not sufficient to insure fitness, for, during the regular free play situation, children very seldom experience physical activity of enough intensity…

  3. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  4. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  5. Evaluation of the NASA/JSC Health Related Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, A. S.; Pinkerton, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the NASA Health Related Fitness Program (HRFP), which includes a 12-week educational component (EC) and quarterly fitness retests (RT), on the results of periodic testing of fitness, body composition, and blood lipids were evaluated in three goups of pilots. These included the group of compliers (those who completed EC and not less than 75 percent RT), the noncompliers (completed EC and lesss than 75 percent RT), and the dropouts from EC. Results show that beneficial changes in physical activity found two years after the completion of the HRFP were related to both the completion of the EC and the periodic fitness reevaluations. These changes were associated with maximal oxygen consumption, percent body fat, body weight, and blood lipids.

  6. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  7. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  8. Health Related Physical Fitness: Who, What, Why, and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Claiborne, Janet M.

    In 1975, a joint committee on physical fitness, composed of the Measurement and Evaluation, Physical Fitness, and Research Councils of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) studied its Youth Fitness Test to determine the need for revision. Study results called for: (1) alteration in traditional…

  9. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(‒)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  10. The Evolution and Validity of Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution fitness testing from an athletic emphasis to one with a public health focus and examines the forces that brought about the change in an environment that was not totally receptive. An atmosphere for change was created during this era with the development of exercise physiology, exercise epidemiology, and measurement.…

  11. [BOUGE-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, J; Béghin, L; Czaplicki, G; Ulmer, Z

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important determinant of global health in children and adolescents. Key components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, speed, and muscular and endurance strength. The school environment provides a great opportunity to assess the physical fitness level in children and adolescents. The french national program "Bouge... Une priorité pour ta santé! "(Move ... A priority for your health!) aims to assess the physical fitness of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years old in French schools. The aim of this paper is to describe the interest to assess different health-related physical fitness components. It presents the chosen tests within said battery for children and adolescents and explains how the battery was conceived. The health-related physical fitness tests included in "BOUGE" were chosen for their validity, reliability, low cost and feasibility for all schools.

  12. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  13. Health-Related Fitness and Physical Activity Courses in U.S. Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Brad; Egeberg, James; Mozumdar, Arupendra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of health-related fitness (HRF) and physical activity (PA) courses at U.S. institutions of higher learning. Data were obtained from 116 two- and four-year colleges and universities. The results show that health-related fitness courses were offered at many 2-year (89.2%)…

  14. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  15. Developing Teachers' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge through a Community of Practice: Impact on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…

  16. Kansas Adapted/Special Physical Education Test Manual. Health Related Fitness and Psychomotor Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Lavay, Barry

    This manual was developed to address the need for health-related physical fitness testing of children with special needs. The first section defines the components of health-related physical fitness which consist of: (1)abdominal strength and endurance measured by a sit-up test; (2) flexibility, measured by a sit and reach test; (3) upper body…

  17. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  18. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  19. Distribution of health-related physical fitness in Slovak population.

    PubMed

    Bebcakova, Viera; Vadasova, Bibiana; Kacur, Peter; Junger, Jan; Borzikova, Iveta; Zvonar, Martin; Gimunova, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to examine relationship between distribution of healthy fitness zone standards of high school students and their type of housing or area of residence. Study sample consisted of 684 students (284 boys, 400 girls) from urban and rural areas of the region Presov in the eastern part of Slovakia. Physical fitness was assessed by four tests: back-saver sit and reach, shoulder stretch, curl-ups and 90° push-ups. Differences by place of residence and types of housing were examined by correspondence analysis of two-dimensional tables with computing Chi square value at significance level p < 0.05. Urban students performed higher level of flexibility, abdominal and upper strength and endurance than rural ones. Boys and girls living in a flat reached higher level of flexibility and abdominal strength/endurance however, they performed worse in upper strength and endurance than those living in a house. Slovak adolescents seem to have a healthier profile in abdominal muscular fitness and upper body flexibility than in lower body flexibility. The relationship between distribution of healthy fitness zone standards and residence area or housing type was revealed only in lower body flexibility, upper strength and endurance of urban and rural girls.

  20. Health-Related Fitness in the Royal Netherlands Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    and at low prices. It was concluded that health promotion activities for this target group were beneficial, but only in concordance with a health...actually worry about chronic disease following these practices is often lacking. Therefore, messages for this target group should aim for the

  1. An Innovative Strategy for Teaching Health-Related Fitness Knowledge in Elementary Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For many decades, children and adolescents have had a deficient level of health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). This is worrisome, since HRFK acquisition has been found to be fundamental for individuals' decision-making as it relates to healthy living. Consequently, Knowledge in Action (KIA) fitness was developed to offer elementary teachers an…

  2. Developing Health-Related Fitness: It Takes More than a Week!--Fitnessgram Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkuski, Jeffrey J.; Masterson, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss some activities that will develop health-related fitness for students and recommend that teachers present activities that make students feel capable, confident and competent to their participation in physical activity. The authors present NASPE's Physical Best fitness education program and the Cooper…

  3. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2005 update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current review presents the 2005 update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness phenotypes. It is based on peer-reviewed papers published by the end of 2005. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or fitness phenotype in...

  4. Health-Related Fitness and Nutritional Practices: Can They Be Enhanced in Upper Elementary School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Aggeloussis, Nikos; Petraki, Christina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week health-related fitness and nutrition education program on fitness components and dietary habits in upper elementary school students. Forty children from the fifth and sixth grade, 10 to 12 years of age (M= 11.2, SD= 1.1), participated in the study. The experimental…

  5. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  6. The Relationship between Preservice Teachers Health-Related Fitness and Movement Competency in Gymnastics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Webster, Liana; Cribbs, Jason; Wellborn, Benjamin; Lineberger, Matthew Blake; Doan, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The current National Initial Standards for Physical Education Teacher Education state that preservice teachers should achieve and maintain a level of health-related fitness consistent with that expected of K12 learners. However, little research has addressed the relevance of teacher fitness to effective physical education teaching. This study…

  7. Health-Related Fitness Models in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer; Kulinna, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Physical education has been an integral part of the school curriculum for more than a century. Although the focus has changed over time, the major objective has remained relatively constant: to provide students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and confidence to be physically active throughout their lifetime. As more physical…

  8. A multilevel analysis of health-related physical fitness. The Portuguese sibling study on growth, fitness, lifestyle and health

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Todd Katzmarzyk, Peter; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Souza, Michele; Chaves, Raquel Nichele; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Santos, Daniel; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates biological, behavioural and sociodemographic correlates of intra-pair similarities, and estimates sibling resemblance in health-related physical fitness (PF). The sample comprises 1101 biological siblings (525 females) aged 9–20 years. PF components and markers were: morphological [waist circumference (WC) and %body fat (%BF)], muscular [handgrip strength (GS) and standing long jump (SLJ)], motor [50-yard dash (50YD) and shuttle run (SR)], and cardiorespiratory (1-mile run). Biological maturation was assessed; physical activity (PA), TV viewing and socioeconomic status (SES) information was obtained. On average, older and more mature subjects are better performers in all PF components; PA was negatively associated with SR, while SES was negatively associated with SLJ and SR. A pattern was observed in the intraclass correlations (ρ) wherein same sex siblings demonstrate greater resemblance for most PF components (sister-sister: 0.35≤ ρ≤0.55; brother-brother: (0.25≤ρ≤0.60) than brother-sister pairs (BS) (0≤ρ≤0.15), except for %BF (ρBB>ρSS>ρBS), and the 1-mile run (ρSS>ρBS>ρBB). In conclusion, behavioural and sociodemographic correlates play different roles in siblings PF expression. Further, a significant familial PF resemblance was observed with different trends in different sibling types, probably due to variations in shared genetic factors and sociodemographic conditions. PMID:28187195

  9. Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Sjöström, M; Suni, J; Castillo, M J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to investigate whether physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, events and syndromes, quality of life and low back pain later in life. Physical fitness-related components were: cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, motor fitness and body composition. Adiposity was considered as both exposure and outcome. The results of 42 studies reporting the predictive validity of health-related physical fitness for CVD risk factors, events and syndromes as well as the results of five studies reporting the predictive validity of physical fitness for low back pain in children and adolescents were summarised. Strong evidence was found indicating that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood and adolescence are associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile later in life. Muscular strength improvements from childhood to adolescence are negatively associated with changes in overall adiposity. A healthier body composition in childhood and adolescence is associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile later in life and with a lower risk of death. The evidence was moderate for the association between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and CVD risk factors, and between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness. Moderate evidence on the lack of a relationship between body composition and low back pain was found. Due to a limited number of studies, inconclusive evidence emerged for a relationship between muscular strength or motor fitness and CVD risk factors, and between flexibility and low back pain.

  10. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015.

  11. Reliability of the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tejero-Gonzalez, Carlos M; Martinez-Gomez, David; Bayon-Serna, Jorge; Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocio; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Veiga, Oscar L

    2013-11-01

    The Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) health-related fitness test battery is a set of reliable, valid, and feasible tests to assess health-related physical fitness in children and in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of this battery in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The extended ALPHA health-related fitness test battery was performed twice within 1 month in 17 apparently healthy adolescents, aged 12-18 years, with DS who had an intelligence quotient ≥ 35. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determinate test-retest reliability, and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare mean differences between measurements. With the exception of subscapular skinfold test, which obtained a moderate agreement (ICC = 0.64), all tests had a very high reliability: the 20-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.86), the right handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the left handgrip strength test (ICC = 0.86), the standing broad jump test (ICC = 0.85), body mass index (ICC = 0.95), waist circumference (ICC = 0.98), triceps skinfold (ICC = 0.85), and the 4 × 10-m shuttle-run test (ICC = 0.92). There were no significant differences (all p > 0.05) in any of the tests. The ALPHA health-related fitness battery is reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in adolescents with DS.

  12. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  13. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  14. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in adolescents: the MOVE Program.

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Béghin, Laurent; Fardy, Paul S; Ulmer, Zekya; Czaplicki, Grégory

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in a French health promotion program 'Move…A priority for your health'. Participants were 174 French youth (88 children and 86 adolescents) aged 8·2-16·2 years. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and flexibility were tested using 20-m shuttle run test, ½ mile run test, basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and 20/30/50-m sprint tests. Reliability was calculated for the basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and sprint tests. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week. Reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analysis. With the exception of the ½ mile run test, which resulted in moderate agreement (0·66), all tests had high reliability. ICCs were 0·97, 0·93, 0·91 and 0·93 for the sprint test, basketball throw, shoulder stretch and the standing long jump, respectively. The differences obtained between the first and the second trial were non-significant. Results from this study indicate that the BOUGE health-related physical fitness battery, administrated by physical education teachers, was reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in children and adolescents in a school setting.

  15. Effects of varying attentional focus on health-related physical fitness performance.

    PubMed

    Bredin, Shannon S D; Dickson, Danika B; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-02-01

    Assessing health-related physical fitness is important for determining health status. However, verbal instructions provided during an assessment generally do not specify direction of attentional focus. This investigation examined the effect of attentional focus on performance outcomes during appraisals of health-related physical fitness. Eight females (25.0 ± 4.0 years) and 8 males (26.3 ± 3.9 years) completed 7 physical fitness tests of the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach (modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test, grip strength, push-ups, sit and reach, partial curl-ups, vertical jump, and back extension) on 3 different days, each separated by 1 week. On day 1, no attentional focus was specified. On days 2 and 3, participants were asked to adopt an external focus (instructions focused attention away from the body) or an internal focus (instructions focused attention on the body's movement) in randomized order. Irrespective of sex, adopting an external focus resulted in significantly better performance on all tests when compared with no focus or internal-focus conditions. An internal focus also resulted in performance decrements for grip strength, push-ups, and vertical jump vs. no focus. These results demonstrate that instructing individuals to adopt an external focus provides a performance advantage on appraisals of aerobic and musculoskeletal fitness, whereas an internal focus may hinder performance. In some participants, these scores may convert to a rating of health status that is 1 health benefit zone higher or lower, respectively. This highlights further the importance of formulating verbal instructions that incorporate attentional focus for optimal performance on appraisals of physical fitness.

  16. The Relationship between Sports Participation and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrow, Matthew S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Otto, Stephanie M.; Farley, Richard F.; Eveland-Sayers, Brandi M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the relationship between sports participation and health-related physical fitness in middle school and high school students. Health-related physical fitness was measured using the Fitnessgram test battery to assess healthy fitness zone (HFZ) achievement in five areas: body composition, muscular…

  17. Health Related Fitness Benefits in Upper Elementary School Children in a Daily Physical Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Peter; Durham, Rick

    1988-01-01

    This article reports results of a study to determine effects of a supplemental physical education program based on health-related fitness factors taught and monitored by classroom teachers. Subjects were 130 students, grades four-six. Findings indicate the treatment group showed improvements in cardiorespiratory endurance, abdominal strength, and…

  18. Teaching Skills and Health-Related Fitness through a Preservice Gymnastics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham-Foutch, Shae

    2007-01-01

    Children who do not develop a foundation of basic motor skills are less likely to participate in regular physical activity. An excellent way of teaching basic motor skills, as well as health-related fitness, is through gymnastics. Many young teachers, however, think that teaching gymnastics is too challenging and do not know how to incorporate it…

  19. A Conceptual Physical Education Course and College Freshmen's Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jingwen; Shangguan, Rulan; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Leitner, Jessica; Wu, Yigang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual physical education (CPE) classes have been widely offered to promote a healthy lifestyle in higher education settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of a CPE course on health-related fitness (HRF) levels among college freshmen. Design/methodology/approach: A pre- and post-test research design was used. In…

  20. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  1. Evaluating Injury Risk and Gender Performance on Health- and Skill-Related Fitness Assessments.

    PubMed

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-04-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Bushman, TT, Anderson, MK, North, WJ, and Jones, BH. Evaluating injury risk and gender performance on health- and skill-related fitness assessments. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 971-980, 2017-The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the association of injury risk and gender performance on health- and skill-related fitness assessments. A survey was used to collect personal characteristics and Army Physical Fitness Test scores (2-mile run, push-ups, and sit-ups). Within the same day, 9 physical fitness assessments were performed. Percent body fat was estimated using height, weight, age, and sex. All fitness assessment data were categorized into tertiles of high, moderate and low performance. To investigate potential injury risk predicted by fitness assessment performance, injury risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using medical record data. A total of 3,264 soldiers completed surveys and physical fitness assessments. Tertiles of fitness performance with men and women combined showed that on an average, 14% of women and 70% of men were in the moderate- and high-performance groups. Among men, higher injury risk was independently associated with low performance on a 2-mile run (ORslow/fast = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.94) and low performance on a weighted 300-yard shuttle run (ORslow/fast = 1.36, 95% CI 1.06-1.74). For women, a higher risk of injury was associated with low performance on the 2-mile run (ORslow/fast = 2.38, 95% CI 1.04-5.74). Therefore, out of the 13 fitness assessments, the 2-mile run and weighted 300-yard shuttle run can also (in addition to measuring performance) be utilized to identify soldiers or athletes who are at a higher risk of experiencing an injury.

  2. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the "Fuprecol

  3. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study’s aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion “Fuprecol study”. Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland–Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  4. Health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Buffart, Laurien M; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G; van Wijlen-Hempel, Marie S; Stam, Henk J; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2008-05-01

    To assess components of health-related physical fitness in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele (MMC), and to study relations between aerobic capacity and other health-related physical fitness components. This cross-sectional study included 50 adolescents and young adults with MMC, aged 16-30 years (25 males). Aerobic capacity was quantified by measuring peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) during a maximal exercise test on a cycle or arm ergometer depending on the main mode of ambulation. Muscle strength of upper and lower extremity muscles was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer. Regarding flexibility, we assessed mobility of hip, knee and ankle joints. Body composition was assessed by measuring thickness of four skin-folds. Relations were studied using linear regression analyses. Average peakVO2 was 1.48+/-0.52 l/min, 61% of the participants had subnormal muscle strength, 61% had mobility restrictions in at least one joint and average sum of four skin-folds was 74.8+/-38.8 mm. PeakVO2 was significantly related to gender, ambulatory status and muscle strength, explaining 55% of its variance. Adolescents and young adults with MMC have poor health-related physical fitness. Gender and ambulatory status are important determinants of peakVO2. In addition, we found a small, but significant relationship between peakVO2 and muscle strength.

  5. Health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and response to training.

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Moreno, L A; Guerra-Balic, M; Ara, I; Casajús, J A

    2010-10-01

    Physical fitness is related to health at all ages. Information about physical fitness in the Down syndrome (DS) population, however, is scarce, especially when we consider children and adolescents. A review of the current data available on this topic would be both timely and important as it would serve as a starting point to stimulate new research perspectives. The data we reviewed from the literature showed a general trend toward lower values of physical fitness parameters and worse body composition variables in children and adolescents with DS compared with the population without intellectual disability (ID) or even with the population with ID without DS. Notably, children and adolescents with DS have been described as less active or overprotected; however, these factors may not be the cause of their poor physical fitness. Many of the training programs carried out in children and adolescents with DS did not yield the desired responses, and the reasons are still unknown. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current available literature on health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with DS, and the effect of training on these variables. From the literature available, it is clear that more data on this population are necessary.

  6. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-01-01

    College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity. PMID:25610821

  7. Relationships between blood pressure and health and fitness-related variables in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeong Yeop; Ha, Chang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to separately compare systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with health and fitness-related variables among Asian obese and normal weight middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 1,201 women aged 30–59 years. The participants were classified into obese and normal weight groups. The blood pressure and health and fitness-related variables of all participants were assessed. [Results] Significant interaction effects were observed for most blood pressure and health and fitness-related variables between the groups. However, significant interaction effects were not observed for standard weight, basal metabolic rate, and heart rate. Blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with weight, body fat, fat weight, core fat, body mass index, and basal metabolic rate in both groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with muscular endurance, power, and agility in the obese group and with VO2max and flexibility in the normal weight group. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with muscular endurance and power in the obese group and with VO2max in the normal weight group. [Conclusion] The relationships between systolic blood pressure and heart rate, muscle endurance, power, and agility are stronger than the relationships between diastolic blood pressure and these variables. PMID:27821965

  8. The effects of a university fitness programme on health-related variables in previously sedentary males.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S; Aitchison, T; Pettigrew, A R; Orrell, J M

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of a 10-week university fitness programme on health-related fitness variables. Twenty-one male exercisers, aged 37.0(10.3) years (mean(s.d.); range 21-58), and 22 male controls, aged 38.6(7.9) years (mean(s.d.); range 17-54), volunteered to take part. Two sample t-tests and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine if the exercise group demonstrated a greater average improvement than the control group and the average improvement in both groups separately. The exercise group showed a greater average improvement over the controls from Test 1 (before fitness programme) to Test 2 (after) in the following: steady-state heart rate (beats min-1) 95% confidence intervals (-7.8, -16.2); predicted VO2max (ml kg-1 min-1): 95% confidence intervals (3.2, 6.6); sit-ups (repetitions): 95% confidence intervals (3.1, 7.0); flexibility (cm): 95% confidence intervals (3.3, 6.9). There was no significant difference between the exercise group and control group in body weight, percentage body fat, blood pressure, total plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. The exercise programme improved aerobic fitness, local muscular endurance and flexibility. However, the increase in aerobic fitness did not coincide with beneficial changes in the coronary risk profile. PMID:1600453

  9. Effects of Hatha Yoga Practice on the Health-Related Aspects of Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Tran, M D; Holly, R G; Lashbrook, J; Amsterdam, E A

    2001-01-01

    Ten healthy, untrained volunteers (nine females and one male), ranging in age from 18-27 years, were studied to determine the effects of hatha yoga practice on the health-related aspects of physical fitness, including muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and pulmonary function. Subjects were required to attend a minimum of two yoga classes per week for a total of 8 weeks. Each yoga session consisted of 10 minutes of pranayamas (breath-control exercises), 15 minutes of dynamic warm-up exercises, 50 minutes of asanas (yoga postures), and 10 minutes of supine relaxation in savasana (corpse pose). The subjects were evaluated before and after the 8-week training program. Isokinetic muscular strength for elbow extension, elbow flexion, and knee extension increased by 31%, 19%, and 28% (p<0.05), respectively, whereas isometric muscular endurance for knee flexion increased 57% (p<0.01). Ankle flexibility, shoulder elevation, trunk extension, and trunk flexion increased by 13% (p<0.01), 155% (p<0.001), 188% (p<0.001), and 14% (p<0.05), respectively. Absolute and relative maximal oxygen uptake increased by 7% and 6%, respectively (p<0.01). These findings indicate that regular hatha yoga practice can elicit improvements in the health-related aspects of physical fitness. (c)2001 CHF, Inc.

  10. The Impact of a Pilot Community Intervention on Health-Related Fitness Measures in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Jenny G; Caputo, Jennifer L; Colson, Janet M; Farley, Richard S; Renfrow, Matthew S; Seguin, Eric P

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a 5-week community-based intervention on improving measures of health-related fitness in overweight children. Data were obtained from 8 overweight and obese 8- to 14-year-old children. Measurements included muscular fitness (curl-ups and modified pull-ups), aerobic capacity (20 meter progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run [PACER] test), body composition (triceps and calf skinfolds), body mass index (BMI), and flexibility (back saver sit-and-reach). A significant reduction in BMI was observed at post-test compared to baseline (P=0.03). There was a significant decrease in body fat at post-test for boys (P=0.013).

  11. A multilevel analysis of school factors associated with health-related fitness.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W

    1997-06-01

    School factors associated with health-related fitness, using the National Children and Youth Fitness Survey II (NCYFS II) data, have been examined by Pate and Ross (1987), but the hierarchical structure of the data was ignored in the data analyses. The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the NCYFS II data using the hierarchical linear model and reexamine the effects of school physical education (PE) and other factors on children's 1-mile run/walk performance. Only two of five "significant" school factors were confirmed by this study, suggesting that heightened probabilities of Type I errors might have occurred in the previous study. Two confirmed key characteristics of school PE programs that led to improvement of children's cardiovascular endurance were PE specialists and the administration of fitness tests. For a hierarchical data structure, both experimental and observational units should be considered in the data analysis. The hierarchical linear model, which not only provides more accurate individual prediction but also takes group effect into account, proved to be an appropriate analytical model in analyzing the hierarchical data.

  12. Secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA and HELENA studies.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Urdiales, D; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Rey-López, J P; Martínez-Gómez, D; Casajús, J A; Mesana, M I; Marcos, A; Noriega-Borge, M J; Sjöström, M; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L A

    2010-11-01

    We analysed the secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. Two representative population studies were conducted 5 years apart in adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from Zaragoza (Spain) that participated in the AVENA study in 2001-2002 and in the HELENA-CSS study in 2006-2007. Both studies used the same tests to assess physical fitness: the handgrip strength, bent arm hang, standing broad jump, 4×10m shuttle run and 20m shuttle run tests. Performance in 4×10m shuttle run and 20m shuttle run tests was higher in 2006-2007 (Cohen's d ranging from 0.2 to 0.4, p<0.05), whereas performance in handgrip strength and standing broad jump tests was lower in 2006-2007 (Cohen's d ranging from 0.3 to 1.1, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, pubertal status, fat mass, fat free mass and parental education did not alter the results. The odds ratio (OR) of meeting the FITNESSGRAM Standards for healthy cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in 2006-2007 in both boys (OR, 95% CI: 2.123, 1.157-3.908) and girls (OR, 95% CI: 2.420, 1.377-4.255). The results indicate that levels of both speed/agility and cardiorespiratory fitness were higher in 2006-2007 than in 2001-2002, whereas muscular strength components were lower in 2006-2007.

  13. Contribution of physical education and sport to health-related fitness in high school students.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Pitetti, Kenneth H

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Run (number of completed laps, 20OMST). Secondary analysis compared upper body strength (90 degrees push-ups), flexibility (sit and reach), and body mass index (BMI kg/m2). Comparisons were made between students participating in 1-2 SSS and > or = 3 SSS for males and 1 SSS and > or = 2 for females to students participating solely in PE. Males participating in 1-2 SSS (mean (+/- SD) 20MST 63.80 +/- 25.61) and > or = 3 SSS (81.13 28.26) completed significantly (p < .001) more laps than males participating solely in PE (44.18 +/- 19.09). Females participating in 1 SSS (37.33 +/- 15.53) and > or = 2 SSS (49.48 +/- 19.83) completed significantly (p = .02) more laps than females participating solely in PE (23.50 +/- 7.96). Significant differences in number of 90 degrees push-ups was observed between males participating in > or = 3 SSS (49.41 +/- 12.90) and males participating solely in PE (37.63 +/- 11.79, p = .006). No significant differences existed for males on BMI (p = .223) or the sit and reach (p = .145), and for females on 90 degrees push-ups (p = .79), sit and reach (p = .579), and BMI (p = . 122). As the number of SSS increase, significant increases are observed in cardiovascular fitness, with youth participating solely in PE exhibiting the lowest levels of cardiovascular fitness in comparison to youth participating in PE and SSS.

  14. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: The 2006-2007 update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness phenotypes covers the research advances reported in 2006 and 2007. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or a fitness phenotype in sedentary or active people, in responses...

  15. An Analysis of Research on Student Health-Related Fitness Knowledge in K-16 Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Harrison, Louis; Chen, Li; Xiang, Ping; Lambdin, Dolly D.; Dauenhauer, Brian; Rotich, Willy; Pinero, Jose Castro

    2009-01-01

    Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K-16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the…

  16. The relationship between health-related fitness and quality of life in postmenopausal women from Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Chen, Chi-lung; Kuo, Liang Tseng; Fan, Chun-Hao; Lee, Mel S; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-related fitness has been reported to be associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in the elderly. Health-related fitness is comprised of several dimensions that could be enhanced by specific training regimens. It has remained unclear how various dimensions of health-related fitness interact with QoL in postmenopausal women. Objective The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of health-related fitness and QoL in elderly women. Methods A cohort of 408 postmenopausal women in a rural area of Taiwan was prospectively collected. Dimensions of health-related fitness, consisting of muscular strength, balance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle endurance, and agility, were assessed. QoL was determined using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Differences between age groups (stratified by decades) were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparisons using a Scheffé test. A Spearman’s correlation analysis was performed to examine differences between QoL and each dimension of fitness. Multiple linear regression with forced-entry procedure was performed to evaluate the effects of health-related fitness. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Age-related decreases in health-related fitness were shown for sit-ups, back strength, grip strength, side steps, trunk extension, and agility (P<0.05). An age-related decrease in QoL, specifically in physical functioning, role limitation due to physical problems, and physical component score, was also demonstrated (P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that back strength significantly contributed to the physical component of QoL (adjusted beta of 0.268 [P<0.05]). Conclusion Back strength was positively correlated with the physical component of QoL among the examined dimensions of health-related fitness. Health-related fitness, as well as the physical component of Qo

  17. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Self-Perception Changes Related to a University "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woekel, Erica; Ebbeck, Vicki; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Readdy, Tucker; Li, Kin-Kit; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate college students are at a crucial point in the development of significant health behaviors, most notably related to physical activity and dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively determine whether participation in a Lifetime Fitness for Health (LFH) curriculum in college had short-term and long-term benefits…

  18. Short-term tracking of performance and health-related physical fitness in girls: the Healthy Growth in Cariri Study.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Simonete Pereira; Beunen, Gaston; Prista, António; Maia, José

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to track the performance and health-related physical fitness of girls from Brazil's Cariri region. In the "Healthy Growth in Cariri Study", 294 girls from public and private schools were divided into four age cohorts--8, 10, 12, and 14 years--and followed for three consecutive years, with an assessment every 6 months. Shuttle run, hand grip, standing long jump, trunk lift, curl-up, 12-min run, and fatness were used to rate physical fitness performance and health-related components on each of six occasions. Tracking was done in a stepwise manner, using auto-correlation, by modelling the individual history of change in performance of each girl, and using Foulkes and Davies' γ-coefficient. SPSS 18.0 and TIMEPATH were used for data analysis. Auto-correlations evidenced low-to-moderate values in almost all components of performance and health-related physical fitness. Intra-individual tracking analysis showed large variation in all fitness components as a result of a wide spread in individual history of change in fitness performance. Population estimates of γ were low in all tests. Our results show low-to-moderate tracking of physical fitness components of girls. A wide range of intra-individual and inter-variability in fitness development was observed.

  19. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young adults…

  20. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  1. Impact of Health and Fitness-Related Behavior on Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Weight status did not emerge as a predictor of overall QOL. Con- sidering that overweight is viewed negatively in American society, it was excepted that...Psychosomatic Research 9, p. 249. Slater, C. and B. Carlton: 1985, ’Behavior, lifestyle, and socioeconomic variables as determinants of health status ...RELATED BEHAVIOR ON QUALITY OF LIFE (Received 23 May, 199 1) ABSTRACT. While the relationships between (a) health behavior and health status and (b) health

  2. Reliability and validity of the FITNESSGRAM: quality of teacher-collected health-related fitness surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Martin, Scott B; Jackson, Allen W

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality (reliability and validity) of large-scale fitness testing in Texas and determine if reliabilities and validities were related to potential confounding variables. Four test administration scenarios were conducted to investigate the quality of data collected statewide as part of the Texas Youth Evaluation Project. Teachers and/or expert test administrators tested individual students (N=1010) on two occasions. Criterion-referenced reliabilities were very good to generally acceptable for all FITNESSGRAM test items, with musculosheletal items having the lowest reliabilities. The validity of teacher-administered tests was good. Reliability and validity of teacher-obtained health-related fitness measures were generally unrelated to potentially confounding student or school characteristics. Administrators, teachers, parents, and students can feel comfortable with the reliability and validity of the statewide health-related fitness testing in Texas.

  3. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  4. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  5. Collaborative evaluation and management of students' health-related physical fitness: applications of cluster analysis and the classification tree.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jou-An; Shih, Chi-Chuan; Lin, Pay-Fan; Chen, Jin-Jong; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness has decreased with age; this is od immense concern to adolescents. School-based health intervention programs can be classified as either population-wide or high-risk approach. Although the population-wide and risk-based approaches adopt different healthcare angles, they all need to focus resources on risk evaluation. In this paper, we describe an exploratory application of cluster analysis and the tree model to collaborative evaluation of students' health- related physical fitness from a high school sample in Taiwan (n=742). Cluster analysis show that physical fitness can be divided into relatively good, moderate and poor subgroups. There are significant differences in biochemical measurements among these three groups. For the tree model, we used 2004 school-year students as an experimental group and 2005 school-year students as a validation group. The results indicate that if sit-and-reach is shorter than 33 cm, BMI is >25.46 kg/m2, and 1600 m run/walk is >534 s, the predicted probability for the number of metabolic risk factors ≥2 is 100% and the population is 41, both results are the highest. From the risk-based healthcare viewpoint, the cluster analysis can sort out students' physical fitness data in a short time and then narrow down the scope to recognize the subgroups. A classification tree model specifically shows the discrimination paths between the measurements of physical fitness for metabolic risk and would be helpful for self-management or proper healthcare education targeting different groups. Applying both methods to specific adolescents' health issues could provide different angles in planning health promotion projects.

  6. Health and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrand, Per Olaf

    The need for physical activity to maintain good health is emphasized in this book. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are regarded as being of prime importance. The nutritional and caloric values of various diets are discussed in relation to their energy producing potential as well as their effect on body weight. Photographs, charts, and line…

  7. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  8. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  9. Feasibility Study: Colombian Caribbean Folk Dances to Increase Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL.

  10. The Use of Health Related Physical Fitness Tests to Achieve Sex Fair Ability Grouping of Students in Junior and Senior High School Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    The use of health-related physical fitness tests for sex-fair ability grouping in physical education classes requires the verification of two assumptions: (1) that there exists a direct positive relationship between health-related physical fitness and development and/or improvement of various sport skills; and (2) that there is a physiological…

  11. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  12. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children.

    PubMed

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, A; Muca, F; Spahi, A; Qefalia, D; Ushtelenca, K; Kasa, A; Caporossi, D; Gallotta, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P < 0.001). Both PE exercise- and games programmes significantly improved several health- and skill-related fitness indicators compared with traditional PE lessons (e.g. gross motor skill summary score: 9.4 (95% CI 7.9; 10.9) for exercise vs. control and 6.5 (95% CI 5.1; 8.1) for games vs. control, cardiorespiratory fitness: 2.0 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.5; 2.4) for exercise vs. control and 1.4 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.0; 1.8) for games vs. control). Furthermore, compared to games-based PE, exercise-based PE showed more positive changes in some gross motor coordination skills outcomes, coordination skills outcomes and cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from this study show that exercise- and games-based PE represents a useful strategy for improving health- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in

  13. Fitness. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and to provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this…

  14. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Its Relation to Student Physical Activity Patterns at a Large U.S. Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Centeio, Erin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Ramirez, Tere; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    This study examined student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge and its relationship to physical activity (PA). The participants were undergraduate students from a large U.S. state university. HRF knowledge was assessed using a test consisting of 150 multiple choice items. Differences in HRF knowledge scores by sex, ethnicity, and years in…

  15. [The effect of yoga exercise intervention on health related physical fitness in school-age asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness.

  16. Multivariate Associations Among Health-Related Fitness, Physical Activity, and TGMD-3 Test Items in Disadvantaged Children From Low-Income Families.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan; Brusseau, Tim; Hannon, James

    2016-10-04

    Motor skills are needed for physical development and may be linked to health-related fitness and physical activity levels. No studies have examined the relationships among these constructs in large samples of disadvantaged children from low-income families using the Test for Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). The purpose of this study was to examine the multivariate associations among health-related fitness, physical activity, and motor skills assessed using the TGMD-3. Participants included 1460 school-aged children (730 boys, 730 girls; M age = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) recruited from the K to sixth grades from three low-income schools. Health-related fitness was assessed using the FITNESSGRAM battery, physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and pedometers, and motor skills were assessed using the TGMD-3. Canonical correlations revealed statistically significant correlations between the Ball Skills and health-related fitness variates (Rc = 0.43, Rc(2 )= 17%, p < 0.001). Significant canonical coefficients in the Ball Skills variate included two-handed striking, dribbling, and catching, and significant canonical coefficients in the health-related fitness variate included body mass index and the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (p < 0.01). Locomotor skills did not significantly correlate with health-related fitness or physical activity. Ball skills are related to health-related fitness in disadvantaged children from low-income families.

  17. Effects of group sports on health-related physical fitness of overweight youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Monteiro, Ângela; Jácome, Cristina; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2016-10-07

    Group sports interventions have been developed to improve health-related physical fitness of overweight/obese youth. However, its benefits are not systematically documented. This study synthesizes the evidence about the effects of group sports on health-related physical fitness of overweight/obese youth. Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and Academic Search Complete were searched in February 2016. Studies assessing the effects of group sports on body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and neuromotor fitness of overweight/obese youth (aged <18 years) were included. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated with Cohen's d and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). Improvements were found in (i) body composition - percentage of fat body mass (pooled ES = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.24-1.10) and waist circumference (ES = 0.69; P = 0.004); (ii) cardiorespiratory endurance - peak oxygen consumption (pooled ES = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.13-0.92) and (iii) muscle strength - hand grip strength (ES = 0.72; P = 0.003). No significant effects were found for body mass index (pooled ES = 0.27; 95% CI = -0.14 to 0.69), percentage of lean body mass (ES = 0.01; P > 0.05), maximal power output (ES from 0 to 0.06; P > 0.05), sit-and-reach test (pooled ES = 0.26; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.68) and agility test (ES = 0; P = 0.48). Group sports improve body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, and hand grip strength of overweight/obese youth. Flexibility and neuromotor fitness do not seem to change following group sports.

  18. Water-Based Exercise Improves Health-Related Aspects of Fitness in Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Watanabe, Eiji; Brechue, William F.; Okada, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Tadaki; Islam, Mohammod M.; Hayano, Jyunichirou

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physiological responses of elderly Japanese women to a well-rounded exercise program performed in water. Results indicated that the 12-week program elicited significant improvements in intervention group women's cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, agility, flexibility, body fat, and total cholesterol. Water-based exercise…

  19. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  20. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  1. Test-retest reliability of a battery of field-based health-related fitness measures for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Eather, Narelle; Riley, Nicholas; Smith, Chris J

    2011-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of existing tests of health-related fitness. Participants (mean age 14.8 years, s = 0.4) were 42 boys and 26 girls who completed the study assessments on two occasions separated by one week. The following tests were conducted: bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to calculate percent body fat, leg dynamometer, 90° push-up, 7-stage sit-up, and wall squat tests. Intra-class correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation were calculated. The mean percent body fat intra-class correlation coefficient was similar for boys (ICC = 0.95) and girls (ICC = 0.93), but the mean coefficient of variation was considerably higher for boys than girls (22.2% vs. 12.2%). The boys' coefficients of variation for the tests of muscular fitness ranged from 9.0% for the leg dynamometer test to 26.5% for the timed wall squat test. The girls' coefficients of variation ranged from 17.1% for the sit-up test to 21.4% for the push-up test. Although the BIA machine produced reliable estimates of percent body fat, the tests of muscular fitness resulted in high systematic error, suggesting that these measures may require an extensive familiarization phase before the results can be considered reliable.

  2. Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

    2013-12-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age.

  3. Association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with health related quality of life in healthy children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Cantarero, Alberto; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Torres-Costoso, Ana Isabel; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is a subjective, multidimensional and changing over time construct. When HRQoL is decreased, a child is less likely to be able to develop normally and mature into a healthy adult. Physical inactivity is a priority public health problem. Evidence suggests how even moderate levels of physical activity or high fitness levels are associated with benefits for the health in children and adolescents. The aims of this systematic review are to examine the evidence about the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness with HRQoL, and estimate the effects of interventions that have tested the effectiveness of the increase of the physical activity, the improvement of the physical fitness or the avoidance of sedentary behaviors in HRQoL in healthy subjects aged under 18 years old. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and PEDro. Reference lists of relevant studies will be examined for links to potential related articles. The methodological quality of the observational included studies will be scored using a quality assessment checklist. For the intervention studies, the risk of bias will be estimated using The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Reviewers will determine whether a meta-analysis is possible when data have been extracted. If it is, subgroup analyses will be carried out by age and socioeconomic status, and by the different dimensions of the HRQoL. If is not possible, a descriptive analysis will be conducted. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this systematic review and meta-analysis will be the first that synthesizes the existing results about the relationship between physical activity

  4. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  5. The Effects of a Non-Traditional Strength Training Program on the Health-Related Fitness Outcomes of Youth Strength Training Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Wendy; Foster, Byron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a non-traditional strength training program will impact the health-related fitness of youth. Researchers hypothesized that the strengthening program would positively affect the fitness outcomes. Participant physical education classes incorporated strengthening exercises three days…

  6. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.; Lund, Michael T.; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12) at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p < 0.05). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p < 0.05) and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery. PMID:27379183

  7. Are ancient proteins responsible for the age-related decline in health and fitness?

    PubMed

    Truscott, Roger John Willis

    2010-02-01

    There are a number of sites in the body where proteins are present for decades and sometimes for all of our lives. Over a period of many years, such proteins are subject to two types of modifications. The first results from the intrinsic instability of certain amino acid residues and leads to deamidation, racemization, and truncation. The second type can be traced to relentless covalent modification of such ancient proteins by reactive biochemicals produced during cellular metabolism.The accumulation of both types of posttranslational modifications over time may have important consequences for the properties of tissues that contain such proteins. It is proposed that the age-related decline in function of organs such as the eye, heart, brain, and lung, as well as skeletal components, comes about, in part, from the posttranslational modification of these long-lived proteins. Examples are provided in which this may be an important factor in the etiology of age-related conditions. As the properties of these proteins alter inexorably over time, the molecular changes contribute to a gradual decline in the function of individual organs and also tissues such as joints. This cumulative degeneration of old proteins at multiple sites in the body may also constrain the ultimate life span of the individual. The human lens may be particularly useful for discovering which reactive metabolites in the body are of most importance for posttranslational modification of long-lived proteins.

  8. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  9. The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER) cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER) Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death. Methods/Design The AMBER Study will enroll 1500 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a 5 year period. Assessments will be made at baseline (within 90 days of surgery), 1 year, and 3 years consisting of objective and self-reported measurements of physical activity, health-related fitness, blood collection, lymphedema, patient-reported outcomes, and determinants of physical activity. A final assessment at 5 years will measure patient-reported data only. The cohort members will be followed for an additional 5 years for disease outcomes. Discussion The AMBER cohort will answer key questions related to physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors including: (1) the independent and interactive associations of physical activity and health-related fitness with disease outcomes (e.g., recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, overall survival), treatment completion rates, symptoms and side effects (e.g., pain, lymphedema, fatigue, neuropathy), quality of life, and psychosocial functioning (e.g., anxiety, depression, self-esteem, happiness), (2) the determinants of physical activity and health-related fitness

  10. Brain Health Fitness: Beyond Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Raksha; Chapman, Sandra B.; Rackley, Audette; Zientz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The greatest accomplishment of the 20th century--the doubling of the human lifespan--has brought issues related to brain health to the forefront of public health policy. Given that our bodies are outlasting our minds, maximizing brain health is the scientific cause of this millennium. In this paper, we address three major issues related to…

  11. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  12. Reliability and Validity of the "FITNESSGRAM"[R]: Quality of Teacher-Collected Health-Related Fitness Surveillance Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Jackson, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality (reliability and validity) of large-scale fitness testing in Texas and determine if reliabilities and validities were related to potential confounding variables. Four test administration scenarios were conducted to investigate the quality of data collected statewide as part of the Texas…

  13. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  14. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  15. Effects of a Physical Education-Based Programme on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Its Maintenance in High School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Montoro-Escaño, Jorge; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based development and maintenance programme on objective and perceived health-related physical fitness in high school students. A sample of 111 students aged 12-14 years old from six classes were cluster-randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 54) or a control…

  16. The Impact of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks on Middle School Students' Health-Related Fitness: An Xbox One Kinetic Delivered 4-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, S.; Layne, T.; McCollins, T.; Knox, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 4-week classroom physical activity break intervention on middle school students' health-related physical fitness. The study was a randomized controlled trial with students assigned to the experiment and control conditions. A convenience sample comprised 94 adolescents (experiment group n = 52;…

  17. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  18. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  19. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  20. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  1. Fitness and physiology of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in relation to the health of the eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anne C; Mullins, Donald E; Brewster, Carlyle; Rhea, James P; Salom, Scott M

    2016-12-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand is an invasive insect that frequently causes hemlock (Tsuga spp.) mortality in the eastern United States. Studies have shown that once healthy hemlocks become infested by the adelgid, nutrients are depleted from the tree, leading to both tree decline and a reduction of the adelgid population. Since A. tsugae is dependent on hemlock for nutrients, feeding on trees in poor health may affect the ability of the insect to obtain necessary nutrients and may consequently affect their physiological and population health. Trees were categorized as lightly or moderately impacted by A. tsugae based on quantitative and qualitative tree health measurements. Population health of A. tsugae on each tree was determined by measuring insect density and peak mean fecundity; A. tsugae physiological health was determined by measuring insect biomass, total carbon, carbohydrate, total nitrogen, and amino nitrogen levels. Adelges tsugae from moderately impacted trees exhibited significantly greater fecundity than from lightly impacted trees. However, A. tsugae from lightly impacted hemlocks contained significantly greater levels of carbohydrates, total nitrogen, and amino nitrogen. While the results of the physiological analysis generally support our hypothesis that A. tsugae on lightly impacted trees are healthier than those on moderately impacted trees, this was not reflected in the population health measurements. Adelges tsugae egg health in response to tree health should be verified. This study provides the first examination of A. tsugae physiological health in relation to standard A. tsugae population health measures on hemlocks of different health levels.

  2. Predictors of “Liking” Three Types of Health and Fitness-Related Content on Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Alyce M; Lim, Megan SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence and young adulthood are key periods for developing norms related to health behaviors and body image, and social media can influence these norms. Social media is saturated with content related to dieting, fitness, and health. Health and fitness–related social media content has received significant media attention for often containing objectifying and inaccurate health messages. Limited research has identified problematic features of such content, including stigmatizing language around weight, portraying guilt-related messages regarding food, and praising thinness. However, no research has identified who is “liking” or “following” (ie, consuming) such content. Objective This exploratory study aimed to identify demographics, mental health, and substance use–related behaviors that predicted consuming 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content—weight loss/fitness motivation pages (ie, “fitspiration”), detox/cleanse pages, and diet/fitness plan pages—among young social media users. Methods Participants (N=1001; age: median 21.06, IQR 17.64-24.64; female: 723/1001, 72.23%) completed a cross-sectional 112-question online survey aimed at social media users aged between 15-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine which characteristics predicted consuming the 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content. Results A total of 378 (37.76%) participants reported consuming at least 1 of the 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content: 308 (30.77%) fitspiration pages, 145 (14.49%) detox pages, and 235 (23.48%) diet/fitness plan pages. Of the health and fitness–related social media content consumers, 85.7% (324/378) identified as female and 44.8% (324/723) of all female participants consumed at least 1 type of health and fitness–related social media content. Predictors of consuming at least one type of health and fitness–related social media

  3. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    PubMed Central

    Toriola, Oluwatoyi O.; Toriola, Abel L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Setting A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls) of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS) participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Results Body mass index (BMI) classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal body weight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF) and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH), boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of −0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ), bent arm hang (BAH) and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Conclusion Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating children

  4. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  5. An impaired health related muscular fitness contributes to a reduced walking capacity in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia report muscle weakness. The relation of this muscle weakness with performing daily life activities such as walking is however not yet studied. The aim of this study was to quantify walking capacity and health related muscular fitness in patients with schizophrenia compared with age-, gender and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Secondly, we identified variables that could explain the variability in walking capacity and in health related muscular fitness in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy volunteers were initially screened. Eighty patients with schizophrenia (36.8±10.0 years) and the 40 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers (37.1±10.3 years) were finally included. All participants performed a standing broad jump test (SBJ) and a six-minute walk test (6MWT) and filled out the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients additionally had a fasting metabolic laboratory screening and were assessed for psychiatric symptoms. Results Patients with schizophrenia did have lower 6MWT (17.9%, p<0.001) [effect size (ES)=−1.01] and SBJ (14.1%, p<0.001) (ES=−0.57) scores. Patients were also less physically active (1291.0±1201.8 metabolic equivalent-minutes/week versus 2463.1±1365.3, p<0.001) (ES=−0.91) than controls. Schizophrenia patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (35%) had a 23.9% lower (p<0.001) SBJ-score and 22.4% (p<0.001) lower 6MWT-score than those without MetS. In multiple regression analysis, 71.8% of the variance in 6MWT was explained by muscular fitness, BMI, presence of MetS and physical activity participation, while 53.9% of the variance in SBJ-score was explained by age, illness duration, BMI and physical activity participation. Conclusions The walking capacity and health-related muscular fitness are impaired in patients with schizophrenia and both should be a major focus in daily clinical practice

  6. First State Fitness Test. A Measurement of Functional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy; And Others

    This test is designed to measure the functional health of young people. Functional health refers to those factors relating to personal health that can be improved with regular exercise. This test is unique in comparison to other physical fitness tests because of the absence of motor skill items which have no relationship to an individual's…

  7. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C.; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine. School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  8. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-15

    The relationship between students' school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents' physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  9. Effects of the circuit box jumping on bone resorption, health-related to physical fitness and balance in the premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a circuit box jumping exercise program and to examine the effects of the circuit box jumping exercise program on bone formation, bone resorption, health related to physical fitness and balance of the premenopausal females. The samples consisted of 57 female volunteers from Chulalongkorn University, aged between 35-45. The subjects were divided into two groups: 28 females in the experimental group and 29 females in the control group by the simple random sampling method. The experimental group participated in the circuit box jumping exercise program while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise speed was determined by the rhythm of the music. The experimental group completed two circuits of jumping at 6 stations with 10 jumps per station three times per week, for a period of twelve weeks. Each jumping box at Station 1 and 4 was 10 cm. high; the boxes at Station 2 and 5 were 15 cm. high; and at Station 3 and 6, the boxes were 20 cm. in height. The intensity is 60%-80% of a maximum heart rate. The control group did not participate in the circuit box jumping exercise program. The collected data before and after the experiment were the results of the physiology test, the biochemical bone markers, the health related physical fitness and the balance ability. The collected data were compared and analyzed by the mean and standard deviation. The differences of the tests are statistically significant at the .05 level. The results of the present study are as follows; 1. After the 12-week experiment training, the findings indicated that the mean scores on bone resorption (beta-Crosslaps) of the experimental group and the control group were significantly different at 0.05 level. In addition, the findings showed that the percentage changes on bone resorption (beta-Crosslaps) variance of the experiment group reduced by -25.6528%, while that of the control group reduced by -0.5933%. Bone formation (PINP/beta-Crosslaps) in the circuit box

  10. Health related quality of life, physical fitness and physical activity participation in treatment-seeking obese persons with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Soundy, Andrew; Pieters, Guido; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel

    2014-04-30

    This study compared the mental and physical health related quality of life (HRQL) of 40 obese persons with BED with 20 age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. Variables contributing to the variability in HRQL were identified. Participants were asked to fill in the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Baecke questionnaire, the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Body Attitude Test. All participants also performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). BED patients showed a significant impaired physical and mental HRQL compared with obese and non-obese control groups. In the BED-group female participants showed a significantly more impaired mental HRQL than male participants (40.0±21.2 versus 66.6±10.1). The distance achieved on the 6MWT (512.1±75.8m) explained 22.5% of the variability in physical HRQL in the obese BED-group while gender and the SCL-90 depression score (39.1±12.2) explained 47.1% of the variability in mental HRQL. The present findings suggest that the treatment of obese individuals with BED might benefit by giving more attention to HRQL, depressive symptoms and physical fitness.

  11. Health-Related Physical Fitness, BMI, physical activity and time spent at a computer screen in 6 and 7-year-old children from rural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Mleczko, Edward; Bergier, Józef; Markowska, Małgorzata; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of the effect of various forms of physical activity, BMI, and time devoted to computer games on the level of Health-Related Physical Fitness (H-RF) in 6-7-year-old children from Polish rural areas. The study covered 25,816 children aged 6-7: 12,693 girls and 13,123 boys. The evaluations included body height and weight, and 4 H-RF fitness components (trunk strength, explosive leg power, arm strength and flexibility). The BMI was calculated for each child. The Questionnaire directed to parents was designed to collect information concerning the time devoted by children to computer games, spontaneous and additional physical activity. The strength of the relationships between dependent and independent variables was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation (RSp), and the relationship by using the regression analysis. The BMI negatively affected the level of all the H-RF components analysed (p=0.000). The negative effect of computer games revealed itself only with respect to flexibility (p=0.000), explosive leg power (p=0.000) and trunk muscle strength (p=0.000). A positive effect of spontaneous activity was observed for flexibility (p=0.047), explosive leg power (p=0.000), and arm strength (p=0.000). Additional activity showed a positive relationship with trunk muscles strength (p=0.000), and explosive leg power (p=0.000). The results of studies suggest that it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of diseases related with the risk of obesity and overweight among Polish rural children as early as at pre-school age. There is also a need during education for shaping in these children the awareness of concern about own body, and the need for active participation in various forms of physical activity.

  12. Selecting and Effectively Using a Health/Fitness Facility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information On… Selecting and Effectively Using A Health/Fitness Facility The health/fitness facility should provide a variety of equipment and programs to meet your personal fitness goals and interests. First, be sure to establish ...

  13. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.

  14. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  15. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break. PMID:28377791

  16. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.

  17. Mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on health-related fitness and physical activity: the ATLAS cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of resistance training skill competency on percentage of body fat, muscular fitness and physical activity among a sample of adolescent boys participating in a school-based obesity prevention intervention. Participants were 361 adolescent boys taking part in the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) cluster randomised controlled trial: a school-based program targeting the health behaviours of economically disadvantaged adolescent males considered "at-risk" of obesity. Body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular fitness (hand grip dynamometry and push-ups), physical activity (accelerometry) and resistance training skill competency were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (i.e., 8 months). Three separate multi-level mediation models were analysed to investigate the potential mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on each of the study outcomes using a product-of-coefficients test. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. The intervention had a significant impact on the resistance training skill competency of the boys, and improvements in skill competency significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on percentage of body fat and the combined muscular fitness score. No significant mediated effects were found for physical activity. Improving resistance training skill competency may be an effective strategy for achieving improvements in body composition and muscular fitness in adolescent boys.

  18. Just a Fad? Gamification in Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer’s health behavior. Methods An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. Results This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (P<.001). Behavioral theory was associated with gamification (P<.05), but not game elements, and upon further analysis gamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (P<.001), and not capacity or opportunity/trigger. Conclusions This research, to our knowledge, represents the first comprehensive review of gamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry

  19. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  20. Aerobic fitness, hippocampal viscoelasticity, and relational memory performance.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Johnson, Curtis L; Daugherty, Ana M; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F; Cohen, Neal J; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-03-30

    The positive relationship between hippocampal structure, aerobic fitness, and memory performance is often observed among children and older adults; but evidence of this relationship among young adults, for whom the hippocampus is neither developing nor atrophying, is less consistent. Studies have typically relied on hippocampal volumetry (a gross proxy of tissue composition) to assess individual differences in hippocampal structure. While volume is not specific to microstructural tissue characteristics, microstructural differences in hippocampal integrity may exist even among healthy young adults when volumetric differences are not diagnostic of tissue health or cognitive function. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique for measuring viscoelastic tissue properties and provides quantitative measures of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that individual differences in hippocampal viscoelasticity are related to performance on a relational memory task; however, little is known about health correlates to this novel measure. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between hippocampal viscoelasticity and cardiovascular health, and their mutual effect on relational memory in a group of healthy young adults (N=51). We replicated our previous finding that hippocampal viscoelasticity correlates with relational memory performance. We extend this work by demonstrating that better aerobic fitness, as measured by VO2max, was associated with hippocampal viscoelasticity that mediated the benefits of fitness on memory function. Hippocampal volume, however, did not account for individual differences in memory. Therefore, these data suggest that hippocampal viscoelasticity may provide a more sensitive measure to microstructural tissue organization and its consequences to cognition among healthy young adults.

  1. Competency Identification, Evaluation & Improvement for Corporate Health Program Fitness Specialists: Health Education Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golaszewski, Thomas; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The Xerox Corporation's Health Management Program (XHMP), designed to maintain and improve employee fitness, is described. Competencies specific to the health educator function of the fitness specialist, who assists XHMP clients in their fitness programs, are outlined. (CJ)

  2. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  3. Personalised mobile health and fitness apps: lessons learned from myFitnessCompanion®.

    PubMed

    Gay, Valerie; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones and tablets are slowly but steadily changing the way we look after our health and fitness. Today, many high quality mobile apps are available for users and health professionals and cover the whole health care chain, i.e. information collection, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Our team has developed a mobile health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion® which has been available via Android market since February 2011. The objective of this paper is to share our experience with rolling out a mobile health and fitness app. We discuss the acceptance of health apps by end-users and healthcare industry. We discuss how mobile health apps will be distributed in the near future, the use of Personal Health Record (PHR) systems such as Microsoft HealthVault and the impact of regulations (FDA) on the future of mobile health apps. The paper is based on seven years of experience by the authors as mobile health and fitness application developers and we discuss the challenges and opportunities for app developers in the health industry.

  4. Fitting audiology within the population health perspective.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Johnston, J Cyne Topshee; Angus, Doug; Durieux-Smith, Andrée

    2006-01-01

    The population health perspective has become increasingly apparent in the medical, public health, and policy literature. This article emphasizes the value of applying the population health perspective and associated frameworks to the rehabilitative sciences and particularly to the field of audiology. Key components of the population health perspective--including the determinants of health, the importance of evidence-based practice, and the value of transdisciplinarity--are used to illustrate the relevance of population health to the field of audiology. Using these key concepts from a population health framework and examples from audiology, the adoption of a population health perspective is proposed.

  5. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Chillón, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  6. Being Fit. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module provides information on the many physical and psychological benefits of…

  7. ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This 5-part publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility.…

  8. Transforming medical professionalism to fit changing health needs

    PubMed Central

    Plochg, Thomas; Klazinga, Niek S; Starfield, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However, it may also be necessary to initiate basic changes to way in which the medical professionals work in order to adapt to the changing health needs. Discussion Medical leaders, supported by health policy makers, can consciously activate the self-regulatory capacity of medical professionalism in order to transform the medical profession and the related professional processes of care so that it can adapt to the changing health needs. In doing so, they would open up additional routes to the improvement of the health services system and to health improvement. This involves three consecutive steps: (1) defining and categorizing the health needs of the population; (2) reorganizing the specialty domains around the needs of population groups; (3) reorganizing the specialty domains by eliminating work that could be done by less educated personnel or by the patients themselves. We suggest seven strategies that are required in order to achieve this transformation. Summary Changing medical professionalism to fit the changing health needs will not be easy. It will need strong leadership. But, if the medical world does not embark on this endeavour, good doctoring will become merely a bureaucratic and/or marketing exercise that obscures the ultimate goal of medicine which is to optimize the health of both individuals and the entire population. PMID:19857246

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Smoking-Related and Total Cancer Mortality in Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Do.; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking-related, nonsmoking-related, and total cancer mortality, following 25,892 men age 30-87 years who had a preventive medical evaluation that included a maximal exercise test and self-reported health habits. Results indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness may have provided…

  10. Evaluation of a Health and Fitness Social Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee E.; Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Bower, Glenna G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: University health and fitness faculty members are continually striving to enhance the health knowledge of their students. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to survey student reflections of a social media experience. Methods: Students were placed into one of two groups: Learners (N = 92) or Pre-Service Health and Fitness…

  11. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  12. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  13. Leading the Fit Life: Jobs in Health Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Depicts the health club work force: fitness personnel, such as instructors, trainers, and directors, and nonfitness personnel, such as receptionists, marketers, and managers, as well as physicians and therapists. Gives information on how to acquire credentials in the field. (SK)

  14. Dietary Factors Related to Physical Fitness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    QiJALry Health Psychology Department Naval Health Research Center Accession For P. 0 Box 85122 NTIS GJRA&l San Diego, CA 92138-9174 DTIC TABUnannounced E... Researh su’ppn tq tfie tole of execi!is in icdun.ing fat stores anid spar ing lean body t issue dul ing Ii e t i ng ( PavIil, S t Ciffee, LC ii.n... Psychology , 4(4), 323-335. Cohn, C. (1964). Feed ing patterns and some aspects of cholesterol metabolism. Federation Proceedings, 23, 76-81. Cole, P

  15. Health and Young Children. Focus on Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, David

    2006-01-01

    How much "junk food" is too much? This question is difficult to answer, because it depends on the health and weight status of the child. If the child already has a weight problem, then this type of snack should be more restricted than for a child without weight issues. In this article, Dr. Ludwig states that, as a general rule, parents should not…

  16. [Management of "complicated" work fitness judgements among health care workers].

    PubMed

    Tonelli, F; Salvioni, M; Cucchi, I; Omeri, E; Piretti, C; Ronchin, M; Carrer, P

    2007-01-01

    The occupational physician, performing health surveillance within a hospital, may face to some difficulties due to the variety and complexity of the tasks and the health risk factors of the health care workers. One of the hardest issue for occupational physician is to provide judgement on worker's fitness. Moreover, this task could be more complicated when a impaired worker could represent an hazard for his patients and colleagues. The authors will illustrate three critical clinical cases examined in Occupational Health Unit of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan; furthermore, the authors will show the difficulties and the applied solutions in order to provide the judgement on worker's fitness.

  17. The Health of Competitive Fitness Athletes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-24

    Resting Metabolic Rate; Bone Mineral Density, Low, Susceptibility to; Body Image; Perfectionism; Depression; Eating Disorder; Exercise-Related Amenorrhea; Exercise Addiction; Binge Eating; Dietary Amenorrhea; Dietary Deficiency

  18. Skill-Related Fitness of Undergraduate Kinesiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Frank J.; Jarrett, Lindsey M.; Ocker, Liette B.; Bonnette, Randy A.; Melrose, Don R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the skill-related fitness levels of undergraduate kinesiology majors in relation to the general population of college students of the same age, to investigate whether a difference exists between females and males in overall performance, and to examine the relationship between fitness and kinesiology…

  19. Young Students' Knowledge and Perception of Health and Fitness: A Study in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…

  20. Fit To Play: Musicians' Health Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Karen B.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on preventing performance-related injuries for music students. Discusses techniques for preventing injury, such as warm-ups, information on stretching and strength training, exercises for the upper arms, torso, and for selected muscle groups. Includes illustrations for some exercises. (CMK)

  1. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence.

    PubMed

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Tish Doyle-Baker, P K

    2008-04-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine if individuals with low motor competence achieve age-adequate fitness and health. A group of 149 children, adolescents, and adults with low or high motor competence participated in motor, fitness, and health assessments. Individuals with low motor competence did not differ on their basic physiological health parameters, but they had less optimal levels of overall health and fitness indices than those with high motor competence. As a function of age, musculoskeletal fitness was significantly compromised for the low motor competence group. The metabolic indices suggested that the low motor competence group had significantly higher BMI's compared to the high motor competence group. Motor skills and static balance were significant predictors of the BMI. Exercise intensity differed between children in the low and high motor competence group. The findings suggest that individuals with low motor competence have compromised health-related fitness. In order to discriminate between individuals with high and low motor competence, fitness assessment should include at least back extension, curl ups, and sit and reach. In addition, health-related fitness measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and bone mineral density are also recommended.

  2. Health and Fitness Evaluations for Long Duration Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, Sean Kevin; Ewert, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The current health maintenance program for ISS is adequate; however the future of medical care and research in space requires a change where crew time efficiency and autonomy are emphasized. NASA s medical personnel are currently refining their ability to monitor and provide remote health care in such a manner. The proposed plan would evaluate health and fitness of the on orbit crew to; perform on orbit operations, and readiness to return to a terrestrial environment. A two tiered approach will utilize exercise and medical equipment, as well as periodic medical conferences with the flight surgeon, to provide a quantitative and clinical picture of the crew s health and fitness. Any off nominal health and fitness issues that could arise will be evaluated by providing an "armamentarium" of devices both medical and exercise specific to the on orbit crew to use. The ability for the crew to provide autonomous health care, with decreasing earth support, will become increasingly more important for exploration missions. This new plan of health care and maintenance will allow us to, development such efforts while continuing to monitor and provide the best possible health, care and medical research through the microgravity environment on board ISS.

  3. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  4. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID

  5. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  6. Experimental measures of pathogen competition and relative fitness.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Competition among pathogen strains for limited host resources can have a profound effect on pathogen evolution. A better understanding of the principles and consequences of competition can be useful in designing more sustainable disease management strategies. The competitive ability and relative fitness of a pathogen strain are determined by its intrinsic biological properties, the resistance and heterogeneity of the corresponding host population, the population density and genetic relatedness of the competing strains, and the physical environment. Competitive ability can be inferred indirectly from fitness components, such as basic reproduction rate or transmission rate. However, pathogen strains that exhibit higher fitness components when they infect a host alone may not exhibit a competitive advantage when they co-infect the same host. The most comprehensive measures of competitive ability and relative fitness come from calculating selection coefficients in a mixed infection in a field setting. Mark-release-recapture experiments can be used to estimate fitness costs associated with unnecessary virulence and fungicide resistance.

  7. Guidelines for Fitness for Health Programs in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This publication presents approved guidelines for Texas institutions of higher and postsecondary education in the academic preparation of practitioners in the field of fitness for health. Developed in response to the rapid growth of this field, the guidelines identify and recommend the knowledge and expertise required in career preparation, and…

  8. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  9. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  10. FITness for LIFEstyle.....A Professional Seminar on Employee Fitness. Proceedings of a Workshop for Health and Fitness Professionals (Gimli, Manitoba, Canada, November 6, 7, 8, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, W. A.; And Others

    The speeches presented in this compilation address the topic of employee fitness and are given by professionals in health management, fitness consulting, and marketing and program development. An overview of developments by the Canadian federal government in the area of employee fitness is given in the first speech. A brief history of federal…

  11. Ontological knowledge engine and health screening data enabled ubiquitous personalized physical fitness (UFIT).

    PubMed

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun

    2014-03-07

    Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs.

  12. Ontological Knowledge Engine and Health Screening Data Enabled Ubiquitous Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs. PMID:24608002

  13. The Fitbit Fault Line: Two Proposals to Protect Health and Fitness Data at Work.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Employers are collecting and using their employees' health data, mined from wearable fitness devices and health apps, in new, profitable, and barely regulated ways. The importance of protecting employee health and fitness data will grow exponentially in the future. This is the moment for a robust discussion of how law can better protect employees from the potential misuse of their health data. While scholars have just begun to examine the problem of health data privacy, this Article contributes to the academic literature in three important ways. First, it analyzes the convergence of three trends resulting in an unprecedented growth of health-related data: the Internet of Things, the Quantified Self movement, and the Rise of Health Platforms. Second, it describes the insufficiencies of specific data privacy laws and federal agency actions in the context of protecting employee health data from employer misuse. Finally, it provides two detailed and workable solutions for remedying the current lack of protection of employee health data that will realign employer use with reasonable expectations of health and fitness privacy. The Article proceeds in four Parts. Part I describes the growth of self-monitoring apps, devices, and other sensor-enabled technology that can monitor a wide range of data related to an employee's health and fitness and the relationship of this growth to both the Quantified Self movement and the Internet of Things. Part II explains the increasing use of employee monitoring through a wide range of sensors, including wearable devices, and the potential uses of that health and fitness data. Part III explores the various regulations and agency actions that might protect employees from the potential misuse of their health and fitness data and the shortcomings of each. Part IV proposes two specific measures that would help ameliorate the ineffective legal protections that currently exist in this context. In order to improve employee notice of and control

  14. Does the small fit them all? The utility of Disabkids-10 Index for the assessment of pediatric health-related quality of life across age-groups, genders, and informants.

    PubMed

    Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Bullinger, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was twofold: First, to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis of the Portuguese versions of Disabkids-10; and second, to examine potential differences in factor structures between age-groups, genders, and informants. The sample included 293 school-aged children and adolescents with chronic health conditions and 197 parents. Both family members (whenever possible) completed the self- and proxy-report versions of Disabkids-10. The factorial model of Disabkids-10 had good fit for self-reported data and minimally acceptable fit for proxy-reported data. The multigroup analyses confirmed the model invariance across age-groups (children vs. adolescents), genders (boys vs. girls), and informants (children vs. parents). The generic developmental applicability of these questionnaires makes them recommended for health care routine assessments on pediatric intervention needs and outcomes.

  15. Moderation of P-E Fit--Job Satisfaction Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating Holland's congruence hypothesis (e.g., that the degree of fit between persons and work environments predicts outcomes such as job satisfaction) has revealed a mixture of significant and nonsignificant results. The current study tested the possibility that congruence-job satisfaction relations are moderated by work centrality…

  16. Why Might Relative Fit Indices Differ between Estimators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Li-Jen; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    1997-01-01

    Relative fit indices using the null model as the reference point in computation may differ across estimation methods, as this article illustrates by comparing maximum likelihood, ordinary least squares, and generalized least squares estimation in structural equation modeling. The illustration uses a covariance matrix for six observed variables…

  17. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  18. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  19. Bringing Health and Fitness Data Together for Connected Health Care: Mobile Apps as Enablers of Interoperability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health. Mobile devices make it possible to have continuous access to personal health information. Wearable devices, such as Fitbit and Apple’s smartwatch, can collect data continuously and provide insights into our health and fitness. However, lack of interoperability and the presence of data silos prevent users and health professionals from getting an integrated view of health and fitness data. To provide better health outcomes, a complete picture is needed which combines informal health and fitness data collected by the user together with official health records collected by health professionals. Mobile apps are well positioned to play an important role in the aggregation since they can tap into these official and informal health and data silos. Objective The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a mobile app can be used to aggregate health and fitness data and can enable interoperability. It discusses various technical interoperability challenges encountered while integrating data into one place. Methods For 8 years, we have worked with third-party partners, including wearable device manufacturers, electronic health record providers, and app developers, to connect an Android app to their (wearable) devices, back-end servers, and systems. Results The result of this research is a health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion, which enables users to aggregate their data in one place. Over 6000 users use the app worldwide to aggregate their health and fitness data. It demonstrates that mobile apps can be used to enable interoperability. Challenges encountered in the research process included the different wireless protocols and standards used to communicate with wireless devices, the diversity of security and authorization protocols used to be able to exchange data with servers, and lack of standards usage, such as Health Level Seven, for medical information exchange. Conclusions By

  20. Families, resources, and adult health: where do sexual minorities fit?

    PubMed

    Denney, Justin T; Gorman, Bridget K; Barrera, Cristina B

    2013-03-01

    Extensive research documents the relevance of families and socioeconomic resources to health. This article extends that research to sexual minorities, using 12 years of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 460,459) to examine self-evaluations of health among male and female adults living in same-sex and different-sex relationships. Adjusting for socioeconomic status eliminates differences between same- and different-sex cohabitors so that they have similarly higher odds of poor health relative to married persons. Results by gender reveal that the cohabitation disadvantage for health is more pronounced for different-sex cohabiting women than for men, but little difference exists between same-sex cohabiting men and women. Finally, the presence of children in the home is more protective for women's than men's health, but those protections are specific to married women. In all, the results elucidate the importance of relationship type, gender, and the presence of children when evaluating health.

  1. Expected relative fitness and the adaptive topography of fluctuating selection.

    PubMed

    Lande, Russell

    2007-08-01

    Wright's adaptive topography describes gene frequency evolution as a maximization of mean fitness in a constant environment. I extended this to a fluctuating environment by unifying theories of stochastic demography and fluctuating selection, assuming small or moderate fluctuations in demographic rates with a stationary distribution, and weak selection among the types. The demography of a large population, composed of haploid genotypes at a single locus or normally distributed phenotypes, can then be approximated as a diffusion process and transformed to produce the dynamics of population size, N, and gene frequency, p, or mean phenotype, . The expected evolution of p or is a product of genetic variability and the gradient of the long-run growth rate of the population, , with respect to p or . This shows that the expected evolution maximizes , the mean Malthusian fitness in the average environment minus half the environmental variance in population growth rate. Thus, as a function of p or represents an adaptive topography that, despite environmental fluctuations, does not change with time. The haploid model is dominated by environmental stochasticity, so the expected maximization is not realized. Different constraints on quantitative genetic variability, and stabilizing selection in the average environment, allow evolution of the mean phenotype to undergo a stochastic maximization of . Although the expected evolution maximizes the long-run growth rate of the population, for a genotype or phenotype the long-run growth rate is not a valid measure of fitness in a fluctuating environment. The haploid and quantitative character models both reveal that the expected relative fitness of a type is its Malthusian fitness in the average environment minus the environmental covariance between its growth rate and that of the population.

  2. Relation between self-reported physical activity level, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Minder, Camille Michael; Shaya, Gabriel E; Michos, Erin D; Keenan, Tanya E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-02-15

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with improved cardiovascular health and reduced all-cause mortality. The relation between self-reported physical activity, objective physical fitness, and the association of each with cardiometabolic risk has not been fully described. We studied 2,800 healthy Brazilian subjects referred for an employer-sponsored health screening. Physical activity level was determined as "low," "moderate," or "high" with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Fitness was measured as METs achieved on a maximal, symptom-limited, treadmill stress test. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we calculated age, gender, and smoking-adjusted correlation coefficients among IPAQ-SF, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean age of study participants was 43 ± 9 years; 81% were men, and 43% were highly active. Mean METs achieved was 12 ± 2. IPAQ-SF category and fitness were moderately correlated (r = 0.377). Compared with IPAQ-SF category, fitness was better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors including anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis (all p <0.01). Among these, anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis had the largest discrepancies in correlation, whereas lipid factors had the least discrepant correlation. When IPAQ-SF and fitness were discordant, poor fitness drove associations with elevated cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, self-reported physical activity level and directly measured fitness are moderately correlated, and the latter is more strongly associated with a protective cardiovascular risk profile.

  3. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... June 22, 2015 top About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For the Media Contact Us Language ...

  4. Lean mass as a total mediator of the influence of muscular fitness on bone health in schoolchildren: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Costoso, Ana; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to analyse the independent association of lean mass and muscle fitness with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), and to examine whether the relationship between muscle fitness and bone health is mediated by lean mass. Body composition (by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), muscle fitness, physical activity, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8-11 years). Analysis of covariance tested differences in bone-related variables by lean mass and muscle fitness, controlling for different sets of confounders. Linear regression models fitted for mediation analyses examined whether the association between muscle fitness and bone mass was mediated by lean mass. Children with good performance in handgrip and standing long jump had better and worse bone health, respectively. These differences disappeared after controlling for lean mass. Children with high lean mass had higher values in all bone-related variables. In addition, the relationship between muscle fitness and bone mass was fully mediated by lean mass. In conclusion, the relationship between upper-limbs muscle fitness and bone health seems to be dependent on lean mass but not on muscle fitness. Schoolchildren with high lean mass have more BMC and BMD in all regions. Lean mass mediates the association between muscle fitness and bone mass.

  5. Moving toward health and fitness: a collaborative academic and community mental health services partnership.

    PubMed

    Lesley, Marsha L; Creech, Constance J; Sprague, Robert M; Pfalzer, Lucinda A; Quijano, Kelley; McHugh, Justin

    2013-08-01

    For individuals with serious mental illness, physical fitness is a health imperative. This article describes the progression of an ongoing interprofessional partnership formed between a university's school of health professions and a community mental health services agency to find ways to improve the physical health status of individuals served by the agency. Clinical and research initiatives involving nursing and physical therapy faculty and students have contributed to the establishment of a growing physical fitness and health promotion program championed by agency administrators, staff, and service users. The groundwork has been laid for future collaborative efforts. More needs to be done to turn the tide on the chronic disease tsunami that prematurely takes the lives of people struggling with mental disorders.

  6. High-throughput comparison of gene fitness among related bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The contribution of a gene to the fitness of a bacterium can be assayed by whether and to what degree the bacterium tolerates transposon insertions in that gene. We use this fact to compare the fitness of syntenic homologous genes among related Salmonella strains and thereby reveal differences not apparent at the gene sequence level. Results A transposon Tn5 derivative was used to construct mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC14028 (STM1) and Salmonella Typhi Ty2 (STY1), which were then grown in rich media. The locations of 234,152 and 53,556 integration sites, respectively, were mapped by sequencing. These data were compared to similar data available for a different Ty2 isolate (STY2) and essential genes identified in E. coli K-12 (ECO). Of 277 genes considered essential in ECO, all had syntenic homologs in STM1, STY1, and STY2, and all but nine genes were either devoid of transposon insertions or had very few. For three of these nine genes, part of the annotated gene lacked transposon integrations (yejM, ftsN and murB). At least one of the other six genes, trpS, had a potentially functionally redundant gene encoded elsewhere in Salmonella but not in ECO. An additional 165 genes were almost entirely devoid of transposon integrations in all three Salmonella strains examined, including many genes associated with protein and DNA synthesis. Four of these genes (STM14_1498, STM14_2872, STM14_3360, and STM14_5442) are not found in E. coli. Notable differences in the extent of gene selection were also observed among the three different Salmonella isolates. Mutations in hns, for example, were selected against in STM1 but not in the two STY strains, which have a defect in rpoS rendering hns nonessential. Conclusions Comparisons among transposon integration profiles from different members of a species and among related species, all grown in similar conditions, identify differences in gene contributions to fitness among syntenic homologs. Further differences in

  7. Children's Perceptions of Fitness Self-Testing, the Purpose of Fitness Testing, and Personal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graser, Susan Vincent; Sampson, Barbara B.; Pennington, Todd R.; Prusak, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Flohr and Williams (1997) emphasized the importance of assessing students' attitudes about fitness testing as it contributes to effective, positive, and motivating physical education (PE) classes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify fifth and sixth graders' perceptions of fitness testing using FITNESSGRAM in a self-testing…

  8. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns.

  9. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  10. Demo of numarray, PyFITS, and related software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, J.-C.; Hodge, P. E.

    2004-07-01

    PyFITS is a Python module developed for FITS file I/O. We demonstrated its use for FITS images and tables, illustrating the PyFITS classes and methods, as well as the array manipulation capabilities of numarray. PyFITS is convenient for interactive use, and we also showed two utility programs, fitsdiff and readgeis, as examples of its use in astronomical applications. The task fitsdiff compares two FITS files and reports their differences, readgeis reads the STScI-style GEIS format files and converts them to FITS files or FITS objects. These two Python modules were showcased not only because they are useful astronomical tools but to demonstrate the ease of writing such applications using PyFITS and numarray. PyFITS can also make use of memory mapping, which significantly enhances its performance on large FITS files, both images and tables. At STScI, we are also applying numarray and PyFITS for larger projects such as pydrizzle and the pipeline software for the new HST instrument COS (Cosmic Origins Spectrograph).

  11. There’s an App for That: Content Analysis of Paid Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    Hall, P. Cougar; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Barrett, James

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of Apple’s iPhone provided a platform for developers to design third-party apps, which greatly expanded the functionality and utility of mobile devices for public health. Objective This study provides an overview of the developers’ written descriptions of health and fitness apps and appraises each app’s potential for influencing behavior change. Methods Data for this study came from a content analysis of health and fitness app descriptions available on iTunes during February 2011. The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) and the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM) were used as frameworks to guide the coding of 3336 paid apps. Results Compared to apps with a cost less than US $0.99, apps exceeding US $0.99 were more likely to be scored as intending to promote health or prevent disease (92.55%, 1925/3336 vs 83.59%, 1411/3336; P<.001), to be credible or trustworthy (91.11%, 1895/3336 vs 86.14%, 1454/3349; P<.001), and more likely to be used personally or recommended to a health care client (72.93%, 1517/2644 vs 66.77%, 1127/2644; P<.001). Apps related to healthy eating, physical activity, and personal health and wellness were more common than apps for substance abuse, mental and emotional health, violence prevention and safety, and sexual and reproductive health. Reinforcing apps were less common than predisposing and enabling apps. Only 1.86% (62/3336) of apps included all 3 factors (ie, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing). Conclusions Development efforts could target public health behaviors for which few apps currently exist. Furthermore, practitioners should be cautious when promoting the use of apps as it appears most provide health-related information (predisposing) or make attempts at enabling behavior, with almost none including all theoretical factors recommended for behavior change. PMID:22584372

  12. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  13. The Relative Importance of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  14. Effects of competition on fitness-related traits.

    PubMed

    Smith, A D; Houde, A L S; Neff, B; Peres-Neto, P R

    2017-03-01

    While interspecific competition is prevalent in natural systems, we do not yet understand how it can influence an individual's phenotype within its lifetime and how this might affect performance. Morphology and swimming performance are two important fitness-related traits in fishes. Both traits are essential in acquiring and defending resources as well as avoiding predation. Here, we examined if interspecific competition could induce changes in morphology and affect the swimming performance of two strains of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We imposed competitive scenarios on the fish using artificial streams containing different combinations of four interspecific competitors. Exposure to interspecific competitors induced morphological changes over time, through the development of deeper bodies, whereas controls free of interspecific competitors developed more fusiform body shapes. Furthermore, swimming performance was correlated to fusiform morphologies and was weaker for Atlantic salmon in competitive scenarios vs.

  15. Health and Fitness of Americans--The State of the Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, William C.

    1984-01-01

    This article offers a perspective on the present and future status of the health and fitness of Americans. Many advances have been made in the areas of health and fitness, but heart disease and obesity are still major health problems. (DF)

  16. A University Faculty and Staff Health Fitness Program, University of Montevallo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishler, J. Ward

    The effects of a health fitness program for college faculty and staff were studied at the University of Montevallo. The program covered physical fitness, assessment, prescription, training, and health education concerning nutrition and stress management. Six male and three female faculty members and staff participated in the 28-week health fitness…

  17. Importance of Health Science Education for Personal Fitness Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malek, Moh H.; Nalbone, David P.; Berger, Dale E.; Coburn, Jared W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between commonly used indicators of knowledge and actual knowledge in five areas among fitness trainers. Data from the Fitness Instructors Knowledge Assessment indicated that a bachelor's degree in the field of exercise science and possession of one of two specific certifications strongly predicted a trainer's knowledge,…

  18. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  19. Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1999-02-01

    Because most scholars take it for granted that medicine is concerned with healing and problems of ill health, the way in which various medical systems define good health has not been adequately studied. Moreover, good health as such is usually regarded as a natural, normative state of being even by most medical anthropologists, who otherwise take a critical, relativist perspective on the subject of illness, pain, and disease. Using the case of Ayurvedic medicine, this article shows that there is a very different way of looking at the question of how health is embodied. This perspective is proactive and concerned with overall fitness rather than reactive and primarily concerned with either illness or disease. The argument presented here therefore seeks to go beyond the limiting--although extremely useful--orientation of remedial health care and suggest a radical challenge to some of the most basic ontological assumptions in the cross-cultural comparative study of medical systems.

  20. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android.

  1. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  2. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  3. Could Sport Specialization Influence Fitness and Health of Adults with Mental Retardation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual…

  4. Farmworker Health-Related Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Farmworker Organizations, Washington, DC.

    Documents pertaining to migrant and seasonal farmworker health comprise this bibliography of over 300 entries, nearly 100 of them annotated. The purpose of the bibliography is to provide health groups within the National Association of Farmworker Organizations with literature which may guide further research related to the provision of health care…

  5. [Work-related diseases and the fitness to work in construction industry].

    PubMed

    Riva, M M; Bancone, C; Bigoni, F; Bresciani, M; Santini, M; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry is characterized by a high number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and even higher prevalence of work-related diseases. The aim of this work is to analyze the results of a research project that has among its objectives the study of the prevalence of work-related diseases and the fitness to work in construction industry. In the period 2003-2011 were evaluated 2069 construction workers, from 218 companies (average age 37.9 years, mean seniority 21.1 years, 17.1 in the construction industry). The prevalence of work-related diseases was 14.06%, in the first place the noise-induced hearing loss, followed by musculoskeletal disorders and entrapment neuropathies. The 24.7% of fitness to work was influenced by the presence of limitations, the 0.6% of the population was not suitable for the specific task. The prevalence of work-related diseases in construction industry is high, with a peak among the elderly, but also significant occurrence among young people. It is important the percentage of the population with health problems that limit the fitness to work.

  6. The health-enhancing efficacy of Zumba® fitness: An 8-week randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Knox, Allan; Easton, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants were randomly assigned to either engagement in one to two 1 h classes of Zumba® fitness weekly (intervention group; n = 10) or maintenance of habitual activity (control group; n = 10). Laboratory assessments were conducted pre- (week 0) and post-intervention (week 8) with anthropometric, physiological, inflammatory and HRQoL data collected. In the intervention group, maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.56) by 3.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), per cent body fat significantly decreased (P < 0.05; partial η(2) = 0.42) by -1.2%, and interleukin-6 and white blood cell (WBC) count both significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by -0.4 pg · mL(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.96) and -2.1 × 10(9) cells · L(-1) (partial η(2) = 0.87), respectively. Large magnitude enhancements were observed in the HRQoL factors of physical functioning, general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. When interpreted in a community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion context, our data suggest that Zumba® fitness is indeed an efficacious health-enhancing activity for adults.

  7. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents.

  8. Physical and motor fitness are both related to cognition in old age.

    PubMed

    Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of fitness for cognitive performance in healthy older adults have repeatedly been demonstrated. Animal studies, however, have revealed differential relationships between physical and motor fitness and brain metabolism. We therefore investigated whether for older humans different dimensions of fitness are differentially associated with cognitive performance and brain activation patterns. Seventy-two participants (mean age 68.99 years, SD = 3.66; 52 females) completed four psychometric tests reflecting two primary abilities of higher cognitive functioning (executive control, perceptual speed) and a battery of fitness tests comprising two fitness dimensions (physical and motor fitness). We found that not only physical fitness indexed by cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength, but also motor fitness including movement speed, balance, motor coordination and flexibility showed a strong association with cognitive functioning. Additionally, functional brain imaging data revealed that physical and motor fitness were differentially related to cognitive processes. Results are discussed with regard to the compensation hypothesis and potential consequences for intervention work.

  9. [Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Müters, S; Krug, S; Hölling, H; Kuhnert, R; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A state of good fitness is related to a better health state and a lower mortality risk. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), aerobic fitness was measured among adults between 18 and 64 years old using a submaximal cycle ergometry test. The total sample comprised 5,263 persons, amongst those 3,111 were categorized as being test-qualified according to the Physical Activity Readiness-Questionnaire. There were 3,030 persons who absolved a submaximal exercise test according to the exercise protocol of the WHO (25/25/2). The test-participation rate was 57.2 % in relation to the total sample and 97.4 % among test-qualified persons. Apart from the continuous heart-rate monitoring, capillary blood was taken prior to starting the test and at the end of each workload stage for performing blood lactate analyses. The test ended when 85 % of the age-predicted maximal heart rate was exceeded. In all 11.9 % of the tests were terminated earlier, the mean exercise duration was 10.8 min, and the anticipated submaximal exertion in the highest workload stage was on average achieved with a mean of 15 on the 20-point RPE scale. The nationwide data can now be used for the national health monitoring system, epidemiological research and for the calculation of reference values. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  10. Physical Fitness: The Pathway to Healthful Living. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Robert V.

    This text is designed for university-level foundations of physical education courses that incorporate student participation in alternate lecture and laboratory sessions. The material is presented so that each individual might evaluate his present level of physical fitness, might carefully consider all the information available, and then make an…

  11. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  12. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  13. Relative and Absolute Fit Evaluation in Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jinsong; de la Torre, Jimmy; Zhang, Zao

    2013-01-01

    As with any psychometric models, the validity of inferences from cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) determines the extent to which these models can be useful. For inferences from CDMs to be valid, it is crucial that the fit of the model to the data is ascertained. Based on a simulation study, this study investigated the sensitivity of various fit…

  14. Reducing Health Disparities: The Perfect Fit for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buki, Lydia P.

    2007-01-01

    This reaction to the Major Contribution presents a conceptualization of health disparities as another form of oppression of marginalized populations in our society. Consistent with this view, health disparities are then situated within a larger, national context, showing that counseling psychologists' involvement is an integral part of a…

  15. Service Learning and Community Health Nursing: A Natural Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn P.; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Community health nursing students performed community assessments and proposed and implemented service learning projects that addressed adolescent smoking in middle schools, home safety for elderly persons, industrial worker health, and sexual abuse of teenaged girls. Students learned to apply epidemiological research methods, mobilize resources,…

  16. Dance biomechanics: a tool for controlling health, fitness, and training.

    PubMed

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Apostolos, Margo

    2008-01-01

    The need for superior performance in dance has impelled teachers and choreographers to use increasingly effective and sophisticated methods of preparation. To that end, such modalities ofbiomechanics as advanced motion-capture, muscle-function and muscle-strength techniques are being used to provide useful information about which of the dancers' needs require special attention. This often involves improving aspects of dance technique, which, in turn, may help dancers to prevent disabling injuries, the most frequent cause of notoriously short dance careers. Biomechanics may also help dancers to assess fitness levels, to control overtraining or "burnout," and assist them and their teachers in the effective scheduling of practice and exercise sessions.

  17. Making the fit: orienting new employees to community health nursing agencies.

    PubMed

    Snow, L; Hefty, L V; Kenyon, V; Bell, M L; Martaus, T

    1992-03-01

    Community health nurse managers require tested orientation methods to fit new employees into the rapidly changing conditions of professional practice, increase nursing productivity, and reduce turnover. The clinical competencies for community health nursing provide a workable framework for applying orientation principles to the special demands of community health nursing.

  18. A Corporate Health and Fitness Program: Motivation and Management by Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baun, William B.; Baun, Michele

    1984-01-01

    Computers used in employee fitness programs help motivate participants by providing immediate feedback. The computer is used to record employee membership, participant check-in and check-out, fitness and medical testing, and exercise logging. A description of Tenneco's health program is offered. (DF)

  19. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  20. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  1. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard.

  2. "Healthful P.E." Albuquerque Public Schools--Lovelace Physical Fitness Pilot Program and "Healthful P.E." Evaluation Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenwurm, Jerry; Phillipp, Annette

    Results of two evaluations of a 3-year physical fitness pilot program, developed by the Lovelace Medical Foundation and the Albuquerque Public Schools to upgrade the health and physical fitness status of adolescent students, are presented. Adolescent risk factors addressed by the project are discussed, including smoking, substance abuse, poor…

  3. Sport, Health, Fitness and Dance. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B., Ed.

    This collection of symposium papers provides current synthesis of research in the field of physical education and health. In this volume the physiological aspects of physical activities are discussed. The effects of chronic heavy physical training in swimming are examined, comparing age groups and males and females. Stress factors are also…

  4. Does regulatory fit lead to more effective health communication? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ramona; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Many of today's threats to public health arise from people's lifestyle. Hence, the public's compliance with advice given for health promotion and disease prevention has to be enhanced. Much research traces back the efficacy of health promotion messages to message qualities, while other work focuses on recipient qualities. Regulatory focus theory posits inter-individual differences in motivational orientation, namely a promotion or prevention focus, and offers a unique chance to look at message and recipient variables at the same time (Higgins, 1997). Whereas a promotion-focused individual tries to achieve desired end-states, someone with a prevention focus is rather vigilant. If individuals' goal pursuit strategies match their regulatory orientation, they experience regulatory fit, which increases the perceived persuasiveness of health messages (Higgins, 2000). Such a match can be evoked by particularly framed messages that highlight a person's regulatory orientation. Thus, the assumption of regulatory fit goes beyond the concept of gain- and loss-framing. To assess whether regulatory fit contributes to the effectiveness of health communication, a systematic review was conducted. An extensive systematic search led to the inclusion of 30 studies, for which data were extracted and quality appraised. Findings were summarized using narrative synthesis. Most studies (n = 23) were conducted in the USA and assessed the effects of regulatory fit on behavioral intention (n = 21). Nineteen experiments used samples of university students, and the health context chosen most often was a healthy diet (n = 7). Sixteen experiments manipulated regulatory orientation whereas chronic regulatory focus was measured ten times. The majority of studies confirmed that regulatory fit enhanced the effectiveness of health messages, which did not vary much across different health domains or outcomes. Regulatory fit is a promising approach for tailoring health messages as the synergy effects of

  5. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management.

  6. Health versus fitness: competing themes in the origins and spread of agriculture?

    PubMed

    Lambert, Patricia M

    2009-10-01

    The general picture of human health that has emerged from bioarchaeological studies of the agricultural transition is one of health decline, although the nature and severity of the biological impacts have varied in accordance with worldwide diversity in the timing, duration, and specific characteristics of this economic shift. Conversely and somewhat paradoxically, the emerging picture has also been one of enhanced fertility and population growth. These findings raise challenging questions about the measures bioarchaeologists use to assess the biological costs and benefits of agriculture. It is argued here that these measures fall into two potentially quite distinct categories-physiological fitness (homeostasis) and reproductive (Darwinian) fitness, measures that may assess the costs and benefits of a biocultural system very differently. Both provide valuable insights into questions about our past at levels ranging from the evolution of our species to the unique experiences of individuals and their kin. However, the relative importance of each in larger questions about human adaptation needs to be carefully considered when assessing the biological evidence in questions of causation.

  7. An analysis of weight loss articles and advertisements in mainstream women’s health and fitness magazines

    PubMed Central

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa; Huynh, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magazines are a commonly used source for health and fitness information. Little is known about the nature and extent of weight loss strategies and products presented in mainstream women’s health and fitness magazines. Methods: This preliminary cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of articles and advertisements featuring weight loss content and products in mainstream US-based health and fitness magazines, as well as assessed weight loss themes presented. Thirty-one US health and fitness-focused magazine issues were coded. Prevalence of, product type, and themes related to weight loss in articles and advertisements were assessed. Results: Among the 31 issues of the five US-based women’s magazines examined, we identified 39 articles (4.8% [95% CI = 3.3% to 5.5%] of 819 articles) related to weight loss with 14 identified weight loss topics. The most prevalent article topics covered were exercising/workouts (32.0% [95% CI = 28.8% to 33.6%]) followed by dieting (18.6% [95% CI = 15.9% to 19.9%]).The most common product advertised was weight loss pills (46.0% [95% CI = 42.6% to 47.7%]). Fat burners were also frequently advertised (14.9% [95% CI = 12.5% to 16.1%]) followed by hunger reduction strategies (10.3% [95% CI = 8.2% to 11.3%]) and fat blockers (6.9% [95% CI= 5.2% to 7.8%]). Conclusion: Articles presented information about exercise and dieting whereas advertisements supported potentially harmful health beliefs and behaviors. As a well-utilized American media format, health and fitness-focused magazines have an opportunity to communicate frequent,accurate messaging about healthy weight reduction and limit advertisements that may include misleading claims. PMID:27386422

  8. Health and Fitness Courses in Higher Education: A Historical Perspective and Contemporary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerke, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among 18- to 24-year-olds has steadily increased. Given that the majority of young American adults are enrolled in colleges and universities, the higher education setting could be an appropriate environment for health promotion programs. Historically, health and fitness in higher education have been provided via…

  9. We are making inroads on health and fitness traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers have used genetic selection to make dramatic improvements in milk and components yields over the past 50 years. Production traits are easy to measure, have relatively high heritabilities, and are directly tied to the financial success of the farm enterprise. The increasing importance...

  10. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size

    PubMed Central

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L.; Keogh, J. Scott; Jennions, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital–body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6–8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  11. Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Person-organisation fit (P-O fit) is a predictor of work attitude. However, in the area of human resource for health, the literature of P-O fit is quite limited. It is unclear whether P-O fit directly or indirectly affects turnover intention. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. Design and methods This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Setting and participants Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire responses were collected from CHWs in four provincial regions in China, namely Shanghai, Shaanxi, Shandong and Anhui. Results P-O fit was directly related to job satisfaction (standardised β 0.246) and inversely related to turnover intention (standardised β −0.186). In the mediation model, the total effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was −0.186 (p<0.001); the direct effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was −0.094 (p<0.01); the indirect effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention was −0.092 (p<0.001). Conclusions The effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was partially mediated through job satisfaction. It is suggested that more work attitude variables and different dimensions of P-O fit be taken into account to examine the complete mechanism of person-organisation interaction. Indirect measures of P-O fit should be encouraged in practice to enhance work attitudes of health workers.

  12. Fiscal fitness. Ten principles for evaluating financial health.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1986-01-01

    Such factors as declining utilization, aging plant, and competition may contribute to a hospital's closing, but the ultimate cause of hospital failure can usually be found in the institution's financial books. Perhaps as many as 20 percent of the nation's hospitals will close in the next decade, usually because of insolvency. Ten specific principles of financial performance can help hospitals survive. Among these are the principles that operating profits should cover replacement cost of assets, that nonoperating sources of income are critical to product-line enhancement, and that growth of equity capital is the bottom line of survival. Careful attention should be given to Catholic hospitals' performance relative to the national norms. Financial Analysis Service data indicate a mixed showing in this regard, and in several areas both Catholic hospitals and hospitals in general need to improve.

  13. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  14. Military Health Behaviors: Promotion of Healthy Weight and Fitness in Career Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    measurements of body weight/ fatness across time, 2)development of an environmental/Internet-based intervention to promote healthy weight through proper...physical fitness, Soldiers, health, weight, body fat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...H.E.A.L.T.H.)”. Soldiers who failed to meet Army requirements for body fat defined by AR 600-9, the Army weight Control Program (AWCP), and fitness

  15. Military Health Behaviors: Promotion of Healthy Weight and Fitness in Career Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    the results of the Army Physical Fitness tests and measurements of body weight/ fatness across time, 2) development of an environmental/Internet-based...Internet activity on the website. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nutrition, physical fitness, Soldiers, health, weight, body fat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Activity, Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.)”. Soldiers who fail to meet Army requirements for body fat defined by AR 600-9, the Army weight

  16. A Study of the Air Force Physical Fitness and Health Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    the empIov r (A I Force). A t t i tud e s This research deals with the attitudes people hold about physical fitness and health. The people in the...Loren Falkenberg , Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Management in Organization and Human Resrurces, University of Calgary, found in the review...of previous studies that participants thought they performed better it work after an employee fitness program. Since the dati w*, r - subjective

  17. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Cook, E Francis; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R(2) = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  18. How Healthy Are Corporate Fitness Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness of corporate fitness programs in improving employee fitness and reducing health care costs, noting the lack of related research. Corporations consider physical fitness an important component of fiscal fitness, but what is needed is a health promotion philosophy focusing on the total population's health. (SM)

  19. "Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.

    PubMed

    Hutson, David J

    2013-08-01

    Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility.

  20. Differences in health behavior, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk in early, average, and late mature children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Wartha, Olivia; Klenk, Jochen; Brandstetter, Susanne; Wabitsch, Martin; Steinacker, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the association between biological maturity, CVD risk, fitness and health behavior in 709 (359 male, 350 female) 8-year-old children (range: 6.3-8.9 years). Sports participation and sedentary behavior was assessed via parent questionnaire. Height and weight was measured and maturity status was predicted based on % of adult-height reached. Fitness was assessed via a test battery and CVD risk was determined using mean arterial pressure, cholesterol and intra-abdominal fat. BMIpercentiles (BMIPCT) differed significantly among early, average and late maturing children. Early maturing children displayed a higher CVD risk profile (0.5 vs. -0.2), lower fitness scores (-0.4 vs. 0.2), and spent more time watching TV (51 vs. 43 min/day) compared with their peers. After controlling for BMIPCT differences remained only for fitness in boys and TV time in girls.

  1. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    PubMed

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother.

  2. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  3. Using Object Lessons to Teach Health-Related Fitness Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven; Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Graser, Susan Vincent

    2008-01-01

    What would happen if every student in your class instantly became obese and then tried to play basketball? The extra weight would likely make them uncomfortable and less willing to move, run, and jump. They would probably also gain some empathy for the heavy kids in the class and would better understand the importance of staying in shape as they…

  4. Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS): An Instrument for Evaluating Service Quality of Health-Fitness Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Eddie T. C.; Zhang, James J.; Jensen, Barbara E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the Service Quality Assessment Scale to evaluate the service quality of health-fitness clubs. Through a review of literature, field observations, interviews, modified application of the Delphi technique, and a pilot study, a preliminary scale with 46 items was formulated. The preliminary scale was administered to…

  5. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  6. Designing a University-Wide Fitness Program to Promote Campus Health and Department Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Jennifer; Hancher-Rauch, Heidi; Hicks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Health and physical education departments across the United States often face perception and reputation problems on campus and a general misunderstanding of the nature of their academic work. One solution is to offer a faculty-and-staff fitness program that showcases the academic and leadership skills of the faculty, opens doors for collaboration…

  7. Health and Fitness: An Issue for High School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness are important issues for high school administrators, teachers, and students. Obesity is a growing concern for all ages, and it is particularly relevant for adolescents because they are at a stage in which they may be establishing habits that will last a lifetime. It is also a critical problem at this level because there is…

  8. Attitudinal and Psychosocial Outcomes of a Fitness and Health Education Program on Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program for adults with Down syndrome were examined. Participants were 53 adults with Down syndrome ages 30 years and older (29 females, 24 males, M age = 39.72 years) who were randomized into a training (n = 32) or control group (n = 21). The training group participated in a…

  9. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain with onset during pregnancy is common and approximately one out of three women have disabling pain. The pathogenesis of the pain condition is uncertain and there is no information on the role of physical fitness. Whether poorer physical conditioning is a cause or effect of back pain is also disputed and information from prospective studies needed. Methods A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined regarding estimated peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometer test in early pregnancy, reported physical activity prior to pregnancy, basic characteristics, back pain during pregnancy and back pain postpartum. Results Back pain during the current pregnancy was reported by nearly 80% of the women. At the postpartum appointment this prevalence was 40%. No association was displayed between estimated peak oxygen uptake and incidence of back pain during and after pregnancy, adjusted for physical activity, back pain before present pregnancy, previous deliveries, age and weight. A significant inverse association was found between estimated peak oxygen uptake and back pain intensity during pregnancy and a direct association post partum, in a fully adjusted multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions Estimated peak oxygen uptake and reported physical activity in early pregnancy displayed no influence on the onset of subsequent back pain during or after pregnancy, where the time sequence support the hypothesis that poorer physical deconditioning is not a cause but a consequence of the back pain condition. The mechanism for the attenuating effect of increased oxygen uptake on back pain intensity is uncertain. PMID:22510295

  10. Codependency and related health variables.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, D S; Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O

    2000-06-01

    Codependency is a controversial concept especially for feminist scholars who are concerned about pathologizing traditional female roles. This study's purpose was to determine: (1) the prevalence of codependency in a sample of older women who because of age may ascribe to traditional roles; (2) how the Hughes-Hammer/Martsolf theoretical model of codependency relates to other health variables; and (3) whether previous findings about the relationship between codependency and depression replicate. Survey design was used with a sample of 238 women (ages 65 to 91) attending a flu shot clinic. Subjects completed the Codependency Assessment Tool, Beck Depression Inventory, Quality of Life Scale, Perceived Health Report, Measurement of Patient Functional Abilities, and Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist. Of these women, 99% had low codependency scores. Statistically significant correlations existed between codependency and perceived health (p < .01), and functional ability (p < .01). Codependency was not significantly correlated with illness prevention behaviors and quality of life. Codependency and depression, as in previous studies, were significantly correlated (r = .446, p = .0001). Using analysis of variance, 3 codependency subscales had significant positive effect on depression: Low Self-Worth, Medical Problems, and Hiding Self. Further studies should examine the degree of ascribing to traditional female roles in women dealing with codependency issues.

  11. Solution focused nursing: a fitting model for mental health nurses working in a public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government health agenda is advocating an extension of public health principles across all levels of the health sector. Since mental health nurses have long been proponents of public health and health promoting behaviours, an opportunity exists for this specialty of nursing to extend their influence and contribution within health. Solution focused nursing (SFN), a model that emerged from mental health practice, offers a framework to assist mental health nurses and leaders to more clearly practise public health principles within nursing and articulate that practice - for it is in the articulation of practice that nurses and nursing is made visible and valued. This paper aims to expand on and reiterate the SFN model, showing how it connects to public health principles and develops the mental health nurse's role - particularly in those clinical areas that require more than medical management and illness stabilization.

  12. Impact of a senior fitness program on measures of physical and emotional health and functioning.

    PubMed

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2013-12-01

    The SilverSneakers fitness program is a health plan benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that provides older adults with fitness center membership, customized group exercise classes, and a supportive social environment that promotes socialization among participants. This study evaluated the impact of the SilverSneakers program on physical and emotional health and activities of daily living (ADLs). A quasi-experimental retrospective analysis compared annual survey responses from SilverSneakers members (treatment N=5586) to a matched national random sample of Medicare Advantage organization beneficiaries (comparison N=22,344) in Cohort 10 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey. Matching was performed based on 6 demographic and 6 disease status variables. Survey responses from 2007 and 2009 were evaluated using categorical and logistic regression analysis. The treatment group showed significantly better physical and emotional health and lower impairment in both 2007 and 2009, less impairment for 4 of 6 ADLs in 2007, and all 6 in 2009, and a higher average number of days of good health within the prior month for both years. Three-year longitudinal analyses indicated a significantly more favorable survey response trend for the treatment group for nearly all measures of health and ADLs. Members who exercised less frequently had poorer health and functioning. Overall, participation in the SilverSneakers program was associated with more favorable overall physical and social/emotional health status and fewer activity impairments, suggesting that the provision of senior-oriented group fitness programs may be a valuable approach to improve quality of life and reduce the burden associated with declining health and functioning as older adults age.

  13. Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Sanna; Kubesch, Sabine; Dieterle, Katrin; Ruchsow, Martin; Heim, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-05-07

    Physical activity and aerobic exercise in particular, promotes health and effective cognitive functioning. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness and acute exercise, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as a part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task subsequent to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and a period of rest, respectively. 35 higher- and lower-fit adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age participated in a controlled cross-over study design. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show significantly greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes. P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control neither showed influences of physical fitness nor the acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, acute aerobic exercise was not related to any of the dependent measures. The current findings suggest that physical fitness, but not an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation.

  14. Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test.

  15. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  16. Into Adolescence: Fitness, Health and Hygiene. A Curriculum for Grades 5-8. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garzino, Mary S.

    The Contemporary Health Series is intended to help teachers address critical health issues in their classrooms. It is designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for their health. This learning module, directed at middle school teachers, focuses on several health and…

  17. Direct and indirect causal effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits in Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Alice; Biebach, Iris; Bassano, Bruno; Bogliani, Giuseppe; von Hardenberg, Achaz

    2015-01-07

    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are a useful tool to investigate the effects of inbreeding in wild populations, but are not informative in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) in a free-ranging population (which suffered a severe bottleneck at the end of the eighteenth century) and used confirmatory path analysis to disentangle the causal relationships between heterozygosity and fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in 149 male individuals born between 1985 and 2009. We found that standardized multi-locus heterozygosity (MLH), calculated from 37 microsatellite loci, was related to body mass and horn growth, which are known to be important fitness-related traits, and to faecal egg counts (FECs) of nematode eggs, a proxy of parasite resistance. Then, using confirmatory path analysis, we were able to show that the effect of MLH on horn growth was not direct but mediated by body mass and FEC. HFCs do not necessarily imply direct genetic effects on fitness-related traits, which instead can be mediated by other traits in complex and unexpected ways.

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate vitamin D status is related to increased adiposity, risk of falls, and muscle weakness, particularly in the elderly. We hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D) is related to physical fitness indices (androidal fat, whole body lean mass, balance, strength) in healthy...

  19. Using modular psychotherapy in school mental health: Provider perspectives on intervention-setting fit

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Ludwig, Kristy; Romano, Evalynn; Koltracht, Jane; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective The “fit” or appropriateness of well-researched interventions within usual care contexts is among the most commonly-cited, but infrequently researched, factors in the successful implementation of new practices. The current study was initiated to address two exploratory research questions: (1) How do clinicians describe their current school mental health service delivery context? and (2) How do clinicians describe the fit between modular psychotherapy and multiple levels of the school mental health service delivery context? Method Following a year-long training and consultation program in an evidence-based, modular approach to psychotherapy, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen school-based mental health providers to evaluate their perspectives on the appropriateness of implementing the approach within a system of school-based health centers. Interviews were transcribed and coded for themes using conventional and directed content analysis. Results Findings identified key elements of the school mental health context including characteristics of the clinicians, their practices, the school context, and the service recipients. Specific evaluation of intervention-setting appropriateness elicited many comments about both practical and value-based (e.g., cultural considerations) aspects at the clinician and client levels, but fewer comments at the school or organizational levels. Conclusions Results suggest that a modular approach may fit well with the school mental health service context, especially along practical aspects of appropriateness. Future research focused on the development of methods for routinely assessing appropriateness at different stages of the implementation process is recommended. PMID:24134063

  20. Breaking down "Healthism": Barriers to Health and Fitness as Identified by Immigrant Youth in St. John's, NL, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Jennifer M.; Beausoleil, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we challenge dominant health and fitness discourses which stress individual responsibility in the attainment of these statuses. We examine the results of an empirical study exploring how a group of 15 Canadian immigrant youth, aged 12-17, discursively construct notions of health and fitness. Qualitative data were collected through…

  1. Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?

    PubMed

    DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health.

  2. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  3. How to infer relative fitness from a sample of genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Dayarian, Adel; Shraiman, Boris I

    2014-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural populations can harbor extensive fitness diversity with numerous genomic loci under selection. It is also known that genealogical trees for populations under selection are quantifiably different from those expected under neutral evolution and described statistically by Kingman's coalescent. While differences in the statistical structure of genealogies have long been used as a test for the presence of selection, the full extent of the information that they contain has not been exploited. Here we demonstrate that the shape of the reconstructed genealogical tree for a moderately large number of random genomic samples taken from a fitness diverse, but otherwise unstructured, asexual population can be used to predict the relative fitness of individuals within the sample. To achieve this we define a heuristic algorithm, which we test in silico, using simulations of a Wright-Fisher model for a realistic range of mutation rates and selection strength. Our inferred fitness ranking is based on a linear discriminator that identifies rapidly coalescing lineages in the reconstructed tree. Inferred fitness ranking correlates strongly with actual fitness, with a genome in the top 10% ranked being in the top 20% fittest with false discovery rate of 0.1-0.3, depending on the mutation/selection parameters. The ranking also enables us to predict the genotypes that future populations inherit from the present one. While the inference accuracy increases monotonically with sample size, samples of 200 nearly saturate the performance. We propose that our approach can be used for inferring relative fitness of genomes obtained in single-cell sequencing of tumors and in monitoring viral outbreaks.

  4. How to Infer Relative Fitness from a Sample of Genomic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dayarian, Adel; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural populations can harbor extensive fitness diversity with numerous genomic loci under selection. It is also known that genealogical trees for populations under selection are quantifiably different from those expected under neutral evolution and described statistically by Kingman’s coalescent. While differences in the statistical structure of genealogies have long been used as a test for the presence of selection, the full extent of the information that they contain has not been exploited. Here we demonstrate that the shape of the reconstructed genealogical tree for a moderately large number of random genomic samples taken from a fitness diverse, but otherwise unstructured, asexual population can be used to predict the relative fitness of individuals within the sample. To achieve this we define a heuristic algorithm, which we test in silico, using simulations of a Wright–Fisher model for a realistic range of mutation rates and selection strength. Our inferred fitness ranking is based on a linear discriminator that identifies rapidly coalescing lineages in the reconstructed tree. Inferred fitness ranking correlates strongly with actual fitness, with a genome in the top 10% ranked being in the top 20% fittest with false discovery rate of 0.1–0.3, depending on the mutation/selection parameters. The ranking also enables us to predict the genotypes that future populations inherit from the present one. While the inference accuracy increases monotonically with sample size, samples of 200 nearly saturate the performance. We propose that our approach can be used for inferring relative fitness of genomes obtained in single-cell sequencing of tumors and in monitoring viral outbreaks. PMID:24770330

  5. Educational Level Is Related to Physical Fitness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Allet, Lara; Giet, Olivier; Barral, Jérôme; Junod, Nicolas; Durrer, Dominique; Amati, Francesca; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2016-01-01

    of low EL. EL was not related to balance or flexibility. Discussion A main strength of the present study is that it addresses a population of importance and a factor (EL) whose understanding can influence future interventions. A second strength is its relatively large sample size of a high-risk population. Third, unlike studies that have shown an association between self-reported fitness and educational level we assessed physical fitness measures by a quantitative and validated test battery using assessors blinded to other data. Another novelty is the extensive evaluation of the role of many relevant confounder variables. Conclusions In conclusion, we show that in patients with type 2 diabetes EL correlates favorably and independently with important health-related physical fitness measures such as aerobic fitness, walking speed, and lower limb strength. Our findings underline that diabetic patients with low EL should be specifically encouraged to participate in physical activity intervention programs to further reduce social disparities in healthcare. Such programs should be structured and integrate the norms, needs and capacities (financial, time, physical capacities and self-efficacy) of this population, and their effectiveness should be tested in future studies. Trial Registration University of Lausanne clinicaltrials.gov NCT01289587 PMID:27732627

  6. Dance for health: improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, R

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease begins early in life but might be prevented or delayed by primary prevention programs designed for children and adolescents. Regular physical activity is an important part of primary prevention programs, and school physical education programs have potential for the promotion of regular physical activity. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death among Hispanics and African Americans in the United States. Low levels of fitness and increased body mass index are common in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Increased physical activity and the adoption of healthy eating habits would increase fitness and reduce body mass index among these adolescents. The purpose of the study was to undertake a small-scale controlled trial to determine if Dance for Health, an intervention program designed to provide an enjoyable aerobic program for African American and Hispanic adolescents, has a significant effect on improving aerobic capacity, helping students maintain or decrease weight, and on improving attitudes toward physical activity and physical fitness. In the first year of the program (1990-91), approximately 110 boys and girls ages 10-13 years participated in an aerobic dance pilot program three times per week for 12 weeks. Dance for Health was revised and continued in the 1992-93 school year with seventh grade students and an added culturally sensitive health curriculum. Forty-three students were randomized to Dance for Health and 38 to usual physical activity. Those in the intervention class received a health education curriculum twice a week and a dance oriented physical education class three times a week. The usual physical activity consisted mostly of playground activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7630998

  7. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  8. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  9. Branding campaign exceeds initial goals for New Hampshire fitness site. Campaign utilizes humor, insights from market research. Synergy Health and Fitness Center, Exeter.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    Exeter Health Resources Inc. and agency BBK Communications create a comprehensive brand-building campaign for its centers that combine fitness services and programs under Synergy. With success, the center signed up more than 1,600 members by the time it opened in January.

  10. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT" Efficacy Trial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard; Dawson-Bannister, Harriett; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Kottwitz, Esther; Hansen, Blake; Fleming, Kandace

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program for improving students' on-task behavior, and increasing teacher recognition of appropriate behavior. The intervention is a group contingency classroom management program consisting of teaching and reinforcing appropriate…

  11. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  12. Adaptive Memory: Young Children Show Enhanced Retention of Fitness-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Alp; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on…

  13. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  14. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  15. Criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castro-Piñero, J; Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Ortega, F B; Sjöström, M; Suni, J; Ruiz, J R

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to comprehensively study the criterion-related validity of the existing field-based fitness tests used in children and adolescents. The studies were scored according to the number of subjects, description of the study population and statistical analysis. Each study was classified as high, low and very low quality. Three levels of evidence were constructed: strong evidence, when consistent findings were observed in three or more high quality studies; moderate evidence, when consistent findings were observed in two high quality studies; and limited evidence when consistency of findings and/or the number of studies did not achieve the criteria for moderate. The results of 73 studies (50 of high quality) addressing the criterion-related validity of field-based fitness tests in children and adolescents indicate the following: that there is strong evidence indicating that the 20 m shuttle run test is a valid test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness, that the hand-grip strength test is a valid measure of musculoskeletal fitness, that skin fold thickness and body mass index are good estimates of body composition, and that waist circumference is a valid measure to estimate central body fat. Moderate evidence was found that the 1-mile run/walk test is a valid test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. A large number of other field-based fitness tests presented limited evidence, mainly due to a limited number of studies (one for each test). The results of the present systematic review should be interpreted with caution due to the substantial lack of consistency in reporting and designing the existing validity studies.

  16. Short-Term Heart Rate Recovery is Related to Aerobic Fitness in Elite Intermittent Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew M; Brickson, Stacey L; Prawda, Evan R; Sanfilippo, Jenifer L

    2017-04-01

    Watson, AM, Brickson, SL, Prawda, ER, and Sanfilippo, JL. Short-term heart rate recovery is related to aerobic fitness in elite intermittent sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1055-1061, 2017-Although heart rate recovery (HRR) has been suggested as a measure of fitness, minimal data exist among athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine if HRR is related to aerobic fitness in elite athletes and whether this relationship is influenced by sex or body composition. Eighty-four collegiate athletes (45 male athletes) underwent body fat percentage (BF%) determination by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and maximal treadmill testing followed by 5 minutes of recovery. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and heart rate (HRmax) were determined, and HRR was calculated as a percentage of HRmax at 10 seconds, 30 seconds, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after test completion. After stratifying by sex, participants were grouped as high fit or low fit based on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max median split. Heart rate recovery was compared between sexes and fitness level at each time point. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of HRR using V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, BF%, and sex as covariates. Heart rate recovery did not differ significantly between sexes and was faster among high-fit participants at 10 and 30 seconds, but at no other time. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with HRR at 10 and 30 seconds (r = -0.34, p < 0.001 and r = -0.28, p = 0.008) only. After controlling for BF% and sex, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max remained significantly associated with HRR at 10 seconds (p = 0.007) but not at 30 seconds (p = 0.067) or any time thereafter. Aerobic capacity is related to faster HRR during the first 30 seconds only, suggesting that only very short term HRR should be used as a measure of aerobic fitness in intermittent sport athletes.

  17. [Relations between health and development].

    PubMed

    Musgrove, P

    1993-02-01

    The relationship between the health of a population and the state of development of a society is complex and varies over time. Throughout history, improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. This benefit results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability. This second factor is increasingly important compared to simple economic growth. Reciprocally, health could be expected to have a favorable effect on development, although this effect is more difficult to detect. Nevertheless, health can be considered part of a society's capital stock, as long as the essential differences between this type of capital and physical capital are recognized. These differences, in turn, provide an insight into the health services market and, in particular, into the tendency to spend more and more resources on health. It is necessary to respect the intrinsic value of human capital, rather than focusing strictly on the economic productivity that may be derived from it, in order to prevent discrimination against children, the elderly, the poor, or the disabled.

  18. Health-related services provided by public health educators.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hans H; Becker, Craig M

    2011-09-01

    This study identifies the health-related services provided by public health educators. The investigators, with the help of practicing public health educators, created the list of health-related services. Respondents received questionnaires in 2001 and 2007. Thus, this study determined the changes in health-related services provided over a 6-year period. Respondents ranked up to five health-related services by the amount of time spent delivering each health-related service. The list of health-related services presented in a 2001 survey and a 2007 survey were identical. As in 2001, this list in the 2007 survey captured the breadth of health-related services provided, with one exception. In 2007, several participants wrote-in "emergency preparedness/bioterrorism." The types of health-related services provided did not change over the 6-year period; however, the ranking of these services did change. Most notably, nutrition education and involvement with physical activity moved up in the ranking in 2007.

  19. A wearable chemical–electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J.; Mohan, A. M. Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices. PMID:27212140

  20. A wearable chemical-electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring.

    PubMed

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J; Mohan, A M Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P

    2016-05-23

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices.

  1. A Multi Parameters Wearable Telemetric System for Cardio-Pulmonary Fitness of e-Health.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tsung-Che; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Liao, Fang-Ren; Lu, Shey-Shi; Ping, Feng; Yang, Chang-Rung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2005-01-01

    We report a multi parameters cardio-pulmonary (CP) monitoring system with features of low power consumptions (30mA,3.3V), miniaturization (size 25 cm2), and wireless data communications (Frequency 96 MHz) for wearable applications in e-Health. Its target application is forthe evaluation of fitness of CP during exercises. We use aminiature bi-directional hot-wire sensor for respiratory function,an optical sensor for saturated blood oxygen level or plethsymograph, and two surface electrodes for single lead electrocardiograph. The fitness indexes include blood oxygen level, ECG, and respiratory functions, which will be used for the quantitative evaluation of the level of physical activity.

  2. Re-insurance in the Swiss health insurance market: Fit, power, and balance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services.

  3. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Long, Ryan A; Bowyer, R T; Porter, Warren P; Mathewson, Paul; Monteith, Kevin L; Findholt, Scott L; Dick, Brian L; Kie, John G

    2016-07-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North American elk (Cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-quality forage, would influence four energetically mediated traits related to fitness: birth mass of young, nutritional condition of adult females at the onset of winter, change in nutritional condition of females between spring and winter, and neonatal survival. We used a biophysical model to map spatiotemporally explicit costs of thermoregulation and activity experienced by elk in a heterogeneous landscape. We then combined model predictions with data on forage characteristics, animal locations, nutritional condition, and mass and survival of young to evaluate behaviorally mediated effects of the energy landscape on fitness-related traits. During spring, when high-quality forage was abundant, female elk that consistently selected low-cost areas before parturition gave birth to larger young than less-selective individuals, and birth mass had a strong, positive influence on probability of survival. As forage quality declined during autumn, however, lactating females that consistently selected the highest quality forage available accrued more fat and entered winter in better condition than less-selective individuals. Results of our study highlight the importance of understanding the dynamic nature of energy landscapes experienced by free-ranging animals.

  4. Essential health care package for children--the 'Fit for School' program in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Monse, Bella; Naliponguit, Ella; Belizario, Vincente; Benzian, Habib; van Helderman, Wim Palenstein

    2010-04-01

    High prevalence of poverty diseases such as diarrhoea, respiratory tract infection, parasitic infections and dental caries among children in the developing world calls for a return to primary health care principles with a focus on prevention. The 'Fit for School' program in the Philippines is based on international recommendations and offers a feasible, low-cost and realistic strategy using the principles of health promotion outlined in the Ottawa Charter. The cornerstone of the programme is the use of school structures for the implementation of preventive health strategies. 'Fit for School' consists of simple, evidence-based interventions like hand washing with soap, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and other high impact interventions such as bi-annual de-worming as a routine school activity for all children visiting public elementary schools. The programme has been successfully rolled-out in the Philippines covering 630,000 children in 22 provinces and it is planned to reach 6 million children in the next three years. The programme is a partnership project between the Philippine Department of Education and the Local Government Units with support for capacity development activities from the German Development Cooperation and GlaxoSmithKline.

  5. Inventory of Health and Physical Fitness Promotion Materials, Research and Articles from Periodicals of General Interest. Final Report. Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzo, Robert; And Others

    This document reports on an effort to identify, collect, and catalog: (1) various fitness- and health-related promotion materials available to the general public by federal, state, and local agencies; and (2) informational items distributed by the private sector. Printed materials are categorized as: (1) currently available brochures and pamphlets…

  6. Simulations in evolution. II. Relative fitness and the propagation of mutants.

    PubMed

    Testa, Bernard; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2009-03-01

    In Neo-Darwinism, variation and natural selection are the two evolutionary mechanisms which propel biological evolution. Our previous article presented a histogram model [1] consisting in populations of individuals whose number changed under the influence of variation and/or fitness, the total population remaining constant. Individuals are classified into bins, and the content of each bin is calculated generation after generation by an Excel spreadsheet. Here, we apply the histogram model to a stable population with fitness F(1)=1.00 in which one or two fitter mutants emerge. In a first scenario, a single mutant emerged in the population whose fitness was greater than 1.00. The simulations ended when the original population was reduced to a single individual. The histogram model was validated by excellent agreement between its predictions and those of a classical continuous function (Eqn. 1) which predicts the number of generations needed for a favorable mutation to spread throughout a population. But in contrast to Eqn. 1, our histogram model is adaptable to more complex scenarios, as demonstrated here. In the second and third scenarios, the original population was present at time zero together with two mutants which differed from the original population by two higher and distinct fitness values. In the fourth scenario, the large original population was present at time zero together with one fitter mutant. After a number of generations, when the mutant offspring had multiplied, a second mutant was introduced whose fitness was even greater. The histogram model also allows Shannon entropy (SE) to be monitored continuously as the information content of the total population decreases or increases. The results of these simulations illustrate, in a graphically didactic manner, the influence of natural selection, operating through relative fitness, in the emergence and dominance of a fitter mutant.

  7. Promoting Fitness and Safety in Elementary Students: A Randomized Control Study of the Michigan Model for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James M.; Clark, Jeffrey K.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on nutrition, physical fitness, and safety knowledge and skills. Methods: Schools (N = 52) were randomly assigned…

  8. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  9. A Model for the Inclusion of a Physical Fitness and Health Promotion Component in a Chemical Abuse Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridinger, Fred; Dehart, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes treatment program at Charter Hospital in Fort Worth, Texas, which incorporates comprehensive medical examination, fitness and nutritional screenings, and appropriate exercise activities into alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Notes that educational sessions are offered on health fitness, risk reduction, stress management,…

  10. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Results Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Conclusion Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. PMID:25628191

  11. Research on a Community-based Platform for Promoting Health and Physical Fitness in the Elderly Community

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Tseng, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the acceptability of a fitness testing platform (iFit) for installation in an assisted living community with the aim of promoting fitness and slowing the onset of frailty. The iFit platform develops a means of testing Bureau of Health Promotion mandated health assessment items for the elderly (including flexibility tests, grip strength tests, balance tests, and reaction time tests) and integrates wireless remote sensors in a game-like environment to capture and store subject response data, thus providing individuals in elderly care contexts with a greater awareness of their own physical condition. In this study, we specifically evaluated the users’ intention of using the iFit using a technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 101 elderly subjects (27 males and 74 females) were recruited. A survey was conducted to measure technology acceptance, to verify that the platform could be used as intended to promote fitness among the elderly. Results indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and usage attitude positively impact behavioral intention to use the platform. The iFit platform can offer user-friendly solutions for a community-based fitness care and monitoring of elderly subjects. In summary, iFit was determined by three key drivers and discussed as follows: risk factors among the frail elderly, mechanism for slowing the advance frailty, and technology acceptance and support for promoting physical fitness. PMID:23460859

  12. Research on a community-based platform for promoting health and physical fitness in the elderly community.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Tseng, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the acceptability of a fitness testing platform (iFit) for installation in an assisted living community with the aim of promoting fitness and slowing the onset of frailty. The iFit platform develops a means of testing Bureau of Health Promotion mandated health assessment items for the elderly (including flexibility tests, grip strength tests, balance tests, and reaction time tests) and integrates wireless remote sensors in a game-like environment to capture and store subject response data, thus providing individuals in elderly care contexts with a greater awareness of their own physical condition. In this study, we specifically evaluated the users' intention of using the iFit using a technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 101 elderly subjects (27 males and 74 females) were recruited. A survey was conducted to measure technology acceptance, to verify that the platform could be used as intended to promote fitness among the elderly. Results indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and usage attitude positively impact behavioral intention to use the platform. The iFit platform can offer user-friendly solutions for a community-based fitness care and monitoring of elderly subjects. In summary, iFit was determined by three key drivers and discussed as follows: risk factors among the frail elderly, mechanism for slowing the advance frailty, and technology acceptance and support for promoting physical fitness.

  13. [Health economic evaluation of health promotion - the example "fit for pisa"].

    PubMed

    Krauth, C; Liersch, S; Sterdt, E; Henze, V; Röbl, M; Walter, U

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of risk factors associated with physical inactivity lead to an economic burden on society. The article uses the example of the prevention measure "fit for pisa" to investigate to what extent a full economic evaluation can provide a basis for decision-makers. The intervention integrated the daily physical education at 5 primary schools in Göttingen for the entire school term. The study is intended to provide information on short- and long-term potential savings. A process analysis identified the prevention performance from a societal perspective. Resource consumption was recorded in (partly) standardisedform and evaluated and also revealed the need for investment in sports halls with capacity to expand the programme to all primary schools in Göttingen. In the routine the implementation costs of half-day schools are 619 € per student year; for all-day schools 236 € per student year. The consideration of the short-term outcomes shows that TV viewing has decreased and physical activity has been strongly encouraged. The active life style promotion has shown an improvement on BMI in the medium-term. On the basis of a decision analytical model, a cost-benefit analysis of the program over the life course will be undertaken.

  14. Fitting the CHIN (community health information network) to the customer: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Rabunski, J S; Weil, J P

    1995-01-01

    Each of the case studies described above is typical of many health care organizations in the northeastern United States. The reasons each of these three organizations seeks to form or participate in a CHIN varies-from establishing the loyalty of practicing physicians in a community hospital's struggle to survive, through sharing of real-time patient care data in a successful community-wide effort to avoid expensive duplication of services, to driving the transition from a multihospital integrated delivery system to a full-risk accountable health plan. While the need to reduce costs, by taking advantage of economies of scale and prospectively monitoring utilization, is common to all three organizations, selecting the type of CHIN that best fits each scenario, with particular emphasis on aspects of control, is the key success factor.

  15. Fitness versus Fatness: Which Influences Health and Mortality Risk the Most?

    PubMed

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Tucker, Wesley J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a more powerful predictor of mortality than body mass index or adiposity, and improving CRF is more important than losing body fat for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data on reduced morbidity and mortality associated with increased CRF are strong and consistent. By contrast, data on intentional weight loss and mortality are uncertain, and weight loss-induced risk factor modification may be largely transient. Because weight loss maintenance is poor and considering the health risks associated with chronic weight instability ( "yo-yo" dieting), we propose an alternative paradigm that focuses on improving CRF rather than reducing body weight. We contend that this is a safer alternative for management of obesity and the associated comorbidities. Exercise adherence may improve if clinicians emphasized to their patients the importance of CRF compared with weight loss in improving health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

  16. Effects of inbreeding on fitness-related traits in a small isolated moose population

    PubMed Central

    Haanes, Hallvard; Markussen, Stine S; Herfindal, Ivar; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Heim, Morten; Midthjell, Liv; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding can affect fitness-related traits at different life history stages and may interact with environmental variation to induce even larger effects. We used genetic parentage assignment based on 22 microsatellite loci to determine a 25 year long pedigree for a newly established island population of moose with 20–40 reproducing individuals annually. We used the pedigree to calculate individual inbreeding coefficients and examined for effects of individual inbreeding (f) and heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We found negative effects of f on birth date, calf body mass and twinning rate. The relationship between f and calf body mass and twinning rate were found to be separate but weaker after accounting for birth date. We found no support for an inbreeding effect on the age-specific lifetime reproductive success of females. The influence of f on birth date was related to climatic conditions during the spring prior to birth, indicating that calves with a low f were born earlier after a cold spring than calves with high f. In years with a warm spring, calf f did not affect birth date. The results suggest that severe inbreeding in moose has both indirect effects on fitness through delayed birth and lower juvenile body mass, as well as separate direct effects, as there still was a significant relationship between f and twinning rate after accounting for birth date and body mass as calf. Consequently, severe inbreeding as found in the study population may have consequences for population growth and extinction risk. PMID:24324873

  17. Relative fitness of transgenic vs. non-transgenic maize x teosinte hybrids: a field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guadagnuolo, R; Clegg, J; Ellstrand, N C

    2006-10-01

    Concern has been often expressed regarding the impact and persistence of transgenes that enter wild populations via gene flow. The impact of a transgene and its persistence are largely determined by the relative fitness of transgenic hybrids and hybrid derivatives compared to non-transgenic plants. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed this question experimentally in the field. Despite the economic importance of maize, and the fact that it naturally hybridizes with the teosinte taxon Zea mays ssp. mexicana, sometimes known as "chalco teosinte," the question has received little experimental attention in this system. Using a glyphosate-tolerant maize cultivar and chalco teosinte as parental lines, we carried out a field experiment testing (1) the relative fitness of maize x teosinte hybrids, compared to their parental taxa, as well as (2) the relative fitness of transgenic hybrids compared to non-transgenic hybrids created from the same parental stock. In order to evaluate the influence of the transgenic construct in different genetic backgrounds, our study included transgenic and non-transgenic pure maize progeny from the cultivar as well. We measured both vegetative and reproductive parameters. Our results demonstrated that hybrids have greater vigor and produced more seeds than the wild parent. However, in the absence of selective pressure from glyphosate herbicide, we did not observe any direct positive or negative impact of the transgene on the fitness or vigor of either the hybrids or pure maize progeny. We discuss our results in terms of the potential for spontaneous transgene flow and introgression from transgenic maize into sympatric teosinte.

  18. Short-Term Effects of Different Loading Schemes in Fitness-Related Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Eifler, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Eifler, C. Short-term effects of different loading schemes in fitness-related resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1880-1889, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the short-term effects of different loading schemes in fitness-related resistance training and to identify the most effective loading method for advanced recreational athletes. The investigation was designed as a longitudinal field-test study. Two hundred healthy mature subjects with at least 12 months' experience in resistance training were randomized in 4 samples of 50 subjects each. Gender distribution was homogenous in all samples. Training effects were quantified by 10 repetition maximum (10RM) and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing (pre-post-test design). Over a period of 6 weeks, a standardized resistance training protocol with 3 training sessions per week was realized. Testing and training included 8 resistance training exercises in a standardized order. The following loading schemes were randomly matched to each sample: constant load (CL) with constant volume of repetitions, increasing load (IL) with decreasing volume of repetitions, decreasing load (DL) with increasing volume of repetitions, daily changing load (DCL), and volume of repetitions. For all loading schemes, significant strength gains (p < 0.001) could be noted for all resistance training exercises and both dependent variables (10RM, 1RM). In all cases, DCL obtained significantly higher strength gains (p < 0.001) than CL, IL, and DL. There were no significant differences in strength gains between CL, IL, and DL. The present data indicate that resistance training following DCL is more effective for advanced recreational athletes than CL, IL, or DL. Considering that DCL is widely unknown in fitness-related resistance training, the present data indicate, there is potential for improving resistance training in commercial fitness clubs.

  19. Grape consumption's effects on fitness, muscle injury, mood, and perceived health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Caravalho, Amanda L; Freese, Eric C; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-02-01

    Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

  20. A Novel Way to Promote Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Tom

    1989-01-01

    Basic steps in organizing and implementing Fun and Fitness Day are outlined. This event, jointly planned by local schools and Triton College, provided 1800 elementary students with health-related fitness testing and a day of fun and competition. (IAH)

  1. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p < 0.0001). Compared to men with higher CRF, those with lower CRF developed abnormal values earlier in life: TC (≥200 mg/dl), LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), non-HDL-C (≥160 mg/dl), and TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.0). Notably, abnormal values for TC and LDL-C in men with low CRF were observed around 15 years earlier than in those with high CRF. After adjusting for time-varying covariates, a significant interaction was found between age and CRF in each trajectory, indicating that CRF was more strongly associated with the aging trajectories of lipids and lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  2. Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Divita, Guy; Kim, Hyeoneui; Browne, Allen C.; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place of these new concepts in professional medical discourse? Design The consumer health terms were extracted from two large corpora derived in the process of Open Access Collaboratory Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV) building. Terms that could not be mapped to existing UMLS concepts via machine and manual methods prompted creation of new concepts, which were then ascribed semantic types, related to existing UMLS concepts, and coded according to specified criteria. Results This approach identified 64 unmapped concepts, 17 of which were labeled as uniquely “lay” and not feasible for inclusion in professional health terminologies. The remaining terms constituted potential candidates for inclusion in professional vocabularies, or could be constructed by post-coordinating existing UMLS terms. The relationship between new and existing concepts differed depending on the corpora from which they were extracted. Conclusion Non-mapping concepts constitute a small proportion of consumer health terms, but a proportion that is likely to affect the process of consumer health vocabulary building. We have identified a novel approach for identifying such concepts. PMID:18436906

  3. Fitting IRT Models to Dichotomous and Polytomous Data: Assessing the Relative Model-Data Fit of Ideal Point and Dominance Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Ali, Usama S.; Drasgow, Fritz; Williams, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relative model-data fit of an ideal point item response theory (IRT) model (the generalized graded unfolding model [GGUM]) and dominance IRT models (e.g., the two-parameter logistic model [2PLM] and Samejima's graded response model [GRM]) to simulated dichotomous and polytomous data generated from each of these models.…

  4. Measures of relative fitness of social behaviors in finite structured population models.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Taylor, Peter D

    2014-10-01

    How should we measure the relative selective advantage of different behavioral strategies? The various approaches to this question have fallen into one of the following categories: the fixation probability of a mutant allele in a wild type population, some measures of gene frequency and gene frequency change, and a formulation of the inclusive fitness effect. Countless theoretical studies have examined the relationship between these approaches, and it has generally been thought that, under standard simplifying assumptions, they yield equivalent results. Most of this theoretical work, however, has assumed homogeneity of the population interaction structure--that is, that all individuals are equivalent. We explore the question of selective advantage in a general (heterogeneous) population and show that, although appropriate measures of fixation probability and gene frequency change are equivalent, they are not, in general, equivalent to the inclusive fitness effect. The latter does not reflect effects of selection acting via mutation, which can arise on heterogeneous structures, even for low mutation. Our theoretical framework provides a transparent analysis of the different biological factors at work in the comparison of these fitness measures and suggests that their theoretical and empirical use needs to be revised and carefully grounded in a more general theory.

  5. Development of genomic evaluations for direct measures of health in U.S. Holsteins and their correlations with fitness traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research were to estimate variance components for 6 common health events recorded by producers on U.S. dairy farms, as well as investigate correlations with fitness traits currently used for selection. Producer-recorded health event data were available from Dairy Records Manag...

  6. Skin cancer prevention coverage in popular US women's health and fitness magazines: an analysis of advertisements and articles.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-04-02

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer.  Media messages in women's magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study's aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women's health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women's health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women's Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women's health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed.

  7. Skin Cancer Prevention Coverage in Popular US Women’s Health and Fitness Magazines: An Analysis of Advertisements and Articles

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer. Media messages in women’s magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study’s aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women’s health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women’s health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women’s Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women’s health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed. PMID:24999136

  8. Identifying Health-Related Topics on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prier, Kyle W.; Smith, Matthew S.; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Hanson, Carl L.

    Public health-related topics are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter. This study examines how to model and discover public health topics and themes in tweets. Tobacco use is chosen as a test case to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling via LDA across a large, representational dataset from the United States, as well as across a smaller subset that was seeded by tobacco-related queries. Topic modeling across the large dataset uncovers several public health-related topics, although tobacco is not detected by this method. However, topic modeling across the tobacco subset provides valuable insight about tobacco use in the United States. The methods used in this paper provide a possible toolset for public health researchers and practitioners to better understand public health problems through large datasets of conversational data.

  9. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68–0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49–0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  10. Effect of equitation training on health and physical fitness of college females.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Michael C

    2006-09-01

    Limited information exists concerning equitation as a viable form of physical activity. The study's purpose was to quantify effects of an equitation training program on health and physical fitness of college females. Following written informed consent, 15 college females enrolled in equitation and 10 controls (age = 23.6 +/- 2.5 years; ht = 165.3 +/- 5.3 cm; wt = 62.4 +/- 3.4 kg) underwent a comprehensive pre- and post-series of tests to assess cardiorespiratory response (Bruce; VO2(peak), HR(peak), VE(peak), RER(peak), MAP(peak), RPP(peak)), body composition (body mass, body fat, fat-free mass), muscular power [Wingate; peak and mean power (MP), total power output, fatigue index (FI)], muscular strength (curl-ups, reverse sit-ups, pushups, handgrip), blood chemistry, and coronary risk. The equitation group trained at various equine gaits for 14 weeks, 5 days/week. Multivariate analyses of variance (Wilks' Lambda) indicated a significant main effect of training across muscular power (F (4,25) = 3.965; P = 0.013), but not across cardiorespiratory response (F (11,18) = 1.472; P = 0.225), body composition (F (3,26) = 1.081; P = 0.375), or muscular strength (F (4,25) = 2.172; P = 0.102). Pre-post improvements in MP (+13.3%; P = 0.01), total work output (+11.8%; P = 0.015), and FI (-10.5%; P = 0.038) were observed. Nonsignificant improvements of 8.5-11.4% were observed in muscular strength and body composition. In conclusion, equitation does not provide an adequate stimulus to improve health and fitness in young adults. Individuals who participate in equitation need to supplement this activity with traditional aerobic and load-bearing training regimens.

  11. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  12. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  13. Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles.

    PubMed

    Burr, J F; Jamnik, V K; Gledhill, N

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, clinical health, and quality of life (QOL) were compared at baseline and following 6 weeks of training. In all riding groups, there were improvements in blood pressure (SBP = 9.4 ± 10.1, DBP = 5.8 ± 6.2 mmHg), fasting glucose (0.5 ± 0.7 mmol/l), subcutaneous adiposity (0.9 ± 1.1%), body mass (0.7 ± 2.7 kg), waist circumference (1.3 ± 2.5 cm), and isometric leg endurance (26 ± 44 s). All changes were of moderate to large magnitude (Cohen's d 0.52-0.94) with the exception of a small loss of body mass (Cohen's d = 0.27). Although changes occurred in the riding groups for aerobic power (2.9 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), leg power (172 ± 486 w), and curl-ups (13.2 ± 22.7), these changes were not significantly different from the control group. No significant alterations occurred in resting heart rate, trunk flexibility, back endurance, hand grip strength, long jump, pull/push strength, or push-up ability as a result of training. Physical domain QOL increased in all 2 days/week riders but mental domain QOL increased in all ORM, but not ATV riders regardless of volume. Ambient carbon monoxide levels while riding (<30 ppm) were within safe exposure guidelines. Positive adaptations can be gained from a training program using off-road vehicle riding as the exercise stimulus.

  14. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old), separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12–13 and 14–17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18–32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important

  15. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7-48 years old), separated into six age groups (7-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-17, 18-32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η(2)≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η(2)=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12-13 to 14-17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12-13 to 14-17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η(2)≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12-13 and 18-32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18-32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η(2)≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12-13 and 14-17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18-32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important for the development of

  16. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT.

    PubMed

    Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A

    2014-12-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees.

  17. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars B

    2011-06-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recently published data on the relationship between daily physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, and VO(2PEAK) in children and adolescents. A PubMed search was performed on 29 October 2010 to identify relevant articles. Studies were considered relevant if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a VO(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most studies reported a low-to-moderate relationship (r = 0.10-0.45) between objectively measured daily physical activity and VO(2PEAK). No conclusive evidence exists that physical activity of higher intensities are more closely related to VO(2PEAK), than lower intensities.

  18. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion ‘Additional file 1’, we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public. PMID:23561306

  19. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Yang, Stephen P

    2013-04-05

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion 'Additional file 1', we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public.

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  1. Identifying Features of Fitness Landscapes and Relating Them to Problem Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Moser, I; Gheorghita, M; Aleti, A

    2016-02-29

    Complex combinatorial problems are most often optimised with heuristic solvers, which usually deliver acceptable results without any indication of the quality obtained. Recently, predictive diagnostic optimisation was proposed as a means of characterising the fitness landscape while optimising a combinatorial problem. The scalars produced by predictive diagnostic optimisation appear to describe the difficulty of the problem with relative reliability. In this study, we record more scalars that may be helpful in determining problem difficulty during the optimisation process and analyse these in combination with other well-known landscape descriptors by using exploratory factor analysis on four landscapes that arise from different search operators, applied to a varied set of quadratic assignment problem instances. Factors are designed to capture properties by combining the collinear variances of several variables. The extracted factors can be interpreted as the features of landscapes detected by the variables, but disappoint in their weak correlations with the result quality achieved by the optimiser, which we regard as the most reliable indicator of difficulty available. It appears that only the prediction error of predictive diagnostic optimisation has a strong correlation with the quality of the results produced, followed by a medium correlation of the fitness distance correlation of the local optima.

  2. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  3. A Probabilistic Approach to Fitting Period–luminosity Relations and Validating Gaia Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesar, Branimir; Fouesneau, Morgan; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Gould, Andy; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2017-04-01

    Pulsating stars, such as Cepheids, Miras, and RR Lyrae stars, are important distance indicators and calibrators of the “cosmic distance ladder,” and yet their period–luminosity–metallicity (PLZ) relations are still constrained using simple statistical methods that cannot take full advantage of available data. To enable optimal usage of data provided by the Gaia mission, we present a probabilistic approach that simultaneously constrains parameters of PLZ relations and uncertainties in Gaia parallax measurements. We demonstrate this approach by constraining PLZ relations of type ab RR Lyrae stars in near-infrared W1 and W2 bands, using Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) parallax measurements for a sample of ≈100 type ab RR Lyrae stars located within 2.5 kpc of the Sun. The fitted PLZ relations are consistent with previous studies, and in combination with other data, deliver distances precise to 6% (once various sources of uncertainty are taken into account). To a precision of 0.05 mas (1σ), we do not find a statistically significant offset in TGAS parallaxes for this sample of distant RR Lyrae stars (median parallax of 0.8 mas and distance of 1.4 kpc). With only minor modifications, our probabilistic approach can be used to constrain PLZ relations of other pulsating stars, and we intend to apply it to Cepheid and Mira stars in the near future.

  4. Using Career-Related Aspects to Elicit Perspectives and Characterize Occupations for a Better Person-Environment Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar

    1998-01-01

    Defines career-related aspects as all relevant variables of individuals and their career options. Describes this approach to person-environment fit and career decision making through research using it in Israel. (SK)

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeanne W.; Alekel, D. Lee; Ritland, Laura M.; Van Loan, Marta; Gertz, Erik; Genschel, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Objective Inadequate vitamin D status is related to increased adiposity, risk of falls, and muscle weakness, particularly in the elderly. We hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is related to physical fitness indices (androidal fat, whole body lean mass, balance, strength) in healthy postmenopausal women. Design Covariates for fitness indices included: age or years since menopause; weight; 25(OH)D; energy expenditure; calcium intake. Overall and regional (androidal fat mass=waist+hip fat) body composition was assessed (N=242) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Regression analyses revealed that 71% of variability (P≤0.0001) in androidal fat mass was accounted for by weight (53.0%, P≤0.0001), white blood cell (WBC) count (2.0%, P≤0.0001), supplemental calcium (1.7%, P=0.0004), years since menopause (1.1%, P=0.0034), 25(OH)D (1.0%, P=0.0051), and vegetable servings (0.6%, P=0.027); 64% of variability (P≤0.0001) in lean mass was accounted for by weight (63.1.%, P≤0.0001), WBC count (1.4%, P=0.0038), and 25(OH)D (1.0%, P=0.013); 12% of variability (P≤0.0001) in balance (right+left leg) was accounted for by age (3.8%, P=0.0019), 25(OH)D (2.0%, P=0.025), and WBC count (1.8%, P=0.032); 14% of variability (P≤0.0001) in hand grip strength (right+left) was accounted for by weight (9.3%, P≤0.0001), 25(OH)D (2.4%, P=0.013), WBC count (2.1%, P=0.019), and age (1.6%, P=0.044); 22% of variability (P≤0.0001) in torso strength was accounted for by site (15.0%, P≤0.0001) and weight (4.6%, P=0.0003). Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D was the common contributor to physical fitness indices (androidal fat mass, lean mass, balance, hand grip strength) in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:19512949

  6. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD.

  7. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  8. Obesity and Its Relation to Physical Fitness in the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    military services. we are concerned with a wide variety of occupational demands that do vary in their relation- ship to body fatness and other body ...leading to established upper " limits (standards) for body fat content and special programs for weight control and health promotion. S.: Prior to World War...bod. w eight that i, made up of fat . expr:,,.cod in absolute weight terms or as a percent of btodl ,. eighl Body fat standard. the upper linii of

  9. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    PubMed

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  10. Pilot Implementation of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program in Select California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneman, Karrie; Junge, Sharon K.; Schneider, Connie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the effect of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program (CHF3) on the dietary knowledge and habits of participating children. Methods: The CHF3 program aims to 1) establish salad bars and integrate nutrition messages into cafeteria activities; 2) develop…

  11. Heritable differences in fitness-related traits among populations of the mustard hill coral, Porites astreoides

    PubMed Central

    Kenkel, C D; Setta, S P; Matz, M V

    2015-01-01

    A population's potential for rapid evolutionary adaptation can be estimated from the amount of genetic variation in fitness-related traits. Inshore populations of the mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) have been shown to be more tolerant to thermal stress than offshore populations, but it is unclear whether this difference is due to long-term physiological acclimatization or genetic adaptation. Here, we evaluated variation in growth rate and survival among 38 families of juvenile recruits of P. astreoides spawned by colonies originating from inshore and offshore locations. Recruits were reared in a common garden for 5 weeks and then subjected to two thermal treatments (28  and 31 °C) for 2.5 weeks. The most significant effects were detected during the first 5 weeks, before thermal stress was applied: 27–30% of variance in growth and 94% of variance in recruit survival was attributable to parental effects. Genotyping of eight microsatellite loci indicated that the high early mortality of some of the recruit families was not due to higher inbreeding. Post treatment, parental effects diminished such that only 10–15% of variance in growth rate was explained, which most likely reflects the dissipation of maternal effects. However, offshore-origin recruits still grew significantly less under elevated temperature compared with inshore-origin recruits. These differences observed in naive juvenile corals suggest that population-level variation in fitness in response to different thermal environments has a genetic basis and could represent raw material for natural selection in times of climate change. PMID:26081798

  12. Lifting a veil on diversity: a Bayesian approach to fitting relative-abundance models.

    PubMed

    Golicher, Duncan J; O'Hara, Robert B; Ruíz-Montoya, Lorena; Cayuela, Luis

    2006-02-01

    Bayesian methods incorporate prior knowledge into a statistical analysis. This prior knowledge is usually restricted to assumptions regarding the form of probability distributions of the parameters of interest, leaving their values to be determined mainly through the data. Here we show how a Bayesian approach can be applied to the problem of drawing inference regarding species abundance distributions and comparing diversity indices between sites. The classic log series and the lognormal models of relative- abundance distribution are apparently quite different in form. The first is a sampling distribution while the other is a model of abundance of the underlying population. Bayesian methods help unite these two models in a common framework. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation can be used to fit both distributions as small hierarchical models with shared common assumptions. Sampling error can be assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Species not found in a sample, but suspected to be present in the region or community of interest, can be given zero abundance. This not only simplifies the process of model fitting, but also provides a convenient way of calculating confidence intervals for diversity indices. The method is especially useful when a comparison of species diversity between sites with different sample sizes is the key motivation behind the research. We illustrate the potential of the approach using data on fruit-feeding butterflies in southern Mexico. We conclude that, once all assumptions have been made transparent, a single data set may provide support for the belief that diversity is negatively affected by anthropogenic forest disturbance. Bayesian methods help to apply theory regarding the distribution of abundance in ecological communities to applied conservation.

  13. Health-Related Aspects of Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Seyed Hossein; Shahbazi, Roghiyeh; Esmaeili, Saeideh; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Mortazavian, AmirMohamamd; Jazayeri, Sahar; Taslimi, Aghdas

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an important component of a balanced diet and contains numerous valuable constituents. Considerable acclaimed health benefits of milk are related to its proteins, not only for their nutritive value but also for their biological properties. Scientific evidence suggests that anticarcinogenic activities, antihypertensive properties, immune system modulation, and other metabolic features of milk, are affiliated with its proteins (intact proteins or its derivatives). In this article, the main health-related aspects of milk proteins, such as anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, antihypertensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects are reviewed. Collectively, the findings indicate the effectiveness of milk proteins on reduction of risk factors for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and overall improvement of health aspects. PMID:27980594

  14. Training for impact: the socio-economic impact of a fit for purpose health workforce on communities.

    PubMed

    Pálsdóttir, Björg; Barry, Jean; Bruno, Andreia; Barr, Hugh; Clithero, Amy; Cobb, Nadia; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Neusy, André-Jacques; Reeves, Scott; Strasser, Roger; Worley, Paul

    2016-08-15

    Across the globe, a "fit for purpose" health professional workforce is needed to meet health needs and challenges while capitalizing on existing resources and strengths of communities. However, the socio-economic impact of educating and deploying a fit for purpose health workforce can be challenging to evaluate. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of six promising strategies and interventions that provide context-relevant health professional education within the health system. The strategies focused on in the paper are:1. Distributed community-engaged learning: Education occurs in or near underserved communities using a variety of educational modalities including distance learning. Communities served provide input into and actively participate in the education process.2. Curriculum aligned with health needs: The health and social needs of targeted communities guide education, research and service programmes.3. Fit for purpose workers: Education and career tracks are designed to meet the needs of the communities served. This includes cadres such as community health workers, accelerated medically trained clinicians and extended generalists.4. Gender and social empowerment: Ensuring a diverse workforce that includes women having equal opportunity in education and are supported in their delivery of health services.5. Interprofessional training: Teaching the knowledge, skills and attitudes for working in effective teams across professions.6. South-south and north-south partnerships: Sharing of best practices and resources within and between countries.In sum, the sharing of resources, the development of a diverse and interprofessional workforce, the advancement of primary care and a strong community focus all contribute to a world where transformational education improves community health and maximizes the social and economic return on investment.

  15. Reduced hip bone mineral density is related to physical fitness and leg lean mass in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; McKay, Heather A; Dawson, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Following a stroke, reduced level of physical activity and functional use of the paretic leg may lead to bone loss and muscle atrophy. These factors and the high incidence of falls may contribute to hip fractures in the stroke population. This study was the first to examine total proximal femur bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and their relationship to stroke-specific impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke (onset >1 year). We utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to acquire proximal femur and total body scans on 58 (23 women) community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. We report total proximal femur BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2) derived from the proximal femur scans, and lean mass (g) and fat mass (g) for each leg derived from the total body scans. Each subject was evaluated for ambulatory capacity (Six Minute Walk Test), knee extension strength (hand-held dynamometry), physical fitness [Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)], and spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale). Results showed that the paretic leg had significantly lower proximal femur BMD, lean mass, and percent lean mass but higher fat mass than the non-paretic leg for both men and women. Proximal femur BMD of the paretic leg was significantly related to ambulatory capacity (r=0.33, p=0.011), muscle strength (r=0.39, p=0.002), physical fitness (r=0.57, p<0.001) but not related to spasticity (r=−0.23, p=0.080). Multiple regression analysis showed that lean mass in the paretic leg was a major predictor (R2=0.371, p<0.001) of the paretic proximal femur BMD. VO2max was a significant predictor of both paretic proximal femur BMD (R2=0.325, p<0.001) and lean mass in the paretic leg (R2=0.700, p<0.001). Further study is required to determine whether increasing physical fitness and lean mass is important to improve hip bone health in chronic stroke. PMID:15902416

  16. Reduced hip bone mineral density is related to physical fitness and leg lean mass in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Pang, Marco Y C; Eng, Janice J; McKay, Heather A; Dawson, Andrew S

    2005-12-01

    Following a stroke, the reduced level of physical activity and functional use of the paretic leg may lead to bone loss and muscle atrophy. These factors and the high incidence of falls may contribute to hip fractures in the stroke population. This study was the first to examine total proximal femur bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and their relationship to stroke-specific impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke (onset >1 year). We utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to acquire proximal femur and total body scans on 58 (23 women) community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. We reported total proximal femur BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2) derived from the proximal femur scans, and lean mass (g) and fat mass (g) for each leg derived from the total body scans. Each subject was evaluated for ambulatory capacity (Six-Minute Walk Test), knee extension strength (hand-held dynamometry), physical fitness [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)] and spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale). Results showed that the paretic leg had significantly lower proximal femur BMD, lean mass and percent lean mass, but higher fat mass than the non-paretic leg for both men and women. Proximal femur BMD of the paretic leg was significantly related to ambulatory capacity (r=0.33, P=0.011), muscle strength (r=0.39, P=0.002), physical fitness (r=0.57, P<0.001), but not related to spasticity (r=-0.23, P=0.080). Multiple regression analysis showed that lean mass in the paretic leg was a major predictor (r2=0.371, P<0.001) of the paretic proximal femur BMD. VO2max was a significant predictor of both paretic proximal femur BMD (r2=0.325, P<0.001) and lean mass in the paretic leg (r2=0.700, P<0.001). Further study is required to determine whether increasing physical fitness and lean mass are important to improve hip bone health in chronic stroke.

  17. Skill-related physical fitness versus aerobic fitness as a predictor of executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Esther; Smith, Joanne; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2017-03-10

    Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) or borderline intellectual disabilities (BIF) often demonstrate impairments in executive functioning (EF). Studies in typically developing children show that aerobic fitness (AF) is positively related with EF. Skill-related physical fitness (SF) might, however, be a stronger predictor of EF than AF, as cognitive challenges are inherent in application of these skills. In this study, AF and SF were examined simultaneously in relationship with domains of EF in children with ID or BIF. Seventy-three children (age range 8-11; 51 boys) with ID (IQ range 56-79) or BIF (IQ range 71-79) were measured annually over a period of 4 years on AF (20-m endurance shuttle run test) and SF (plate tapping and 10×5m run). EF was measured with the Stroop Color-Word test (inhibition), Trailmaking and Fluency test (cognitive flexibility), Self-ordered pointing task (working memory) and the Tower of London (planning). Multilevel models showed that SF was significantly associated with inhibition and both measures of cognitive flexibility, but in the same models no significant associations between AF and EF were found. In addition, age was significantly related to working memory and cognitive flexibility, favouring the older children. In children with ID or BIF, SF is of greater importance than AF in relationship with core domains of EF.

  18. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  19. Entering Adulthood: Moving into Fitness. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Betty M.

    This module includes seven lessons designed to help students in grades 9-12 enhance their present and future levels of fitness. It begins with an exploration of the meaning and benefits of fitness. In lesson 1, students complete an inventory to assess their present level of physical activity. Lesson 2 deals with students' feelings about their…

  20. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.

  1. The Relationship between Objective and Perceived Fit with Academic Major, Adaptability, and Major-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Jennifer L.; Ryan, Ann Marie; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of fit with college major on major commitment, GPA, college satisfaction, and changing one's major. We further examined how individual adaptability may moderate the importance of fit on these outcomes. College students (N = 198; 160 women and 38 men; mean age = 19.14 years) completed an interest inventory used to…

  2. Behavioral Intervention, Exercise, and Nutrition Education to Improve Health and Fitness (BENEfit) in Adolescents With Mobility Impairment Due to Spinal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liusuwan, Rungsinee Amanda; Widman, Lana M; Abresch, Richard Ted; Johnson, Allan J; McDonald, Craig M

    2007-01-01

    . Conclusions: The BENEfit program shows promise as a method for improving the health and fitness of adolescents with mobility impairments who are at high risk for obesity and obesity-related health conditions. PMID:17874697

  3. The Army's High Priority Physical Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Fred R.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the importance of physical fitness in the United States Army. The development of expanded fitness assessment and programs is related to health and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Improved physical training programs, improved nutrition, and fundamental research are necessary for maintaining a highly fit and healthy…

  4. [Fitness symbols: the physical exercise programmes for health and beauty by famous actresses].

    PubMed

    del Díaz Montero, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years we have seen the proliferation of books on some kinds of physical exercise whose supposed belief is that staying healthy is directly related to a socially acceptable physique. Health and beauty go hand in hand in these books, and they are presented as being a result of practising a technique which is advocted by some successful figure in society such as a film actress. Four different models are analysed, each one of which corresponds to a value set by western society--beauty, competitiveness ...--or other values such as --serenity and harmony--the perceived lack of which is both sought and taken from other cultures.

  5. The other 23 hours: a qualitative study of fitness provider perspectives on social support for health promotion for adults with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison

    2015-05-01

    Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change.

  6. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training.

  7. Genetic architecture of survival and fitness-related traits in two populations of Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Houde, A LS; Wilson, C C; Neff, B D

    2013-01-01

    The additive genetic effects of traits can be used to predict evolutionary trajectories, such as responses to selection. Non-additive genetic and maternal environmental effects can also change evolutionary trajectories and influence phenotypes, but these effects have received less attention by researchers. We partitioned the phenotypic variance of survival and fitness-related traits into additive genetic, non-additive genetic and maternal environmental effects using a full-factorial breeding design within two allopatric populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Maternal environmental effects were large at early life stages, but decreased during development, with non-additive genetic effects being most significant at later juvenile stages (alevin and fry). Non-additive genetic effects were also, on average, larger than additive genetic effects. The populations, generally, did not differ in the trait values or inferred genetic architecture of the traits. Any differences between the populations for trait values could be explained by maternal environmental effects. We discuss whether the similarities in architectures of these populations is the result of natural selection across a common juvenile environment. PMID:23942281

  8. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology. PMID:24278240

  9. Spontaneous mutational variances and covariances for fitness-related traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez-Fanjul, C.

    1996-06-01

    Starting from a completely homozygous population of Drosophila melanogaster, 176 lines were derived and independently maintained by a single brother-sister mating per generation. Three fitness-related traits were considered (fecundity, egg-to-pupa and pupa-to-adult viabilities). Mutational heritabilities of these traits and genetic correlations between all possible pairs were calculated from the between line divergence (codivergence), after 104-106 generations of mutation accumulation. Mutational heritabilities ranged from 0.60 x 10{sup -3} to 0.82 x 10{sup -3} and correlations from -0.11 to 0.25. These values are likely to be underestimates due to selection against deleterious mutations. The distribution of the means of the lines was asymmetric, positive for fecundity and negative for both viability components. The coefficients of asymmetry are also likely to be biased, again due to selection. Extreme lines from the two tails of the distribution were examined in detail. Homozygous line effects were all negative for viability traits but predominantly positive for fecundity, indicating the fixation of mutations with positive effects on the latter. Corresponding heterozygous line effects showed a variable degree of dominance. 30 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  10. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  11. Manual action, fitting, and spatial planning: relating objects by young children.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wendy P; Kahrs, Björn A; Lockman, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    This study uses motion tracking technology to provide a new way of addressing the development of the ability to prospectively orient objects with respect to one another. A group of toddlers between 16 and 33 months of age (N=30) were studied in an object fitting task while they wore reflective markers on their hands to track spatial adjustments in three dimensions. Manual displacements of the handheld object were separated into translations and rotations. Results revealed that younger children largely used a two-step approach in which they initially translate an object to a target and subsequently attempt to rotate the object to match the target. In contrast, older children evidence more advanced spatial planning and integrate translational and rotational components throughout the entire period when they are transporting the object to the target. Additionally, at the oldest ages, children show even further improvements in coordinating translations and rotations by using relatively shorter translations (i.e., covering less distance) and by avoiding unnecessary rotations of the object. More broadly, the results offer insights into how manual problem solving becomes more efficient and planful during the toddler years.

  12. Training Methods and Training Instructors' Qualification Are Related to Recruits' Fitness Development During Basic Military Training.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Hofstetter, Marie-Claire; Mäder, Urs; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Adequate physical fitness is essential for successful military service. Military organizations worldwide therefore make continuous efforts to improve their army's physical training (PT) programs. To investigate the effect of the training methods and the qualification of PT instructors on the development of recruits' physical fitness, the present study compared the outcomes of 2 training groups. Both study groups participated in approximately 145 minutes per week of PT. The control group executed the standard army PT prepared and supervised by army PT instructors. Content of the PT in the intervention group was similar to that of the control group, but their training sessions' methods were different. Their training sessions were organized, prepared, and delivered by more and better-qualified supervisors (tertiary-educated physical education teachers). After 10 weeks of training, the participants of the intervention group experienced a significantly greater physical fitness improvement than those of the control group (positive change in endurance 32 and 17%, balance 30 and 21%, and core strength 74 and 45%, respectively). In both groups, the recruits with the lowest initial fitness levels significantly increased their performance. In the intervention group, but not the control, one-third of the recruits with the highest initial fitness levels were able to further improve their general fitness performance. This study demonstrates that the training methods and quality of instruction during PT sessions are relevant for recruits' fitness development in basic military training.

  13. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  14. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged <50 years, men, and people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome appeared to benefit more. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  15. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  16. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  17. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Michael; Finze, Susanne; Holtherm, Christoph; Hinder, Jens; Lison, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6 ± 4.2 years) answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry) and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions. PMID:27774505

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

  19. Calculation of the Relative Density and the Crossing Time Through the Fitness Barrier in AN Asymmetric Sharply-Peaked Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Sung; Gill, Wonpyong

    We have calculated the relative density and crossing time through the fitness barrier by switching on an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape, from the initial state which is the quasispecies in a sharply-peaked landscape. It is found that the increment of the relative density with the reversal sequence is a linearly increasing function of time unless a new stationary state in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape is reached. It is also found that the relative density with the reversal sequence at the new stationary state X*L is in inverse proportion to the asymmetric parameter when the asymmetric parameter is greater than the saturation asymmetric parameter. We have derived the approximate formulae for the relaxation time, the saturation asymmetric parameter, and the relative density with the reversal sequence X*L, which nicely fit computer simulation results. It is found that the crossing time diverges at the critical fitness parameter in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape, in contrast with the symmetric sharply-peaked landscape where the crossing time scales as a power law in the fitness parameter. It is also found that the critical fitness parameter decreases as the asymmetric parameter and sequence length increase.

  20. A Crack Where the Light Gets In: A Study of Health and Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Fitness Testing as a Context for Learning about Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive critique, the teaching of Health and Physical Education (HPE) continues to be characterised by individualised and performative ideologies which are reflected in part by a continued focus upon fitness testing. There has been little attempt, however, to explore Australian HPE teachers' thoughts and reasoning for its privileged…

  1. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.

  2. The Texas Youth Fitness Study: Looking at School Policies as They Relate to Physical Fitness and Academic Variables. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiden, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    In partnership with three universities, the Cooper Institute, Dallas, completed the Texas Youth Fitness Study from 2008 to 2009. The study explored three key questions: (1) Is physical fitness associated with academic performance?; (2) Can physical education teachers collect high-quality information on student fitness?; and (3) Are school policies…

  3. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources.

  4. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  5. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  6. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ≤ 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ≤ 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ≥ 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme.

  7. Assessing sustainability of InSHAPE participants' fitness activities in a community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Lesley, Marsha L; Livingood, Kristi; Livingwood, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    InSHAPE (Self Help Action Plan for Empowerment), an exercise and nutrition wellness program, is gaining national recognition for its success in helping individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) improve physical fitness and dietary habits. Although gains have been reported in objective measures of fitness as participants progressed through the year-long program, there is little information about what happens with participants after program completion. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted a longitudinal qualitative study in which 11 InSHAPE participants were interviewed both near the end of their year in the program and 9 months later. Participants identified the trainer's ability to contain their initial feelings of distress and form a working alliance as factors that contributed to their exercise persistence. Current findings suggest that individuals with SMI may need a longer period of time working closely with fitness trainers to sustain physical activity levels achieved during the program.

  8. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  9. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  10. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (rp = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Overall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  11. Learning Curves: Making Quality Online Health Information Available at a Fitness Center.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Montie T; Tarver, Talicia; Adams, Mararia; Jones, Dixie A

    2012-01-01

    Meeting consumer health information needs can be a challenge. Research suggests that women seek health information from a variety of resources, including the Internet. In an effort to make women aware of reliable health information sources, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center - Shreveport Medical Library engaged in a partnership with a franchise location of Curves International, Inc. This article will discuss the project, its goals and its challenges.

  12. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations'.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Lene; Olsen, Anja; Petersen, Kristina Elin Nielsen; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2017-03-07

    Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity coefficients, which express the correlation between measured and 'true' exposure, were calculated and misclassification across categories was evaluated. The validity of the Danish step test was moderate (women: r=0.66, and men: r=0.56), however, men were systematically underestimated (43% misclassification). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=0.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=0.28) and vigorous sports (0.28) alone were positively correlated with VO2 max. Finally, the percentage of misclassification was low for self-rated fitness (women: 9% and men: 13%). Thus, self-rated fitness was found to be a superior method to the Danish step test, as well as being less cost prohibitive and more practical than the VO2 max method. Finally, even if correlations were low, they support the potential for questionnaire outcomes, particularly sports, vigorous sports and self-rated fitness to be used to estimate CRF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Fukushima Health Management Survey and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred. The Fukushima prefectural government decided to launch the Fukushima Health Management Survey; Fukushima Medical University was entrusted to design and implement the survey. The survey process and development is described from the standpoint of its background and aim. An overview of the basic survey and 4 detailed surveys is briefly provided. Issues related to the survey are discussed from the perspective of supporting the Fukushima residents.

  14. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  15. An Examination of the Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit in Relations between Information Literacy and Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how information literacy can enhance job performance in the workplace setting. Design/methodology/approach: Building on extant research, an integrated framework in which information literacy is related to person-job fit which in turn influences job performance is proposed. A survey questionnaire…

  16. The Effects of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) on Students' Prosocial Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Carl G.

    2010-01-01

    Students with challenging, disruptive behavior have difficulty learning in school and their behavior adversely impacts the learning of other students and the classroom teacher. Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a promising approach that teachers can use to prevent and reduce problem behavior and increase prosocial…

  17. The Effects of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) on Students' Prosocial Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Carl G.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Students with challenging, disruptive behavior have difficulty learning in school, and their behavior adversely impacts the learning of other students and the classroom teacher. Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is an evidence-based approach that teachers can use to prevent and reduce problem behavior and increase prosocial…

  18. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  19. Pacific Americans and the National Health Care Act: Where we fit.

    PubMed

    McCuddin, Charles R.; Miike, Lawrence H.; Pangelinan, Vincente; Franco, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER. The purposes of this report were to identify Pacific American health care priorities, recommend how these needs can be addressed in national health care reform legislation, and inform national leaders of the cultural and social context withing which these needs must be met. SUMMARY OF METHODS UTILIZED. In concert with a team of researchers, the authors compiled and analyzed extant literature on the health care of Pacific Americans; discussions were held with health care professionals, state and territorial health care leaders, and agencies and organizations with substantial experience and expertise in health care promotion and development; a two-day health symposium was conducted by Pacific American health care community leaders to review the initial findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the draft report; and follow up meetings were heald with actual communitiy health care providers to validate the data and recommendations of the report. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Pacific Americans have collective historical and political relationship not only with the federal government and the continental United States, but also to each other's island state or territory. Thus, common needs and unique interrelationships serve to highlight the importance of the differences between western-oriented and Pacific American health care providers. There is a profound lack of health resources in many Pacific American communities, and even when health resources are potentially available, poor access to health care compounds the need. Pacific Americans are a mobile people with large numbers residing in California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Texas, Utah, and the New York-Virginia corridor. Their health needs continue even when they do not reside in their home bases. CONCLUSIONS. Pacific Americans know best how to bridge the cultural gap that continues to exist between them and western-oriented health care providers; improvements in their health care is best

  20. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs・hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs・hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  1. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  2. Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Hee; Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  3. The Relation between Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Fitness, and Obesity in Children from Three Countries at Different Stages of the Physical Activity Transition

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, M.; Onywera, V.; Tremblay, M. S.; Adamo, K. B.; Lopez Taylor, J.; Jáuregui Ulloa, E.; Janssen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The physical activity transition is contributing to an increase in childhood obesity and a decrease in fitness worldwide. This study compared body composition and fitness measures in children from three countries and examined intercountry differences in the relationship between these variables. Methods. Participants consisted of 736 Canadian, 193 Mexican, and 179 Kenyan children aged 9–13 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfolds, aerobic fitness, and muscular fitness were measured. Linear regression was used to examine associations between variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was the highest in Mexican children (9.2% boys, 8.4% girls) and the lowest in Kenyan children (0.9% boys, 2.8% girls). Aerobic fitness (VO2max in mL/kg/min) was the highest in Kenyan children (50.2 boys, 46.7 girls) and the lowest in Canadian children (41.3 boys, 38.3 girls). Aerobic fitness was negatively associated with body composition measures irrespective of country and sex. Mexican children with low aerobic fitness had higher body composition measures than Canadian and Kenyan children. Muscular fitness was not associated with the body composition measures in Kenyan children but was a weak positive correlate of BMI and waist circumference in Canadian and Mexican children. Conclusion. The current study provides some evidence to support the physical activity transition hypothesis. PMID:24533216

  4. Physical fitness of primary school children in relation to overweight prevalence and physical activity habits.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; Ceciliani, Andrea; Garulli, Andrea; Masotti, Andrea; Poletti, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse, through a limited number of fitness tests, the main conditioning and coordinative abilities in children aged 8-9 years, and their relationship with gender, anthropometric variables and physical activity habits. The height and weight of 256 boys and 241 girls were measured and information about physical activity habits was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical performance was assessed by means of a few standardised tests: 'sit & reach', medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll test. In both boys and girls, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were positively correlated with the medicine-ball throw performances and negatively correlated for the standing long jump and speed tests, while no association was found with tests measuring back flexibility and total body coordination. Daily physical activity and participation in sport were not significantly correlated with body weight and BMI, but were positively associated with children's motor performance. The standardised fitness tests selected in the current study have been found to be suitable to identify fitness levels of primary school children. Thanks to their limited number and ease of measurement, they can be used in any school context to classify children and for monitoring the effects of targeted interventions promoting physical activity.

  5. Health and Fitness App Use in College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowin, Mary; Cheney, Marshall; Gwin, Shannon; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students experience weight gain that can contribute to serious health issues. Health education efforts with college students are increasingly utilizing new technologies. Smartphone applications (apps) in particular are growing in popularity and use in all young adults. Purpose: Formative research was conducted to describe how…

  6. Identification of Vehicle Health Assurance Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Leone, Karen M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Trend analysis in aviation as related to vehicle health management (VHM) was performed by reviewing the most current statistical and prognostics data available from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident, and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident datasets. In addition, future directions in aviation technology related to VHM research areas were assessed through the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementations (SERFIs), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Most-Wanted List and recent open safety recommendations, the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, and the Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) areas of change. Future research direction in the VHM research areas is evidently strong as seen from recent research solicitations from the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), and VHM-related technologies actively being developed by aviation industry leaders, including GE, Boeing, Airbus, and UTC Aerospace Systems. Given the highly complex VHM systems, modifications can be made in the future so that the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project (VSST) technical challenges address inadequate maintenance crew's trainings and skills, and the certification methods of such systems as recommended by the NTSB, NRC, and FAST areas of change.

  7. A new curriculum for fitness education.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J L

    1983-01-01

    Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children. PMID:6414039

  8. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  9. The relative importance of health, income and social relations for subjective well-being: An integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-03-01

    There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL), household income and social relationships for subjective well-being (SWB), where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). In a comprehensive 2012 survey from six countries, seven disease groups and representative healthy samples (N = 7933) reported their health along several measures of HRQoL. A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB (as a share of goodness-of-fit) is 50.2, 19.3 and 7.3% when EQ-5D-5L is used as a measure of health. These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL. The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance.

  10. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  11. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Olyvia; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05), sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01), push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05) and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01), while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05) for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score. PMID:28149377

  12. Relation of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of systemic hypertension in men.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Lee, Chong-Do; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the relation between inflammation and incident hypertension, independent of obesity, and tested the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) and indexes of inflammation for the development of hypertension in 2,475 normotensive men. Inflammatory markers were C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during sign/symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing to volitional fatigue; 266 men (10.7%) developed hypertension during an average of 4 years follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident hypertension in those in the upper tertile versus lower tertile were 1.55 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.09) for CRP and 1.51 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.06) for fibrinogen. Although the association between fibrinogen and incident hypertension persisted after adjusting for body mass index (p = 0.049), the relation between CRP and incident hypertension was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.08). Fit men had a 27% decreased (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.94) risk of incident hypertension compared with unfit men in a multivariable adjusted model. In the joint analysis, unfit men with upper CRP had 1.81 times (95% CI 1.21 to 2.70) and unfit men with upper fibrinogen had 2.03 times (95% CI 1.33 to 3.12) greater risks of incident hypertension compared with fit men with low CRP and fibrinogen, respectively. However, these risks did not significantly increase in fit men with upper CRP (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.63) and fibrinogen (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.85) groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that heightened levels of fibrinogen, but not CRP, are associated with incident hypertension, independent of body weight, and that high fitness attenuates the risk of incident hypertension across upper levels of inflammatory markers in men.

  13. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study.

    PubMed

    Forero-Bogotá, Mónica Adriana; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RíoValle, Jacqueline; Navarro-Pérez, Carmen Flores; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-02-03

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤-1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤-1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life.

  14. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Bogotá, Mónica Adriana; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RíoValle, Jacqueline; Navarro-Pérez, Carmen Flores; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤−1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤−1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life. PMID:28165360

  15. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal.

  16. Genes Contributing to Staphylococcus aureus Fitness in Abscess- and Infection-Related Ecologies

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Michael D.; Foulston, Lucy; Sadaka, Ama; Kos, Veronica N.; Villet, Regis A.; Santa Maria, John; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew; Walker, Suzanne; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both community- and hospital-acquired infections that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. The emergence of S. aureus resistance to even last-line antibiotics heightens the need for the development of new drugs with novel targets. We generated a highly saturated transposon insertion mutant library in the genome of S. aureus and used Tn-seq analysis to probe the entire genome, with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, for genes of importance in infection. We further identified genes contributing to fitness in various infected compartments (blood and ocular fluids) and compared them to genes required for growth in rich medium. This resulted in the identification of 426 genes that were important for S. aureus fitness during growth in infection models, including 71 genes that could be considered essential for survival specifically during infection. These findings highlight novel as well as previously known genes encoding virulence traits and metabolic pathways important for S. aureus proliferation at sites of infection, which may represent new therapeutic targets. PMID:25182329

  17. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  18. A History of Regression and Related Model-Fitting in the Earth Sciences (1636?-2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, Richard J.

    2001-12-15

    The (statistical) modeling of the behavior of a dependent variate as a function of one or more predictors provides examples of model-fitting which span the development of the earth sciences from the 17th Century to the present. The historical development of these methods and their subsequent application is reviewed. Bond's predictions (c. 1636 and 1668) of change in the magnetic declination at London may be the earliest attempt to fit such models to geophysical data. Following publication of Newton's theory of gravitation in 1726, analysis of data on the length of a 1{sup o} meridian arc, and the length of a pendulum beating seconds, as a function of sin{sup 2}(latitude), was used to determine the ellipticity of the oblate spheroid defining the Figure of the Earth. The pioneering computational methods of Mayer in 1750, Boscovich in 1755, and Lambert in 1765, and the subsequent independent discoveries of the principle of least squares by Gauss in 1799, Legendre in 1805, and Adrain in 1808, and its later substantiation on the basis of probability theory by Gauss in 1809 were all applied to the analysis of such geodetic and geophysical data. Notable later applications include: the geomagnetic survey of Ireland by Lloyd, Sabine, and Ross in 1836, Gauss's model of the terrestrial magnetic field in 1838, and Airy's 1845 analysis of the residuals from a fit to pendulum lengths, from which he recognized the anomalous character of measurements of gravitational force which had been made on islands. In the early 20th Century applications to geological topics proliferated, but the computational burden effectively held back applications of multivariate analysis. Following World War II, the arrival of digital computers in universities in the 1950s facilitated computation, and fitting linear or polynomial models as a function of geographic coordinates, trend surface analysis, became popular during the 1950-60s. The inception of geostatistics in France at this time by Matheron had

  19. Fitness Unfolding: How To Begin and Maintain a Quality, Healthy Lifestyle. Tips, Guidelines, Resources, and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Sydney

    This book presents a holistic approach to fitness, opens channels of information, and identifies useful resources and references. After an introduction to the subject of health related fitness, the book presents 12 chapters answering the following questions: (1) Why Not Be Fit? (2) What Is Physical Fitness? (3) Why Participate in Fitness? (4) What…

  20. What happens after inbreeding avoidance? Inbreeding by rejected relatives and the inclusive fitness benefit of inbreeding avoidance.

    PubMed

    Duthie, A Bradley; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding inbreeding, and therefore avoiding inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, is widely assumed to be adaptive in systems with biparental reproduction. However, inbreeding can also confer an inclusive fitness benefit stemming from increased relatedness between parents and inbred offspring. Whether or not inbreeding or avoiding inbreeding is adaptive therefore depends on a balance between inbreeding depression and increased parent-offspring relatedness. Existing models of biparental inbreeding predict threshold values of inbreeding depression above which males and females should avoid inbreeding, and predict sexual conflict over inbreeding because these thresholds diverge. However, these models implicitly assume that if a focal individual avoids inbreeding, then both it and its rejected relative will subsequently outbreed. We show that relaxing this assumption of reciprocal outbreeding, and the assumption that focal individuals are themselves outbred, can substantially alter the predicted thresholds for inbreeding avoidance for focal males. Specifically, the magnitude of inbreeding depression below which inbreeding increases a focal male's inclusive fitness increases with increasing depression in the offspring of a focal female and her alternative mate, and it decreases with increasing relatedness between a focal male and a focal female's alternative mate, thereby altering the predicted zone of sexual conflict. Furthermore, a focal male's inclusive fitness gain from avoiding inbreeding is reduced by indirect opportunity costs if his rejected relative breeds with another relative of his. By demonstrating that variation in relatedness and inbreeding can affect intra- and inter-sexual conflict over inbreeding, our models lead to novel predictions for family dynamics. Specifically, parent-offspring conflict over inbreeding might depend on the alternative mates of rejected relatives, and male-male competition over inbreeding might lead to mixed inbreeding

  1. What Happens after Inbreeding Avoidance? Inbreeding by Rejected Relatives and the Inclusive Fitness Benefit of Inbreeding Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, A. Bradley; Reid, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding inbreeding, and therefore avoiding inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, is widely assumed to be adaptive in systems with biparental reproduction. However, inbreeding can also confer an inclusive fitness benefit stemming from increased relatedness between parents and inbred offspring. Whether or not inbreeding or avoiding inbreeding is adaptive therefore depends on a balance between inbreeding depression and increased parent-offspring relatedness. Existing models of biparental inbreeding predict threshold values of inbreeding depression above which males and females should avoid inbreeding, and predict sexual conflict over inbreeding because these thresholds diverge. However, these models implicitly assume that if a focal individual avoids inbreeding, then both it and its rejected relative will subsequently outbreed. We show that relaxing this assumption of reciprocal outbreeding, and the assumption that focal individuals are themselves outbred, can substantially alter the predicted thresholds for inbreeding avoidance for focal males. Specifically, the magnitude of inbreeding depression below which inbreeding increases a focal male’s inclusive fitness increases with increasing depression in the offspring of a focal female and her alternative mate, and it decreases with increasing relatedness between a focal male and a focal female’s alternative mate, thereby altering the predicted zone of sexual conflict. Furthermore, a focal male’s inclusive fitness gain from avoiding inbreeding is reduced by indirect opportunity costs if his rejected relative breeds with another relative of his. By demonstrating that variation in relatedness and inbreeding can affect intra- and inter-sexual conflict over inbreeding, our models lead to novel predictions for family dynamics. Specifically, parent-offspring conflict over inbreeding might depend on the alternative mates of rejected relatives, and male-male competition over inbreeding might lead to mixed inbreeding

  2. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Bernard; Harris, Ryan A.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n = 242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths. PMID:22007244

  3. Climate change adaptation: where does global health fit in the agenda?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Friel, Sharon

    2012-05-27

    Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities.

  4. Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

  5. Trade in health-related services.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Chanda, Rupa; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2009-02-14

    The supervision of a domestic health system in the context of the trade environment in the 21st century needs a sophisticated understanding of how trade in health services affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy. This notion places a premium on people engaged in the health sector understanding the importance of a comprehensive outlook on trade in health services. However, establishment of systematic comparative data for amounts of trade in health services is difficult to achieve, and most trade negotiations occur in isolation from health professionals. These difficulties compromise the ability of a health system to not just minimise the risks presented by trade in health services, but also to maximise the opportunities. We consider these issues by presenting the latest trends and developments in the worldwide delivery of health-care services, using the classification provided by the World Trade Organization for the General Agreement on Trade in Services. This classification covers four modes of service delivery: cross-border supply of services; consumption of services abroad; foreign direct investment, typically to establish a new hospital, clinic, or diagnostic facility; and the movement of health professionals. For every delivery mode we discuss the present magnitude and pattern of trade, main contributors to this trade, and key issues arising.

  6. Effect of magnetic fields on antioxidative defense and fitness-related traits of Baculum extradentatum (insecta, phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Todorović, Dajana; Mirčić, Dejan; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Vlahović, Milena; Prolić, Zlatko; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of magnetic fields on the antioxidative defense and fitness-related traits of Baculum extradentatum. Following exposure to magnetic fields, antioxidative defense (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, and total glutathione (GSH) content) and fitness-related traits (egg mortality, development dynamics, and mass of nymphs) were monitored in nymphs. The experimental groups were: control (kept out of influence of the magnets), a group exposed to a constant magnetic field (CMF) of 50 mT, and a group exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) of 50 Hz, 6 mT. We found increased SOD and CAT activities in animals exposed to constant and AMFs, whereas GSH activity was not influenced by experimental magnetic fields. No differences were found in egg mortality between control and experimental groups. Significant differences in the time of development between the control and the CMF group were observed, as well as between the CMF and the AMF group. No differences were found in the mass of the nymphs between the three experimental groups. In conclusion, CMF and AMF have the possibility to modulate the antioxidative defense and some of the fitness-related traits in B. extradentatum.

  7. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  8. The Mediating Role of Mental Health in the Relations between Dietary Behaviors and General Health: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to find a pathway to explaining the relations between dietary behaviors with mental health and psychological functioning. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study contains 4763 participants from the employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, four questionnaires were administered which were provided as follows: demographic characteristics, 21-item dietary behaviors questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We started the analysis with the structural equation modeling (SEM) model with 4 unobserved latent and 16 observed variables. Results: The results show that the regression coefficient (standard error) of diet behavior on mental health and mental health on GHQ were − 1 (0.37) and 0.02 (0.01) with their P values as 0.007 and 0.01, respectively. For this model, the estimated root mean square error of approximation is 0.062 with 90% confidence interval of (0.060–0.065). In addition, the comparative fit indices (CFIs) were as 0.866 for incremental fit index and 0.866 for CFI. All these indices represent fairly good fit of the model to the data. Conclusion: We can conclude that “lower scores on diet behavior – higher scores on mental health problems” and “higher mean scores in depression and/or anxiety – higher scores in GHQ domains.” The SEM results showed that dietary behaviors have significance related to depression and/or anxiety and general health status. PMID:28349024

  9. Effect of the Bienestar Health Program on Physical Fitness in Low-Income Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Roberto P.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Yin, Zenong; Garcia, Oralia A.; Hernandez, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Once considered an adult onset disease, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in low-income Mexican American children. Studies have suggested that most of those so diagnosed were overweight, reported low levels of physical activity, and were generally unaware of their disease. The Bienestar Health Program was designed to reduce risk…

  10. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers: Health, Fitness, Recreation, and Dance. Volume II, Book 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H., Ed.

    The titles included in this collection are: Biographical Research in Health Education; Historical Research as it Applies to Groups or Institutions; Water & Electrolytes and Other Aids; Limiting Factors of Endurance Performance: A Brief Review; Limiting Factors for Endurance Exercise: Carbohydrate and Fat Utilization; Hooked on Running: A…

  11. Mapping Coaches' Views of Participation in CrossFit to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and Sense of Community.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Carlisle, Taran; Kehler, Ainslie; Cosgrove, Sarah J

    Group-based training through CrossFit has recently exploded in popularity. Anecdotally, participants often make lifestyle changes and experience improved fitness. Participation factors were mapped to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and "sense of community" constructs. Key informant interviews were conducted with 6 CrossFit gym owners/coaches. Data were thematically coded with NVivo 10. Results revealed key factors that both facilitated and restricted participation in CrossFit. Findings provide implications for future theory application and highlight how to improve initiation and adherence by capitalizing on community building and taking steps to reduce intimidation and cost, facilitate realistic goals, and ensure social support.

  12. The Association of ACE Genotypes on Cardiorespiratory Variables Related to Physical Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Salomão; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; de Araújo, Gustavo; Eduardo Lima-Silva, Adriano; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic power (VO2max), aerobic capacity (RCP), and running efficiency (RE) are important markers of aerobic fitness. However, the influence of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism on these markers has not been investigated in healthy individuals. One hundred and fifty physically active young men (age 25 ± 3 years; height 1.77 ± 0.06 m; body mass 76.6 ± 0.9 kg; VO2max 47.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) visited the laboratory on two separate occasions, and performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test to determine VO2max and RCP, and b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km·h-1 and 12 km·h-1) to determine RE. The genotype frequency was II = 21%; ID = 52%; and DD = 27%. There was a tendency for higher VO2max with the ACE II genotype (p = 0.08) compared to DD and ID genotypes. Magnitude based inferences suggested a likely beneficial effect on VO2max with the ACE II genotype. There was no association between genotypes for other variable. These findings suggest that individuals with the ACE II genotype have a tendency towards better values in aerobic power, but not with aerobic capacity or running economy. PMID:27861507

  13. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  14. Health Policy, Optometric Education and Interprofessional Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Henry B.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of health policy and its influence on patients and providers is explored with an emphasis on an interprofessional consortium, devoted to representing the consumer constituency. Expanded involvement and expenditures by the federal government in the health care field are discussed and the need for regulatory reform is described.…

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  17. Genome-Enabled Modeling of Biogeochemical Processes Predicts Metabolic Dependencies that Connect the Relative Fitness of Microbial Functional Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, E.; King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Steefel, C. I.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Anantharaman, K.; Ligocki, T. J.; Trebotich, D.

    2015-12-01

    Pore-scale processes mediated by microorganisms underlie a range of critical ecosystem services, regulating carbon stability, nutrient flux, and the purification of water. Advances in cultivation-independent approaches now provide us with the ability to reconstruct thousands of genomes from microbial populations from which functional roles may be assigned. With this capability to reveal microbial metabolic potential, the next step is to put these microbes back where they belong to interact with their natural environment, i.e. the pore scale. At this scale, microorganisms communicate, cooperate and compete across their fitness landscapes with communities emerging that feedback on the physical and chemical properties of their environment, ultimately altering the fitness landscape and selecting for new microbial communities with new properties and so on. We have developed a trait-based model of microbial activity that simulates coupled functional guilds that are parameterized with unique combinations of traits that govern fitness under dynamic conditions. Using a reactive transport framework, we simulate the thermodynamics of coupled electron donor-acceptor reactions to predict energy available for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production. From metagenomics, we directly estimate some trait values related to growth and identify the linkage of key traits associated with respiration and fermentation, macromolecule depolymerizing enzymes, and other key functions such as nitrogen fixation. Our simulations were carried out to explore abiotic controls on community emergence such as seasonally fluctuating water table regimes across floodplain organic matter hotspots. Simulations and metagenomic/metatranscriptomic observations highlighted the many dependencies connecting the relative fitness of functional guilds and the importance of chemolithoautotrophic lifestyles. Using an X-Ray microCT-derived soil microaggregate physical model combined

  18. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  19. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes.

  20. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  1. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  2. Authentic Teaching of Fitness Concepts to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Kane, Jennifer

    This paper stresses the importance of teaching aerobic and muscle fitness concepts as part of a health-related fitness curriculum in physical education, recommending outcomes for teaching aerobic endurance and muscle/strength endurance in kindergarten through sixth grade. It describes important learning aid materials and presents national…

  3. Overview of the Texas Youth Fitness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Zhu, Weimo; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical and legislative backgrounds leading to statewide testing of health-related physical fitness in Texas children grades 3-12 as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. The rationale and goals for an associated research project (the Texas Youth Fitness Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) to evaluate…

  4. Effects of aquatic resistance training on health and fitness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Colado, Juan C; Triplett, N Travis; Tella, Victor; Saucedo, Pedro; Abellán, José

    2009-05-01

    To investigate effects of 24 weeks of resistance training with aquatic resistance devices or elastic bands (EB) on markers of cardiovascular health and physical capacity. Forty-six healthy, sedentary postmenopausal women participated. The groups were aquatic exercise (AE; n = 15), EB (n = 21), and control (n = 10). Venous blood chemistry included cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein B. Physical capacity was assessed by the sit-and-reach, knee push-up, 60-s squat, and abdominal crunch tests. Both AE and EB, respectively, showed a significant (P health and performance that are comparable to those obtained from EB in this population.

  5. Setting an Example: The Health, Medical Care, and Health-Related Behavior of American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zill, Nicholas

    This report details a national survey study of parents, age 54 or younger, living with children under age 18. The study examined parents' physical health status, stress levels and negative feelings, health habits, and access to health care. Findings indicated that one in eight parents reported health problems, with health related to education,…

  6. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  7. Health locus of control, acculturation, and health-related Internet use among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals residing in the United States, the Internet is the third most used source for obtaining health information. Little is known, however, about its use by Latinas. To understand health-related Internet use among Latinas, the authors examined it within the theoretical frameworks of health locus of control and acculturation. The authors predicted that acculturation would serve as a mediator between health locus of control and health-related Internet use, age and health-related Internet use, income and health-related Internet use, and education and health-related Internet use. Data were collected via a 25-minute self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 932 young (M age = 21.27 years), low-income Latinas. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that acculturation partially mediated the relation between health locus of control and health-related Internet use and fully mediated the relations among age, income, and Internet use. An internal health locus of control (p < .001), younger age (p < .001), and higher income (p < .001) were associated with higher levels of acculturation. Higher levels of acculturation (p < .001) and an internal health locus of control (p < .004) predicted health-related Internet use. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to effectively disseminate information to Latinas with limited access to health care professionals. These findings can inform the design of Internet-based health information dissemination studies targeting Latinas.

  8. Military Health Behaviors: Promotion of Healthy Weight and Fitness in Career Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Accessions Research Consortium in Fort  Jackson , SC. • Allen et al. (2005) presented a poster at NAASO’s 2005  Annual Scientific Meeting: “Military...PA: Lippincott  Williams  & Wilkins.  Bathalon, G. (2004, January).  Abdominal girth and health  readiness standards: Proposed changes to AR 600­9.  Oral...presentation given at the Accessions Research Consortium,  Fort  Jackson , SC.  Bathalon, G. (2005, January). Weight Status as Recruits:  Impact on

  9. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  10. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity.

  11. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose…

  12. Variations on hormone replacement therapy: an answer to the 'one dose fits all' Women's Health Initiative study.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2007-11-01

    The Women's Health Initiative study worked on the assumption that one dose would fit all asymptomatic postmenopausal women. The investigators therefore often used the wrong dose, of the wrong hormones, on the wrong patients and therefore came to many wrong conclusions. Different combinations of different hormones are necessary for different symptoms and different age groups. Hormone replacement therapy may be commenced in the perimenopausal phase, the early postmenopause, the late postmenopause or after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or a premature menopause. These all require different treatments. Similarly, various indications such as vasomotor symptoms, sexual problems, depression or the treatment/prevention of osteoporosis all need different combinations of estradiol and possibly progestogen and testosterone, according to the specific requirements of the patient.

  13. Health and Health Related Career Exploration: Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The manual contains secondary level materials designed to integrate career education concepts into the Roosevelt High school (Portland, Oregon) health education curriculum. The materials are divided into three sections. The first concerns self-concepts and presents: short-term activities designed to encourage students to begin thinking about…

  14. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  15. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits.

  16. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  17. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (r(s) = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (r(s) = .200), time spent online for health purposes (r(s) = .166), and number of searches for both illness (r(s) = .453) and wellness (r(s) = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted.

  18. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  19. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or

  20. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness.

  1. Finding Time for Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise strategy to improve health and fitness? Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism. 2014;39:409. Gibala MJ, ... interval training in health and disease. Journal of Physiology. 2012;590:1077. Aug. 06, 2016 Original article: ...

  2. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the…

  3. The influence of regulatory fit and interactivity on brand satisfaction and trust in E-health marketing inside 3D virtual worlds (Second Life).

    PubMed

    Jin, Seung-A Annie; Lee, Kwan Min

    2010-12-01

    Interactive three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments like Second Life have great potential as venues for effective e-health marketing and e-brand management. Drawing from regulatory focus and interactivity literatures, this study examined the effects of the regulatory fit that consumers experience in interactive e-health marketing on their brand satisfaction and brand trust. The results of a two-group comparison experiment conducted within Second Life revealed that consumers in the regulatory fit condition show greater brand satisfaction and brand trust than those in the regulatory misfit condition, thus confirming the persuasive influence of regulatory fit in e-brand management inside 3D virtual worlds. In addition, a structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated the mediating role of consumers' perceived interactivity in explaining the processional link between regulatory fit and brand evaluation. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  5. Student Reception, Sources, and Believability of Health-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Lowe, David; Taman, Sara; Faulkner, Guy E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the health topics students received information about, how students obtained health-related information, and perceived believability of those sources. Participants and Methods: Students (N = 1202) were surveyed using the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) of the American College Health…

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  8. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  9. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  10. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  11. Do Health-Related Feared Possible Selves Motivate Healthy Eating?

    PubMed

    Noureddine, Samar; Metzger, Bonnie

    2014-01-13

    The question of what motivates individuals to assume healthy eating habits remains unanswered. The purpose of this descriptive survey is to explore health-related feared possible selves in relation to dietary beliefs and behavior in adults. A convenience sample of 74 middle-aged employees of a health maintenance organization completed self-administered questionnaires. Health-related feared selves, current health perception, knowledge of diet-health association, dietary self-efficacy, dietary intention and intake were measured. Health-related fears were the most frequently reported feared selves, but very few of those represented illnesses and none were related to dietary intake. The number of health and body weight related fears was significantly associated with lower dietary self-efficacy and weaker intention to eat in a healthy manner. Multivariate analysis showed self-efficacy to be the only significant predictor of dietary intention. These adults may not have perceived being at risk for diet-associated illnesses, and so their feared selves did not motivate them to eat in a healthy manner. Research on the effect of hoped for health related possible selves and the perceived effectiveness of diet in reducing health risk are recommended.

  12. A cross-sectional examination of the physical fitness and selected health attributes of recreational all-terrain vehicle riders and off-road motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jamie F; Jamnik, Veronica; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders - off-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to population norms and clinical health standards. Canadian off-road riders (n = 141) of both sexes aged 16 years and over were recruited through local and national off-road riding organizations. Anthropometry, fitness, and health measures of off-road motorcycle and all-terrain vehicle riders were compared with population norms, health standards, and physical activity guidelines. Off-road motorcycle riders had above average aerobic fitness (79th percentile), while all-terrain vehicle riders were lower than average (40th percentile). All riders had a healthy blood lipid profile and a low incidence of the metabolic syndrome (12.9%) compared with members of the general population. Off-road motorcycle riders had healthier body composition and fitness than all-terrain vehicle riders; however, the body composition of off-road motorcycle riders was no healthier than that of the general population and all-terrain vehicle riders were worse than the general population. Off-road motorcycle riders had healthier anthropometry and fitness than all-terrain vehicle riders and thus fewer health risk factors for future disease, demonstrating that the physiological profiles of off-road riders are dependent on vehicle type.

  13. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a) as emergent findings; and b) as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women) are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health. PMID:22151578

  14. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  15. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  16. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  17. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p < 0.05) to health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p < 0.05) to various aspects of physical or mental health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  18. Explaining Disparities in Youth Aerobic Fitness and Body Mass Index: Relative Impact of Socioeconomic and Minority Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Background: To advance research on youth fitness promotion it is important to understand factors that may explain the disparities in fitness. Methods: We evaluated data from the FitnessGram NFL PLAY60 Partnership Project to examine school factors influencing aerobic capacity (AC) and body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren. Individual observations…

  19. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  20. Structural equation modeling of the associations between the home environment and obesity-related cardiovascular fitness and insulin resistance among Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Cui, Yuchen; Adams, Alexandra K; Allen, David B; Carrel, Aaron L; Guo, Jessica Y; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-06-01

    Hispanic children are disproportionally affected by obesity-related risk of metabolic disease. We used the structural equation modeling to examine the associations between specific diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors at home and Hispanic children's metabolic health. A total of 187 Hispanic children and their parents from an urban community in Wisconsin participated in the study. Exposure variables included, children's daily intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and PA; home availability of SSB and PA areas/equipment; and parents' intake of SSB and PA, assessed through self-administered questionnaires. Outcome variables for children's metabolic health included, measured anthropometrics; cardiovascular fitness assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER); and insulin resistance determined with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR). We found that children's daily intake of SSB was positively associated with BMI z-score, which in turn, was positively associated with HOMAIR (P < 0.05). Specific diet behaviors at home associated with children's intake of SSB, included home availability of SSB, which mediated the association between parents' and children's intake of SSB (P < 0.05). Children's PA was positively associated with PACER z-score, which in turn, was inversely associated with HOMAIR (P < 0.05). Specific PA behaviors at home associated with children's PA, included home availability of PA areas/equipment, which mediated the association between parents' and children's PA (P < 0.05). The structural equation model indices suggested a satisfactory model fit (Chi-square, X(2) = 53.1, comparative fix index = 0.92, root-mean-squared error associated = 0.04). The findings confirm the need for interventions at the family level that promotes healthier home environments by targeting poor diet and low levels of PA in all family members.

  1. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  2. Social mobility and health related behaviours in young people

    PubMed Central

    Karvonen, S.; Rimpela, A. H.; Rimpela, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the influences related to social mobility, particularly health related behaviours, as one potential explanation for the social class variation in health among adults. DESIGN: The study is based on questionnaire data from the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Surveys of 1985, 1987, and 1989. SETTING: The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 8355 adolescents. The response rate was 79%. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: The relation between social mobility and health related behaviours among 16 and 18 year old young people was studied. The measure of social mobility was based on a combination of the social class of origin and achieved social position measured by the present educational status, educational attainment, and labour market position. Three mobility groups were constructed: the downwardly mobile, the upwardly mobile and the stable. Health related behaviours in an upwardly or downwardly mobile group were compared with a stable group from the same social class of origin by calculating relative risks (RR). RRs were assessed by calculating age and sex adjusted rate ratios approximating a Mantel-Haenszel estimate. In logistic regression analyses the independent effects of the social class of origin and the achieved social position were investigated. Most of the nine behaviours studied (smoking, alcohol use, heavy intoxication, coffee drinking, tooth brushing, consumption of sweets, lack of physical exercise, choice of bread spread, and consumption of milk) were related to the direction of mobility so that health compromising behaviours were more frequent among downwardly mobile and less frequent among upwardly mobile young people than their stable peers. Achieved social position proved to determine health related behaviours more strongly than class of origin, thus emphasising the way education facilitates both health values and behaviours as well as the future social position. CONCLUSIONS: The close relation between

  3. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  4. [Valuation of health-related quality of life and utilities in health economics].

    PubMed

    Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group).

  5. Explained variance in the thermoregulatory responses to exercise: the independent roles of biophysical and fitness/fatness-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Matthew N.

    2015-01-01

    Individual variation in the thermoregulatory responses to exercise is notoriously large. Although aerobic fitness (V̇o2 max) and body fatness are traditionally considered important predictors of individual core temperature and sweating responses, recent evidence indicates potentially important and independent roles for biophysical factors. Using stepwise regression, we examined the proportion of individual variability in rectal temperature changes (ΔTre), whole body sweat loss (WBSL), and steady-state local sweat rate (LSRss) independently described by 1) biophysical factors associated with metabolic heat production (Hprod) and evaporative heat balance requirements (Ereq) relative to body size and 2) factors independently related to V̇o2 max and body fatness. In a total of 69 trials, 28 males of wide-ranging morphological traits and V̇o2 max values cycled at workloads corresponding to a range of absolute Hprod (410–898 W) and relative intensities (32.2–82.0% V̇o2 max) for 60 min in 24.8 ± 0.7°C and 33.4 ± 12.2% relative humidity. Hprod (in W/kg total body mass) alone described ∼50% of the variability in ΔTre (adjusted to r2 = 0.496; P < 0.001), whereas surface area-to-mass ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) explained an additional 4.3 and 2.3% of variability, respectively. For WBSL, Ereq (in W) alone explained ∼71% of variance (adjusted to r2 = 0.713, P < 0.001), and the inclusion of BF% explained an additional 1.3%. Similarly, Ereq (in W/m2) correlated significantly with LSRss (adjusted to r2 = 0.603, P < 0.001), whereas %V̇o2 max described an additional ∼4% of total variance. In conclusion, biophysical parameters related to Hprod, Ereq, and body size explain 54–71% of the individual variability in ΔTre, WBSL, and LSRss, and only 1–4% of additional variance is explained by factors related to fitness or fatness. PMID:26316511

  6. Explained variance in the thermoregulatory responses to exercise: the independent roles of biophysical and fitness/fatness-related factors.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2015-11-01

    Individual variation in the thermoregulatory responses to exercise is notoriously large. Although aerobic fitness (V̇o2 max) and body fatness are traditionally considered important predictors of individual core temperature and sweating responses, recent evidence indicates potentially important and independent roles for biophysical factors. Using stepwise regression, we examined the proportion of individual variability in rectal temperature changes (ΔTre), whole body sweat loss (WBSL), and steady-state local sweat rate (LSRss) independently described by 1) biophysical factors associated with metabolic heat production (Hprod) and evaporative heat balance requirements (Ereq) relative to body size and 2) factors independently related to V̇o2 max and body fatness. In a total of 69 trials, 28 males of wide-ranging morphological traits and V̇o2 max values cycled at workloads corresponding to a range of absolute Hprod (410-898 W) and relative intensities (32.2-82.0% V̇o2 max) for 60 min in 24.8 ± 0.7°C and 33.4 ± 12.2% relative humidity. Hprod (in W/kg total body mass) alone described ∼50% of the variability in ΔTre (adjusted to r(2) = 0.496; P < 0.001), whereas surface area-to-mass ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) explained an additional 4.3 and 2.3% of variability, respectively. For WBSL, Ereq (in W) alone explained ∼71% of variance (adjusted to r(2) = 0.713, P < 0.001), and the inclusion of BF% explained an additional 1.3%. Similarly, Ereq (in W/m(2)) correlated significantly with LSRss (adjusted to r(2) = 0.603, P < 0.001), whereas %V̇o2 max described an additional ∼4% of total variance. In conclusion, biophysical parameters related to Hprod, Ereq, and body size explain 54-71% of the individual variability in ΔTre, WBSL, and LSRss, and only 1-4% of additional variance is explained by factors related to fitness or fatness.

  7. Mental Health and Related Factors of Hospital Nurses.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suenaga, Minako; Rokkaku, Yuichi; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    The mental health of hospital nurses is a key health issue in public health promotion during the recovery phase following the Fukushima disaster. In this study, conducted 4 years after the disaster, we analyzed the overall mental health, knowledge, risk perception of radiation, and work and daily life burdens of nurses working at medical institutions in the Fukushima Prefecture (collection rate = 89.6%; response number = 730). Overall mental health status was estimated using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, and 333 respondents (45.6%) scored above the 12-item General Health Questionnaire threshold point (≥4), indicating probable emotional distress compared with the general population under normal circumstances. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that the ability to cope with daily life and work-related stressors were more important than risk perception and acquisition of knowledge regarding radiation and its control methods for supporting the mental health of nurses following the Fukushima disaster.

  8. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  9. Drug resistance-related mutations T369V/I in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase severely impair viral fitness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Junli; Li, Fan; Ji, Xiaolin; Liao, Lingjie; Ma, Liying; Xing, Hui; Feng, Yi; Li, Dan; Shao, Yiming

    2017-03-06

    Fitness is a key parameter in the measurement of transmission capacity of individual drug-resistant HIV. Drug-resistance related mutations (DRMs) T369V/I and A371V in the connection subdomain (CN) of reverse transcriptase (RT) occur at higher frequencies in the individuals experiencing antiretroviral therapy failure. Here, we evaluated the effects of T369V/I and A371V on viral fitness, in the presence or in the absence of thymidine analogue resistance-associated mutations (TAMs) and assessed the effect of potential RT structure-related mechanism on change in viral fitness. Mutations T369V/I, A371V, alone or in combination with TAMs were introduced into a modified HIV-1 infectious clone AT1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Then, experiments on mutant and wild-type virus AT2 were performed separately using a growth-competition assay, and then the relative fitness was calculated. Structural analysis of RT was conducted using Pymol software. Results showed that T369V/I severely impaired the relative virus fitness, and A371V compensated for the viral fitness reduction caused by TAMs. Structural modeling of RT suggests that T369V/I substitutions disrupt powerful hydrogen bonds formed by T369 and V365 in p51 and p66. This study indicates that the secondary DRMs within CN might efficiently damage viral fitness, and provides valuable information for clinical surveillance and prevention of HIV-1 strains carrying these DRMs.

  10. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  11. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  12. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age- and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jason R; Inzana, Jason A; Awad, Hani A; Berger, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely on measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent on its chemical composition. Raman spectroscopy has been used extensively in ex vivo studies to measure the chemical composition of bone. Recently, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has been utilized to measure bone transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make noninvasive, in vivo measurements of bone with SORS that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based on fitting with spectral libraries. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both bone and soft tissue. The algorithm was utilized to transcutaneously detect biochemical differences in the tibiae of wild-type mice between 1 and 7 months of age and between the tibiae of wild-type mice and a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. These results represent the first diagnostically sensitive, transcutaneous measurements of bone using SORS.

  13. Promoting Health-Related Fitness during Warm-Up Activities for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    It is common to begin a physical education class by having students run laps. Many teachers find that doing the same running warm-up day after day leads to boredom and a lack of interest in their students. This article provides teachers with developmentally appropriate warm-up activities that will not only motivate students, but also keep them…

  14. Systematic review of physical activity and exercise interventions to improve health, fitness and well-being of children and young people who use wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Thomas D; Noyes, Jane; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Hastings, Richard P; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2016-01-01

    Aim To perform a systematic review establishing the current evidence base for physical activity and exercise interventions that promote health, fitness and well-being, rather than specific functional improvements, for children who use wheelchairs. Design A systematic review using a mixed methods design. Data sources A wide range of databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, BMJ Best Practice, NHS EED, CINAHL, AMED, NICAN, PsychINFO, were searched for quantitative, qualitative and health economics evidence. Eligibility participants: children/young people aged >25 years who use a wheelchair, or parents and therapists/carers. Intervention: home-based or community-based physical activity to improve health, fitness and well-being. Results Thirty quantitative studies that measured indicators of health, fitness and well-being and one qualitative study were included. Studies were very heterogeneous preventing a meta-analysis, and the risk of bias was generally high. Most studies focused on children with cerebral palsy and used an outcome measure of walking or standing, indicating that they were generally designed for children with already good motor function and mobility. Improvements in health, fitness and well-being were found across the range of outcome types. There were no reports of negative changes. No economics evidence was found. Conclusions It was found that children who use wheelchairs can participate in physical activity interventions safely. The paucity of robust studies evaluating interventions to improve health and fitness is concerning. This hinders adequate policymaking and guidance for practitioners, and requires urgent attention. However, the evidence that does exist suggests that children who use wheelchairs are able to experience the positive benefits associated with appropriately designed exercise. Trial registration number CRD42013003939. PMID:27900176

  15. The Importance of Team Health Climate for Health-Related Outcomes of White-Collar Workers.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Heiko; Zacher, Hannes; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Occupational health researchers and practitioners have mainly focused on the individual and organizational levels, whereas the team level has been largely neglected. In this study, we define team health climate as employees' shared perceptions of the extent to which their team is concerned, cares, and communicates about health issues. Based on climate, signaling, and social exchange theories, we examined a multilevel model of team health climate and its relationships with five well-established health-related outcomes (i.e., subjective general health, psychosomatic complaints, mental health, work ability, and presenteeism). Results of multilevel analyses of data provided by 6,449 employees in 621 teams of a large organization showed that team health climate is positively related to subjective general health, mental health, and work ability, and negatively related to presenteeism, above and beyond the effects of team size, age, job tenure, job demands, job control, and employees' individual perceptions of health climate. Moreover, additional analyses showed that a positive team health climate buffered the negative relationship between employee age and work ability. Implications for future research on team health climate and suggestions for occupational health interventions in teams are discussed.

  16. The Importance of Team Health Climate for Health-Related Outcomes of White-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Heiko; Zacher, Hannes; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Occupational health researchers and practitioners have mainly focused on the individual and organizational levels, whereas the team level has been largely neglected. In this study, we define team health climate as employees’ shared perceptions of the extent to which their team is concerned, cares, and communicates about health issues. Based on climate, signaling, and social exchange theories, we examined a multilevel model of team health climate and its relationships with five well-established health-related outcomes (i.e., subjective general health, psychosomatic complaints, mental health, work ability, and presenteeism). Results of multilevel analyses of data provided by 6,449 employees in 621 teams of a large organization showed that team health climate is positively related to subjective general health, mental health, and work ability, and negatively related to presenteeism, above and beyond the effects of team size, age, job tenure, job demands, job control, and employees’ individual perceptions of health climate. Moreover, additional analyses showed that a positive team health climate buffered the negative relationship between employee age and work ability. Implications for future research on team health climate and suggestions for occupational health interventions in teams are discussed. PMID:28194126

  17. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model.

  18. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  19. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  20. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  1. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

  2. Enriching the trustworthiness of health-related web pages.

    PubMed

    Gaudinat, Arnaud; Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Celia; Chrawdhry, Pravir

    2011-06-01

    We present an experimental mechanism for enriching web content with quality metadata. This mechanism is based on a simple and well-known initiative in the field of the health-related web, the HONcode. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) format and the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set were used to formalize these metadata. The model of trust proposed is based on a quality model for health-related web pages that has been tested in practice over a period of thirteen years. Our model has been explored in the context of a project to develop a research tool that automatically detects the occurrence of quality criteria in health-related web pages.

  3. The Relationship bBetween Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight…

  4. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.

  5. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  6. Does a Fitness Factor Contribute to the Association between Intelligence and Health Outcomes? Evidence from Medical Abnormality Counts among 3654 US Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that an over-arching "fitness factor" (an index of general genetic quality that predicts survival and reproductive success) partially explains the observed associations between health outcomes and intelligence. As a proof of concept, we tested this idea in a sample of 3654 US Vietnam veterans aged 31-49 who completed five cognitive…

  7. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  8. Relations of sex, age, perceived fitness, and aerobic activity with social physique anxiety in adults sixty years and older.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Bowden, Rodney G; Owens, Robin; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2004-12-01

    Self-reported physical activity, and perceived fitness were examined to assess their effects on social physique anxiety in a sample of older individuals (N= 249; M age=70.4 yr., SD=8.2). Participants reported their fitness as "average" to "above average." There were no significant effects of perceived fitness or age on social physique anxiety scores. The women had significantly higher social physique anxiety scores than the men.

  9. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  12. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent…

  13. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  14. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  15. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  16. Health-Related School Guidance: Practical Applications in Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingman, Avigdor

    1984-01-01

    Delineates relevant health-related issues within the school setting such as oral health promotion, smoking prevention, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, obesity, and sexual activity in adolescence. Examines the role of the counselor in the areas of prevention program selection, consultation and psychoeducation, and program assessment. (LLL)

  17. Marketing and public relations. The role of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Warden, G L

    1989-01-01

    There are clear marketing and public relations benefits of health promotion to the HMO. Opportunities include outreach to the community and the workplace as well as initiatives within the HMO's care delivery setting. Health promotion has a distinct marketing advantage by offering appealing services to low utilizing members. This may help to reduce disenrollment in addition to enhancing the HMO's image.

  18. Hierarchical data-driven approach to fitting numerical relativity data for nonprecessing binary black holes with an application to final spin and radiated energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Forteza, Xisco; Keitel, David; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Khan, Sebastian; Pürrer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Numerical relativity is an essential tool in studying the coalescence of binary black holes (BBHs). It is still computationally prohibitive to cover the BBH parameter space exhaustively, making phenomenological fitting formulas for BBH waveforms and final-state properties important for practical applications. We describe a general hierarchical bottom-up fitting methodology to design and calibrate fits to numerical relativity simulations for the three-dimensional parameter space of quasicircular nonprecessing merging BBHs, spanned by mass ratio and by the individual spin components orthogonal to the orbital plane. Particular attention is paid to incorporating the extreme-mass-ratio limit and to the subdominant unequal-spin effects. As an illustration of the method, we provide two applications, to the final spin and final mass (or equivalently: radiated energy) of the remnant black hole. Fitting to 427 numerical relativity simulations, we obtain results broadly consistent with previously published fits, but improving in overall accuracy and particularly in the approach to extremal limits and for unequal-spin configurations. We also discuss the importance of data quality studies when combining simulations from diverse sources, how detailed error budgets will be necessary for further improvements of these already highly accurate fits, and how this first detailed study of unequal-spin effects helps in choosing the most informative parameters for future numerical relativity runs.

  19. The use of relational databases in health care information systems.

    PubMed

    Borok, L S

    1995-01-01

    The relational database is especially well suited to be the cornerstone of the next generation of health care information systems. Health care organizations can take advantage of the lessons learned from major corporations that have built entire information infrastructures using it. The relational model's strength in handling the analysis of transaction data makes it ideal for fulfilling complex utilization review requirements and providing a solid foundation for the increasing operational demands of large physician-managed managed care networks.

  20. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  1. The influence of the internalization of emotional regulation on mental health among the Taiwanese people: the moderating effect of cultural fit.

    PubMed

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    This study used a 2-stage questionnaire survey to explore whether self-regulation by withholding negative emotions (SRWNE) affects mental health and examines further whether cultural fit can moderate the relationship between SRWNE and mental health. The 2-stage studies used data collected from 405 (time 1) and 313 (time 2) full-time staff employed by private and public enterprises in Taiwan. The author tested hypotheses through the use of hierarchical multiple regression. The results showed that controlled SRWNE through external regulation and introjected regulation is significantly associated positively with somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression, whereas autonomous SRWNE through identified regulation is significantly associated negatively with anxiety and insomnia, and social dysfunction. In addition, this study also found that cultural fit may moderate the relationship between SRWNE or introjected regulation and identified regulation and the mental health indicators.

  2. Belgian health-related data in three international databases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study This study wants to examine the availability of Belgian healthcare data in the three main international health databases: the World Health Organization European Health for All Database (WHO-HFA), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Data 2009 and EUROSTAT. Methods For the indicators present in the three databases, the availability of Belgian data and the source of these data were checked. Main findings The most important problem concerning the availability of Belgian health-related data in the three major international databases is the lack of recent data. Recent data are available for 27% of the indicators of the WHO-HFA database, 73% of the OECD Health Data, and for half of the Eurostat indicators. Especially recent data about health status (including mortality-based indicators) are lacking. Discussion Only the availability of the health-related data is studied in this article. The quality of the Belgian data is however also important to examine. The main problem concerning the availability of health data is the timeliness. One of the causes of this lack of (especially mortality) data is the reform of the Belgian State. Nowadays mortality data are provided by the communities. This results in a delay in the delivery of national mortality data. However several efforts are made to catch up. PMID:22958554

  3. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  4. Nutrition-related health management in a Bangladeshi community.

    PubMed

    Grace, Clare

    2011-02-01

    The British Bangladeshi community is one of the youngest and fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the UK. Many report poor socio-economic and health profiles with the existence of substantial health inequalities, particularly in relation to type 2 diabetes. Although there is compelling evidence for the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, there is little understanding of how best to tailor treatments to the needs of minority ethnic groups. Little is known about nutrition related lifestyle choices in the Bangladeshi community or the factors influencing such decisions. Only by exploring these factors will it be possible to design and tailor interventions appropriately. The Bangladeshi Initiative for the Prevention of Diabetes study explored lay beliefs and attitudes, religious teachings and professional perspectives in relation to diabetes prevention in the Bangladeshi community in Tower Hamlets, London. Contrary to the views of health professionals and previous research, poor knowledge was not the main barrier to healthy lifestyle choices. Rather the desire to comply with cultural norms, particularly those relating to hospitality, conflicted with efforts to implement healthy behaviours. Considerable support from Islamic teachings for diabetes prevention messages was provided by religious leaders, and faith may have an important role in supporting health promotion in this community. Some health professionals expressed outdated views on community attitudes and were concerned about their own limited cultural understanding. The potential for collaborative working between health educators and religious leaders should be explored further, and the cultural competence of health professionals addressed.

  5. Low health-related quality of life among abused women.

    PubMed

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Nortvedt, Monica W; Baste, Valborg

    2006-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to all the women's shelters in Norway to describe health-related quality of life among women who had experienced violence from an intimate partner. Every woman who could understand Norwegian and was staying at a women's shelter in Norway for more than 1 week from October 2002 to May 2003 was asked to participate. We described violence by intimate partners by using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Index. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to measure health-related quality of life. These women experienced a multitude of threats and actual physical and psychological violence during their partnership. Their health-related quality of life was low and significantly (p<0.001) below the norm for the female population of Norway in all dimensions. The SF-36 mental health dimension was 2.5 standard deviations below the norm. Women at women's shelters in Norway who had experienced domestic violence had very low and clinically significantly reduced health-related quality of life scores. Health care workers must give priority to developing intervention plans for victims of violence from intimate partners.

  6. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  7. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Humberto Lauro; SCELZA, Miriam F. Zaccaro; BOAVENTURA, Gilson Teles; CUSTÓDIO, Silvia Maria; MOREIRA, Emília Addison Machado; OLIVEIRA, Diane de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. Results Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%), followed by the use of dentures (30.3%) and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%). 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029). Conclusion The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:22437676

  8. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 -- Exercise for Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- Nutrition 2011 -- Winter Health 2010 -- Healthy Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

  9. Caregivers' health literacy and their young children's oral-health-related expenditures.

    PubMed

    Vann, W F; Divaris, K; Gizlice, Z; Baker, A D; Lee, J Y

    2013-07-01

    Caregivers' health literacy has emerged as an important determinant of young children's health care and outcomes. We examined the hypothesis that caregivers' health literacy influences children's oral-health-care-related expenditures. This was a prospective cohort study of 1,132 child/caregiver dyads (children's mean age = 19 months), participating in the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project. Health literacy was measured by the REALD-30 (word recognition based) and NVS (comprehension based) instruments. Follow-up data included child Medicaid claims for CY2008-10. We quantified expenditures using annualized 2010 fee-adjusted Medicaid-paid dollars for oral-health-related visits involving preventive, restorative, and emergency care. We used descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods based on generalized gamma models. Mean oral-health-related annual expenditures totaled $203: preventive--$81, restorative--$99, and emergency care--$22. Among children who received services, mean expenditures were: emergency hospital-based--$1282, preventive--$106, and restorative care--$343. Caregivers' low literacy in the oral health context was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in total expenditures (average annual difference = $40; 95% confidence interval, -32, 111). Nevertheless, with both instruments, emergency dental care expenditures were consistently elevated among children of low-literacy caregivers. These findings provide initial support for health literacy as an important determinant of the meaningful use and cost of oral health care.

  10. 76 FR 37207 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... internal claims and appeals and external review processes for group health plans and health...

  11. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience.

  12. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15–25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. PMID:25113152

  13. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  14. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  15. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  16. The ELF@Home project: Elderly sELF-care based on sELF-check of health conditions and sELF-fitness at home.

    PubMed

    Carús, Juan Luis; García, Sonia; García, Rodrigo; Waterworth, John; Erdt, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The ELF@Home project is a research and innovation project running from June 1st 2013 to May 31st 2016 and co-funded by the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme (AAL JP) and National Authorities in Spain, Sweden and Germany. The ELF@Home project relies on the use of the proven advantages of elderly fitness to develop a self-care solution based on self-check of health conditions and self-fitness at home. The project uses information and communication technologies (ICT) to build an autonomous fitness system targeting healthy or pre-frail elderly people aged over 65 and living independently at home.

  17. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  18. The fitness advantage of commercial wine yeasts in relation to the nitrogen concentration, temperature, and ethanol content under microvinification conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors.

  19. The Fitness Advantage of Commercial Wine Yeasts in Relation to the Nitrogen Concentration, Temperature, and Ethanol Content under Microvinification Conditions

    PubMed Central

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors. PMID:24242239

  20. The problems related to confidentiality and effectiveness of health care.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, J R

    1983-08-01

    The problem of the impact of confidentiality on health effectiveness is discussed along five points: (1) Communication facilities between health departments are main features of health information systems. (2) Efforts, costs, limits of data protection. The privacy violation risks have to be related to the data protection costs. (3) Paradox of the fundamental rights to confidentiality regarding privacy of the individual and the preponderant interest of the State. (4) Facing the increasing health costs, the need for medical and hospital control systems is assessed. (5) New benefits in medicine and in the quality of care are partly the results of more or less extensive studies in epidemiology at national levels. The general conclusion is concerned with the risks that the computer could become an instrumental substitute for human reason with the progressive drop out of responsibility of health officers.