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Sample records for health related fitness

  1. [Health-related fitness of sedentary elderly in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    de Greef, M; Popkema, D; Kroes, G; Middel, B

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of fitness is a component of a national project aimed at the enhancement of physical avtivity among sedentary older adults, aged 55-65 year in the Netherlands. Deterioration in physical functioning may be improved through an exercise programme. Research showed that enhancement of physical activity results in improved fitness, increased functional ability and health-related quality of life. Scientific results of the association between exercise and physical fitness in older adults is not sufficiently evidence-based in the Netherlands. In order to support health policy interventions 5.584 fitness tests of sedentary older adults were analyzed. The fitness was assessed by the Groninger Fitnesstest for Elderly (GFE). The analysis of physical fitness in sedentary older adults showed a lower fitness status among the age group 55-65 of age and women. Health risk factors such as overweight and having a chronic disease explained 88% of the variance between a low fitness and a high fitness profile.

  2. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  3. ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zou Da; Fu, Frank H.

    1994-01-01

    Three articles examine the Asia Youth Health Related Fitness Test proposed by the Asia Regional Board of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. The articles look at test results on fitness levels and knowledge from Japan, China, and Hong Kong. (SM)

  4. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  5. Health-Related Fitness of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Byrne, Heidi; Mattern, Craig O.; Watt, Celia A.; Fernandez-Vivo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the passing rates on five health-related fitness items on the Brockport Physical Fitness Test of youths aged 10-17 with visual impairments. It found that the youths had low passing rates on upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body composition. (Contains 2 tables.)

  6. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  7. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Désirée B; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-08-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, on the basis of the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic, and muscle-strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition.

  8. Health-related variables and functional fitness among older adults.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Linda D; Haddock, Bryan L

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (>70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with an average age of 78.36 +/- 5.60 years performed the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) and responded to several health-related questionnaires. The SFT scores were similar to the scores in the low-active group data published by Rikli and Jones (1999b). There was a strong correlation between the 30-second arm curl and the 2-minute step-in-place (r = .54, p < .01). More than one-half of the participants performed in the normal range or above normal range, according to the criterion performance data. This demonstrates a high level of functional fitness.

  9. ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, and Dance, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents necessary information for administering the ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Physical Fitness Test, including descriptions of and scoring for each test item, needed equipment, notes, and suggested preparations for test leaders. The test includes the endurance run, situps in 60 seconds, pullups, sit and reach test, and skinfold…

  10. Evaluation of the NASA/JSC Health Related Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, A. S.; Pinkerton, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the NASA Health Related Fitness Program (HRFP), which includes a 12-week educational component (EC) and quarterly fitness retests (RT), on the results of periodic testing of fitness, body composition, and blood lipids were evaluated in three goups of pilots. These included the group of compliers (those who completed EC and not less than 75 percent RT), the noncompliers (completed EC and lesss than 75 percent RT), and the dropouts from EC. Results show that beneficial changes in physical activity found two years after the completion of the HRFP were related to both the completion of the EC and the periodic fitness reevaluations. These changes were associated with maximal oxygen consumption, percent body fat, body weight, and blood lipids.

  11. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  12. Improving health-related fitness in children: the fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Methods/Design Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13). The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week) home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months) and at 6-months (from baseline) to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. Discussion The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will involve a range of evidence

  13. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  14. Health Related Physical Fitness: Who, What, Why, and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Claiborne, Janet M.

    In 1975, a joint committee on physical fitness, composed of the Measurement and Evaluation, Physical Fitness, and Research Councils of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) studied its Youth Fitness Test to determine the need for revision. Study results called for: (1) alteration in traditional…

  15. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(‒)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  16. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(‒)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents. PMID:25972203

  17. The Evolution and Validity of Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution fitness testing from an athletic emphasis to one with a public health focus and examines the forces that brought about the change in an environment that was not totally receptive. An atmosphere for change was created during this era with the development of exercise physiology, exercise epidemiology, and measurement.…

  18. Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge of Student Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Compared the health-related fitness knowledge of students in allied health care professions, assessing 48 athletic training students, 33 nursing students, and 36 physical therapy students. On the posttest, athletic training and physical therapy groups scored higher than the nursing group. Discusses implications for health profession education.…

  19. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  20. Evaluation of the Health Related Physical Fitness Status of Youth in the State of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastad, Douglas N.; And Others

    This four-part booklet is the result of a project with four goals: (1) familiarize physical educators in Illinois with the four items of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Health Related Physical Fitness Test; (2) design materials regarding implementation strategies for health related fitness that…

  1. Developing Teachers' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge through a Community of Practice: Impact on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…

  2. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  3. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  4. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  5. Norms for College Students. Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    This document presents an analysis of a normative study done to determine physical fitness norms of college age young adults. Data for this normative study were collected under the supervision of 24 coinvestigators who were affiliated with institutions distributed in all regions of the United States. The study presents the derivation of the…

  6. An Innovative Strategy for Teaching Health-Related Fitness Knowledge in Elementary Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For many decades, children and adolescents have had a deficient level of health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). This is worrisome, since HRFK acquisition has been found to be fundamental for individuals' decision-making as it relates to healthy living. Consequently, Knowledge in Action (KIA) fitness was developed to offer elementary teachers an…

  7. The Relationship between Preservice Teachers Health-Related Fitness and Movement Competency in Gymnastics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Webster, Liana; Cribbs, Jason; Wellborn, Benjamin; Lineberger, Matthew Blake; Doan, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The current National Initial Standards for Physical Education Teacher Education state that preservice teachers should achieve and maintain a level of health-related fitness consistent with that expected of K12 learners. However, little research has addressed the relevance of teacher fitness to effective physical education teaching. This study…

  8. Contribution of Physical Education and Sport to Health-Related Fitness in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared health-related fitness variables of high school students (14 to 19-years-old; 120 males, 67 females) participating in physical education (PE) and school-sponsored sports (SSS) to students participating solely in PE. Cardiovascular fitness, the primary variable of interest, was measured using the 20-Meter Shuttle Ran (number of…

  9. Health-Related Fitness and Nutritional Practices: Can They Be Enhanced in Upper Elementary School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Aggeloussis, Nikos; Petraki, Christina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week health-related fitness and nutrition education program on fitness components and dietary habits in upper elementary school students. Forty children from the fifth and sixth grade, 10 to 12 years of age (M= 11.2, SD= 1.1), participated in the study. The experimental…

  10. Developing Health-Related Fitness: It Takes More than a Week!--Fitnessgram Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkuski, Jeffrey J.; Masterson, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss some activities that will develop health-related fitness for students and recommend that teachers present activities that make students feel capable, confident and competent to their participation in physical activity. The authors present NASPE's Physical Best fitness education program and the Cooper…

  11. Health-Related Fitness Models in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer; Kulinna, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Physical education has been an integral part of the school curriculum for more than a century. Although the focus has changed over time, the major objective has remained relatively constant: to provide students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and confidence to be physically active throughout their lifetime. As more physical…

  12. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015.

  13. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015. PMID:26506187

  14. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  15. A Survey of Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge Among Preservice and Inservice Physical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Housner, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the health-related physical-fitness knowledge of preservice and inservice physical education teachers and graduate students in physical education and exercise physiology. Survey results indicated that exercise-physiology graduate students surpassed all others in knowledge. Though preservice teachers had relatively poor knowledge levels,…

  16. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  17. Preschool motor development predicting high school health-related physical fitness: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Eric; Baghurst, Timothy M; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2014-08-01

    To address the obesity epidemic there is an increasing effort to emphasize physical activity and fitness in adolescence as opposed to fundamental motor skills. However, what effect this might have on health-related fitness is unclear. This study sought to determine the degree to which motor development competencies in preschool could predict high school fitness. In the initial study, participants were 143 male and 139 female preschoolers (M age = 4.8 yr., SD = 0.7) from four preschool programs in suburban area of a Southern state who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development. Eleven years later, 75 boys and 65 girls (M age = 15.8 yr., SD = 0.7) from the original sample were located and completed the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test (1.5 mile run, sit-up, sit-and-reach, body fat percentage). Test of Gross Motor Development scores were found to be strong predictors for all measures of fitness, but object control skills were more predictive of overall physical fitness than locomotor skills. Therefore, educators should consider teaching sport skill development in early childhood over general activity to improve long-term fitness.

  18. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in adolescents: the MOVE Program.

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Béghin, Laurent; Fardy, Paul S; Ulmer, Zekya; Czaplicki, Grégory

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in a French health promotion program 'Move…A priority for your health'. Participants were 174 French youth (88 children and 86 adolescents) aged 8·2-16·2 years. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and flexibility were tested using 20-m shuttle run test, ½ mile run test, basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and 20/30/50-m sprint tests. Reliability was calculated for the basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and sprint tests. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week. Reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analysis. With the exception of the ½ mile run test, which resulted in moderate agreement (0·66), all tests had high reliability. ICCs were 0·97, 0·93, 0·91 and 0·93 for the sprint test, basketball throw, shoulder stretch and the standing long jump, respectively. The differences obtained between the first and the second trial were non-significant. Results from this study indicate that the BOUGE health-related physical fitness battery, administrated by physical education teachers, was reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in children and adolescents in a school setting.

  19. The Relationship between Sports Participation and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrow, Matthew S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Otto, Stephanie M.; Farley, Richard F.; Eveland-Sayers, Brandi M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the relationship between sports participation and health-related physical fitness in middle school and high school students. Health-related physical fitness was measured using the Fitnessgram test battery to assess healthy fitness zone (HFZ) achievement in five areas: body composition, muscular…

  20. Teaching Skills and Health-Related Fitness through a Preservice Gymnastics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham-Foutch, Shae

    2007-01-01

    Children who do not develop a foundation of basic motor skills are less likely to participate in regular physical activity. An excellent way of teaching basic motor skills, as well as health-related fitness, is through gymnastics. Many young teachers, however, think that teaching gymnastics is too challenging and do not know how to incorporate it…

  1. Health-Related Fitness in Sport Education and Multi-Activity Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mitchum B.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    To date, studies examining the Sport Education (SE) model have largely focused on gains in sporting performance and/or psychosocial development. The purpose of this study was to compare the health-related fitness benefits for pupils participating in SE and traditional multi-activity (MA) units of instruction. Participants were two preservice…

  2. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  3. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the "Fuprecol

  4. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study’s aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion “Fuprecol study”. Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland–Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  5. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the "Fuprecol

  6. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ching; Malina, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and health-related physical fitness was evaluated in 282 Taiwanese adolescents 12-14 years of age. The subjects were randomly selected from the 7th, 8th and 9th grades in two junior high schools in Taiwan. Physical activity was estimated as total daily energy expenditure and energy expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 24-hour activity records for three days, two week days and one weekend day. Health-related fitness was assessed as the one-mile run (cardiorespiratory endurance), timed sit-ups (abdominal strength and endurance), sit-and-reach (lower back flexibility), and subcutaneous fatness (sum of the triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds). Physical activity is significantly and positively correlated with one-mile run performance and the sit-and-reach, but not with sit-ups and subcutaneous fatness. Overall, the strength of the relationships between estimated energy expenditure and specific fitness items in the total sample vary from low to moderate, with only 1% to 12% of the variance in fitness variables being explained by estimated energy expenditure. Comparisons of active versus inactive, and fit versus unfit adolescents provide additional insights. The more active (highest quartile) are also more fit in cardiorespiratory endurance and in the sit-and-reach than the less active (lowest quartile), and the more fit in the one-mile run (better time, lowest quartile) and the sit-and-reach (highest quartile) are more active than the less fit in each item, respectively. PMID:11938605

  7. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-12-01

    College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity. PMID:25610821

  8. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-12-01

    College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity.

  9. Anthropometric and health-related fitness characteristics in middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the possible relationships between anthropometrical and health-related fitness parameters in obese middle-aged women. Twenty one obese (BMI > 27 kg/m2) and 12 control (BMI < 27 kg/m2) middle-aged females (35-45 yrs) participated in this investigation. Three series of anthropometrical measurements on the right side of the body were taken according to the O-scale physique assessment system. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method was used and the ratio of waist to hip circumferences was calculated. The body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance method (Bodystat-500, UK). The following health-related fitness tests used were: dynamic sit-up, hand grip, sit-and-reach, single leg balance and plate tapping. Physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using single ergometer test. Obese women possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values for skinfold, girth and breadth measurements. While the differences in somatotype indices were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between obese and control groups, the transformation of somatotype characteristics to the effect sizes (ESs) revealed that these differences were large (ectomorphy: ES = 1.73; endomorphy: ES = 1.64; mesomorphy: ES = 1.71). Relative aerobic fitness (VO2max/kg, calculated from PWC) and dynamic sit-up were higher (p < 0.05) in control subjects, while obese women presented significantly higher values for hand grip strength. The thicker skinfold thicknesses increased the absolute value of PWC in obese group (r = 0.39-0.57; p < 0.05). In contrast, the thinner skinfold thicknesses in suprailiac and mid-thigh significantly increased the absolute value of PWC in control women. There were only a few significant correlations between girth and breadth measures, and health-related fitness parameters. In addition, somatotype characteristics seldom influenced the results of health-related fitness tests. Stepwise multiple regression

  10. Associations between health-related physical fitness and obesity in Taiwanese youth.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David; Chen, Jui-Fu; Wen, Liang-Tsai; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between four health-related physical fitness measures and obesity in Taiwanese youth aged 10-18 years. Data from 13,500 school-aged youth were randomly selected from the "School Physical Fitness Database" of Taiwan by sex and age. Variables examined were height, body mass and performance on modified sit-and-reach (flexibility), bent-leg sit-up (abdominal muscular strength/endurance), standing long jump (lower body explosive strength) and distance run/walk (cardiorespiratory endurance). Adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Increased odds of being obese with decreased fitness levels were observed for lower body explosive strength and cardiorespiratory endurance in both sexes. The highest odds of being obese was found in the least fit quintile of cardiorespiratory endurance compared with the most fit quintile both in boys (Odds ratio, OR = 10.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.94-13.73) and girls (OR = 5.40; 95% CI, 3.90-7.47). These findings suggest that in addition to cardiorespiratory fitness, lower body explosive strength is also associated with childhood and adolescent obesity.

  11. Health-related fitness, physical activity, and history of back pain.

    PubMed

    Payne, N; Gledhill, N; Katzmarzyk, P T; Jamnik, V

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between history of back pain and measurements of both health-related fitness and physical activity participation was examined in 233 males and 287 females aged 15-69 years. Participants were divided by gender into those reporting no history (NH) or a history (H) of recurring back pain. Analysis of variance indicated that trunk flexion, back extensor endurance, and physical activity participation were significantly higher for NH and waist girth significantly lower for NH in both genders. In females, mean abdominal muscular endurance was significantly higher in NH. Forward stepwise discriminant function analyses indicated that the best discriminators between NH and H were back extensor endurance and physical activity participation in both genders and waist girth in females. These findings support using measurements of trunk flexion, abdominal muscular endurance, back extensor endurance, physical activity participation, and waist girth as indicators of back fitness in the evaluation of back health.

  12. [The role of health education in promotion of health-related fitness concept].

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of health education is to shape the habits of attention to positive physical health, which determines the low risk of health problems, particularly in later life. Therefore, an important indicator of correct pro-health behaviors is to maintain an appropriate ratio between body weight and height, as well as maintaining fat distribution indices (BMI, WHR) at the appropriate level. Aim of this paper is to attempt a synthetic view of the health-related fineness--its development, and maintenance level for life in the context of the objectives of health education. The results of children and adolescents and the population of adult males from Cracow indicate that the percentage of children with elevated values of the fat distribution indices (BMI, WHR) between 8 and 19 years is systematically reduced in relation to international standards. At the same time in the adult male population dramatically increased to almost 50% in the group of men after the age of 50. This implies that educational activities related to the promotion of healthy lifestyle and maintain appropriate physical activity can not be finished at the stage of school education, but must also continue at a later date.

  13. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (−1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (−1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (−1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (−1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life in bariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Kolotkin, Ronette L; LaMonte, Michael J; Litwin, Sheldon; Crosby, Ross D; Gress, Richard E; Yanowitz, Frank G; Hunt, Steven C; Adams, Ted D

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is impaired in severely obese individuals presenting for bariatric surgery. Little is known about the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and HRQOL in these individuals. We hypothesized that better HRQOL would be reported by those with higher CRF. In 326 gastric bypass patients (mean BMI = 46.5 ± 7.0; mean age=40.9 ± 10.1; 83.4% female), pre-surgical CRF was quantified as duration (minutes) of a submaximal treadmill test to 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (MHR). Patients completed both a general measure of HRQOL [the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 (SF-36)] and a weight-specific measure of HRQOL [Impact of Weight on Quality of Life--Lite]. Mean HRQOL scores were examined, controlling for age, gender, and BMI. Mean treadmill duration was 9.9 ± 3.1 min, and percent age-predicted MHR was 81.2 ± 3.0%. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness tended to be associated with better physical and weight-specific HRQOL. Adjustment for differences in gender, age, and BMI attenuated the significance of associations between fitness and physical measures from the SF-36, whereas adjustment eliminated significance of associations between fitness and weight-specific HRQOL in most cases. Results suggest that CRF confers some HRQOL benefits in severely obese adults, though these benefits may largely be explained by differences in age, gender, and BMI.

  15. Approaching healthy body mass index norms for children and adolescents from health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Lin, C C; Peng, C T; Li, C I; Wu, H C; Chiang, J; Wu, J Y; Huang, P C

    2002-08-01

    Current body mass index (BMI) norms for children and adolescents are developed from a reference population that includes obese and slim subjects. The validity of these norms is influenced by the observed secular increase in body weight and BMI. We hypothesized that the performance of children in health-related physical fitness tests would be negatively related to increased BMIs, and therefore fitness tests might be used as criteria for developing a more appropriate set of BMI norms. We evaluated the existing data from a nation-wide fitness survey for students in Taiwan (444 652 boys and 433 555 girls) to examine the relationship between BMI and fitness tests. The fitness tests used included: an 800/1600-m run/walk; a standing long jump; bent-leg curl-ups; and a sit-and-reach test. The BMI percentiles developed from the subgroup whose test scores were better than the 'poor' quartile in all four tests were compared with those of the whole population and linked to the adult criteria for overweight and obesity. The BMIs were significantly related to the results of fitness testing. A total of 43% of students had scores better than the poorest quartile in all of their tests. The upper BMI percentile curves of this fitter subgroup were lower than those of the total population. The 85th and 95th BMI percentile values of the fitter 18-year-old-students (23.7 and 25.5 kg m(-2) for boys; 22.6 and 24.6 kg m(-2) for girls) linked well with the adult cut-off points of 23 and 25 kg m(-2), which have been recommended as the Asian criteria for adult overweight and obesity. Hence, the BMI norms for children and adolescents could be created from selected subgroups that have better physical fitness. We expect that the new norms based on this approach will be used not only to assess the current status of obesity or overweight, but also to encourage activity and exercise.

  16. An Analysis of Research on Student Health-Related Fitness Knowledge in K-16 Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Harrison, Louis; Chen, Li; Xiang, Ping; Lambdin, Dolly D.; Dauenhauer, Brian; Rotich, Willy; Pinero, Jose Castro

    2009-01-01

    Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K-16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the…

  17. Distribution of health-related physical fitness in Texas youth: a demographic and geographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Welk, Gregory J; Meredith, Marilu D; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-09-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zones (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status profiles. The results revealed age-related declines in the percentage of youth who achieved the HFZ standard for cardiovascular fitness (elementary school: 70%; middle school: 46%; high school: 34%). Interestingly, there was little evidence of age-related declines in other fitness dimensions. School-level attainment of fitness was consistently higher in schools categorized as low diversity and high socioeconomic status. Clear spatial patterns in fitness achievement were also evident when data were analyzed at the region and county level using geodemographic information system software.

  18. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Self-Perception Changes Related to a University "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woekel, Erica; Ebbeck, Vicki; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Readdy, Tucker; Li, Kin-Kit; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate college students are at a crucial point in the development of significant health behaviors, most notably related to physical activity and dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively determine whether participation in a Lifetime Fitness for Health (LFH) curriculum in college had short-term and long-term benefits…

  19. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  20. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  1. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  2. Health and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrand, Per Olaf

    The need for physical activity to maintain good health is emphasized in this book. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are regarded as being of prime importance. The nutritional and caloric values of various diets are discussed in relation to their energy producing potential as well as their effect on body weight. Photographs, charts, and line…

  3. Effect of tai chi on musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health changes in low income, multiple ethnicity mid to older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tai Chi (TC) has proven to be effective at improving musculoskeletal fitness by increasing upper and lower body strength, low back flexibility and overall physical health. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health after a 16 week TC program in a low income multiple ethnicity mid to older adult population. Methods Two hundred and nine ethnically diverse mid to older community dwelling Canadian adults residing in low income neighbourhoods were enrolled in a 16 week Yang style TC program. Body Mass Index and select musculoskeletal fitness measures including upper and lower body strength, low back flexibility and self-reported physical health measured by SF 36 were collected pre and post the TC program. Determinants of health such as age, sex, marital status, education, income, ethnicity of origin, multi-morbidity conditions, weekly physical activity, previous TC experience as well as program adherence were examined as possible musculoskeletal health-related fitness change predictors. Results Using paired sample t-tests significant improvements were found in both upper and lower body strength, low back flexibility, and the SF 36 physical health scores (p < 0.05). Based on multiple linear regression analyses, no common health determinants explained a significant portion of the variation in percent changes of the musculoskeletal fitness and SF 36 measures. Conclusions These results reveal that TC has the potential of having a beneficial influence on musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health in a mid to older low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse sample. PMID:24160867

  4. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  6. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  7. The Use of Health Related Physical Fitness Tests to Achieve Sex Fair Ability Grouping of Students in Junior and Senior High School Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    The use of health-related physical fitness tests for sex-fair ability grouping in physical education classes requires the verification of two assumptions: (1) that there exists a direct positive relationship between health-related physical fitness and development and/or improvement of various sport skills; and (2) that there is a physiological…

  8. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  9. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children.

    PubMed

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, A; Muca, F; Spahi, A; Qefalia, D; Ushtelenca, K; Kasa, A; Caporossi, D; Gallotta, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P < 0.001). Both PE exercise- and games programmes significantly improved several health- and skill-related fitness indicators compared with traditional PE lessons (e.g. gross motor skill summary score: 9.4 (95% CI 7.9; 10.9) for exercise vs. control and 6.5 (95% CI 5.1; 8.1) for games vs. control, cardiorespiratory fitness: 2.0 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.5; 2.4) for exercise vs. control and 1.4 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.0; 1.8) for games vs. control). Furthermore, compared to games-based PE, exercise-based PE showed more positive changes in some gross motor coordination skills outcomes, coordination skills outcomes and cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from this study show that exercise- and games-based PE represents a useful strategy for improving health- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in

  10. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children.

    PubMed

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, A; Muca, F; Spahi, A; Qefalia, D; Ushtelenca, K; Kasa, A; Caporossi, D; Gallotta, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P < 0.001). Both PE exercise- and games programmes significantly improved several health- and skill-related fitness indicators compared with traditional PE lessons (e.g. gross motor skill summary score: 9.4 (95% CI 7.9; 10.9) for exercise vs. control and 6.5 (95% CI 5.1; 8.1) for games vs. control, cardiorespiratory fitness: 2.0 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.5; 2.4) for exercise vs. control and 1.4 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.0; 1.8) for games vs. control). Furthermore, compared to games-based PE, exercise-based PE showed more positive changes in some gross motor coordination skills outcomes, coordination skills outcomes and cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from this study show that exercise- and games-based PE represents a useful strategy for improving health- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in

  11. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  12. Water-Based Exercise Improves Health-Related Aspects of Fitness in Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Watanabe, Eiji; Brechue, William F.; Okada, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Tadaki; Islam, Mohammod M.; Hayano, Jyunichirou

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physiological responses of elderly Japanese women to a well-rounded exercise program performed in water. Results indicated that the 12-week program elicited significant improvements in intervention group women's cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, agility, flexibility, body fat, and total cholesterol. Water-based exercise…

  13. Health-related fitness in adolescents: underweight, and not only overweight, as an influencing factor. The AVENA study.

    PubMed

    Artero, E G; España-Romero, V; Ortega, F B; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Ruiz, J R; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Bueno, M; Marcos, A; Gómez-Martínez, S; Urzanqui, A; González-Gross, M; Moreno, L A; Gutiérrez, A; Castillo, M J

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated differences in health-related fitness (20-m shuttle run, handgrip, bent arm hang, standing long jump, shuttle run 4 x 10 m and sit and reach tests) in 2474 Spanish adolescents (1196 boys and 1278 girls; age 13-18.5 years) classed as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese according to body mass index. Body fat and fat-free mass were derived from skinfold thickness. The prevalence of underweight was higher than obesity in girls (4.8% vs 3.0%, respectively; P<0.05) and the opposite in boys (3.9% vs 5.8%, respectively; P<0.05). Underweight was associated with a higher performance in the bent arm hang test in girls (P<0.05) and a lower performance in handgrip in both genders (P<0.01) compared with normal weight. Overweight and obese adolescents presented a lower performance in 20-m shuttle run, bent arm hang, standing long jump and shuttle run 4 x 10 m tests (P<0.001), but a higher performance in handgrip strength (P<0.001) compared with normal weight. In weight-bearing tests, the association became non-significant after adjusting for fat mass. In conclusion, not only overweight and obesity but also underweight seem to be determinants of health-related fitness in adolescents. The associations could be related to differences in body composition.

  14. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  15. Health and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharbeche, Ghaleb

    2007-01-01

    The theme of health offers a variety of language-learning possibilities. This three-part lesson plan for young learners can be adapted to other audiences. It includes a reading, a dialogue, and a listening script. The first lesson asks learners to analyze lifestyle choices and give advice. The second lesson takes students to a sporting goods…

  16. Test-retest reliability of a battery of field-based health-related fitness measures for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Eather, Narelle; Riley, Nicholas; Smith, Chris J

    2011-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of existing tests of health-related fitness. Participants (mean age 14.8 years, s = 0.4) were 42 boys and 26 girls who completed the study assessments on two occasions separated by one week. The following tests were conducted: bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to calculate percent body fat, leg dynamometer, 90° push-up, 7-stage sit-up, and wall squat tests. Intra-class correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation were calculated. The mean percent body fat intra-class correlation coefficient was similar for boys (ICC = 0.95) and girls (ICC = 0.93), but the mean coefficient of variation was considerably higher for boys than girls (22.2% vs. 12.2%). The boys' coefficients of variation for the tests of muscular fitness ranged from 9.0% for the leg dynamometer test to 26.5% for the timed wall squat test. The girls' coefficients of variation ranged from 17.1% for the sit-up test to 21.4% for the push-up test. Although the BIA machine produced reliable estimates of percent body fat, the tests of muscular fitness resulted in high systematic error, suggesting that these measures may require an extensive familiarization phase before the results can be considered reliable.

  17. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  18. The Effects of a Non-Traditional Strength Training Program on the Health-Related Fitness Outcomes of Youth Strength Training Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Wendy; Foster, Byron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a non-traditional strength training program will impact the health-related fitness of youth. Researchers hypothesized that the strengthening program would positively affect the fitness outcomes. Participant physical education classes incorporated strengthening exercises three days…

  19. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Lund, Michael T; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12) at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p < 0.05). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p < 0.05) and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery. PMID:27379183

  20. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.; Lund, Michael T.; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12) at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p < 0.05). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p < 0.05) and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery. PMID:27379183

  1. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Lund, Michael T; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12) at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p < 0.05). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p < 0.05) and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery.

  2. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  3. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  4. Brain Health Fitness: Beyond Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Raksha; Chapman, Sandra B.; Rackley, Audette; Zientz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The greatest accomplishment of the 20th century--the doubling of the human lifespan--has brought issues related to brain health to the forefront of public health policy. Given that our bodies are outlasting our minds, maximizing brain health is the scientific cause of this millennium. In this paper, we address three major issues related to…

  5. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the "FITNESSGRAM"[R]: Quality of Teacher-Collected Health-Related Fitness Surveillance Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Jackson, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality (reliability and validity) of large-scale fitness testing in Texas and determine if reliabilities and validities were related to potential confounding variables. Four test administration scenarios were conducted to investigate the quality of data collected statewide as part of the Texas…

  7. The relative utility of health-related fitness tests and skilled motor performance tests as measures of biological age in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Tanaka, K; Nakagaichi, M; Nakadomo, F; Watanabe, K; Takeshima, N; Hiyama, T; Chodzko-Zaiko, W

    1996-05-01

    In the present paper we report the results of a study in which we compared 2 different approaches to the computation of biological age (BA) in a sample of 322 Japanese men (age range 20 to 79 years). In the first approach, 4 commonly used measures of health-related fitness (VO2peak, trunk flexion from a standing position, body fat, and grip strength) were reduced to a single BA score (HRF Age) using principal component analysis. In contrast, in the second approach, 3 commonly used measures of skilled motor performance and agility (vertical jump, stepping side-to-side, and balancing on one leg with eyes closed) were reduced to a single BA score (SMP Age) using similar multivariate procedures. The criterion-related validity of both of the BA measures was examined by assessing each measure's ability to discriminate between healthy and active groups of subjects. This was achieved by classifying the original subject pool into regularly active (ACT; n = 108) and healthy (HLTH; n = 169) subgroups on the basis of self-reported activity levels. Analyses revealed that HRF Age was a more powerful discriminator between the two activity groups than SMP Age. While HRF Age of HLTH subjects was very close to their chronological age (CA), in the ACT group, HRF Age was on average 15 years less than their CA (P < 0.05). In a separate analysis, we assessed the HRF Age of patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes (PAT; n = 45). The HRF Age of these subjects averaged 10 years above their CA. Our data suggest that commonly used measures of health-related fitness can be usefully employed as indices of BA which differentiate between individuals of similar ages but differing health and physical activity status. In contrast, measures of skilled motor performance were found to be less valuable measures of BA. The implication of our findings for future experimental design in exercise and aging research is discussed.

  8. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  9. Effects of a Physical Education-Based Programme on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Its Maintenance in High School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Montoro-Escaño, Jorge; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based development and maintenance programme on objective and perceived health-related physical fitness in high school students. A sample of 111 students aged 12-14 years old from six classes were cluster-randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 54) or a control…

  10. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  11. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  12. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  13. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  14. Predictors of “Liking” Three Types of Health and Fitness-Related Content on Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Alyce M; Lim, Megan SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence and young adulthood are key periods for developing norms related to health behaviors and body image, and social media can influence these norms. Social media is saturated with content related to dieting, fitness, and health. Health and fitness–related social media content has received significant media attention for often containing objectifying and inaccurate health messages. Limited research has identified problematic features of such content, including stigmatizing language around weight, portraying guilt-related messages regarding food, and praising thinness. However, no research has identified who is “liking” or “following” (ie, consuming) such content. Objective This exploratory study aimed to identify demographics, mental health, and substance use–related behaviors that predicted consuming 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content—weight loss/fitness motivation pages (ie, “fitspiration”), detox/cleanse pages, and diet/fitness plan pages—among young social media users. Methods Participants (N=1001; age: median 21.06, IQR 17.64-24.64; female: 723/1001, 72.23%) completed a cross-sectional 112-question online survey aimed at social media users aged between 15-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine which characteristics predicted consuming the 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content. Results A total of 378 (37.76%) participants reported consuming at least 1 of the 3 types of health and fitness–related social media content: 308 (30.77%) fitspiration pages, 145 (14.49%) detox pages, and 235 (23.48%) diet/fitness plan pages. Of the health and fitness–related social media content consumers, 85.7% (324/378) identified as female and 44.8% (324/723) of all female participants consumed at least 1 type of health and fitness–related social media content. Predictors of consuming at least one type of health and fitness–related social media

  15. Physical Fitness and Health. Annual Report 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing.

    This annual report from the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health describes a project initiated by the Council in l977. "Project Fitness" serves to evaluate the physical fitness levels of all students in the public schools from grades kindergarten through twelve. Emphasis is placed upon early education of children in the importance of…

  16. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    PubMed Central

    Toriola, Oluwatoyi O.; Toriola, Abel L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Setting A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls) of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS) participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Results Body mass index (BMI) classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal body weight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF) and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH), boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of −0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ), bent arm hang (BAH) and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Conclusion Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating children

  17. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  18. Physical fitness profiles of young men: associations between physical fitness, obesity and health.

    PubMed

    Kyröläinen, Heikki; Santtila, Matti; Nindl, Bradley C; Vasankari, Tommi

    2010-11-01

    Obesity in youth has increased during the last 10 years in Western countries. Several studies have investigated physical activity and its effects on obesity and health, showing that regular physical activity combined with improved physical fitness reduces the risk of obesity and several metabolic problems (e.g. diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, heart disease) and also improves overall health. However, there is only limited scientific information available concerning the changes in the physical fitness profiles of youth. It is obvious that only slight changes observed in endurance-type physical activity can also be observed in aerobic capacity. Today and in the future, a major public health concern for teenage and young adults is the combination of increasing body fatness together with decreasing physical fitness. In order to evaluate overall fitness level, it is particularly essential to examine both aerobic and neuromuscular fitness. Therefore, in clinical practice work and health behaviour education, a person's physical fitness should be measured more frequently with various measures. Furthermore, population-based surveys should be combined with regular measurement of physical fitness to study sedentary lifestyles, particularly in young people. This article presents a review of current physical fitness profiles of male children, adolescents and young adults, which hopefully initiates further studies in this relevant scientific field. In addition, the importance of physical fitness level is evaluated in relation to obesity and health. Collectively, studies examining physical fitness profiles of young men suggest a disturbing worldwide trend of decreased aerobic fitness and increased obesity. Continued efforts to foster improved physical fitness and healthy lifestyles should be encouraged to combat these trends. Such efforts should include frequent and objective assessment of physical fitness rather than solely relying on subjective assessment of physical

  19. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed. PMID:26091764

  20. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed.

  1. First State Fitness Test. A Measurement of Functional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy; And Others

    This test is designed to measure the functional health of young people. Functional health refers to those factors relating to personal health that can be improved with regular exercise. This test is unique in comparison to other physical fitness tests because of the absence of motor skill items which have no relationship to an individual's…

  2. Effects of the circuit box jumping on bone resorption, health-related to physical fitness and balance in the premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a circuit box jumping exercise program and to examine the effects of the circuit box jumping exercise program on bone formation, bone resorption, health related to physical fitness and balance of the premenopausal females. The samples consisted of 57 female volunteers from Chulalongkorn University, aged between 35-45. The subjects were divided into two groups: 28 females in the experimental group and 29 females in the control group by the simple random sampling method. The experimental group participated in the circuit box jumping exercise program while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise speed was determined by the rhythm of the music. The experimental group completed two circuits of jumping at 6 stations with 10 jumps per station three times per week, for a period of twelve weeks. Each jumping box at Station 1 and 4 was 10 cm. high; the boxes at Station 2 and 5 were 15 cm. high; and at Station 3 and 6, the boxes were 20 cm. in height. The intensity is 60%-80% of a maximum heart rate. The control group did not participate in the circuit box jumping exercise program. The collected data before and after the experiment were the results of the physiology test, the biochemical bone markers, the health related physical fitness and the balance ability. The collected data were compared and analyzed by the mean and standard deviation. The differences of the tests are statistically significant at the .05 level. The results of the present study are as follows; 1. After the 12-week experiment training, the findings indicated that the mean scores on bone resorption (beta-Crosslaps) of the experimental group and the control group were significantly different at 0.05 level. In addition, the findings showed that the percentage changes on bone resorption (beta-Crosslaps) variance of the experiment group reduced by -25.6528%, while that of the control group reduced by -0.5933%. Bone formation (PINP/beta-Crosslaps) in the circuit box

  3. Health related quality of life, physical fitness and physical activity participation in treatment-seeking obese persons with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Soundy, Andrew; Pieters, Guido; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel

    2014-04-30

    This study compared the mental and physical health related quality of life (HRQL) of 40 obese persons with BED with 20 age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. Variables contributing to the variability in HRQL were identified. Participants were asked to fill in the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Baecke questionnaire, the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Body Attitude Test. All participants also performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). BED patients showed a significant impaired physical and mental HRQL compared with obese and non-obese control groups. In the BED-group female participants showed a significantly more impaired mental HRQL than male participants (40.0±21.2 versus 66.6±10.1). The distance achieved on the 6MWT (512.1±75.8m) explained 22.5% of the variability in physical HRQL in the obese BED-group while gender and the SCL-90 depression score (39.1±12.2) explained 47.1% of the variability in mental HRQL. The present findings suggest that the treatment of obese individuals with BED might benefit by giving more attention to HRQL, depressive symptoms and physical fitness.

  4. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  6. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness, activity level, health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status in a sample of Iranian 7-11 year old boys.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, S; Kalantari, H; Nakhostin-Roohi, B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES) of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate [Formula: see text]O2 max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child's TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT) was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9% (N=68) of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6% (N=449) of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between [Formula: see text]O2 max and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and fat mass (FM) (p<0.05). A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05). Significantly lower physical activity and [Formula: see text]O2 max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.

  8. Mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on health-related fitness and physical activity: the ATLAS cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of resistance training skill competency on percentage of body fat, muscular fitness and physical activity among a sample of adolescent boys participating in a school-based obesity prevention intervention. Participants were 361 adolescent boys taking part in the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) cluster randomised controlled trial: a school-based program targeting the health behaviours of economically disadvantaged adolescent males considered "at-risk" of obesity. Body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular fitness (hand grip dynamometry and push-ups), physical activity (accelerometry) and resistance training skill competency were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (i.e., 8 months). Three separate multi-level mediation models were analysed to investigate the potential mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on each of the study outcomes using a product-of-coefficients test. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. The intervention had a significant impact on the resistance training skill competency of the boys, and improvements in skill competency significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on percentage of body fat and the combined muscular fitness score. No significant mediated effects were found for physical activity. Improving resistance training skill competency may be an effective strategy for achieving improvements in body composition and muscular fitness in adolescent boys.

  9. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  10. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular.

  11. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  12. Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    A synthesis of research findings in exercise and physical fitness is presented to provide the general public with insights into establishing an individualized exercise program. The material is divided into seven subtopics: (1) a general overview of the need for exercise and fitness and how it is an integral part of preventive medicine programs;…

  13. Personalised mobile health and fitness apps: lessons learned from myFitnessCompanion®.

    PubMed

    Gay, Valerie; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones and tablets are slowly but steadily changing the way we look after our health and fitness. Today, many high quality mobile apps are available for users and health professionals and cover the whole health care chain, i.e. information collection, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Our team has developed a mobile health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion® which has been available via Android market since February 2011. The objective of this paper is to share our experience with rolling out a mobile health and fitness app. We discuss the acceptance of health apps by end-users and healthcare industry. We discuss how mobile health apps will be distributed in the near future, the use of Personal Health Record (PHR) systems such as Microsoft HealthVault and the impact of regulations (FDA) on the future of mobile health apps. The paper is based on seven years of experience by the authors as mobile health and fitness application developers and we discuss the challenges and opportunities for app developers in the health industry.

  14. Associations between Health-Related Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement and Selected Academic Behaviors of Elementary and Middle School Students in the State of Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Alvarez, John; Zhang, Lei; Kolbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of school-based physical activity contexts have been recently associated with various measures of academic performance. Of these studies, a small number employing objective measures of student fitness have identified a relationship with academic achievements. However, even among these studies, the fitness-academic link has not been…

  15. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Chillón, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  16. ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This 5-part publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility.…

  17. Being Fit. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module provides information on the many physical and psychological benefits of…

  18. Fitness and health promotion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I

    1990-01-01

    Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts.

  19. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  20. A short history of occupational fitness and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1991-05-01

    The suggestion of a linkage between adequate exercise and occupational health dates back to Ramazzini's classical observations on cobblers and tailors. However, excessive hours of work at too high an intensity were of greater concern than increase of fitness or health promotion in the early phases of the industrial revolution. Loss of physical condition is a more recent phenomenon, and it can be traced to automation in industry and the home, progressive urbanization, and widespread use of the automobile. The Canadian government has seen worksite fitness and health promotion programs as convenient tactics to reverse this trend. Exercise programs apparently yield a healthier and more effective labor force, and major corporations have thus followed the government's lead in developing fitness and health promotional facilities as a part of personnel or occupational health departments. Some health economists have suggested a substantial return upon such investment, but most corporations still regard the promotion of fitness and a healthy lifestyle as an expression of good citizenship. Currently, unifocal fitness programs are being replaced by modular health programs that address a wide range of lifestyle issues, including nutrition, stress relaxation, cigarette addiction, and drug abuse. The purpose of the present brief review is to trace from a personal perspective the development of an interest in employee fitness as an important component of occupational health programs over the past 300 years. The linkage of this phenomenon to the changing human demands of the worksite will also be explored.

  1. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  2. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  3. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  4. Evaluation of a Health and Fitness Social Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee E.; Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Bower, Glenna G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: University health and fitness faculty members are continually striving to enhance the health knowledge of their students. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to survey student reflections of a social media experience. Methods: Students were placed into one of two groups: Learners (N = 92) or Pre-Service Health and Fitness…

  5. Does Sports Medicine Fit in the New Health Care Market?

    PubMed

    Rogers, C C

    1985-01-01

    Physicians are being forced to compete for their share of a changing health care market. Two traditional concerns of sports medicine-fitness and preventive care-may help some physicians keep their practice healthy.

  6. Health and Young Children. Focus on Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, David

    2006-01-01

    How much "junk food" is too much? This question is difficult to answer, because it depends on the health and weight status of the child. If the child already has a weight problem, then this type of snack should be more restricted than for a child without weight issues. In this article, Dr. Ludwig states that, as a general rule, parents should not…

  7. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  8. Skill-Related Fitness of Undergraduate Kinesiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Frank J.; Jarrett, Lindsey M.; Ocker, Liette B.; Bonnette, Randy A.; Melrose, Don R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the skill-related fitness levels of undergraduate kinesiology majors in relation to the general population of college students of the same age, to investigate whether a difference exists between females and males in overall performance, and to examine the relationship between fitness and kinesiology…

  9. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke.

  10. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  11. [Functional fitness and related factors in community-dwelling elderly].

    PubMed

    Arao, T; Oida, Y; Nagamatsu, T

    1998-05-01

    To examine the association of level of functional fitness to demographic, health, and life behavioral or social factors, cross sectional data were obtained for 737 persons aged 60 years or older, and who were independently living in the community. Functional fitness was measured with a functional fitness test containing 4 task items: standing, walking, hand performance, and self-care performance. Among the demographic factors, statistically significant associations with functional fitness were found for age in both male and female and for the presence of spouse in male. Health status, previous or present history of circulatory diseases and musculo-skeletal diseases were significantly associated with lower levels of functional fitness in male, and previous or present history of musculo-skeletal diseases and presence of higher obesity associated with lower fitness level in female. With life behaviors, men who had habitual exercise activities and women who had no habitual nap but habitual exercise activities and frequent out-of-home activities showed significantly higher fitness level than their counterparts. These results suggest that level of functional fitness in independently living aged people in the community was significantly associated with the presence of spouse, history of circulatory and musculo-skeletal diseases, and habitual exercise activities in males; and with the history of musculo-skeletal diseases, obesity, and habitual exercise activities, napping, and frequent out-of-home activities in females.

  12. Young Students' Knowledge and Perception of Health and Fitness: A Study in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…

  13. Health Activities Project (HAP): Heart Fitness and Action Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within the Heart Fitness and Action Module are teacher and student folios describing five activities which involve students in…

  14. Fit To Play: Musicians' Health Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Karen B.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on preventing performance-related injuries for music students. Discusses techniques for preventing injury, such as warm-ups, information on stretching and strength training, exercises for the upper arms, torso, and for selected muscle groups. Includes illustrations for some exercises. (CMK)

  15. Influence of an outpatient multidisciplinary pain management program on the health-related quality of life and the physical fitness of chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Bettina; Uebelhart, Daniel; Michel, Beat A; Sprott, Haiko

    2004-01-01

    Background Approximately 10 to 20 percent of the population is suffering from chronic pain. Since this represents a major contribution to the costs of the health care system, more efficient measures and interventions to treat these patients are sought. Results The development of general health and physical activity of patients with chronic pain was assessed in an interdisciplinary outpatient pain management program (IOPP). 36 patients with an average age of 48 years were included in the IOPP. Subjective assessment of well-being was performed at five time points (baseline, post intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter) by using standardized questionnaires. The study focused on the quality of life survey Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, which is a validated instrument with established reliability and sensitivity. In addition, the patients participated in physical assessment testing strength, power, endurance, and mobility. Prior to therapy a substantial impairment was found on different levels. Marked improvements in the psychological parameters were obtained by the end of the program. No success was achieved with regard to the physical assessments. Conclusion Although many different studies have evaluated similar programs, only few of them have attained positive results such as improvements of general quality of life or of physical strength. Often no difference from the control group could be detected only some months after the intervention. In the present study no significant persistent improvement of well-being occurred. Possible reasons are either wrong instruments, wrong selection of patients or wrong interventions. PMID:15028119

  16. Relation of Person-Environment Fit to Career Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durr, Michael R., II; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the person-environment fit-career outcome relation by observing interests, self-efficacy and parental support as person aspects and major and occupational choice as separate indicators of the environment. Career certainty was selected as a career outcome. Two dimensional fit indices (People-Things and Data-Ideas) were examined…

  17. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  18. Experimental measures of pathogen competition and relative fitness.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiasui; McDonald, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Competition among pathogen strains for limited host resources can have a profound effect on pathogen evolution. A better understanding of the principles and consequences of competition can be useful in designing more sustainable disease management strategies. The competitive ability and relative fitness of a pathogen strain are determined by its intrinsic biological properties, the resistance and heterogeneity of the corresponding host population, the population density and genetic relatedness of the competing strains, and the physical environment. Competitive ability can be inferred indirectly from fitness components, such as basic reproduction rate or transmission rate. However, pathogen strains that exhibit higher fitness components when they infect a host alone may not exhibit a competitive advantage when they co-infect the same host. The most comprehensive measures of competitive ability and relative fitness come from calculating selection coefficients in a mixed infection in a field setting. Mark-release-recapture experiments can be used to estimate fitness costs associated with unnecessary virulence and fungicide resistance.

  19. Age-related physical fitness and the predictive values of fitness tests for work ability in home care work.

    PubMed

    Pohjonen, T

    2001-08-01

    Despite the widespread assessment of physical fitness in occupational medicine and health services, only a few validity studies have been made of the fitness tests used in relation to job demands. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical fitness of female home care workers (n = 132) in relation to age and to evaluate whether the fitness tests used predict work ability over a 5-year period of follow-up. Muscle endurance declined by 18% to 37%, and isometric muscle strength by 10% to 18%, from the youngest (21 to 35 years) to the oldest (45 to 59 years) age group. The proportion of those subjects who could be classified below the average age-related fitness categories according to the maximal oxygen consumption was highest (50%) for the 21-to-35 age group. The logistic regression model showed that obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 7.51) and poor results on the sit-up (OR, 8.9), balance (OR, 6.5), and weight-lifting (OR, 4.6) tests predicted the highest risk for reduced work ability, according to the work ability index used in the 5-year follow-up. Moreover, average results for the trunk side-bending test (OR, 4.6), poor results for the squatting test (OR, 3.8), poor knee extension strength (OR, 4.2), and the average maximal oxygen consumption (l.min-1) (OR, 3.1) indicated a high risk for reduction in work ability. The physical fitness tests were strongly associated with the physical demands of home care work and were relevant for the evaluation of work-related fitness among home care workers.

  20. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  1. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID

  2. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID:27274106

  3. Health and Fitness Evaluations for Long Duration Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, Sean Kevin; Ewert, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The current health maintenance program for ISS is adequate; however the future of medical care and research in space requires a change where crew time efficiency and autonomy are emphasized. NASA s medical personnel are currently refining their ability to monitor and provide remote health care in such a manner. The proposed plan would evaluate health and fitness of the on orbit crew to; perform on orbit operations, and readiness to return to a terrestrial environment. A two tiered approach will utilize exercise and medical equipment, as well as periodic medical conferences with the flight surgeon, to provide a quantitative and clinical picture of the crew s health and fitness. Any off nominal health and fitness issues that could arise will be evaluated by providing an "armamentarium" of devices both medical and exercise specific to the on orbit crew to use. The ability for the crew to provide autonomous health care, with decreasing earth support, will become increasingly more important for exploration missions. This new plan of health care and maintenance will allow us to, development such efforts while continuing to monitor and provide the best possible health, care and medical research through the microgravity environment on board ISS.

  4. Fit testing respirators for public health medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa M

    2010-11-01

    Concerns about limiting pandemic infectious disease transmission when vaccines are not yet available prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop guidance for marketing respirators for use in public health medical emergencies. This project describes the results of filtering facepiece fit tests using 35 untrained, inexperienced subjects meeting the face size criteria of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel, in preparation for an FDA 510(k) application. Quantitative fit factors were measured for each subject on two replicates of each of two N95 filtering facepiece respirators (A and B) using the TSI Portacount Plus with N95 Companion. Subjects received no training or assistance with donning and had no prior experience with wearing respirators. The panel consisted of 20 females and 15 males; 80% were between 18 and 34 years of age. Almost all subjects properly placed the respirator on the face and formed the nose clip. Straps were improperly placed 25% of the time. Users reviewed the donning instructions 73% of the time and performed a seal check 80% of the time. Leaks were observed during 80% of the fit tests, most frequently at the chin during the head up and down exercise. For Respirator A, all but one subject had a 95% fit factor greater than 2 (the minimum required by FDA); one subject had a 95% fit factor of 1.5. All subjects had a 95% fit factor greater than 2.5 for Respirator B. Geometric mean fit factors ranged from 19-28 for these two respirators, and a majority of subjects were able to achieve a fit factor of 10 most of the time. However, fewer than 25% of subjects received the fit factor of 100 expected in workplace settings. PMID:20853203

  5. Guidelines for Fitness for Health Programs in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This publication presents approved guidelines for Texas institutions of higher and postsecondary education in the academic preparation of practitioners in the field of fitness for health. Developed in response to the rapid growth of this field, the guidelines identify and recommend the knowledge and expertise required in career preparation, and…

  6. Cardiovascular health and fitness in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lavis, Timothy D; Scelza, William M; Bockenek, William L

    2007-05-01

    There are many issues after spinal cord injury that have an impact on cardiovascular health and fitness. This article discusses many of the secondary conditions and changes that occur and how they are affected by maintenance of an active lifestyle. It also discusses many of the benefits and difficulties individuals face in maintaining a regular exercise program after spinal cord injury.

  7. Perspectives of Fitness and Health in College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Dieser, Rodney B.

    2010-01-01

    Because many college students engage in low levels of physical activity, the current study used a qualitative framework to interview 11 college students to examine the meaning physically active college students assign to the practice of fitness and health. Students discussed the importance of healthy eating, but that it was difficult to accomplish…

  8. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  9. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  10. Self-perception of health and fitness among French and Tunisian men and women.

    PubMed

    Maâmouri, L; Jeddi, R; Brisswalter, J; Legros, P

    2007-08-01

    This work examines the effects of sex and culture on physical self-perceptions. The aim was to compare the perception of physical fitness of French and Tunisian men and women. 400 individuals ages 20 to 35 years assessed their own fitness, endurance, strength, flexibility, body composition, and health according to specific category scales by completing a questionnaire. In general, the Tunisian group rated themselves higher than the French group. It appears that perceived physical fitness was related mainly to perceived endurance for both groups. Some disparities were observed between the two nationalities. Analysis showed an interaction between sex and culture (French vs Tunisian). For French men and women and Tunisian men, perceived physical fitness was more associated with perceived endurance, whereas for Tunisian women, perceived physical fitness was more strongly associated with flexibility. These data show that self-perception of physical fitness is a dimension which varies between individuals from different cultures. PMID:17918569

  11. [Physical exercise, fitness and health: a decade of sport for all and health promotion in China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye

    2014-08-01

    In the 21st century, physical inactivity was identified as the fourth leading risk factor in the global scope of deaths. Followed by an introduction about the studies that have been conducted on health promotion through physical activities, this article presents related programs, policies and guidelines worked out for promoting physical activity participation in both developed and developing countries in addition to those designed by WHO over the past ten years. Discussion is focused on Chinese people's physical activity participation, people's fitness and health, and research results in respect to scientific instructions contributing to sports and physical activities. The latest findings achieved in the field of health promotion are also covered in this review.

  12. Ontological Knowledge Engine and Health Screening Data Enabled Ubiquitous Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs. PMID:24608002

  13. Ontological knowledge engine and health screening data enabled ubiquitous personalized physical fitness (UFIT).

    PubMed

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun

    2014-03-07

    Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs.

  14. Is Physical Fitness Associated with Health in Overweight and Obese Youth? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millard-Stafford, Melinda; Becasen, Jeffrey S.; Beets, Michael W.; Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g. aerobic capacity and muscular strength /endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p< 0.05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors. PMID:26457234

  15. The Fitbit Fault Line: Two Proposals to Protect Health and Fitness Data at Work.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Employers are collecting and using their employees' health data, mined from wearable fitness devices and health apps, in new, profitable, and barely regulated ways. The importance of protecting employee health and fitness data will grow exponentially in the future. This is the moment for a robust discussion of how law can better protect employees from the potential misuse of their health data. While scholars have just begun to examine the problem of health data privacy, this Article contributes to the academic literature in three important ways. First, it analyzes the convergence of three trends resulting in an unprecedented growth of health-related data: the Internet of Things, the Quantified Self movement, and the Rise of Health Platforms. Second, it describes the insufficiencies of specific data privacy laws and federal agency actions in the context of protecting employee health data from employer misuse. Finally, it provides two detailed and workable solutions for remedying the current lack of protection of employee health data that will realign employer use with reasonable expectations of health and fitness privacy. The Article proceeds in four Parts. Part I describes the growth of self-monitoring apps, devices, and other sensor-enabled technology that can monitor a wide range of data related to an employee's health and fitness and the relationship of this growth to both the Quantified Self movement and the Internet of Things. Part II explains the increasing use of employee monitoring through a wide range of sensors, including wearable devices, and the potential uses of that health and fitness data. Part III explores the various regulations and agency actions that might protect employees from the potential misuse of their health and fitness data and the shortcomings of each. Part IV proposes two specific measures that would help ameliorate the ineffective legal protections that currently exist in this context. In order to improve employee notice of and control

  16. The Fitbit Fault Line: Two Proposals to Protect Health and Fitness Data at Work.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Employers are collecting and using their employees' health data, mined from wearable fitness devices and health apps, in new, profitable, and barely regulated ways. The importance of protecting employee health and fitness data will grow exponentially in the future. This is the moment for a robust discussion of how law can better protect employees from the potential misuse of their health data. While scholars have just begun to examine the problem of health data privacy, this Article contributes to the academic literature in three important ways. First, it analyzes the convergence of three trends resulting in an unprecedented growth of health-related data: the Internet of Things, the Quantified Self movement, and the Rise of Health Platforms. Second, it describes the insufficiencies of specific data privacy laws and federal agency actions in the context of protecting employee health data from employer misuse. Finally, it provides two detailed and workable solutions for remedying the current lack of protection of employee health data that will realign employer use with reasonable expectations of health and fitness privacy. The Article proceeds in four Parts. Part I describes the growth of self-monitoring apps, devices, and other sensor-enabled technology that can monitor a wide range of data related to an employee's health and fitness and the relationship of this growth to both the Quantified Self movement and the Internet of Things. Part II explains the increasing use of employee monitoring through a wide range of sensors, including wearable devices, and the potential uses of that health and fitness data. Part III explores the various regulations and agency actions that might protect employees from the potential misuse of their health and fitness data and the shortcomings of each. Part IV proposes two specific measures that would help ameliorate the ineffective legal protections that currently exist in this context. In order to improve employee notice of and control

  17. Moderation of P-E Fit--Job Satisfaction Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating Holland's congruence hypothesis (e.g., that the degree of fit between persons and work environments predicts outcomes such as job satisfaction) has revealed a mixture of significant and nonsignificant results. The current study tested the possibility that congruence-job satisfaction relations are moderated by work centrality…

  18. Choosy Cannibals Preferentially Consume Siblings with Relatively Low Fitness Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Matthew B; McCormack, Larkin; Gadau, Alice; Martin, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    When an individual can selfishly cannibalize a relative or altruistically set it free, the benefits of altruism will be positively associated with the relative's fitness prospects (the benefits it receives from altruism). We tested the prediction that altruism should be preferentially directed toward high-quality relatives using larvae of the New Mexican spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata), a species in which tadpoles plastically express omnivore and carnivore ecomorphs. In a no-choice design, we presented carnivores with sibling or nonsibling omnivores varying in developmental stage, which is positively associated with survival in this toad's ephemeral larval environment. There was a significant interaction between relatedness and developmental stage on the probability of cannibalism: carnivores were overall more likely to cannibalize less developed omnivores, but this effect was exaggerated when the potential victim was a sibling. This evidence that altruists favor relatives with high fitness prospects highlights the numerous factors shaping altruism's payoffs. PMID:27322127

  19. Choosy Cannibals Preferentially Consume Siblings with Relatively Low Fitness Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Matthew B; McCormack, Larkin; Gadau, Alice; Martin, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    When an individual can selfishly cannibalize a relative or altruistically set it free, the benefits of altruism will be positively associated with the relative's fitness prospects (the benefits it receives from altruism). We tested the prediction that altruism should be preferentially directed toward high-quality relatives using larvae of the New Mexican spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata), a species in which tadpoles plastically express omnivore and carnivore ecomorphs. In a no-choice design, we presented carnivores with sibling or nonsibling omnivores varying in developmental stage, which is positively associated with survival in this toad's ephemeral larval environment. There was a significant interaction between relatedness and developmental stage on the probability of cannibalism: carnivores were overall more likely to cannibalize less developed omnivores, but this effect was exaggerated when the potential victim was a sibling. This evidence that altruists favor relatives with high fitness prospects highlights the numerous factors shaping altruism's payoffs.

  20. Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896

  1. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  2. Fluctuation Relations of Fitness and Information in Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2015-12-01

    Phenotype switching with and without sensing environment is a common strategy of organisms to survive in a fluctuating environment. Understanding the evolutionary advantages of switching and sensing requires a quantitative evaluation of their fitness gain and its fluctuation together with the conditions for the switching and sensing strategies being adapted to a given environment. In this work, by using a pathwise formulation of the population dynamics, we show that the optimal switching strategy is characterized by a consistency condition for time-forward and backward path probabilities. The formulation also clarifies the underlying information-theoretic aspect of selection as a passive information compression. The loss of fitness by a suboptimal strategy is also shown to satisfy a fluctuation relation, which provides us with the information on how environmental fluctuation impacts the advantages of the optimal strategy. These results are naturally extended to the situation that organisms can use an environmental signal by actively sensing the environment. The fluctuation relations of the fitness gain by sensing are derived in which the multivariate mutual information among the phenotype, the environment, and the signal plays the role to quantify the relevant information in the signal for the fitness gain.

  3. Health promotion through fitness for adolescents and young adults following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Edwards, P A

    1996-09-01

    A study by Warms (1987) sought to determine both the health care actually received by individuals following a spinal cord injury and the services they desired but did not obtain. The findings suggest that the general health promotion needs of these individuals are the same as for the general population and, though disability related topics are discussed with health care providers, information on health promotion is not received. The leading two services desired by the respondents but not obtained were planning an exercise program (43%) and referral to a fitness center (26%). A plan for health promotion through fitness was designed for individuals with physical disabilities to assist in meeting the identified needs. The program provides several benefits which include: improved function, a positive impact on lifestyle, and a decrease in the risk of complications. The plan includes a general health appraisal and fitness assessment as well as an exercise and fitness prescription with adapted physical activity and sports participation as integral parts. Evaluation methodology is incorporated to demonstrate that health promotion activities positively effect function and lifestyle and decrease severity of complications.

  4. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  5. Bringing Health and Fitness Data Together for Connected Health Care: Mobile Apps as Enablers of Interoperability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health. Mobile devices make it possible to have continuous access to personal health information. Wearable devices, such as Fitbit and Apple’s smartwatch, can collect data continuously and provide insights into our health and fitness. However, lack of interoperability and the presence of data silos prevent users and health professionals from getting an integrated view of health and fitness data. To provide better health outcomes, a complete picture is needed which combines informal health and fitness data collected by the user together with official health records collected by health professionals. Mobile apps are well positioned to play an important role in the aggregation since they can tap into these official and informal health and data silos. Objective The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a mobile app can be used to aggregate health and fitness data and can enable interoperability. It discusses various technical interoperability challenges encountered while integrating data into one place. Methods For 8 years, we have worked with third-party partners, including wearable device manufacturers, electronic health record providers, and app developers, to connect an Android app to their (wearable) devices, back-end servers, and systems. Results The result of this research is a health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion, which enables users to aggregate their data in one place. Over 6000 users use the app worldwide to aggregate their health and fitness data. It demonstrates that mobile apps can be used to enable interoperability. Challenges encountered in the research process included the different wireless protocols and standards used to communicate with wireless devices, the diversity of security and authorization protocols used to be able to exchange data with servers, and lack of standards usage, such as Health Level Seven, for medical information exchange. Conclusions By

  6. Health-related worries, perceived health status, and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the association of health-related worries (over cancers, diabetes, work-related stress, heart attack, obesity, general physical fitness, and/or other health conditions) and perceived health status (excellent, good, fair or poor) to the utilization of health care services for 19, 139 Japanese local public service employees. Data on health-related worries and health status were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire survey in 1988 and analyzed in relation to the subsequent 12-month utilization of health care. Results showed that perceived health status was associated with the utilization for almost all medical conditions and so was worry over a specific condition and the subsequent utilization of health care services. The implication of these findings is that measures targeting the relief of an employee's health-related worries, through either health consultation or other health programs, may contribute to the reduction of an employee's health care utilization and costs.

  7. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  8. Health-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham

    2009-04-01

    The concept of stigma, denoting relations of shame, has a long ancestry and has from the earliest times been associated with deviations from the 'normal', including, in various times and places, deviations from normative prescriptions of acceptable states of being for self and others. This paper dwells on modern social formations and offers conceptual and theoretical pointers towards a more convincing contemporary sociology of health-related stigma. It starts with an appreciation and critique of Goffman's benchmark sensitisation and traces his influence on the personal tragedy or deviance paradigm dominant in the medical sociology from the 1970s. To allow for the development of an argument, the focus here is on specific types of disorder--principally, epilepsy and HIV--rather than the research literature as a whole. Brief and critical consideration is given to attempts to operationalise or otherwise 'measure' health-related stigma. The advocacy of a rival oppression paradigm by disability theorists from the 1980s, notably through re-workings of the social model of disability, is addressed. It is suggested that we are now in a position to learn and move on from this paradigm 'clash'. A re-framing of notions of relations of stigma, signalling shame, and relations of deviance, signalling blame, is proposed. This framework, and the positing of a variable and changing dynamic between cultural norms of shame and blame--always embedded in social structures of class, command, gender, ethnicity and so on--is utilised to explore recent approaches to health stigma reduction programmes. PMID:19366430

  9. Hot topic: Effect of breeding strategies using genomic information on fitness and health.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Fuerst-Waltl, B

    2012-08-01

    A complex deterministic approach was used to model the breeding goal and breeding structure for the Austrian Fleckvieh (dual-purpose Simmental) breed. The reference breeding goal corresponded to the current total merit index (TMI-R), where dairy traits have a relative weight of 37.9% and fitness traits of 43.7% (beef traits 16.5%; milkability 2%). The breeding program was characterized by 280,000 cows under performance recording, 3,200 bull dams, 100 test bulls with a test capacity of 25%, and 15 proven bulls and 8 bull sires per year. The annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG) was generated mainly by increases in milk fat and milk protein yield (80.6%) and only to a small extent by fitness traits (6.6%). The inclusion of direct health traits (early reproductive disorders, cystic ovaries, and mastitis) with their economic weights increased the relative AMGG for fitness traits from 6.6 to 11.2%. The presently slightly negative AMGG for fertility index and udder health changed in a positive direction. Increasing the weight on the direct health traits by 50% resulted in a further shift toward fitness and health. The effect of strategies using genomic information in a total merit index (TMI) with varying weights on fitness and health traits was also analyzed. The conventional progeny-testing scheme was defined as the reference breeding program. A breeding program was considered to be genomically enhanced (GS50) when 50% of inseminations of herdbook cows and of bull dams were from young bulls with a genomic TMI, and a second program (GS100) did not rely on progeny-tested bulls at all. For GS50, a clear shift of the relative gain in AMGG toward fitness and health traits was observed for all 3 TMI scenarios, as a result of larger progeny groups and a shorter generation interval. For GS100, where no gene flow from progeny-tested bulls was assumed, the genetic gain per generation was lower for the fertility and udder health index but higher per year. The results based on

  10. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Marni N; Deuster, Patricia A

    2014-10-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appears to buffer against stress-related disease owing to its blunting/optimizing effects on hormonal stress responsive systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. This blunting appears to contribute to reduced emotional, physiological and metabolic reactivity as well as increased positive mood and well-being. Another mechanism whereby regular exercise and/or physical fitness may confer resilience is through minimizing excessive inflammation. Chronic psychological stress, physical inactivity and abdominal adiposity have been associated with persistent, systemic, low-grade inflammation and exert adverse effects on mental and physical health. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise/activity can promote behavioural and metabolic resilience, and protect against various chronic diseases associated with systemic inflammation. Moreover, exercise may benefit the brain by enhancing growth factor expression and neural plasticity, thereby contributing to improved mood and cognition. In summary, the mechanisms whereby physical fitness promotes increased resilience and well-being and positive psychological and physical health are diverse and complex. PMID:25285199

  11. Lean mass as a total mediator of the influence of muscular fitness on bone health in schoolchildren: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Costoso, Ana; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to analyse the independent association of lean mass and muscle fitness with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), and to examine whether the relationship between muscle fitness and bone health is mediated by lean mass. Body composition (by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), muscle fitness, physical activity, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8-11 years). Analysis of covariance tested differences in bone-related variables by lean mass and muscle fitness, controlling for different sets of confounders. Linear regression models fitted for mediation analyses examined whether the association between muscle fitness and bone mass was mediated by lean mass. Children with good performance in handgrip and standing long jump had better and worse bone health, respectively. These differences disappeared after controlling for lean mass. Children with high lean mass had higher values in all bone-related variables. In addition, the relationship between muscle fitness and bone mass was fully mediated by lean mass. In conclusion, the relationship between upper-limbs muscle fitness and bone health seems to be dependent on lean mass but not on muscle fitness. Schoolchildren with high lean mass have more BMC and BMD in all regions. Lean mass mediates the association between muscle fitness and bone mass.

  12. Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion

  13. Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion

  14. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns. PMID:25680684

  15. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns.

  16. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  17. Integrated, Articulated Fitness and Health Curriculum and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Physical Education programs have monitored physical fitness and sport skills since the 1950's when the President's Council on Physical Fitness was formed. Unfortunately we have seen two divergent paths, the first is a dramatic decline in physical activity time often accompanied by a decline in fitness, and an equally dramatic increase in…

  18. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  19. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hammami, A; Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, R J; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-06-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  20. Monitoring fitness levels and detecting implications for health in a French population: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Hala; Sedeaud, Adrien; Abidh, Elisa; Schipman, Julien; Tafflet, Muriel; Deschamps, Thibault; Maillet, Hervé; Ovigneur, Hervé; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse the physical fitness of a large sample of the French population across different ages. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected from the Athletic Track and Field Federation, which organised events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. The events took place in 22 regions between 2006 and 2010. Participants French volunteer citizens (N=31 349) aged between 4 and 80 years old who participated in events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the results of the following fitness tests: 20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump, repeated squat jump, 4×10 m shuttle run, speed, flexibility and push-ups in relation to age and body mass index (BMI) using Spearman's rho, a one-way analysis of variance. A bi-exponential model was used to represent the performance with age. Results Our major results showed higher performances for men and for subjects with normal BMI at all age groups except for the flexibility test. BMI was strongly correlated across all ages with physical fitness p<0.0001. Furthermore, through bi-exponential model, a mean peak performance was identified at 26.32 years of age for men and 22.18 years of age for women. Conclusions Physical fitness assessment using a simple series of tests on the general population offers an important indicator of health status. The possibility of observing the evolution of fitness levels with time provides an important monitoring method from a public health perspective. Further research is needed to reinforce and evaluate the approach. PMID:23024257

  1. There’s an App for That: Content Analysis of Paid Health and Fitness Apps

    PubMed Central

    Hall, P. Cougar; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Barrett, James

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of Apple’s iPhone provided a platform for developers to design third-party apps, which greatly expanded the functionality and utility of mobile devices for public health. Objective This study provides an overview of the developers’ written descriptions of health and fitness apps and appraises each app’s potential for influencing behavior change. Methods Data for this study came from a content analysis of health and fitness app descriptions available on iTunes during February 2011. The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) and the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM) were used as frameworks to guide the coding of 3336 paid apps. Results Compared to apps with a cost less than US $0.99, apps exceeding US $0.99 were more likely to be scored as intending to promote health or prevent disease (92.55%, 1925/3336 vs 83.59%, 1411/3336; P<.001), to be credible or trustworthy (91.11%, 1895/3336 vs 86.14%, 1454/3349; P<.001), and more likely to be used personally or recommended to a health care client (72.93%, 1517/2644 vs 66.77%, 1127/2644; P<.001). Apps related to healthy eating, physical activity, and personal health and wellness were more common than apps for substance abuse, mental and emotional health, violence prevention and safety, and sexual and reproductive health. Reinforcing apps were less common than predisposing and enabling apps. Only 1.86% (62/3336) of apps included all 3 factors (ie, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing). Conclusions Development efforts could target public health behaviors for which few apps currently exist. Furthermore, practitioners should be cautious when promoting the use of apps as it appears most provide health-related information (predisposing) or make attempts at enabling behavior, with almost none including all theoretical factors recommended for behavior change. PMID:22584372

  2. Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.

  3. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast, having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35.

  4. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  5. Physical Activity and Bone Health in Schoolchildren: The Mediating Role of Fitness and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Costoso, Ana; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, although the role of percent body fat (%BF) and fitness as confounders or mediators in this relationship remains uncertain. Objective To examine whether the association between PA and bone mineral content (BMC) is mediated by %BF and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods In this cross sectional study, BMC, total %BF (by DXA), vigorous PA (VPA), CRF, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8–11 years). ANCOVA was used to test differences in BMC by %BF, CRF and VPA, controlling for different sets of confounders. Simple mediation analyses and serial multiple mediation analyses were fitted to examine whether the relationship between PA and BMC is mediated by %BF and fitness. Results Children with high %BF had higher total body BMC than their peers after controlling for all sets of confounders. Children with good CRF or VPA had significantly less total body BMC after controlling for age and sex but in children with good CRF this inverse relation disappeared after adjusting by %BF. %BF and CRF both act as a full mediator in the association between VPA and BMC, after inclusion of the potential confounders in the models. Conclusion Fitness and %BF seem to have a mediator role on the relationship between physical activity and bone mass. PMID:25915941

  6. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients. PMID:25917634

  7. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  8. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: How Integrative Medicine Fits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2015-11-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies.

  9. To your health. Keeping fit for life in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, P L; Rudin, R S

    1991-12-01

    This article outlines the physical and mental aspects of human health, defining health in both areas. Developing your own personal health definition can be the important first step toward achieving personal and professional satisfaction in life.

  10. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  11. Could Sport Specialization Influence Fitness and Health of Adults with Mental Retardation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual…

  12. Relative and Absolute Fit Evaluation in Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jinsong; de la Torre, Jimmy; Zhang, Zao

    2013-01-01

    As with any psychometric models, the validity of inferences from cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) determines the extent to which these models can be useful. For inferences from CDMs to be valid, it is crucial that the fit of the model to the data is ascertained. Based on a simulation study, this study investigated the sensitivity of various fit…

  13. Assessment of fitness for work in health care workers: biomechanical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Violante, E S; Mattioli, S; Camagni, Angela; Bottoli, Elena; Farioli, A; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In current practice the assessment of fitness for work in health care workers exposed to biomechanical risk factors is often based on conventional approaches rather than on evidence-based guidelines. However, an accurate evaluation of worker's psychophysical resources compared to job demand and potential occupational risk factors is essential in order to properly assess fitness for work. The latest published guidelines on the management of patients suffering from back pain reported that the evidence-based approach can minimize the period of inactivity by encouraging return to work (and to other non-dangerous physical activities) in a relatively short period of time. As for carpal tunnel syndrome, there is no scientific evidence supporting a restriction of physical activities requiring forceful movements of the hand/wrist. PMID:22838297

  14. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  15. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  16. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations.

    PubMed

    Price, Amanda A; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Kraus, Caroline L; McKenzie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  17. Service Learning and Community Health Nursing: A Natural Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn P.; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Community health nursing students performed community assessments and proposed and implemented service learning projects that addressed adolescent smoking in middle schools, home safety for elderly persons, industrial worker health, and sexual abuse of teenaged girls. Students learned to apply epidemiological research methods, mobilize resources,…

  18. "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Course Assessment: Implications for Curriculum Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.; Burger, Molly E.

    2005-01-01

    Every other year, comprehensive school health education programs and policies are assessed nationally using the School Health Education Profile (SHEP) survey (Grunbaum et al., 1998). The data are collected in modules that are completed by different stakeholders within the school system. As part of a cooperative agreement with the Centers for…

  19. Reducing Health Disparities: The Perfect Fit for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buki, Lydia P.

    2007-01-01

    This reaction to the Major Contribution presents a conceptualization of health disparities as another form of oppression of marginalized populations in our society. Consistent with this view, health disparities are then situated within a larger, national context, showing that counseling psychologists' involvement is an integral part of a…

  20. How 'male health' fits into the field of urology.

    PubMed

    Elterman, Dean S; Kaplan, Steven A; Pelman, Richard S; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2013-10-01

    The shorter life span and poorer health of men compared with women is concerning, affecting spouses, families, and communities. Physicians and policy makers have identified a growing need for a gender-specific focus on the unique health needs of boys and men and accompanying services. Men's health has emerged as a new discipline that is responsible for a gender-specific approach to health-services delivery, government policy, research, and advocacy. The urologic community has taken a leadership role in this specialty by defining the issues that face men in the 21(st) century, bringing together disparate areas of clinical care and research, and collaborating with stakeholders (such as primary care physicians and specialists from other disciplines) to create and implement men's health initiatives. PMID:23897503

  1. Fitness for work in health care workers from the prospective of ethics, science and good practices.

    PubMed

    Alessio, L; Arici, Cecilia; Franco, G

    2012-01-01

    Fitness for work (FFW) is the final task of both risk assessment and health surveillance, aimed at protecting workers' health and working capacity. There are numerous specific concerns regarding health care workers. In particular: i) the frequent difficulty in determining at pre-employment/pre-placement examinations the specific task that the individual worker will perform; ii) the prevalence of female workers and the contemporary presence of numerous occupational risk factors that are a potential cause of harmful effects on women's reproductive health; iii) the progressive aging of the staff especially nurses; iv) the risk to third parties, with particular reference to the issues of biological risk and substance abuse, also in relation to shift work, fatigue and occupational stress; v) the increasing number of immigrant workers among support staff In such cases the occupational physician, respecting both ethical principles and regulations and with an appropriate balance between scientific evidence and the precautionary principle, should express a FFW judgment that allows both the adaptation of work to the worker and vice versa, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). Proper FFW judgment also permits the expected benefits to be achieved, not only for the workers but also for employers, companies and society.

  2. Dance biomechanics: a tool for controlling health, fitness, and training.

    PubMed

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Apostolos, Margo

    2008-01-01

    The need for superior performance in dance has impelled teachers and choreographers to use increasingly effective and sophisticated methods of preparation. To that end, such modalities ofbiomechanics as advanced motion-capture, muscle-function and muscle-strength techniques are being used to provide useful information about which of the dancers' needs require special attention. This often involves improving aspects of dance technique, which, in turn, may help dancers to prevent disabling injuries, the most frequent cause of notoriously short dance careers. Biomechanics may also help dancers to assess fitness levels, to control overtraining or "burnout," and assist them and their teachers in the effective scheduling of practice and exercise sessions.

  3. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  4. Estrogen-related receptor-α coordinates transcriptional programs essential for exercise tolerance and muscle fitness.

    PubMed

    Perry, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Catherine R; Tam, Ingrid S; B'chir, Wafa; Giguère, Vincent

    2014-12-01

    Muscle fitness is an important determinant of health and disease. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural determinants of muscle endurance are still poorly characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, NR3B1) is essential for skeletal muscle fitness. Notably, we show that ERRα-null animals are hypoactive and that genetic or therapeutic disruption of ERRα in mice results in reduced exercise tolerance. Mice lacking ERRα also exhibited lactatemia at exhaustion. Gene expression profiling demonstrates that ERRα plays a key role in various metabolic processes important for muscle function including energy substrate transport and use (Ldhd, Slc16a1, Hk2, and Glul), the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Cycs, and Idh3g), and oxidative metabolism (Pdha1, and Uqcrq). Metabolomics studies revealed impairment in replenishment of several amino acids (eg, glutamine) during recovery to exercise. Moreover, loss of ERRα was found to alter the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (Hmox1), maintenance of muscle fiber integrity (Trim63, and Hspa1b), and muscle plasticity and neovascularization (Vegfa). Taken together, our study shows that ERRα plays a key role in directing transcriptional programs required for optimal mitochondrial oxidative potential and muscle fitness, suggesting that modulation of ERRα activity could be used to manage metabolic myopathies and/or promote the adaptive response to physical exercise. PMID:25361393

  5. This Good-Health Regimen Keeps Employes Fit--And School Budgets Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    The Dallas Independent School District's staff stress reduction and health awareness program is described. The program features medical screening, fitness assessment, goal setting, exercise and nutrition prescriptions, health education, exercise classes, motivation, and feedback. Benefits reported include significantly improved health and attitude…

  6. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  7. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  8. A Corporate Health and Fitness Program: Motivation and Management by Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baun, William B.; Baun, Michele

    1984-01-01

    Computers used in employee fitness programs help motivate participants by providing immediate feedback. The computer is used to record employee membership, participant check-in and check-out, fitness and medical testing, and exercise logging. A description of Tenneco's health program is offered. (DF)

  9. Work-site health and fitness programs: Impact on the employee and employer.

    PubMed

    Voit, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Physical fitness and health lifestyle habits have been reported to lower the risk of death from disease, foster healthy muscles, joints and bones, and enhance personal function and mental health. Given these benefits, many employers are implementing health and fitness programs into their workplace with the goals of improving and maintaining the health of their employees and increasing worker productivity. However, research is still being conducted to determine if these programs are an effective means of achieving these goals. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of these programs on employee physical and mental health, employee work performance, and the employer. This paper also investigates the effectiveness of the specific program structures and intervention procedures that were used in the employee health and fitness programs that have been implemented. STUDY DESIGN: This paper analyzed 15 previously conducted studies to investigate the impact and design of employee health and fitness programs. RESULTS: The reviewed literature suggests that the incorporation of an employee health and fitness program can have positive effects for both the employee and the employer. Programs that are structured using a variety of physical fitness programs, health education classes, outreach and one on one counseling with follow up contact have proven to be most beneficial in terms of employee and employer satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The implementation of an employee health and fitness program can have positive lasting effects on both the employee and employer. In addition to implementing programs that offer a variety of choices and one on one counseling, employers would benefit from targeting the at-risk population to ensure that the programs benefit the greatest number of employees possible.

  10. Sport, Health, Fitness and Dance. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B., Ed.

    This collection of symposium papers provides current synthesis of research in the field of physical education and health. In this volume the physiological aspects of physical activities are discussed. The effects of chronic heavy physical training in swimming are examined, comparing age groups and males and females. Stress factors are also…

  11. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management. PMID:26907579

  12. Does regulatory fit lead to more effective health communication? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ramona; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Many of today's threats to public health arise from people's lifestyle. Hence, the public's compliance with advice given for health promotion and disease prevention has to be enhanced. Much research traces back the efficacy of health promotion messages to message qualities, while other work focuses on recipient qualities. Regulatory focus theory posits inter-individual differences in motivational orientation, namely a promotion or prevention focus, and offers a unique chance to look at message and recipient variables at the same time (Higgins, 1997). Whereas a promotion-focused individual tries to achieve desired end-states, someone with a prevention focus is rather vigilant. If individuals' goal pursuit strategies match their regulatory orientation, they experience regulatory fit, which increases the perceived persuasiveness of health messages (Higgins, 2000). Such a match can be evoked by particularly framed messages that highlight a person's regulatory orientation. Thus, the assumption of regulatory fit goes beyond the concept of gain- and loss-framing. To assess whether regulatory fit contributes to the effectiveness of health communication, a systematic review was conducted. An extensive systematic search led to the inclusion of 30 studies, for which data were extracted and quality appraised. Findings were summarized using narrative synthesis. Most studies (n = 23) were conducted in the USA and assessed the effects of regulatory fit on behavioral intention (n = 21). Nineteen experiments used samples of university students, and the health context chosen most often was a healthy diet (n = 7). Sixteen experiments manipulated regulatory orientation whereas chronic regulatory focus was measured ten times. The majority of studies confirmed that regulatory fit enhanced the effectiveness of health messages, which did not vary much across different health domains or outcomes. Regulatory fit is a promising approach for tailoring health messages as the synergy effects of

  13. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital-body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6-8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  14. The relation of aerobic fitness to neuroelectric indices of cognitive and motor task preparation.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; O'Leary, Kevin C; Pontifex, Matthew B; Themanson, Jason R; Hillman, Charles H

    2010-09-01

    The relation of aerobic fitness to task preparation was examined in a sample of young adults separated into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. Participants performed a modified Sternberg working memory task under speed and accuracy instructions while measures of task performance and contingent negative variation (CNV) were collected. Analyses revealed no significant fitness differences between groups on task performance measures. However, frontal CNV amplitude was significantly larger for lower-fit participants compared to higher-fit participants during the speed instructions, an effect not found for the accuracy instructions. These results suggest that lower-fit individuals may rely to a greater extent on cognitive control processes to respond under speeded conditions, whereas higher-fit individuals may maintain a more constant level of control irrespective of the task instructions.

  15. An analysis of weight loss articles and advertisements in mainstream women’s health and fitness magazines

    PubMed Central

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa; Huynh, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magazines are a commonly used source for health and fitness information. Little is known about the nature and extent of weight loss strategies and products presented in mainstream women’s health and fitness magazines. Methods: This preliminary cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of articles and advertisements featuring weight loss content and products in mainstream US-based health and fitness magazines, as well as assessed weight loss themes presented. Thirty-one US health and fitness-focused magazine issues were coded. Prevalence of, product type, and themes related to weight loss in articles and advertisements were assessed. Results: Among the 31 issues of the five US-based women’s magazines examined, we identified 39 articles (4.8% [95% CI = 3.3% to 5.5%] of 819 articles) related to weight loss with 14 identified weight loss topics. The most prevalent article topics covered were exercising/workouts (32.0% [95% CI = 28.8% to 33.6%]) followed by dieting (18.6% [95% CI = 15.9% to 19.9%]).The most common product advertised was weight loss pills (46.0% [95% CI = 42.6% to 47.7%]). Fat burners were also frequently advertised (14.9% [95% CI = 12.5% to 16.1%]) followed by hunger reduction strategies (10.3% [95% CI = 8.2% to 11.3%]) and fat blockers (6.9% [95% CI= 5.2% to 7.8%]). Conclusion: Articles presented information about exercise and dieting whereas advertisements supported potentially harmful health beliefs and behaviors. As a well-utilized American media format, health and fitness-focused magazines have an opportunity to communicate frequent,accurate messaging about healthy weight reduction and limit advertisements that may include misleading claims. PMID:27386422

  16. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size

    PubMed Central

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L.; Keogh, J. Scott; Jennions, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital–body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6–8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  17. Health and Fitness Courses in Higher Education: A Historical Perspective and Contemporary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerke, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among 18- to 24-year-olds has steadily increased. Given that the majority of young American adults are enrolled in colleges and universities, the higher education setting could be an appropriate environment for health promotion programs. Historically, health and fitness in higher education have been provided via…

  18. We are making inroads on health and fitness traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers have used genetic selection to make dramatic improvements in milk and components yields over the past 50 years. Production traits are easy to measure, have relatively high heritabilities, and are directly tied to the financial success of the farm enterprise. The increasing importance...

  19. Generalizability of the AAHPERD Health Related Skinfold Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The amount of variation associated with the assessment of skinfolds of preadolescents was investigated because skinfold assessment is a component of the Health Related Physical Fitness Test. Results suggest skinfold measurements vary relatively little due to testers, instruments, or repeated trials. (Author/MT)

  20. The Relation among Fit Indexes, Power, and Sample Size in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    The relation among fit indexes, power, and sample size in structural equation modeling is examined. The noncentrality parameter is required to compute power. The 2 existing methods of computing power have estimated the noncentrality parameter by specifying an alternative hypothesis or alternative fit. These methods cannot be implemented easily and…

  1. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  2. A methodological approach to short-term tracking of youth physical fitness: the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study.

    PubMed

    Souza, Michele; Eisenmann, Joey; Chaves, Raquel; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Forjaz, Cláudia; Maia, José

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, three different statistical approaches were used to investigate short-term tracking of cardiorespiratory and performance-related physical fitness among adolescents. Data were obtained from the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study and comprised 1203 adolescents (549 girls) divided into two age cohorts (10-12 and 12-14 years) followed for three consecutive years, with annual assessment. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with 1-mile run/walk test; 50-yard dash, standing long jump, handgrip, and shuttle run test were used to rate performance-related physical fitness. Tracking was expressed in three different ways: auto-correlations, multilevel modelling with crude and adjusted model (for biological maturation, body mass index, and physical activity), and Cohen's Kappa (κ) computed in IBM SPSS 20.0, HLM 7.01 and Longitudinal Data Analysis software, respectively. Tracking of physical fitness components was (1) moderate-to-high when described by auto-correlations; (2) low-to-moderate when crude and adjusted models were used; and (3) low according to Cohen's Kappa (κ). These results demonstrate that when describing tracking, different methods should be considered since they provide distinct and more comprehensive views about physical fitness stability patterns.

  3. Real-time fit of a respirator during simulated health care tasks.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Jessica; Roe, Marc; Brosseau, Lisa M; Colton, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Fit is an important but difficult-to-predict feature of respirator performance. This study examined a new approach to measuring respirator performance using two continuous direct-reading particle-counting instruments in a simulated health care workplace. A pilot test was conducted with eight experienced health care professionals who passed a traditional quantitative fit test before performing three randomized 10-min health care scenarios (patient assessment [PA], IV treatment [IV], and wound care [WC]). Two TSI Portacount Plus (Model 8020) with N95 Companion (Model 8095) instruments were used to continuously measure 1-sec ambient particle concentrations inside and outside the respirator facepiece. A simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF) was calculated by dividing outside by inside concentrations. Data were log transformed and examined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) between subjects, scenario types, and scenario order. The GM SWPF for the eight subjects, three scenarios per subject, ranged from 172 to 1073 (GSD 1.7 to 3.5) and was significantly different for each subject. A multi-way analysis of variance showed no difference between the three scenario types (PA, IV, WC). There were differences by the order in which scenarios were performed: the third scenario SWPF was significantly different and higher than that of the first and second scenarios. All subjects passed the initial quantitative fit test with a fit factor of at least 100. Five subjects had fit factors greater than 200 and GM scenario SWPFs greater than 400. Three participants with initial fit factors less than 200 had GM scenario SWPFs ranging from 132 to 326. This pilot test demonstrates that it is possible to evaluate instantaneous respirator fit using two quantitative fit test instruments in a simulated health care environment. Results suggest that an initial fit test may be predictive of fit during simulated tasks and that one scenario may be adequate for measuring a simulated workplace

  4. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain with onset during pregnancy is common and approximately one out of three women have disabling pain. The pathogenesis of the pain condition is uncertain and there is no information on the role of physical fitness. Whether poorer physical conditioning is a cause or effect of back pain is also disputed and information from prospective studies needed. Methods A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined regarding estimated peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometer test in early pregnancy, reported physical activity prior to pregnancy, basic characteristics, back pain during pregnancy and back pain postpartum. Results Back pain during the current pregnancy was reported by nearly 80% of the women. At the postpartum appointment this prevalence was 40%. No association was displayed between estimated peak oxygen uptake and incidence of back pain during and after pregnancy, adjusted for physical activity, back pain before present pregnancy, previous deliveries, age and weight. A significant inverse association was found between estimated peak oxygen uptake and back pain intensity during pregnancy and a direct association post partum, in a fully adjusted multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions Estimated peak oxygen uptake and reported physical activity in early pregnancy displayed no influence on the onset of subsequent back pain during or after pregnancy, where the time sequence support the hypothesis that poorer physical deconditioning is not a cause but a consequence of the back pain condition. The mechanism for the attenuating effect of increased oxygen uptake on back pain intensity is uncertain. PMID:22510295

  5. Using Object Lessons to Teach Health-Related Fitness Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusak, Keven; Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Graser, Susan Vincent

    2008-01-01

    What would happen if every student in your class instantly became obese and then tried to play basketball? The extra weight would likely make them uncomfortable and less willing to move, run, and jump. They would probably also gain some empathy for the heavy kids in the class and would better understand the importance of staying in shape as they…

  6. "Your body is your business card": Bodily capital and health authority in the fitness industry.

    PubMed

    Hutson, David J

    2013-08-01

    Although scholars have noted the connection between appearance and assumptions of health, the degree to which these assumptions matter for establishing authority in social interaction remains less clear. Using a theoretical framework involving "bodily capital"--that is, the value generated from appearance, attractiveness, and physical ability--I investigate the role of appearance in the U.S. fitness industry. Drawing on data from interviews with 26 personal trainers and 25 clients between 2010 and 2011, I find that a trainer's fit-appearing physique imbues their interactions with a degree of moral and health authority. This corporeal credibility engenders trust among clients and allows exercise to be understood as a form of health work. The implications for academics and medical practitioners reach beyond the gym setting and extend recent research linking appearance to health, authority, and medical credibility.

  7. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  8. [Occupational physicians' system in the United kingdom and fit note to promote access to occupational health services].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Muramatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    The Statement of Fitness for Work (Fit Note) policy was started in the UK in 2010 in order to promote return to work after sickness absence. Fit Note is issued by General Practitioners (GP). We conducted an interview survey of 2 occupational physicians working in the UK to ascertain the impact of the introduction of Fit Note on occupational health in the UK. They regard the low coverage of occupational health services in the UK, especially among small companies and self-employed workers, as a serious issue. Fit Note was regarded as a tool to induce GPs to participate in occupational health services, and it is expected that they will be new partners in occupational health. The English occupational physicians evaluated the Fit Note system highly, and believe that the increasing participation of GPs in occupational health services will be a steady advancement in occupational health in the UK. PMID:24334697

  9. Designing a University-Wide Fitness Program to Promote Campus Health and Department Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Jennifer; Hancher-Rauch, Heidi; Hicks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Health and physical education departments across the United States often face perception and reputation problems on campus and a general misunderstanding of the nature of their academic work. One solution is to offer a faculty-and-staff fitness program that showcases the academic and leadership skills of the faculty, opens doors for collaboration…

  10. Validity of Self-Reported Fitness Across Black and White Race, Gender, and Health Literacy Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Clark, Daniel O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare concurrent criterion validity of the Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) Survey, a new fitness measure, between black and white race, gender, and health literacy groups. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Midwest urban primary care center and commercial fitness center. Subjects One hundred one black, white, male, and female primary care patients aged ≥40 years. Measures Measures included demographics, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the SRFit Survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. The BodPod determined percentage of body fat. Body mass index was calculated. Analysis Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations between corresponding physical tests and SRFit survey items. Results Correlations between physical tests and SRFit items ranged from r=.52 to .76 (ρ=.41–.85) in males, r =.40 to .79 (ρ = .33–.80) in females, r =.45 to .79 (ρ = .53–.82) in blacks, and r =.49 to .77 (ρ = .33–.82) in whites. Correlations were r =.58 (ρ = .58) to r = .77 (ρ = .79) in persons with low health literacy and r =.50 to .79 (ρ = .39–.85) among persons with moderate to high health literacy. Conclusion SRFit shows similar concurrent validity across race, gender, and health literacy subgroups. PMID:24670069

  11. A protocol for the health and fitness assessment of NBA players.

    PubMed

    Scheller, A; Rask, B

    1993-04-01

    The assessment of the health and fitness of elite basketball players should be a multidisciplinary process. We have described an organized, efficient, and comprehensive protocol for preseason physical evaluations that could be used at the university as well as professional level.

  12. Effects of a physical education program on physical activity, fitness, and health in children: the JuvenTUM project.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, M; Lammel, C; Haller, B; Christle, J; Halle, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a school-based prevention program on physical activity, fitness, and obesity. We performed a prospective study in eight Bavarian primary schools (n = 724 children, 8.4 ± 0.7 years) randomized one to one to either an intervention school (IS, n = 427) or a control school (CS, n = 297). Children in IS attended 10 health-related lessons at school over a period of 1 year. Parents and teachers attended two and three educational health-related lessons, respectively, and also received 10 newsletters on health issues. Daily physical activity (≥ 60 min/day), physical fitness (six-item test battery), and anthropometric data were obtained at baseline and after 1 year. Physical activity and physical fitness increased in IS, but it failed to reach significant intervention effects. Nevertheless, a reduction in waist circumference was observed for all children [mean change 1.7 cm; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3; P < 0.001). This effect was more pronounced in overweight children (> 90th percentile, n = 99, mean change 3.2 cm; 95% CI 1.5-4.8; P < 0.001). This easily administered preventative program involving children, parents, and teachers revealed that a generalized approach increasing physical activity will even be favorable in a subgroup of obese children.

  13. Impact of a Senior Fitness Program on Measures of Physical and Emotional Health and Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The SilverSneakers fitness program is a health plan benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that provides older adults with fitness center membership, customized group exercise classes, and a supportive social environment that promotes socialization among participants. This study evaluated the impact of the SilverSneakers program on physical and emotional health and activities of daily living (ADLs). A quasi-experimental retrospective analysis compared annual survey responses from SilverSneakers members (treatment N=5586) to a matched national random sample of Medicare Advantage organization beneficiaries (comparison N=22,344) in Cohort 10 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey. Matching was performed based on 6 demographic and 6 disease status variables. Survey responses from 2007 and 2009 were evaluated using categorical and logistic regression analysis. The treatment group showed significantly better physical and emotional health and lower impairment in both 2007 and 2009, less impairment for 4 of 6 ADLs in 2007, and all 6 in 2009, and a higher average number of days of good health within the prior month for both years. Three-year longitudinal analyses indicated a significantly more favorable survey response trend for the treatment group for nearly all measures of health and ADLs. Members who exercised less frequently had poorer health and functioning. Overall, participation in the SilverSneakers program was associated with more favorable overall physical and social/emotional health status and fewer activity impairments, suggesting that the provision of senior-oriented group fitness programs may be a valuable approach to improve quality of life and reduce the burden associated with declining health and functioning as older adults age. (Population Health Management 2013;16:364–372) PMID:23560492

  14. Metabolite signatures of exercise training in human skeletal muscle relate to mitochondrial remodelling and cardiometabolic fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kim M.; Koves, Timothy R.; Hubal, Monica J.; Abouassi, Hiba; Beri, Nina; Bateman, Lori A.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Targeted metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to evaluate the relationship between skeletal muscle metabolite signatures, gene expression profiles and clinical outcomes in response to various exercise training interventions. We hypothesised that changes in mitochondrial metabolic intermediates would predict improvements in clinical risk factors, thereby offering novel insights into potential mechanisms. Methods Subjects at risk of metabolic disease were randomised to six months of inactivity or one of five aerobic and/or resistance training programmes (n = 112). Pre/post-intervention assessments included cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇O2peak), serum triacylglycerols (TGs) and insulin sensitivity (SI). In this secondary analysis, muscle biopsy specimens were used for targeted mass spectrometry-based analysis of metabolic intermediates and measurement of mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolism. Results Exercise regimens with the largest energy expenditure produced robust increases in muscle concentrations of even-chain acylcarnitines (median 37–488%), which correlated positively with increased expression of genes involved in muscle uptake and oxidation of fatty acids. Along with free carnitine, the aforementioned acylcarnitine metabolites were related to improvements in V̇O2peak, TGs and SI (R = 0.20–0.31, p < 0.05). Muscle concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate and succinylcarnitine (R = 0.39 and 0.24, p < 0.05) emerged as the strongest correlates of SI. Conclusions/interpretation The metabolic signatures of exercise-trained skeletal muscle reflected reprogramming of mitochondrial function and intermediary metabolism and correlated with changes in cardiometabolic fitness. Succinate metabolism and the succinate dehydrogenase complex emerged as a potential regulatory node that intersects with whole-body insulin sensitivity. This study identifies new avenues for mechanistic research aimed at

  15. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  16. Impact of a senior fitness program on measures of physical and emotional health and functioning.

    PubMed

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2013-12-01

    The SilverSneakers fitness program is a health plan benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that provides older adults with fitness center membership, customized group exercise classes, and a supportive social environment that promotes socialization among participants. This study evaluated the impact of the SilverSneakers program on physical and emotional health and activities of daily living (ADLs). A quasi-experimental retrospective analysis compared annual survey responses from SilverSneakers members (treatment N=5586) to a matched national random sample of Medicare Advantage organization beneficiaries (comparison N=22,344) in Cohort 10 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey. Matching was performed based on 6 demographic and 6 disease status variables. Survey responses from 2007 and 2009 were evaluated using categorical and logistic regression analysis. The treatment group showed significantly better physical and emotional health and lower impairment in both 2007 and 2009, less impairment for 4 of 6 ADLs in 2007, and all 6 in 2009, and a higher average number of days of good health within the prior month for both years. Three-year longitudinal analyses indicated a significantly more favorable survey response trend for the treatment group for nearly all measures of health and ADLs. Members who exercised less frequently had poorer health and functioning. Overall, participation in the SilverSneakers program was associated with more favorable overall physical and social/emotional health status and fewer activity impairments, suggesting that the provision of senior-oriented group fitness programs may be a valuable approach to improve quality of life and reduce the burden associated with declining health and functioning as older adults age.

  17. Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test.

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate vitamin D status is related to increased adiposity, risk of falls, and muscle weakness, particularly in the elderly. We hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D) is related to physical fitness indices (androidal fat, whole body lean mass, balance, strength) in healthy...

  19. Into Adolescence: Fitness, Health and Hygiene. A Curriculum for Grades 5-8. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garzino, Mary S.

    The Contemporary Health Series is intended to help teachers address critical health issues in their classrooms. It is designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for their health. This learning module, directed at middle school teachers, focuses on several health and…

  20. The health and fitness profiles of nurses in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, R; Coopoo, Y

    2007-06-01

    Backpain has been recognized as a problem in hospitals, with up to 50% of healthcare staff reporting symptoms (Smedly, Egger, Cooper and Coggon, 1997 and Engels, van der Guilden, Senden and van't Hof 1996). The general purpose of this study was to determine the health and fitness profiles of nurses working in a public hospital. It was hypothesized that there is a correlation between the prevalence of lower back pain and being overweight or obese amongst nurses. One hundred and seven nurses from a local hospital in KwaZulu Natal participated in this study. Responses from a health questionnaire examining medical history, dietary, exercise and lifestyle patterns were analyzed. Fitness tests determined flexibility (sit and reach), muscular strength (back and grip strength), aerobic capacity (Astrand-Rhyming cycle) and anthropometrical data (percent body fat and BMI). Results suggested overall poor health and fitness profiles and a high incidence of back pain correlating with increased body fat percentages, thus accepting the hypothesis. The need for health and wellness intervention strategies in hospitals for the nurses was emphasized.

  1. Work-related injuries from mandatory fitness training among Swedish firemen.

    PubMed

    de Loës, M; Jansson, B R

    2001-07-01

    A considerable amount of employees incur injuries in professions with mandatory on-duty fitness training. The training is necessary for maintaining a good health status, physical condition and strength in professions requiring such qualities. Injuries in Swedish firemen from on-duty fitness training between 1992 and 1998 were selected retrospectively from the Information System of Occupational Injuries (ISA) at the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and, if having caused a sick-leave exceeding 2 weeks, to the Labour Market Insurance (AMF Insurance). The latter comprised injuries from 1995 only. During the seven-year period 1,468 injuries from fitness training occurred in male firemen. With an estimated 147 h per man and year the injury incidence was 2.6 per 10,000 h of exposure. The mean number of days of absence from work was 24.1 days (SD 39.8). In 1995, the mean cost per injury for medical treatment was close to 7,000 Euro and for production loss almost 4,500 Euro. By far the major part of the injuries, 75 %, occurred during team and contact sports (primarily floorball and soccer) and this sport category also accounted for 83% of the medical costs and 78% of the costs for production loss. It is suggested that a restriction of team and contact sports as mandatory on-duty fitness training for firemen should be tested and evaluated concerning the injury incidence.

  2. [Dietetics and the health and fitness cult. The risks of dietetics in the Welfare State].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de Pablo, A

    1993-01-01

    We shall analyse the reasons why various matters related to diet have become a type of a purification ritual in the welfare society. In order to explain this circumstance three historic moments in the use of diet shall be studied: a) Diet as an explicit means in the care of the soul. Besides its function in the care of the body, diet was used in ancient times as a specific remedy to improve both the psychic and moral aspects of the mental faculties. b) Diet as an implicit remedy in moral well-being. From the Renaissance onwards diet no longer had this explicit function in curing the soul, however it tacitly retained a certain effect on the moral factors. c) Diet as an instrument of the health and fitness cult. Despite the scientific configuration of dietetics in the second half of the nineteenth century, old function of diet remained mutatis mutandis with regards to the moral sphere of the subject. Factors such as the development of how thinness or fatness was viewed at this time and the resulting explosion of interest in controlling body-weight, which acquired characteristics of pseudo-religious activity, may explain this fact. In this way the old idea of "you are what you eat" coexists with the more modern one of "you eat what you are".

  3. Indirect and direct relations between aerobic fitness, physical activity, and academic achievement in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, K.; Hansen, D.M.; Szabo, A.N.; Lee, J.; Herrmann, S.D.; Donnelly, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that increasing physical activity (PA) improves academic achievement (AA) in children and that aerobic fitness is associated with both cognitive function and AA. However, it is not known how these variables are interrelated and analyses with adequate control for socioeconomic variables are needed. It was hypothesized that PA would not directly affect AA but would have an indirect effect on AA through its effect on aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesized mediation using path analysis. METHODS Cross-sectional data including AA, aerobic fitness, and daily PA assessed through accelerometry were collected from a large sample (N = 687) of 2nd and 3rd grade students. Demographic data were assessed via parent self-report. RESULTS A total of 401 students wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours on 3 days or more and were included in the final path analysis to evaluate potential relations among PA (predictor), aerobic fitness (mediator), and WIAT-III subtest standard scores (outcomes; i.e., reading, spelling, and mathematics). Findings showed a direct effect of PA on aerobic fitness (b = 0.009, p < 0.001) and an indirect effect (mediation) of PA via fitness on math achievement (b = 0.003, p < 0.01) after controlling for student’s grade, gender, body mass index, mother’s education level, and household income, as well as intraclass correlations among classes and schools. Neither PA nor aerobic fitness were correlated with WIAT-III reading or spelling scores. CONCLUSIONS Mediation analysis indicated that PA exerted an influence on math achievement through its effects on aerobic fitness but was not associated with reading or spelling achievement scores. PMID:25984236

  4. In Fitness and Health? A Prospective Study of Changes in Marital Status and Fitness in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco B.; Brown, Wendy J.; Lee, Duck-chul; Baruth, Meghan; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the prospective associations between marital status transitions and changes in fitness in men and women. Between 1987 and 2005, a total of 8,871 adults (6,900 men) aged 45.6 (standard deviation, 9.1) years were examined at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, Texas; the median follow-up was ∼3 years. Marital transition categories (from single to married, married to divorced, divorced to remarried) were derived from self-reported marital status at baseline and follow-up. Fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) was assessed by a maximal treadmill test. Analyses were adjusted for baseline levels and changes in body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and major chronic diseases. Compared with the corresponding “control” groups (remaining single, married, or divorced), transitioning from being single to married was associated with a reduction in fitness in women (P = 0.03); divorce was associated with an increase in fitness in men (P = 0.04); and remarriage was associated with a reduction in fitness in men (P = 0.05). The authors conclude that the transitions to being married (from single to married or from divorced to remarried) are associated with a modest reduction, while divorce is associated with a modest increase in fitness levels in men. Study results suggest that these patterns may be different in women, but further research is required to confirm this. PMID:21123852

  5. Breaking down "Healthism": Barriers to Health and Fitness as Identified by Immigrant Youth in St. John's, NL, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Jennifer M.; Beausoleil, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we challenge dominant health and fitness discourses which stress individual responsibility in the attainment of these statuses. We examine the results of an empirical study exploring how a group of 15 Canadian immigrant youth, aged 12-17, discursively construct notions of health and fitness. Qualitative data were collected through…

  6. How to infer relative fitness from a sample of genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Dayarian, Adel; Shraiman, Boris I

    2014-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural populations can harbor extensive fitness diversity with numerous genomic loci under selection. It is also known that genealogical trees for populations under selection are quantifiably different from those expected under neutral evolution and described statistically by Kingman's coalescent. While differences in the statistical structure of genealogies have long been used as a test for the presence of selection, the full extent of the information that they contain has not been exploited. Here we demonstrate that the shape of the reconstructed genealogical tree for a moderately large number of random genomic samples taken from a fitness diverse, but otherwise unstructured, asexual population can be used to predict the relative fitness of individuals within the sample. To achieve this we define a heuristic algorithm, which we test in silico, using simulations of a Wright-Fisher model for a realistic range of mutation rates and selection strength. Our inferred fitness ranking is based on a linear discriminator that identifies rapidly coalescing lineages in the reconstructed tree. Inferred fitness ranking correlates strongly with actual fitness, with a genome in the top 10% ranked being in the top 20% fittest with false discovery rate of 0.1-0.3, depending on the mutation/selection parameters. The ranking also enables us to predict the genotypes that future populations inherit from the present one. While the inference accuracy increases monotonically with sample size, samples of 200 nearly saturate the performance. We propose that our approach can be used for inferring relative fitness of genomes obtained in single-cell sequencing of tumors and in monitoring viral outbreaks. PMID:24770330

  7. The New Child Health Insurance Expansions: How Will School-Based Health Centers Fit In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane; Lear, Julia Graham

    Under the State Child Health Insurance Program, states receive funds to purchase health insurance for low-income, uninsured children. Noting that partnering with managed care will be essential if school-based health centers are to receive reimbursement for serving the publicly insured portion of their clientele, this paper examines the…

  8. Inscribing healthification: governance, risk, surveillance and the subjects and spaces of fitness and health.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    This paper considers the interface between the hygienic geographies of a fitness and exercise space and the discourses of risk and subjectivity in this era of the new public health. Using an analysis of space, power and the subject, the paper assesses the ways in which subjects govern themselves and others in public health spaces through an intensification of surveillance, in order to ensure health and safety compliance. In this paper, first, I introduce the locker room as a place of health and hygiene. Second, I set out the wider context of the inscription of health on spaces and subjects. Third, I examine the relationship between discourses of risk and subjectivity and how risk discourses are fundamental to the fabrication of subjects and social life. The paper then examines, more specifically, techniques of self- and other-governance that help to inscribe and prescribe the new public health in locker rooms. Drawing on the findings of a spatial and ethnographic case study of an urban, Canadian university locker room, I conclude that the macro- and micro-politics and economics of policing public health require both the regulation of bodies and the participation of active, health-conscious citizens in order to keep (western) neo-liberal imperatives of health in place. PMID:16243681

  9. Educational Level Is Related to Physical Fitness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Allet, Lara; Giet, Olivier; Barral, Jérôme; Junod, Nicolas; Durrer, Dominique; Amati, Francesca; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2016-01-01

    of low EL. EL was not related to balance or flexibility. Discussion A main strength of the present study is that it addresses a population of importance and a factor (EL) whose understanding can influence future interventions. A second strength is its relatively large sample size of a high-risk population. Third, unlike studies that have shown an association between self-reported fitness and educational level we assessed physical fitness measures by a quantitative and validated test battery using assessors blinded to other data. Another novelty is the extensive evaluation of the role of many relevant confounder variables. Conclusions In conclusion, we show that in patients with type 2 diabetes EL correlates favorably and independently with important health-related physical fitness measures such as aerobic fitness, walking speed, and lower limb strength. Our findings underline that diabetic patients with low EL should be specifically encouraged to participate in physical activity intervention programs to further reduce social disparities in healthcare. Such programs should be structured and integrate the norms, needs and capacities (financial, time, physical capacities and self-efficacy) of this population, and their effectiveness should be tested in future studies. Trial Registration University of Lausanne clinicaltrials.gov NCT01289587 PMID:27732627

  10. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT" Efficacy Trial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard; Dawson-Bannister, Harriett; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Kottwitz, Esther; Hansen, Blake; Fleming, Kandace

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program for improving students' on-task behavior, and increasing teacher recognition of appropriate behavior. The intervention is a group contingency classroom management program consisting of teaching and reinforcing appropriate…

  11. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  12. Adaptive Memory: Young Children Show Enhanced Retention of Fitness-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Alp; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on…

  13. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  14. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  15. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  16. Branding campaign exceeds initial goals for New Hampshire fitness site. Campaign utilizes humor, insights from market research. Synergy Health and Fitness Center, Exeter.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    Exeter Health Resources Inc. and agency BBK Communications create a comprehensive brand-building campaign for its centers that combine fitness services and programs under Synergy. With success, the center signed up more than 1,600 members by the time it opened in January.

  17. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  18. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  19. Analysis and Modeling of Threatening Factors of Workforce’s Health in Large-Scale Workplaces: Comparison of Four-Fitting Methods to select optimum technique

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Savareh, Behrouz Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workforce is one of the pillars of development in any country. Therefore, the workforce’s health is very important, and analyzing its threatening factors is one of the fundamental steps for health planning. This study was the first part of a comprehensive study aimed at comparing the fitting methods to analyze and model the factors threatening health in occupational injuries. Methods In this study, 980 human occupational injuries in 10 Iranian large-scale workplaces within 10 years (2005–2014) were analyzed and modeled based on the four fitting methods: linear regression, regression analysis, generalized linear model, and artificial neural networks (ANN) using IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2. Results Accident Severity Rate (ASR) of occupational injuries was 557.47 ± 397.87. The results showed that the mean of age and work experience of injured workers were 27.82 ± 5.23 and 4.39 ± 3.65 years, respectively. Analysis of health-threatening factors showed that some factors, including age, quality of provided H&S training, number of workers, hazard identification (HAZID), and periodic risk assessment, and periodic H&S training were important factors that affected ASR. In addition, the results of comparison of the four fitting methods showed that the correlation coefficient of ANN (R = 0.968) and the relative error (R.E) of ANN (R.E = 0.063) were the highest and lowest, respectively, among other fitting methods. Conclusion The findings of the present study indicated that, despite the suitability and effectiveness of all fitting methods in analyzing severity of occupational injuries, ANN is the best fitting method for modeling of the threatening factors of a workforce’s health. Furthermore, all fitting methods, especially ANN, should be considered more in analyzing and modeling of occupational injuries and health-threatening factors as well as planning to provide and improve the workforce’s health. PMID:27053999

  20. Dietary Guidelines and Your Health: Health Educator's Guide to Nutrition and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Nutrition Information Service (USDA), Hyattsville, MD.

    This manual was designed to help incorporate the seven Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services, into a health or physical education curriculum and to make nutrition education contemporary, interesting, and relevant at either the junior or senior high school level. The…

  1. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a marker of cardiovascular health in renal transplanted children.

    PubMed

    Tangeraas, Trine; Midtvedt, Karsten; Fredriksen, Per Morten; Cvancarova, Milada; Mørkrid, Lars; Bjerre, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Children with renal transplants (TX) are at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Study objectives were to assess the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR fitness) and daily physical activity (PA) in renal TX children and adolescents in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory testing included assessment of CR fitness by treadmill exercise testing (VO(2peak)), 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure (ABPM) measurement, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometrics and measurement of lipid levels. PA was self-reported by questionnaire. Twenty-two TX patients with a median (range) age 14.5 (9-18) years were tested. Median V0(2peak) was 66% (36-97) of the expected values compared with controls. Nineteen (86%) children reported <60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sixteen (73%) were hypertensive and 8 (34%) were overweight or obese. Four children fulfilled the criteria for a metabolic syndrome. Children with at least 2 of the 3 metabolic risk factors (hypertension, overweight, and glucose intolerance, n=7) achieved significantly lower VO(2peak) compared with those with one or none of these factors (median V0(2peak) 45% and 73% of the expected values respectively, p=0.003). Renal TX children and adolescents have severely impaired CR fitness and PA. Reduced CR fitness was associated with the clustering of CV risk factors. Routine counseling for increased PA is strongly recommended.

  3. Is Quality of Life Related to Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight and Obese Breast Cancer Survivors?

    PubMed

    Travier, Noemie; Guillamo, Elisabeth; Oviedo, Guillermo R; Valls, Joan; Buckland, Genevieve; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Alamo, Juan M; Arribas, Lorena; Moreno, Ferran; Sanz, Tania E; Borras, Josep M; Agudo, Antonio; Javierre, Casimiro

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed changes in quality of life (QoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) during a diet and physical activity (PA) intervention in breast cancer (BC) survivors and investigated the relation between these changes. The intervention of this single-arm pre-post study involved supervised, 1-hour weekly, diet sessions and 75-minute bi-weekly PA sessions of moderate-to-high intensity. This 12-week intervention targeted overweight/obese women who had recently completed BC treatment. Pre- and post-CRF and QoL measurements were compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression models, including baseline participants' characteristics and weight change, were used to assess the association between changes in CRF and QoL. The 37 BC survivors who completed the intervention between May 7, 2012 and July 27, 2012 showed significant increases in CRF and QoL. Peak oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min) increased from 19.0 ± 2.8 to 24.0 ± 4.1 while peak workload (watts/kg) increased from 1.3 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3. Although statistical significance was not reached, the increase in workload seemed associated with increases in physical, mental, and general health and with a decrease in fatigue. This lifestyle intervention improved BC survivors' QoL and CRF and suggested possible relationships between CRF and QoL. More research needs to confirm these associations and promote lifestyle interventions aiming at improving BC survivors' QoL.

  4. Mental health services. Poor relations.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J; Sashidharan, S

    1999-04-01

    The case for London requiring greater resources for mental health services than other parts of the country has not been proved. Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester are among the six most deprived areas in England. Spending per capita on mental health services in inner London is double that in Birmingham and Liverpool and 40 per cent higher than in Manchester. A national strategy is needed to address inequities in funding.

  5. A wearable chemical-electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring.

    PubMed

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J; Mohan, A M Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P

    2016-05-23

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices.

  6. A wearable chemical–electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Somayeh; Bandodkar, Amay J.; Mohan, A. M. Vinu; Kumar, Rajan; Yu, Shengfei; Wang, Joseph; Mercier, Patrick P.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices. PMID:27212140

  7. Heart health: volume and revenue growth through clinically integrated medical fitness centers.

    PubMed

    Nadel, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    The number of hospital sponsored medical fitness centers has grown from fewer than 100 in the early 1980's to nearly 700 today. The reasons for this growth are: They are recognized as part of the continuum of care; They are a powerful vehicle for increasing clinical volumes, revenues, and overall market share; They can generate substantial new revenue, both clinical and retail; and, They boldly proclaim a hospital's commitment to improving the health status of the community. With proper planning and an intense focus on clinical integration, medical fitness centers can assist hospitals in achieving numerous objectives. From a cardiology standpoint, imagine being able to show the community that you have been willing to spend millions of dollars to keep people's hearts healthy. That's market differentiation.

  8. Simulations in evolution. II. Relative fitness and the propagation of mutants.

    PubMed

    Testa, Bernard; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2009-03-01

    In Neo-Darwinism, variation and natural selection are the two evolutionary mechanisms which propel biological evolution. Our previous article presented a histogram model [1] consisting in populations of individuals whose number changed under the influence of variation and/or fitness, the total population remaining constant. Individuals are classified into bins, and the content of each bin is calculated generation after generation by an Excel spreadsheet. Here, we apply the histogram model to a stable population with fitness F(1)=1.00 in which one or two fitter mutants emerge. In a first scenario, a single mutant emerged in the population whose fitness was greater than 1.00. The simulations ended when the original population was reduced to a single individual. The histogram model was validated by excellent agreement between its predictions and those of a classical continuous function (Eqn. 1) which predicts the number of generations needed for a favorable mutation to spread throughout a population. But in contrast to Eqn. 1, our histogram model is adaptable to more complex scenarios, as demonstrated here. In the second and third scenarios, the original population was present at time zero together with two mutants which differed from the original population by two higher and distinct fitness values. In the fourth scenario, the large original population was present at time zero together with one fitter mutant. After a number of generations, when the mutant offspring had multiplied, a second mutant was introduced whose fitness was even greater. The histogram model also allows Shannon entropy (SE) to be monitored continuously as the information content of the total population decreases or increases. The results of these simulations illustrate, in a graphically didactic manner, the influence of natural selection, operating through relative fitness, in the emergence and dominance of a fitter mutant.

  9. Income-related health inequality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Humphries, K H; van Doorslaer, E

    2000-03-01

    This study uses data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey and applies the methods developed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer (1994, measuring inequalities in health in the presence of multiple-category morbidity indicators. Health Economics 3, 281-291) to measure the degree of income-related inequality in self-reported health in Canada by means of concentration indices. It finds that significant inequalities in self-reported ill-health exist and favour the higher income groups--the higher the level of income, the better the level of self-assessed health. The analysis also indicates that lower income individuals are somewhat more likely to report their self-assessed health as poor or less-than-good than higher income groups, at the same level of a more 'objective' health indictor such as the McMaster Health Utility Index. The degree of inequality in 'subjective' health is slightly higher than in 'objective' health, but not significantly different. The degree of inequality in self-assessed health in Canada was found to be significantly higher than that reported by van Doorslaer et al. (1997, income related inequalities in health: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics 16, 93-112) for seven European countries, but not significantly different from the health inequality measured for the UK or the US. It also appears as if Canada's health inequality is higher than what would be expected on the basis of its income inequality.

  10. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Results Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Conclusion Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. PMID:25628191

  11. Double trouble at high density: cross-level test of resource-related adaptive plasticity and crowding-related fitness.

    PubMed

    Gergs, André; Preuss, Thomas G; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels, we used an individual-based population model that is based on dynamic energy budget theory. Each of the hypotheses, represented by a sub-model, is based on specific assumptions on how the uptake and allocation of energy are altered under conditions of resource shortage or crowding. For cross-level testing of different hypotheses, we explored how well the sub-models fit individual level data and also how well they predict population dynamics under different conditions of resource availability. Only operating resource-related and crowding-related hypotheses together enabled accurate model predictions of D. magna population dynamics and size structure. Whereas this study showed that various mechanisms might play a role in the negative feedback between population density and individual life history, it also indicated that different density levels might instigate the onset of the different mechanisms. This study provides an example of how the integration of dynamic energy budget theory and individual-based modelling can facilitate the exploration of mechanisms behind the regulation

  12. Effects of inbreeding on fitness-related traits in a small isolated moose population.

    PubMed

    Haanes, Hallvard; Markussen, Stine S; Herfindal, Ivar; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Heim, Morten; Midthjell, Liv; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding can affect fitness-related traits at different life history stages and may interact with environmental variation to induce even larger effects. We used genetic parentage assignment based on 22 microsatellite loci to determine a 25 year long pedigree for a newly established island population of moose with 20-40 reproducing individuals annually. We used the pedigree to calculate individual inbreeding coefficients and examined for effects of individual inbreeding (f) and heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We found negative effects of f on birth date, calf body mass and twinning rate. The relationship between f and calf body mass and twinning rate were found to be separate but weaker after accounting for birth date. We found no support for an inbreeding effect on the age-specific lifetime reproductive success of females. The influence of f on birth date was related to climatic conditions during the spring prior to birth, indicating that calves with a low f were born earlier after a cold spring than calves with high f. In years with a warm spring, calf f did not affect birth date. The results suggest that severe inbreeding in moose has both indirect effects on fitness through delayed birth and lower juvenile body mass, as well as separate direct effects, as there still was a significant relationship between f and twinning rate after accounting for birth date and body mass as calf. Consequently, severe inbreeding as found in the study population may have consequences for population growth and extinction risk.

  13. Health literacy and women's health-related behaviors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N

    2012-04-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates, and monitoring physical changes) in women and to test whether the association is mediated by health knowledge. A national sample of 1,754 female adults in Taiwan was included in the study. Result showed that health literacy was positively and independently related to checking food expiration dates and monitoring physical changes, and that health literacy was not related to physical checkup and Pap smear screening. Interestingly, women with high health literacy were more likely to be a current smoker. Study findings suggest that efforts to improve health promotion behaviors in women should consider health literacy as an important factor and that the effect of health literacy on health prevention behaviors may vary by women's access to care. PMID:21742948

  14. Promoting Fitness and Safety in Elementary Students: A Randomized Control Study of the Michigan Model for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James M.; Clark, Jeffrey K.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on nutrition, physical fitness, and safety knowledge and skills. Methods: Schools (N = 52) were randomly assigned…

  15. A Model for the Inclusion of a Physical Fitness and Health Promotion Component in a Chemical Abuse Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridinger, Fred; Dehart, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes treatment program at Charter Hospital in Fort Worth, Texas, which incorporates comprehensive medical examination, fitness and nutritional screenings, and appropriate exercise activities into alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Notes that educational sessions are offered on health fitness, risk reduction, stress management,…

  16. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  17. Short-Term Effects of Different Loading Schemes in Fitness-Related Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Eifler, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Eifler, C. Short-term effects of different loading schemes in fitness-related resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1880-1889, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the short-term effects of different loading schemes in fitness-related resistance training and to identify the most effective loading method for advanced recreational athletes. The investigation was designed as a longitudinal field-test study. Two hundred healthy mature subjects with at least 12 months' experience in resistance training were randomized in 4 samples of 50 subjects each. Gender distribution was homogenous in all samples. Training effects were quantified by 10 repetition maximum (10RM) and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing (pre-post-test design). Over a period of 6 weeks, a standardized resistance training protocol with 3 training sessions per week was realized. Testing and training included 8 resistance training exercises in a standardized order. The following loading schemes were randomly matched to each sample: constant load (CL) with constant volume of repetitions, increasing load (IL) with decreasing volume of repetitions, decreasing load (DL) with increasing volume of repetitions, daily changing load (DCL), and volume of repetitions. For all loading schemes, significant strength gains (p < 0.001) could be noted for all resistance training exercises and both dependent variables (10RM, 1RM). In all cases, DCL obtained significantly higher strength gains (p < 0.001) than CL, IL, and DL. There were no significant differences in strength gains between CL, IL, and DL. The present data indicate that resistance training following DCL is more effective for advanced recreational athletes than CL, IL, or DL. Considering that DCL is widely unknown in fitness-related resistance training, the present data indicate, there is potential for improving resistance training in commercial fitness clubs. PMID:26670986

  18. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  19. Metabolic syndrome is inversely related to cardiorespiratory fitness in male career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 45% of on-duty fatalities among firefighters, occurring primarily in firefighters with excess CVD risk factors in patterns resembling the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Additionally, firefighters have a high prevalence of obesity and sedentary behavior suggesting that MetSyn is also common. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of MetSyn in firefighters and its association with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a cross-sectional study of 957 male career firefighters. The CRF was measured by maximal exercise tolerance testing (standard metabolic equivalent [METS]). The MetSyn was defined according to modified criteria from the Joint Scientific Statement. Group differences were compared using χ-test and logistic regression. The prevalence of MetSyn was 28.3%. Firefighters in the lowest fitness category (METS ≤ 10) had a nearly 10-fold higher prevalence of MetSyn (51.2%) compared with colleagues in the highest fitness category (METS > 14) (MetSyn prevalence 5.2%) (p value < 0.0001, adjusted for age). In multivariate regression models, every 1-unit increase in METS decreased the odds of having the MetSyn by 31% (odds ratio 0.69 [95% confidence interval 0.63-0.76] [age adjusted]), whereas age had no significant effect after adjusting for CRF. We found a high prevalence of the MetSyn in this group of career emergency responders expected to be more active, fit, and relatively younger than the general population. Moreover, there is a highly significant inverse, dose-response association with CRF. Firefighters should be given strong incentives to improve their fitness, which would decrease prevalent MetSyn, a likely precursor of on-duty CVD events and contributor to CVD burden in this population.

  20. Health and fitness series--3. Popular dietary fads: how should health professionals respond?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Many magazines and health books for lay people extol the virtues of diets that produce weight loss, often rapidly and using unconventional régimes. In this article a dietitian summarises the basic physiology of weight loss and discusses three such types of diet: food-combining; "detox"; and the Atkins or high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, including their physiological flaws and possible adverse side-effects. PMID:12875149

  1. [Examination of motor fitness within the scope of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Bös, K; Heel, J; Romahn, N; Tittlbach, S; Woll, A; Worth, A; Hölling, H

    2002-12-01

    Several studies indicate that physical performance of children and young people is declining. However, actually available data on physical performance and physical activity of children and young people are not representative and hence no countrywide predictions can be made. The examination of motor fitness in association with development and health of children and young people is indispensable for the implementation of appropriate measures of intervention. The module 'Motoric' in the National Health Survey for Children and Adolescents shall remedy the deficiency of information. For the module, 6,000 children and adolescents, age 4-17 years, will be representatively drawn from the total survey sample. Their physical performance and physical activity will be comprehensively assessed. For this purpose, appropriate tests have been developed. In pilot studies, all methods were tested for practicability, objectivity, reliability, and validity. The application of methods was coordinated between the Robert Koch-Institute and the Institute of Sport and Science of Sports, University of Karlsruhe.

  2. Fitness versus Fatness: Which Influences Health and Mortality Risk the Most?

    PubMed

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Tucker, Wesley J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a more powerful predictor of mortality than body mass index or adiposity, and improving CRF is more important than losing body fat for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data on reduced morbidity and mortality associated with increased CRF are strong and consistent. By contrast, data on intentional weight loss and mortality are uncertain, and weight loss-induced risk factor modification may be largely transient. Because weight loss maintenance is poor and considering the health risks associated with chronic weight instability ( "yo-yo" dieting), we propose an alternative paradigm that focuses on improving CRF rather than reducing body weight. We contend that this is a safer alternative for management of obesity and the associated comorbidities. Exercise adherence may improve if clinicians emphasized to their patients the importance of CRF compared with weight loss in improving health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:26166058

  3. Transgenic Bt-producing Brassica napus: Plutella xylostella selection pressure and fitness of weedy relatives.

    PubMed

    Mason, Peter; Braun, Lorraine; Warwick, Suzanne I; Zhu, Bin; Stewart, C Neal

    2003-01-01

    Release of transgenic insect-resistant crops creates the potential not only for the insect pest to evolve resistance but for the escape of transgenes that may confer novel or enhanced fitness-related traits through hybridization with their wild relatives. The differential response of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) populations in eastern and western Canada to Bt-producing (GT) Brassica napus and the potential for enhanced fitness of GT B. napus and weedy GT Brassica rapa x B. napus hybrid populations (F1, BC1, BC2) were studied. Comparative bioassays using neonates and 4th instars showed that GT B. napus and GT B. rapa x B. napus hybrids are lethal to larvae from both populations. No measurable plant fitness advantage (reproductive dry weight) was observed for GT B. napus (crop) and GT B. rapa x B. napus hybrid populations at low insect pressure (1 larva per leaf). At high insect densities (>10 larvae per leaf), vegetative plant weight was not significantly different for GT B. napus and non-GT B. napus, whereas reproductive plant weight and proportion of reproductive material were significantly higher in GT B. napus. Establishment of the Bt trait in wild B. rapa populations may also increase its competitive advantage under high insect pressure.

  4. Practical Management Concerns regarding the Use of Health-Related, Motor and Skill Tests to Achieve Sex-Fair Ability Groupings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Janet

    There are many advantages and disadvantages of ability tests for sex-fairness. Several types of assessment criteria for sex-fair ability grouping could be used in fitness-related activities in the curriculum. Health-related physical fitness tests, designed to measure an individual's health fitness and provide for individual improvement, are not…

  5. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Long, Ryan A; Bowyer, R T; Porter, Warren P; Mathewson, Paul; Monteith, Kevin L; Findholt, Scott L; Dick, Brian L; Kie, John G

    2016-07-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North American elk (Cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-quality forage, would influence four energetically mediated traits related to fitness: birth mass of young, nutritional condition of adult females at the onset of winter, change in nutritional condition of females between spring and winter, and neonatal survival. We used a biophysical model to map spatiotemporally explicit costs of thermoregulation and activity experienced by elk in a heterogeneous landscape. We then combined model predictions with data on forage characteristics, animal locations, nutritional condition, and mass and survival of young to evaluate behaviorally mediated effects of the energy landscape on fitness-related traits. During spring, when high-quality forage was abundant, female elk that consistently selected low-cost areas before parturition gave birth to larger young than less-selective individuals, and birth mass had a strong, positive influence on probability of survival. As forage quality declined during autumn, however, lactating females that consistently selected the highest quality forage available accrued more fat and entered winter in better condition than less-selective individuals. Results of our study highlight the importance of understanding the dynamic nature of energy landscapes experienced by free-ranging animals. PMID:27003702

  6. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p < 0.0001). Compared to men with higher CRF, those with lower CRF developed abnormal values earlier in life: TC (≥200 mg/dl), LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), non-HDL-C (≥160 mg/dl), and TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.0). Notably, abnormal values for TC and LDL-C in men with low CRF were observed around 15 years earlier than in those with high CRF. After adjusting for time-varying covariates, a significant interaction was found between age and CRF in each trajectory, indicating that CRF was more strongly associated with the aging trajectories of lipids and lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  7. A Novel Way to Promote Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Tom

    1989-01-01

    Basic steps in organizing and implementing Fun and Fitness Day are outlined. This event, jointly planned by local schools and Triton College, provided 1800 elementary students with health-related fitness testing and a day of fun and competition. (IAH)

  8. Fitting IRT Models to Dichotomous and Polytomous Data: Assessing the Relative Model-Data Fit of Ideal Point and Dominance Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Ali, Usama S.; Drasgow, Fritz; Williams, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relative model-data fit of an ideal point item response theory (IRT) model (the generalized graded unfolding model [GGUM]) and dominance IRT models (e.g., the two-parameter logistic model [2PLM] and Samejima's graded response model [GRM]) to simulated dichotomous and polytomous data generated from each of these models.…

  9. Grape consumption's effects on fitness, muscle injury, mood, and perceived health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Caravalho, Amanda L; Freese, Eric C; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-02-01

    Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

  10. The Relation between Career Decision-Making Strategies and Person-Job Fit: A Study of Job Changers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Romila; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relations between three career decision-making strategies (rational, intuitive, and dependent) and person--job fit among 361 professionals who had recently changed jobs. We found that the relation between each decision-making strategy and fit was contingent upon the concurrent use of other strategies. A rational strategy…

  11. Measures of relative fitness of social behaviors in finite structured population models.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Taylor, Peter D

    2014-10-01

    How should we measure the relative selective advantage of different behavioral strategies? The various approaches to this question have fallen into one of the following categories: the fixation probability of a mutant allele in a wild type population, some measures of gene frequency and gene frequency change, and a formulation of the inclusive fitness effect. Countless theoretical studies have examined the relationship between these approaches, and it has generally been thought that, under standard simplifying assumptions, they yield equivalent results. Most of this theoretical work, however, has assumed homogeneity of the population interaction structure--that is, that all individuals are equivalent. We explore the question of selective advantage in a general (heterogeneous) population and show that, although appropriate measures of fixation probability and gene frequency change are equivalent, they are not, in general, equivalent to the inclusive fitness effect. The latter does not reflect effects of selection acting via mutation, which can arise on heterogeneous structures, even for low mutation. Our theoretical framework provides a transparent analysis of the different biological factors at work in the comparison of these fitness measures and suggests that their theoretical and empirical use needs to be revised and carefully grounded in a more general theory.

  12. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  13. Health care workers and respiratory protection: is the user seal check a surrogate for respirator fit-testing?

    PubMed

    Danyluk, Quinn; Hon, Chun-Yip; Neudorf, Mike; Yassi, Annalee; Bryce, Elizabeth; Janssen, Bob; Astrakianakis, George

    2011-05-01

    Many agencies recommend that health care workers wear N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95-FFR) to minimize occupational exposure to bioaerosols, such as tuberculosis and pandemic influenza. Published standards outline procedures for the proper selection of an N95-FFR model, including user seal checks and respirator fit-testing. Some health officials have argued that the respirator fit-test step should be eliminated altogether, given its additional time and cost factors, and that only a user seal check be utilized to ensure that an adequate face seal has been achieved. One of the aims of the current study is to examine whether a user seal check is an appropriate surrogate for respirator fit-testing. Subjects were assigned an N95-FFR and asked to perform a user seal check (as per manufacturer's instructions) after which they immediately underwent a respirator fit-test. Successfully passing a respirator fit-test was based on not detecting a leakage through the face seal (either qualitatively with a test agent or quantitatively with a particulate counter). The sample population consisted of 647 subjects who had never been previously fit-tested (naive), while the remaining 137 participants were experienced respirator users. Only four of the 647 naive subjects (0.62%) identified an inadequate seal during their user seal check. Of the 643 remaining naive subjects who indicated that they had an adequate face seal prior to fit-testing, 158 (25%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test and 92 (14%) failed the qualitative fit-test. All 137 experienced users indicated that they had an adequate seal after performing the user seal check; however, 41 (30%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test, and 30 (22%) failed the qualitative fit-test. These findings contradict the argument to eliminate fit-testing and rely strictly on a user seal check to evaluate face seal.

  14. Health care workers and respiratory protection: is the user seal check a surrogate for respirator fit-testing?

    PubMed

    Danyluk, Quinn; Hon, Chun-Yip; Neudorf, Mike; Yassi, Annalee; Bryce, Elizabeth; Janssen, Bob; Astrakianakis, George

    2011-05-01

    Many agencies recommend that health care workers wear N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95-FFR) to minimize occupational exposure to bioaerosols, such as tuberculosis and pandemic influenza. Published standards outline procedures for the proper selection of an N95-FFR model, including user seal checks and respirator fit-testing. Some health officials have argued that the respirator fit-test step should be eliminated altogether, given its additional time and cost factors, and that only a user seal check be utilized to ensure that an adequate face seal has been achieved. One of the aims of the current study is to examine whether a user seal check is an appropriate surrogate for respirator fit-testing. Subjects were assigned an N95-FFR and asked to perform a user seal check (as per manufacturer's instructions) after which they immediately underwent a respirator fit-test. Successfully passing a respirator fit-test was based on not detecting a leakage through the face seal (either qualitatively with a test agent or quantitatively with a particulate counter). The sample population consisted of 647 subjects who had never been previously fit-tested (naive), while the remaining 137 participants were experienced respirator users. Only four of the 647 naive subjects (0.62%) identified an inadequate seal during their user seal check. Of the 643 remaining naive subjects who indicated that they had an adequate face seal prior to fit-testing, 158 (25%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test and 92 (14%) failed the qualitative fit-test. All 137 experienced users indicated that they had an adequate seal after performing the user seal check; however, 41 (30%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test, and 30 (22%) failed the qualitative fit-test. These findings contradict the argument to eliminate fit-testing and rely strictly on a user seal check to evaluate face seal. PMID:21462067

  15. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems Posted under Health Guides . ... March 2015. +Related Content What are student health services? The student health services (sometimes called the student ...

  16. Glucose intolerance and physical inactivity: the relative importance of low habitual energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Wareham, N J; Wong, M Y; Day, N E

    2000-07-15

    Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus are associated with physical inactivity, but it is unclear whether preventive interventions should aim at increasing overall energy expenditure or increasing participation in vigorous, fitness-enhancing activities. Studies aimed at separating and quantifying the effects of these two dimensions of physical activity should use well-validated measurement instruments and employ a study design in which the bivariate error structure of these instruments is determined. In the Isle of Ely Study (Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), 775 individuals aged 45-70 years in 1994-1997 completed a glucose tolerance test and assessment of 4-day physical activity level (total energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate) by heart rate monitoring, a technique that has been validated against doubly labeled water and whole-body calorimetry. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) per kg)) was measured in a submaximal test. To correct for measurement error, the authors had 190 individuals repeat both tests on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Two-hour glucose level was negatively correlated with physical activity level (men: r = -0.22, p < 0.001; women: r = -0.11, p < 0.05) and VO2max per kg (men: r = -0.18, p < 0.01; women: r = -0.19, p < 0.001) and was positively correlated with age and obesity. The model incorporating bivariate adjustment for measurement error showed that energy expenditure had a major effect on glucose tolerance, but there was less of an effect for cardiorespiratory fitness. These data provide support for public health strategies aimed at increasing overall energy expenditure.

  17. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  18. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

  19. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high) were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in zone 2 (20 ± 21%) and zone 3 (3 ± 5%). Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68–0.75), as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49–0.75). Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game. PMID:26098638

  20. Mental health and fitness to plead proposals in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Mudathikundan, Faisal; Chao, Oriana; Forrester, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Proposals to reform fitness to plead legislation have been published by the Law Commission in England and Wales; they include a new test of decision making capacity and a new psychiatric test that has yet to be fully developed. Although proposals have met with some support, there have also been detractors. The history of fitness to plead is reviewed and current case law (including the 1836 Pritchard criteria) is examined. Although existing arrangements have been criticised, this may be attributable to inconsistent practical application, rather than inherent conceptual flaws. The Pritchard test has largely stood the test of time and has emerged relatively unscathed. Fitness to plead is not a medical construct, but rather a legal entity and any new test would be likely to introduce its own difficulties. A capacity based assessment could enhance debate and disagreement and increase court time in many cases, presenting new resource implications with questionable benefit. As the existing Pritchard criteria, amended by case law, already include a five limb test that closely resembles a capacity assessment (ability to plead to the indictment, to understand the course of the proceedings, to instruct a lawyer, to challenge a juror and to understand the evidence) and given the difficulties in introducing a functional test format in other jurisdictions, the Law Commission's proposals should now be set aside, perhaps for another day: reconsideration may be possible some decades hence, pending enhanced scientific developments within psychiatry and better understanding of the mind.

  1. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose was to: 1) perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2) make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese). To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1) Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2) More vigorous intensity activities should

  2. The Effects of a Lifetime Physical Fitness (LPF) Course on College Students’ Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    QUARTIROLI, ALESSANDRO; MAEDA, HOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivational constructs and the effect of physical activity engagement on health behaviors in college students who were required to take a 15-week lifetime physical fitness (LPF) course for graduation. A total of fifty-eight first and second year college students aged between 17 and 23 years (M=18.72; SD=1.09). Paper and pencil questionnaires were anonymously administered at the beginning and at the end of the 15-week long spring 2012 semester. Analysis of the differences between the beginning and the end of the semester was completed. Physical activity behaviors and Behavioral Regulations variables did not change across time (p > .05). Appearance (d = −0.34, p = .013) and fitness (d = −0.37, p = .006) reasons for participating in physical activity and all Theory of Planned Behavior variables decreased over time (d = −0.32 to − 0.41, p < .05). Changes in attitude toward physical activity negatively predicted changes in alcohol consumption (r = −.261 to −.357). This study sustains the already existing literature that supports the positive impact of LPF courses offered to college students. PMID:27293510

  3. Re-insurance in the Swiss health insurance market: Fit, power, and balance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services. PMID:27157115

  4. Skin cancer prevention coverage in popular US women's health and fitness magazines: an analysis of advertisements and articles.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-07-01

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer.  Media messages in women's magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study's aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women's health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women's health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women's Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women's health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed. PMID:24999136

  5. Skin Cancer Prevention Coverage in Popular US Women’s Health and Fitness Magazines: An Analysis of Advertisements and Articles

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer. Media messages in women’s magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study’s aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women’s health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women’s health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women’s Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women’s health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed. PMID:24999136

  6. Skin cancer prevention coverage in popular US women's health and fitness magazines: an analysis of advertisements and articles.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Berdnik, Alyssa

    2014-04-02

    The desire to be tan is a phenomenon that public health researchers have investigated, as exposure to UV radiation increases the chances of developing skin cancer.  Media messages in women's magazines have been shown to contribute to this problem. Much less is known about the prevalence of skin cancer prevention messages in these magazines. This study's aim was to identify the number and type of articles and advertised products devoted to skin health (sun protection and skin cancer prevention in particular) within five popular U.S. greater than women's health and fitness magazines. We analyzed articles and advertisements over seven months of issues of the following popular women's health and fitness magazines: Fitness, Health, Self, Shape, and Women's Health, March 2013 through September 2013. Overall, 31 issues of the five magazines with a total of 780 articles and 1,986 advertisements were analyzed. Of the 780 articles, a mere 2.9% (n=23) were devoted to skin. Of the 258 skin product advertisements, less than 20% of the products contained sun protection factor (SPF). These findings suggest that women's health and fitness magazines can improve their efforts in informing women of skin cancer risks and preventive measures to minimize these risks. The role of these magazines in building health literacy among their readers is also discussed.

  7. Status of the year 2000 health goals for physical activity and fitness.

    PubMed

    Francis, K T

    1999-04-01

    In Healthy People 2000, the national strategy for improving the health of the American people by the year 2000, lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity are major determinants of chronic disease and disability. Despite the documented benefits of exercise in enhancing health and reducing the risk of premature death, only 1 of the 13 physical activity and fitness objectives of Healthy People 2000 has been met or exceeded. Although progress toward 5 objectives for the year 2000 has been made, 3 objectives are actually farther from attainment. Coronary heart disease death rates (Objective 1.1) have declined, and the prevalence of overweight people (Objective 1.2) has increased. Overall physical activity in adults (Objectives 1.3 and 1.4) and strengthening and stretching activities in children (Objective 1.6) have increased, but reduction in the percentage of sedentary persons (Objective 1.5) has showed no change. The proportion of the population adopting sound dietary practices combined with regular physical activity to attain appropriate body weight (Objective 1.7) has declined. Even though participation in daily school physical education (Objective 1.8) has shown a decline during the past several years, students who are enrolled in physical education classes are spending more time performing physical activities (Objective 1.9). The proportion of work sites offering employer-sponsored physical activity and fitness programs (Objective 1.10) has increased substantially, surpassing the year 2000 goal. Data to update progress for increasing physical activity levels of children (Objectives 1.3-1.5), community exercise facilities (Objective 1.11), clinician counseling about physical activity (Objective 1.12), and improvement in personal self-care activities (Objective 1.13) are not yet available.

  8. Effect of equitation training on health and physical fitness of college females.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Michael C

    2006-09-01

    Limited information exists concerning equitation as a viable form of physical activity. The study's purpose was to quantify effects of an equitation training program on health and physical fitness of college females. Following written informed consent, 15 college females enrolled in equitation and 10 controls (age = 23.6 +/- 2.5 years; ht = 165.3 +/- 5.3 cm; wt = 62.4 +/- 3.4 kg) underwent a comprehensive pre- and post-series of tests to assess cardiorespiratory response (Bruce; VO2(peak), HR(peak), VE(peak), RER(peak), MAP(peak), RPP(peak)), body composition (body mass, body fat, fat-free mass), muscular power [Wingate; peak and mean power (MP), total power output, fatigue index (FI)], muscular strength (curl-ups, reverse sit-ups, pushups, handgrip), blood chemistry, and coronary risk. The equitation group trained at various equine gaits for 14 weeks, 5 days/week. Multivariate analyses of variance (Wilks' Lambda) indicated a significant main effect of training across muscular power (F (4,25) = 3.965; P = 0.013), but not across cardiorespiratory response (F (11,18) = 1.472; P = 0.225), body composition (F (3,26) = 1.081; P = 0.375), or muscular strength (F (4,25) = 2.172; P = 0.102). Pre-post improvements in MP (+13.3%; P = 0.01), total work output (+11.8%; P = 0.015), and FI (-10.5%; P = 0.038) were observed. Nonsignificant improvements of 8.5-11.4% were observed in muscular strength and body composition. In conclusion, equitation does not provide an adequate stimulus to improve health and fitness in young adults. Individuals who participate in equitation need to supplement this activity with traditional aerobic and load-bearing training regimens.

  9. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  10. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  11. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  12. Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles.

    PubMed

    Burr, J F; Jamnik, V K; Gledhill, N

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, clinical health, and quality of life (QOL) were compared at baseline and following 6 weeks of training. In all riding groups, there were improvements in blood pressure (SBP = 9.4 ± 10.1, DBP = 5.8 ± 6.2 mmHg), fasting glucose (0.5 ± 0.7 mmol/l), subcutaneous adiposity (0.9 ± 1.1%), body mass (0.7 ± 2.7 kg), waist circumference (1.3 ± 2.5 cm), and isometric leg endurance (26 ± 44 s). All changes were of moderate to large magnitude (Cohen's d 0.52-0.94) with the exception of a small loss of body mass (Cohen's d = 0.27). Although changes occurred in the riding groups for aerobic power (2.9 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), leg power (172 ± 486 w), and curl-ups (13.2 ± 22.7), these changes were not significantly different from the control group. No significant alterations occurred in resting heart rate, trunk flexibility, back endurance, hand grip strength, long jump, pull/push strength, or push-up ability as a result of training. Physical domain QOL increased in all 2 days/week riders but mental domain QOL increased in all ORM, but not ATV riders regardless of volume. Ambient carbon monoxide levels while riding (<30 ppm) were within safe exposure guidelines. Positive adaptations can be gained from a training program using off-road vehicle riding as the exercise stimulus.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  14. Effects of fluoranthene on the fitness-related traits and antioxidative defense in Lymantria dispar L.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Todorović, Dajana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene, supplemented to an artificial diet, on the fitness-related traits and activity of midgut antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and expression of their isoforms in the fifth-instar gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. Prolonged duration of development and reduced weight and relative growth rate were recorded in larvae reared on the diets supplemented with different concentrations of fluoranthene. SOD and CAT activities were significantly higher in the midguts of fluoranthene-treated larvae, compared to that of the control group. Different expression patterns were detected for SOD as well as for CAT isoforms, depending on the supplemented concentration of fluoranthene. Obtained results suggest that the activity of these enzymes in gypsy moth larvae may be used as biomarkers for assessing pollution, even at low concentrations of the pollutant. PMID:25976328

  15. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  16. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Yang, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion 'Additional file 1', we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public. PMID:23561306

  17. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion ‘Additional file 1’, we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public. PMID:23561306

  18. Exergames for health and fitness: the roles of GPS and geosocial apps.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Yang, Stephen P

    2013-04-05

    Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion 'Additional file 1', we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public.

  19. Work-related acute injuries from mandatory fitness training in the Swedish Police Force.

    PubMed

    de Loës, M; Jansson, B

    2002-04-01

    Acute injuries in the Swedish Police Force from on-duty fitness training were selected retrospectively from the Information System of Occupational Injuries (ISA) at the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and, if having caused a sick-leave exceeding 2 weeks, to the Labour Market Insurance (AMF Insurance). The latter included injuries from 1995 only. During the seven-year period 1992 to 1998, 920 injuries (80 % in males) from fitness training involving police officers were reported to the ISA-register. The total incidence was 1.6 for policemen per 10 000 hours of exposure and 2.2 for policewomen, which is 1.4 times higher than in men. Around 50 % of the injuries occurred in team and contact sports, with a slightly higher percentage for males, 54 % versus 49 % in females. The percentage of injuries from self-defense training was twice as high as in women than in men, 29 % versus 15 %. In 1995, 42 of the 72 injuries in males and 6 of the 21 injuries in females caused more than 14 days of sick-leave and were announced to the Occupational No Fault Liability Insurance. The major part, 32 of 48 injuries, came from team or contact sports (mainly floorball and soccer). Six policemen incurred injuries that were classified with a degree of disability ranging from 2 to 5 %. The total cost for medical treatment and production loss for the 48 injuries was Euro 248 448 and 99 336, respectively. Team and contact sports accounted for 89 % of the costs and 77 % of the production loss through sick-leave.

  20. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  1. Intergenic incompatibilities reduce fitness in hybrids of extremely closely related bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Sackman, Andrew M.; Reed, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer and recombination occur across many groups of viruses and play key roles in important viral processes such as host-range expansion and immune-system avoidance. To have any predictive power regarding the ability of viruses to readily recombine, we must determine the extent to which epistasis restricts the success of recombinants, particularly as it relates to the genetic divergence between parental strains. In any hybridization event, the evolutionary success or failure of hybrids is largely determined by the pervasiveness of epistasis in the parental genomes. Recombination has previously been shown to incur steep fitness costs in highly divergent viruses as a result of disrupted epistatic interactions. We used a pair of bacteriophages of the family Microviridae to demonstrate that epistasis may evidence itself in the form of fitness costs even in the case of the exchange of alleles at a locus with amino acid divergence as low as 1%. We explored a possible biophysical source of epistasis in the interaction of viral coat and scaffolding proteins and examined a recovery mutation that likely repairs interactions disrupted by recombination. PMID:26528406

  2. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  3. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Individuals: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Linn B.; Laugsand, Lars E.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Nes, Bjarne M.; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have found an inverse association between insomnia and self–reported physical activity, but it is not clear whether insomnia is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Our aim was to investigate different insomnia symptoms in relation to the gold standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness, i.e., peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Design: Cross-sectional population study. Setting: Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Participants: The group comprised 3,489 men and women who were free from cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, cancer, and sarcoidosis and who did not use antihypertensive medication. They were included in the fully adjusted model when assessing all insomnia symptoms simultaneously. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: For insomnia, the participants reported how often they had experienced sleep problems during the past 3 months, including difficulties falling asleep at night, repeated awakenings during the night, early awakenings without being able to go back to sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Response options were “never/almost never,” “sometimes” or “several times a wk.” To measure cardiorespiratory fitness, the participants were asked to walk or run on a treadmill with increasing speed and/or incline until exhaustion, and VO2peak was recorded. We found a modest inverse and graded association of the insomnia symptoms with VO2peak. The association was independent of self-reported physical activity and was apparent for all insomnia symptoms except for early awakenings. We found a dose-response relation for a cumulative combination of insomnia symptoms and VO2peak for experiencing zero, one to two, or three to four symptoms (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions: We found a modest inverse association of insomnia with VO2peak independent of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported physical activity. Citation: Strand LB; Laugsand LE; Wisløff U; Nes BM; Vatten L; Janszky I. Insomnia

  4. [Cardiorespiratory fitness among adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Krug, S; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A high level of fitness is an indicator for a good health state. Therefore, cardiorespiratory fitness was examined in the cross-sectional German Health Interview Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Data from 3030 test-qualified adults between 18 and 64 years old were assessed by means of a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Test-qualified participants were significantly younger, more often men, less often obese and showed a better health state than those who were not test-qualified. The calculated physical work capacity at 75 % of the age-predicted maximum heart rate (PWC75%) in watts per kg bodyweight was among men 1.52 and among women 1.15. PWC75% declines by 4.2 % per age decade for men and 4.8 % for women. A higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better fitness among women. No significant association was observed between SES and fitness among men. These findings can be used to develop target-group specific health-promotion interventions in order to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness. It is planned to calculate updated PWC reference values based on the DEGS1 data. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  5. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD. PMID:27106271

  6. The medium and the message: fitting sound health promotion methodology into 160 characters.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Wright, Cassandra; Hellard, Margaret E

    2014-11-03

    Text messaging health promotion projects continue to proliferate due to their relative low-cost, simplicity, non-intrusiveness, and proven effectiveness in several randomized controlled trials. In these past trials, participants have typically been recruited through traditional means, received the text messaging intervention, and then completed evaluation. In this issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research, Sheoran et al have demonstrated how use of text messaging alone can be a feasible method for all three stages: recruitment, intervention, and evaluation. Use of text messages without any other modes of communication could be a key to population-level dissemination and wider uptake of health promotion messages. However, in the rush to utilize new technologies and in the brevity of 160 characters, it should not be forgotten that quality, rigour, and careful development remain essential in any health promotion practice.

  7. The Medium and the Message: Fitting Sound Health Promotion Methodology Into 160 Characters

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Cassandra; Hellard, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Text messaging health promotion projects continue to proliferate due to their relative low-cost, simplicity, non-intrusiveness, and proven effectiveness in several randomized controlled trials. In these past trials, participants have typically been recruited through traditional means, received the text messaging intervention, and then completed evaluation. In this issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research, Sheoran et al have demonstrated how use of text messaging alone can be a feasible method for all three stages: recruitment, intervention, and evaluation. Use of text messages without any other modes of communication could be a key to population-level dissemination and wider uptake of health promotion messages. However, in the rush to utilize new technologies and in the brevity of 160 characters, it should not be forgotten that quality, rigour, and careful development remain essential in any health promotion practice. PMID:25367387

  8. Got Fitness? Addressing Student Fitness Needs within Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Aaron; Reimann, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Feeling trapped within your daily teaching routine? Are the same curricular activities getting you down, or worse yet ... your students? Perhaps you and your students are craving an injection of new and fun fitness activities designed for the secondary level. The development of health-related fitness has long been associated with primary…

  9. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  10. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  11. Demographic shifts related to mycoheterotrophy and their fitness impacts in two Cephalanthera species.

    PubMed

    Shefferson, Richard P; Roy, Mélanie; Püttsepp, Ülle; Selosse, Marc-André

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary losses of photosynthesis in terrestrial plants all originate in photosynthetic ancestors. The adaptive context under which this transition happens has remained elusive because of the rarity of plants in which both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic forms exist as a polymorphism. Here, we report on demographic patterns in photosynthetic ("green") and nonphotosynthetic ("albino") individuals within populations of two such species, Cephalanthera damasonium and C. longifolia, which also acquire nutrition from their mycorrhizal hosts (partial mycoheterotrophy). We hypothesized that demographic shifts in albinos relative to greens would include compensatory patterns with respect to fitness, such that maladaptive changes to survival or reproduction would be adaptively countered by changes to other parameters, such as growth probabilities. We tracked individuals in two populations of C. damasonium for 3 yr, and in one population of C. longifolia for 14 yr. We then analyzed vital rates for both phenotypes using general linear mixed models (GLMMs) and multi-state capture mark-recapture models (CMR), and used these models to develop size-classified, function-based population projection matrices. We estimated fitness as the deterministic population growth rate (λ) for each phenotype, and explored the impact of shifts in demographic patterns to albinism via life table response experiments (LTREs). Mortality differed between greens and albinos, but not similarly across species. Albinos generally sprouted less than greens, and flowered more when small but less at other times. Albinos typically had a higher probability of fruiting, although their lower flower numbers yielded lower numbers of fruits overall. Fitness did not differ significantly among phenotypes. Thus, we did not find significant evidence that albinism is adaptive or maladaptive; however, if in fact it is the latter, then we did find evidence of incomplete compensation for declines in survival and

  12. A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catharina C; Murray, Carien; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of cardiac autonomic activity and control via heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) is known to provide prognostic information in clinical populations. Issues with regard to standardization and interpretation of HRV data make the use of the more easily accessible HR on its own as an indicator of autonomic cardiac control very appealing. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of associations between an important cardio vascular health metric such as VO2max and the following: HR, HRV indicators, and HR normalized HRV indicators. A cross sectional descriptive study was done including 145 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. HRV was quantified by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analysis. Indirect VO2max was determined using the Multistage Coopers test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the strength of the associations. Both simple linear and multiple stepwise regressions were performed to be able to discriminate between the role of the individual indicators as well as their combined association with VO2max. Only HR, RR interval, and pNN50 showed significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.03) correlations with VO2max. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that, when combining all HRV indicators the most important predictor of cardio vascular fitness as represented by VO2max, is HR. HR explains 17% of the variation, while the inclusion of HF (high frequency HRV indicator) added only an additional 3.1% to the coefficient of determination. Results also showed when testing the normalized indicators, HR explained of the largest percentage of the changes in VO2max (16.5%). Thus, HR on its own is the most important predictor of changes in an important cardiac health metric such as VO2max. These results may indicate that during investigation of exercise ability (VO2max) phenomena, quantification of HRV may not add significant value. PMID:24312058

  13. Lifting a veil on diversity: a Bayesian approach to fitting relative-abundance models.

    PubMed

    Golicher, Duncan J; O'Hara, Robert B; Ruíz-Montoya, Lorena; Cayuela, Luis

    2006-02-01

    Bayesian methods incorporate prior knowledge into a statistical analysis. This prior knowledge is usually restricted to assumptions regarding the form of probability distributions of the parameters of interest, leaving their values to be determined mainly through the data. Here we show how a Bayesian approach can be applied to the problem of drawing inference regarding species abundance distributions and comparing diversity indices between sites. The classic log series and the lognormal models of relative- abundance distribution are apparently quite different in form. The first is a sampling distribution while the other is a model of abundance of the underlying population. Bayesian methods help unite these two models in a common framework. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation can be used to fit both distributions as small hierarchical models with shared common assumptions. Sampling error can be assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Species not found in a sample, but suspected to be present in the region or community of interest, can be given zero abundance. This not only simplifies the process of model fitting, but also provides a convenient way of calculating confidence intervals for diversity indices. The method is especially useful when a comparison of species diversity between sites with different sample sizes is the key motivation behind the research. We illustrate the potential of the approach using data on fruit-feeding butterflies in southern Mexico. We conclude that, once all assumptions have been made transparent, a single data set may provide support for the belief that diversity is negatively affected by anthropogenic forest disturbance. Bayesian methods help to apply theory regarding the distribution of abundance in ecological communities to applied conservation. PMID:16705973

  14. Perceived health status and health insurance status: protective factors against health-related debt?

    PubMed

    Christy, Kameri; Hampton-Stover, Elena; Shobe, Marcia; Hammig, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Current health care debate has largely focused on the need for health insurance coverage rather than quality coverage. Yet the economic downturn has resulted in an increasing number of individuals who are uninsured or underinsured, and consequently face financial hardships. Multivariate analyses were used with 95 adults to examine relationships between health insurance, health status, and health debt. Controlling for demographics, and human and financial capital, findings suggest that health debt is not related to health insurance or health status. However, individuals with post-secondary education and non-homeowners appear to be more at risk for accumulating health debt.

  15. SIMPLE FIT OF DATA RELATING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS TO GALAXY PITCH ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Mead, Lawrence R.

    2009-06-15

    Seigar et al. have recently demonstrated a new, tight correlation between galactic central supermassive black hole (BH) mass and the pitch angle of the spiral arm in disk galaxies which they attribute to other indirect correlations. They fit a double power law, governed by five parameters, to the BH mass as a function of pitch. Noting the features of their fitted curve, we show that a simple linear proportion of the BH mass to the cotangent of the pitch angle can obtain the same fit, within error. Such a direct, elegant fit may help shed light on the nature of the correlation.

  16. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    PubMed

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight in youth: the Healthy Hearts Longitudinal Study of Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    McGavock, Jonathan M; Torrance, Brian D; McGuire, K Ashlee; Wozny, Paul D; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

    2009-09-01

    The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight status in youth. To accomplish this aim we analyzed data from annual school-based surveys of cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometry conducted between 2004 and 2006. The first analysis was performed on a cohort of 902 youth aged 6-15 years followed for 12 months to assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels determined from a graded maximal field test and the risk of becoming overweight. The second analysis was conducted on a cohort of 222 youth followed for 2 years to assess the continuous association between annual changes fitness and weight gain. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness were characterized by higher waist circumference and disproportionate weight gain over the 12-month follow-up period (P < 0.05). Within the entire cohort, the 12-month risk of overweight classification was 3.5-fold (95% confidence = 2.0-6.0, P < 0.001) higher in youth with low cardiorespiratory fitness, relative to fit peers. A time series mixed effects regression model revealed that reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly and independently associated with increasing BMI (r = -0.18, P < 0.05) in youth. Accordingly, low cardiorespiratory fitness and reductions in fitness over time are significantly associated with weight gain and the risk of overweight in children 6-15 years old. An assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using a common field test may prove useful for the identification of youth at risk of overweight and serve as a potential target for obesity prevention.

  18. Pilot Implementation of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program in Select California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneman, Karrie; Junge, Sharon K.; Schneider, Connie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the effect of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program (CHF3) on the dietary knowledge and habits of participating children. Methods: The CHF3 program aims to 1) establish salad bars and integrate nutrition messages into cafeteria activities; 2) develop…

  19. Training for impact: the socio-economic impact of a fit for purpose health workforce on communities.

    PubMed

    Pálsdóttir, Björg; Barry, Jean; Bruno, Andreia; Barr, Hugh; Clithero, Amy; Cobb, Nadia; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Neusy, André-Jacques; Reeves, Scott; Strasser, Roger; Worley, Paul

    2016-08-15

    Across the globe, a "fit for purpose" health professional workforce is needed to meet health needs and challenges while capitalizing on existing resources and strengths of communities. However, the socio-economic impact of educating and deploying a fit for purpose health workforce can be challenging to evaluate. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of six promising strategies and interventions that provide context-relevant health professional education within the health system. The strategies focused on in the paper are:1. Distributed community-engaged learning: Education occurs in or near underserved communities using a variety of educational modalities including distance learning. Communities served provide input into and actively participate in the education process.2. Curriculum aligned with health needs: The health and social needs of targeted communities guide education, research and service programmes.3. Fit for purpose workers: Education and career tracks are designed to meet the needs of the communities served. This includes cadres such as community health workers, accelerated medically trained clinicians and extended generalists.4. Gender and social empowerment: Ensuring a diverse workforce that includes women having equal opportunity in education and are supported in their delivery of health services.5. Interprofessional training: Teaching the knowledge, skills and attitudes for working in effective teams across professions.6. South-south and north-south partnerships: Sharing of best practices and resources within and between countries.In sum, the sharing of resources, the development of a diverse and interprofessional workforce, the advancement of primary care and a strong community focus all contribute to a world where transformational education improves community health and maximizes the social and economic return on investment.

  20. Training for impact: the socio-economic impact of a fit for purpose health workforce on communities.

    PubMed

    Pálsdóttir, Björg; Barry, Jean; Bruno, Andreia; Barr, Hugh; Clithero, Amy; Cobb, Nadia; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Neusy, André-Jacques; Reeves, Scott; Strasser, Roger; Worley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Across the globe, a "fit for purpose" health professional workforce is needed to meet health needs and challenges while capitalizing on existing resources and strengths of communities. However, the socio-economic impact of educating and deploying a fit for purpose health workforce can be challenging to evaluate. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of six promising strategies and interventions that provide context-relevant health professional education within the health system. The strategies focused on in the paper are:1. Distributed community-engaged learning: Education occurs in or near underserved communities using a variety of educational modalities including distance learning. Communities served provide input into and actively participate in the education process.2. Curriculum aligned with health needs: The health and social needs of targeted communities guide education, research and service programmes.3. Fit for purpose workers: Education and career tracks are designed to meet the needs of the communities served. This includes cadres such as community health workers, accelerated medically trained clinicians and extended generalists.4. Gender and social empowerment: Ensuring a diverse workforce that includes women having equal opportunity in education and are supported in their delivery of health services.5. Interprofessional training: Teaching the knowledge, skills and attitudes for working in effective teams across professions.6. South-south and north-south partnerships: Sharing of best practices and resources within and between countries.In sum, the sharing of resources, the development of a diverse and interprofessional workforce, the advancement of primary care and a strong community focus all contribute to a world where transformational education improves community health and maximizes the social and economic return on investment. PMID:27523088

  1. Use of Electronic Health-Related Datasets in Nursing and Health-Related Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Aloush, Sami; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp

    2015-07-01

    Datasets of gigabyte size are common in medical sciences. There is increasing consensus that significant untapped knowledge lies hidden in these large datasets. This review article aims to discuss Electronic Health-Related Datasets (EHRDs) in terms of types, features, advantages, limitations, and possible use in nursing and health-related research. Major scientific databases, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, were searched for studies or review articles regarding using EHRDs in research. A total number of 442 articles were located. After application of study inclusion criteria, 113 articles were included in the final review. EHRDs were categorized into Electronic Administrative Health-Related Datasets and Electronic Clinical Health-Related Datasets. Subcategories of each major category were identified. EHRDs are invaluable assets for nursing the health-related research. Advanced research skills such as using analytical softwares, advanced statistical procedures, dealing with missing data and missing variables will maximize the efficient utilization of EHRDs in research.

  2. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  3. Entering Adulthood: Moving into Fitness. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Betty M.

    This module includes seven lessons designed to help students in grades 9-12 enhance their present and future levels of fitness. It begins with an exploration of the meaning and benefits of fitness. In lesson 1, students complete an inventory to assess their present level of physical activity. Lesson 2 deals with students' feelings about their…

  4. The Army's High Priority Physical Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Fred R.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the importance of physical fitness in the United States Army. The development of expanded fitness assessment and programs is related to health and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Improved physical training programs, improved nutrition, and fundamental research are necessary for maintaining a highly fit and healthy…

  5. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  6. Spontaneous mutational variances and covariances for fitness-related traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez-Fanjul, C.

    1996-06-01

    Starting from a completely homozygous population of Drosophila melanogaster, 176 lines were derived and independently maintained by a single brother-sister mating per generation. Three fitness-related traits were considered (fecundity, egg-to-pupa and pupa-to-adult viabilities). Mutational heritabilities of these traits and genetic correlations between all possible pairs were calculated from the between line divergence (codivergence), after 104-106 generations of mutation accumulation. Mutational heritabilities ranged from 0.60 x 10{sup -3} to 0.82 x 10{sup -3} and correlations from -0.11 to 0.25. These values are likely to be underestimates due to selection against deleterious mutations. The distribution of the means of the lines was asymmetric, positive for fecundity and negative for both viability components. The coefficients of asymmetry are also likely to be biased, again due to selection. Extreme lines from the two tails of the distribution were examined in detail. Homozygous line effects were all negative for viability traits but predominantly positive for fecundity, indicating the fixation of mutations with positive effects on the latter. Corresponding heterozygous line effects showed a variable degree of dominance. 30 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Training Methods and Training Instructors' Qualification Are Related to Recruits' Fitness Development During Basic Military Training.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Hofstetter, Marie-Claire; Mäder, Urs; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Adequate physical fitness is essential for successful military service. Military organizations worldwide therefore make continuous efforts to improve their army's physical training (PT) programs. To investigate the effect of the training methods and the qualification of PT instructors on the development of recruits' physical fitness, the present study compared the outcomes of 2 training groups. Both study groups participated in approximately 145 minutes per week of PT. The control group executed the standard army PT prepared and supervised by army PT instructors. Content of the PT in the intervention group was similar to that of the control group, but their training sessions' methods were different. Their training sessions were organized, prepared, and delivered by more and better-qualified supervisors (tertiary-educated physical education teachers). After 10 weeks of training, the participants of the intervention group experienced a significantly greater physical fitness improvement than those of the control group (positive change in endurance 32 and 17%, balance 30 and 21%, and core strength 74 and 45%, respectively). In both groups, the recruits with the lowest initial fitness levels significantly increased their performance. In the intervention group, but not the control, one-third of the recruits with the highest initial fitness levels were able to further improve their general fitness performance. This study demonstrates that the training methods and quality of instruction during PT sessions are relevant for recruits' fitness development in basic military training.

  8. [Fitness symbols: the physical exercise programmes for health and beauty by famous actresses].

    PubMed

    del Díaz Montero, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years we have seen the proliferation of books on some kinds of physical exercise whose supposed belief is that staying healthy is directly related to a socially acceptable physique. Health and beauty go hand in hand in these books, and they are presented as being a result of practising a technique which is advocted by some successful figure in society such as a film actress. Four different models are analysed, each one of which corresponds to a value set by western society--beauty, competitiveness ...--or other values such as --serenity and harmony--the perceived lack of which is both sought and taken from other cultures.

  9. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training.

  10. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training. PMID:24276303

  11. The Other 23 Hours: A Qualitative Study of Fitness Provider Perspectives on Social Support for Health Promotion for Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change. PMID:26027417

  12. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  13. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

  14. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  15. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  16. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Michael; Finze, Susanne; Holtherm, Christoph; Hinder, Jens; Lison, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6 ± 4.2 years) answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry) and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions. PMID:27774505

  17. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  18. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  19. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.

  20. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed. PMID:26151169

  1. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  2. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  3. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  4. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged <50 years, men, and people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome appeared to benefit more. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  5. The Texas Youth Fitness Study: Looking at School Policies as They Relate to Physical Fitness and Academic Variables. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiden, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    In partnership with three universities, the Cooper Institute, Dallas, completed the Texas Youth Fitness Study from 2008 to 2009. The study explored three key questions: (1) Is physical fitness associated with academic performance?; (2) Can physical education teachers collect high-quality information on student fitness?; and (3) Are school policies…

  6. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-12-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  7. Standardized Curricula for Allied Health and Related Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational and technical programs in Mississippi: allied health and related technology I (health cluster I) and allied health and related technology II (health cluster II). Introductory materials include the philosophy and aims of allied health and related technology in…

  8. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ≤ 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ≤ 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ≥ 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme.

  9. A Crack Where the Light Gets In: A Study of Health and Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Fitness Testing as a Context for Learning about Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive critique, the teaching of Health and Physical Education (HPE) continues to be characterised by individualised and performative ideologies which are reflected in part by a continued focus upon fitness testing. There has been little attempt, however, to explore Australian HPE teachers' thoughts and reasoning for its privileged…

  10. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  11. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  12. Personal financial incentives in health promotion: where do they fit in an ethic of autonomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper reviews the ethical controversy concerning the use of monetary incentives in health promotion, focussing specifically on the arguments relating to the impact on personal autonomy of such incentives. Background Offering people small amounts of money in the context of health promotion and medical care has been attempted in a number of settings in recent years. This use of personal financial incentives has attracted a degree of ethical controversy. One form of criticism is that such schemes interfere with the autonomy of the patient or citizen in an illegitimate way. Methods This paper presents a thematic analysis of the main arguments concerning personal autonomy and the use of monetary incentives in behaviour change. Results The main moral objections to the uses of incentives are that they may be in general or in specific instances paternalistic, coercive, involve bribery, or undermine the agency of the person. Conclusion While incentive schemes may engage these problems on occasion, there is no good reason to think that they do so inherently and of necessity. We need better behavioural science evidence to understand how incentives work, in order to evaluate their moral effects in practice. PMID:21348904

  13. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (rp = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Overall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  14. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  15. [Effect of therapeutic exercise on physical fitness in a school health program for obese children].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tatsumi, M

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determined characteristics of physical fitness in obese children, and to examine the effect of a diet-exercise program, developed in our laboratory, on the physical fitness of these children. To accomplish the first objective, a physical fitness test consisting of 11 items was administered on 126 obese and normal weight children (boys 83, girls 43) matched for age, sex, and stature. The children, 9-10 years of age, were pupils from 11 public elementary schools in Morioka, Iwate, Japan. To accomplish the second objective, 92 obese children participated in a study. The children were divided into experimental and control groups. Children in the experimental group (n = 50) participated in a diet-exercise program for three months, while children in the control group (n = 42) were left alone without taking part in the program. The results of this study are summarized as follows; 1. The obese children were found to be significantly inferior to the normal-weight children in fitness items such as standing long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, step test, and total fitness scores. While no differences in lying trunk extension and standing trunk flexion for body flexibility were observed, the obese children were found to be superior to the normal weight children in static strength such as grip and back strengths. 2. The poor physical fitness of the obese children was found to be negatively affected by their excess body fat, rather than body weight, and that this trend was more pronounced for boys than for girls. 3. The intervention study clearly demonstrated that children in the experimental group improved in physical fitness for most items, especially in abdominal muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, and total physical fitness. 4. It was shown that the diet-exercise program, which comprised guidance on physical exercise and individual nutrition counseling was very useful, because the participants should decrease a considerable in percent overweight

  16. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  17. Fitness of resprouters versus seeders in relation to nutrient availability in two Plantago species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka

    2009-07-01

    Two contrasting strategies of plants from disturbed areas are reported to depend on nutrient availability. Resprouters, investing into storage and capable of vegetative regeneration after disturbance, are predicted to be enhanced in nutrient poor environments. This contrasts to seeders, which invest preferentially into seed production and regenerating only from seeds, and are thought to prevail in nutrient rich environments. To test such predicted dichotomy, we set up an experiment with two facultative resprouters with contrasting nutrient demands and assessed the fitness of individuals regenerated from seeds and root fragments in differently productive environments. We hypothesized that 1) plants with higher nutrient demands have a higher fitness as seeders irrespectable of nutrient availability and/or 2) both species will have a higher fitness as resprouters under lower nutrient availability and as seeders when nutrient availability is higher. Nutrient availability was also manipulated prior to and after disturbance to evaluate the impact of changing nutrient availability on the strategy of resprouting. The results of our pot experiment with Plantago lanceolata and Plantago media supported the first but not the second hypothesis. Moreover, high nutrient availability prior to disturbance negatively affected resprouting success, but the growth and fitness of successfully regenerated individuals were enhanced under higher nutrient availability. We concluded that resprouting from roots after disturbance is affected by nutrient availability, but this effect considerably differs between individual life-history stages.

  18. An Examination of the Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit in Relations between Information Literacy and Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how information literacy can enhance job performance in the workplace setting. Design/methodology/approach: Building on extant research, an integrated framework in which information literacy is related to person-job fit which in turn influences job performance is proposed. A survey questionnaire…

  19. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  20. Learning Curves: Making Quality Online Health Information Available at a Fitness Center.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Montie T; Tarver, Talicia; Adams, Mararia; Jones, Dixie A

    2012-01-01

    Meeting consumer health information needs can be a challenge. Research suggests that women seek health information from a variety of resources, including the Internet. In an effort to make women aware of reliable health information sources, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center - Shreveport Medical Library engaged in a partnership with a franchise location of Curves International, Inc. This article will discuss the project, its goals and its challenges.

  1. Learning Curves: Making Quality Online Health Information Available at a Fitness Center

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Montie T.; Tarver, Talicia; Adams, Mararia; Jones, Dixie A.

    2012-01-01

    Meeting consumer health information needs can be a challenge. Research suggests that women seek health information from a variety of resources, including the Internet. In an effort to make women aware of reliable health information sources, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center – Shreveport Medical Library engaged in a partnership with a franchise location of Curves International, Inc. This article will discuss the project, its goals and its challenges. PMID:22545020

  2. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    PubMed

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Murrieta, Reyes A; Fauver, Joseph R; Garcia-Luna, Selene M; Prasad, Abhishek N; Black, William C; Ebel, Gregory D

    2016-04-13

    The emergence of mosquito-borne RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. Here, we determine whether WNV enzootic (Culex tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (Aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. During systemic mosquito infection, WNV faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansions. Interestingly, this intrahost selection and diversification was mosquito species dependent with Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibiting greater WNV divergence. However, recovered viral populations contained a preponderance of potentially deleterious mutations (i.e., high mutational load) and had lower relative fitness in avian cells compared to input virus. These findings demonstrate that the adaptive potential associated with mosquito transmission varies depending on the mosquito species and carries a significant fitness cost in vertebrates.

  3. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    PubMed

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Murrieta, Reyes A; Fauver, Joseph R; Garcia-Luna, Selene M; Prasad, Abhishek N; Black, William C; Ebel, Gregory D

    2016-04-13

    The emergence of mosquito-borne RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. Here, we determine whether WNV enzootic (Culex tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (Aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. During systemic mosquito infection, WNV faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansions. Interestingly, this intrahost selection and diversification was mosquito species dependent with Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibiting greater WNV divergence. However, recovered viral populations contained a preponderance of potentially deleterious mutations (i.e., high mutational load) and had lower relative fitness in avian cells compared to input virus. These findings demonstrate that the adaptive potential associated with mosquito transmission varies depending on the mosquito species and carries a significant fitness cost in vertebrates. PMID:27049584

  4. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  5. The Relation between Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Fitness, and Obesity in Children from Three Countries at Different Stages of the Physical Activity Transition

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, M.; Onywera, V.; Tremblay, M. S.; Adamo, K. B.; Lopez Taylor, J.; Jáuregui Ulloa, E.; Janssen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The physical activity transition is contributing to an increase in childhood obesity and a decrease in fitness worldwide. This study compared body composition and fitness measures in children from three countries and examined intercountry differences in the relationship between these variables. Methods. Participants consisted of 736 Canadian, 193 Mexican, and 179 Kenyan children aged 9–13 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfolds, aerobic fitness, and muscular fitness were measured. Linear regression was used to examine associations between variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was the highest in Mexican children (9.2% boys, 8.4% girls) and the lowest in Kenyan children (0.9% boys, 2.8% girls). Aerobic fitness (VO2max in mL/kg/min) was the highest in Kenyan children (50.2 boys, 46.7 girls) and the lowest in Canadian children (41.3 boys, 38.3 girls). Aerobic fitness was negatively associated with body composition measures irrespective of country and sex. Mexican children with low aerobic fitness had higher body composition measures than Canadian and Kenyan children. Muscular fitness was not associated with the body composition measures in Kenyan children but was a weak positive correlate of BMI and waist circumference in Canadian and Mexican children. Conclusion. The current study provides some evidence to support the physical activity transition hypothesis. PMID:24533216

  6. Physical fitness of primary school children in relation to overweight prevalence and physical activity habits.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; Ceciliani, Andrea; Garulli, Andrea; Masotti, Andrea; Poletti, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse, through a limited number of fitness tests, the main conditioning and coordinative abilities in children aged 8-9 years, and their relationship with gender, anthropometric variables and physical activity habits. The height and weight of 256 boys and 241 girls were measured and information about physical activity habits was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical performance was assessed by means of a few standardised tests: 'sit & reach', medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll test. In both boys and girls, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were positively correlated with the medicine-ball throw performances and negatively correlated for the standing long jump and speed tests, while no association was found with tests measuring back flexibility and total body coordination. Daily physical activity and participation in sport were not significantly correlated with body weight and BMI, but were positively associated with children's motor performance. The standardised fitness tests selected in the current study have been found to be suitable to identify fitness levels of primary school children. Thanks to their limited number and ease of measurement, they can be used in any school context to classify children and for monitoring the effects of targeted interventions promoting physical activity.

  7. Overview of the Texas Youth Fitness Study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Martin, Scott B; Welk, Gregory J; Zhu, Weimo; Meredith, Marilu D

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the historical and legislative backgrounds leading to statewide testing of health-related physical fitness in Texas children grades 3-12 as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. The rationale and goals for an associated research project (the Texas Youth Fitness Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) to evaluate data collected from the statewide initiative are provided. The study investigated the relations between health-related physical fitness and educational variables, including academic achievement, absenteeism, and negative school incidents. It also provides unique insights into the quality (both reliability and validity) of collected data and implications of large-scale school-based physical fitness testing. Teacher commentary and experiences add to the description of the data collection processes. Last, the relations between psychosocial variables and health-related fitness in middle school students are described.

  8. Oxygen consumption during functional electrical stimulation-assisted exercise in persons with spinal cord injury: implications for fitness and health.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Dries M; Andrews, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    more suited for high-intensity, high-volume exercise training than FES-cycling. In able-bodied people, such exercise programmes have shown to result in superior health and fitness benefits. Future research should examine whether similar high-intensity and high-volume exercise programmes also give persons with SCI superior fitness and health benefits. This kind of research is very timely given the high incidence of physical inactivity-related health conditions in the aging SCI population.

  9. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Hee; Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  11. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, John William Oman; Yi, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease. PMID:25028670

  12. The meaning of "physical fitness".

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Walker, N P

    1988-11-01

    The understanding of the term "physical fitness" was determined for a randomly selected sample (n = 94) of a population using a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Subjects were asked to state and give a reason for their perceived level of physical fitness, to state their perceived performance level in a number of physical fitness tests (muscular strength, daily physical work capacity, fatness, level of regular physical exercise, exercise speed, and body flexibility), and to rate how well these tests measure physical fitness. The reason most frequently stated for perceived level of physical fitness was the level of habitual physical activity (43%); significantly less frequently (P less than 0.01-0.0001) cited were reasons related to health (23%), physical performance (12%), and obesity (3%). The variation in perceived level of physical fitness was best explained by the variation in imagined regular exercise and fatness (r2 = 0.66, P less than 0.0001) with no significant additional contribution from imagined performance in remaining fitness tests. The measurement of regular exercise was most favored as a test of physical fitness. These results, taken together with evidence of the physical and psychological health benefits of regular exercise, imply that the most appropriate measure of physical fitness for the average person is an assessment of the habitual physical activity level.

  13. Health and Fitness App Use in College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowin, Mary; Cheney, Marshall; Gwin, Shannon; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students experience weight gain that can contribute to serious health issues. Health education efforts with college students are increasingly utilizing new technologies. Smartphone applications (apps) in particular are growing in popularity and use in all young adults. Purpose: Formative research was conducted to describe how…

  14. Identification of Vehicle Health Assurance Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Leone, Karen M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Trend analysis in aviation as related to vehicle health management (VHM) was performed by reviewing the most current statistical and prognostics data available from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident, and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident datasets. In addition, future directions in aviation technology related to VHM research areas were assessed through the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementations (SERFIs), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Most-Wanted List and recent open safety recommendations, the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, and the Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) areas of change. Future research direction in the VHM research areas is evidently strong as seen from recent research solicitations from the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), and VHM-related technologies actively being developed by aviation industry leaders, including GE, Boeing, Airbus, and UTC Aerospace Systems. Given the highly complex VHM systems, modifications can be made in the future so that the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project (VSST) technical challenges address inadequate maintenance crew's trainings and skills, and the certification methods of such systems as recommended by the NTSB, NRC, and FAST areas of change.

  15. A new curriculum for fitness education.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J L

    1983-01-01

    Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children. PMID:6414039

  16. Experiences of Transgender-Related Discrimination and Implications for Health: Results From the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Honnold, Julie A.; Xavier, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between social determinants of health and experiences of transgender-related discrimination reported by transgender people in Virginia. Methods. In 2005 through 2006, 387 self-identified transgender people completed a statewide health needs assessment; 350 who completed eligibility questions were included in this examination of factors associated with experiences of discrimination in health care, employment, or housing. We fit multivariate logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to adjust for survey modality (online vs paper). Results. Of participants, 41% (n = 143) reported experiences of transgender-related discrimination. Factors associated with transgender-related discrimination were geographic context, gender (female-to male spectrum vs male-to-female spectrum), low socioeconomic status, being a racial/ethnic minority, not having health insurance, gender transition indicators (younger age at first transgender awareness), health care needed but unable to be obtained (hormone therapy and mental health services), history of violence (sexual and physical), substance use health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol), and interpersonal factors (family support and community connectedness). Conclusions. Findings suggest that transgender Virginians experience widespread discrimination in health care, employment, and housing. Multilevel interventions are needed for transgender populations, including legal protections and training for health care providers. PMID:23153142

  17. Genes Contributing to Staphylococcus aureus Fitness in Abscess- and Infection-Related Ecologies

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Michael D.; Foulston, Lucy; Sadaka, Ama; Kos, Veronica N.; Villet, Regis A.; Santa Maria, John; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew; Walker, Suzanne; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both community- and hospital-acquired infections that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. The emergence of S. aureus resistance to even last-line antibiotics heightens the need for the development of new drugs with novel targets. We generated a highly saturated transposon insertion mutant library in the genome of S. aureus and used Tn-seq analysis to probe the entire genome, with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, for genes of importance in infection. We further identified genes contributing to fitness in various infected compartments (blood and ocular fluids) and compared them to genes required for growth in rich medium. This resulted in the identification of 426 genes that were important for S. aureus fitness during growth in infection models, including 71 genes that could be considered essential for survival specifically during infection. These findings highlight novel as well as previously known genes encoding virulence traits and metabolic pathways important for S. aureus proliferation at sites of infection, which may represent new therapeutic targets. PMID:25182329

  18. A History of Regression and Related Model-Fitting in the Earth Sciences (1636?-2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, Richard J.

    2001-12-15

    The (statistical) modeling of the behavior of a dependent variate as a function of one or more predictors provides examples of model-fitting which span the development of the earth sciences from the 17th Century to the present. The historical development of these methods and their subsequent application is reviewed. Bond's predictions (c. 1636 and 1668) of change in the magnetic declination at London may be the earliest attempt to fit such models to geophysical data. Following publication of Newton's theory of gravitation in 1726, analysis of data on the length of a 1{sup o} meridian arc, and the length of a pendulum beating seconds, as a function of sin{sup 2}(latitude), was used to determine the ellipticity of the oblate spheroid defining the Figure of the Earth. The pioneering computational methods of Mayer in 1750, Boscovich in 1755, and Lambert in 1765, and the subsequent independent discoveries of the principle of least squares by Gauss in 1799, Legendre in 1805, and Adrain in 1808, and its later substantiation on the basis of probability theory by Gauss in 1809 were all applied to the analysis of such geodetic and geophysical data. Notable later applications include: the geomagnetic survey of Ireland by Lloyd, Sabine, and Ross in 1836, Gauss's model of the terrestrial magnetic field in 1838, and Airy's 1845 analysis of the residuals from a fit to pendulum lengths, from which he recognized the anomalous character of measurements of gravitational force which had been made on islands. In the early 20th Century applications to geological topics proliferated, but the computational burden effectively held back applications of multivariate analysis. Following World War II, the arrival of digital computers in universities in the 1950s facilitated computation, and fitting linear or polynomial models as a function of geographic coordinates, trend surface analysis, became popular during the 1950-60s. The inception of geostatistics in France at this time by Matheron had

  19. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  20. The relative importance of health, income and social relations for subjective well-being: An integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-03-01

    There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL), household income and social relationships for subjective well-being (SWB), where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). In a comprehensive 2012 survey from six countries, seven disease groups and representative healthy samples (N = 7933) reported their health along several measures of HRQoL. A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB (as a share of goodness-of-fit) is 50.2, 19.3 and 7.3% when EQ-5D-5L is used as a measure of health. These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL. The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance.

  1. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  2. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal. PMID:22929840

  3. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Bernard; Harris, Ryan A.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n = 242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths. PMID:22007244

  4. Fitness Unfolding: How To Begin and Maintain a Quality, Healthy Lifestyle. Tips, Guidelines, Resources, and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Sydney

    This book presents a holistic approach to fitness, opens channels of information, and identifies useful resources and references. After an introduction to the subject of health related fitness, the book presents 12 chapters answering the following questions: (1) Why Not Be Fit? (2) What Is Physical Fitness? (3) Why Participate in Fitness? (4) What…

  5. Multivariate immune defences and fitness in the wild: complex but ecologically important associations among plasma antibodies, health and survival

    PubMed Central

    Nussey, Daniel H.; Watt, Kathryn A.; Clark, Abigail; Pilkington, Jill G.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Graham, Andrea L.; McNeilly, Tom N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite our rapidly advancing mechanistic understanding of vertebrate immunity under controlled laboratory conditions, the links between immunity, infection and fitness under natural conditions remain poorly understood. Antibodies are central to acquired immune responses, and antibody levels circulating in vivo reflect a composite of constitutive and induced functional variants of diverse specificities (e.g. binding antigens from prevalent parasites, self tissues or novel non-self sources). Here, we measured plasma concentrations of 11 different antibody types in adult females from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep on St Kilda. Correlations among antibody measures were generally positive but weak, and eight of the measures independently predicted body mass, strongyle parasite egg count or survival over the subsequent winter. These independent and, in some cases, antagonistic relationships point to important multivariate immunological heterogeneities affecting organismal health and fitness in natural systems. Notably, we identified a strong positive association between anti-nematode immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies in summer and subsequent over-winter survival, providing rare evidence for a fitness benefit of helminth-specific immunity under natural conditions. Our results highlight both the evolutionary and ecological importance and the complex nature of the immune phenotype in the wild. PMID:24500168

  6. The Fit for School health outcome study - a longitudinal survey to assess health impacts of an integrated school health programme in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Child health in many low- and middle-income countries lags behind international goals and affects children’s education, well-being, and general development. Large-scale school health programmes can be effective in reducing preventable diseases through cost-effective interventions. This paper outlines the baseline and 1-year results of a longitudinal health study assessing the impact of the Fit for School Programme in the Philippines. Methods A longitudinal 4-year cohort study was conducted in the province of Camiguin, Mindanao (experimental group); an external concurrent control group was studied in Gingoog, Mindanao. The study has three experimental groups: group 1—daily handwashing with soap, daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste, biannual deworming with 400 mg albendazole (Essential Health Care Program [EHCP]); group 2—EHCP plus twice-a-year access to school-based Oral Urgent Treatment; group 3—EHCP plus weekly toothbrushing with high-fluoride concentration gel. A non-concurrent internal control group was also included. Baseline data on anthropometric indicators to calculate body mass index (BMI), soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infection in stool samples, and dental caries were collected in August 2009 and August 2010. Data were analysed to assess validity of the control group design, baseline, and 1-year results. Results In the cohort study, 412 children were examined at baseline and 341 1 year after intervention. The baseline results were in line with national averages for STH infection, BMI, and dental caries in group 1 and the control groups. Children lost to follow-up had similar baseline characteristics in the experimental and control groups. After 1 year, group 1 showed a significantly higher increase in mean BMI and lower prevalence of moderate to heavy STH infection than the external concurrent control group. The increases in caries and dental infections were reduced but not statistically significant. The results for groups 2

  7. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  8. Fitness and competency issues in Canadian criminal courts: elucidating the standards for mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, K E; Ogloff, J R

    1994-05-01

    The issue of competency arises at various stages of criminal proceedings in an effort to protect those individuals who are unable to participate in the legal process. The competency question is a legal issue ultimately decided by a judge. However, mental health professionals are often called upon to provide insight into an individual's level of competence. To date, the standards by which an individual is found competent have remained far from clear. This creates a problem for clinicians who are requested to make competency evaluations. This article addresses the competency issues as they arise at various stages of legal proceedings in order to determine the standards that are applied by the courts. Furthermore, given the importance placed on mental health evaluations of competency, the role of mental health practitioners will be addressed as it pertains to the competency question at each juncture in the criminal justice system.

  9. Climate change adaptation: where does global health fit in the agenda?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Friel, Sharon

    2012-05-27

    Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities.

  10. Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

  11. A comparison of the health risk, health status, self-motivation, psychological symptomatic distress, and physical fitness of overweight and normal-weight soldiers.

    PubMed

    Troumbley, P F; Burman, K D; Rinke, W J; Lenz, E R

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the assumptions underlying the Army's Weight Control Program (AWCP) and to determine whether overweight and normal-weight soldiers differed with respect to health risk, health status, self-motivation, psychological symptomatic distress, and physical fitness. The sample consisted of 154 active-duty male and female enlisted Army soldiers assigned to the Maryland and District of Washington area: 77 overweight soldiers and 77 normal-weight soldiers were randomly selected from a gender-stratified, unit-specific list. To test the hypothesis that the two groups would differ, data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The hypothesis was supported. The overweight and normal-weight soldiers differed, with the former having greater health risk, lower health status, and lower physical fitness; but the two groups did not differ in self-motivation or psychological symptomatic distress. These results support the concept that obesity is associated with increased morbidity. Further studies are necessary to examine the mechanisms by which endogenous physiological factors contribute to the expression of obesity.

  12. Fitness and Our Forebears: Insights into the Health of the Modern Human.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William T.

    1989-01-01

    The Discordance Hypothesis suggests that the human genetic makeup has only changed one-hundredth of one percent in the last 10,000 years. In that time the world has changed dramatically and the environment has become hazardous to our health. The goal is to emulate our ancestors' diet and lifestyle. (MLW)

  13. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers: Health, Fitness, Recreation, and Dance. Volume II, Book 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H., Ed.

    The titles included in this collection are: Biographical Research in Health Education; Historical Research as it Applies to Groups or Institutions; Water & Electrolytes and Other Aids; Limiting Factors of Endurance Performance: A Brief Review; Limiting Factors for Endurance Exercise: Carbohydrate and Fat Utilization; Hooked on Running: A…

  14. Effect of the Bienestar Health Program on Physical Fitness in Low-Income Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Roberto P.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Yin, Zenong; Garcia, Oralia A.; Hernandez, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Once considered an adult onset disease, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in low-income Mexican American children. Studies have suggested that most of those so diagnosed were overweight, reported low levels of physical activity, and were generally unaware of their disease. The Bienestar Health Program was designed to reduce risk…

  15. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  16. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution.

  17. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  18. Genome-Enabled Modeling of Biogeochemical Processes Predicts Metabolic Dependencies that Connect the Relative Fitness of Microbial Functional Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, E.; King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Steefel, C. I.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Anantharaman, K.; Ligocki, T. J.; Trebotich, D.

    2015-12-01

    Pore-scale processes mediated by microorganisms underlie a range of critical ecosystem services, regulating carbon stability, nutrient flux, and the purification of water. Advances in cultivation-independent approaches now provide us with the ability to reconstruct thousands of genomes from microbial populations from which functional roles may be assigned. With this capability to reveal microbial metabolic potential, the next step is to put these microbes back where they belong to interact with their natural environment, i.e. the pore scale. At this scale, microorganisms communicate, cooperate and compete across their fitness landscapes with communities emerging that feedback on the physical and chemical properties of their environment, ultimately altering the fitness landscape and selecting for new microbial communities with new properties and so on. We have developed a trait-based model of microbial activity that simulates coupled functional guilds that are parameterized with unique combinations of traits that govern fitness under dynamic conditions. Using a reactive transport framework, we simulate the thermodynamics of coupled electron donor-acceptor reactions to predict energy available for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production. From metagenomics, we directly estimate some trait values related to growth and identify the linkage of key traits associated with respiration and fermentation, macromolecule depolymerizing enzymes, and other key functions such as nitrogen fixation. Our simulations were carried out to explore abiotic controls on community emergence such as seasonally fluctuating water table regimes across floodplain organic matter hotspots. Simulations and metagenomic/metatranscriptomic observations highlighted the many dependencies connecting the relative fitness of functional guilds and the importance of chemolithoautotrophic lifestyles. Using an X-Ray microCT-derived soil microaggregate physical model combined

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  20. Fatness but Not Fitness Relative to the Fat-Free Mass Is Related to C-Reactive Protein in 18 Year-Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hinriksdóttir, Gunnhildur; Tryggvadóttir, Ágústa; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Arngrímsson, Sigurbjörn Árni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The interaction between fatness, fitness, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents is not well characterized but may be important to prevent low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between adiposity, different expressions of fitness, and CRP in late adolescence using direct measures of fitness and fatness. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken on 245 eighteen-year-old participants (116 girls). Fasting CRP, glucose, and insulin were measured and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) calculated. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a treadmill test and also expressed relative to the fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM). Results Prevalence of overweight/obesity based on body mass index (BMI) was 20.7% and 25.6% among girls and boys, respectively (p = 0.407), but 42.5% and 58.1% when based on body fat percentage (%fat, p = 0.015). Higher proportion of boys (81.3%) than girls (54.5%) were highly fit (p<0.001), but the percentage of girls with high levels of CRP was greater (12.1% vs 6.2%, p = 0.028). Adiposity, indicated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, android fat mass (aFM), or %fat, was positively associated with CRP independent of VO2max (r = 0.13-0.18, p<0.05) and VO2maxFFM (r = 0.24-0.32, p<0.001). VO2max, was negatively associated with CRP independent only of BMI and waist circumference (r = -0.21, p = 0.001), but not %fat, fat mass or aFM (r = -0.08 to -0.12, p>0.05). VO2maxFFM was unrelated to CRP with (r = -0.07 to -0.11, p>0.05) or without (r = -0.10, p = 0.142) adjustment for adiposity. Additional adjustment for HOMA did not change any of the relationships, although the coefficients were attenuated. Conclusions Fatness has a greater association with CRP than fitness in late adolescence. However, VO2maxFFM, which is truly independent of adiposity, is unrelated to CRP, indicating that the effects of

  1. Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro; Almansa, Josué; Witte, Claudia; Lange, Benjamin; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; von Steinbüchel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Objectives One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empirically investigate it in children. Methods The contributory factors to Health Related Quality of Life that we included were symptom status (presence of chronic disease or hospitalizations), functional status (developmental status), developmental aspects of the individual (social-emotional) behavior, and characteristics of the social environment (socioeconomic status and area of education). Structural equation modeling was used to assess the measurement structure of the model in 214 German children (3–5 years old) participating in a follow-up study that investigates pediatric health outcomes. Results Model fit was χ2 = 5.5; df = 6; p = 0.48; SRMR  = 0.01. The variance explained of Health Related Quality of Life was 15%. Health Related Quality of Life was affected by the area education (i.e. where kindergartens were located) and development status. Developmental status was affected by the area of education, socioeconomic status and individual behavior. Symptoms did not affect the model. Conclusions The goodness of fit and the overall variance explained were good. However, the results between children' and adults' tests differed and denote a conceptual gap between adult and children measures. Indeed, there is a lot of variety in pediatric Health Related Quality of Life measures, which represents a lack of a common definition of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life. We recommend that researchers invest time in the development of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life theory and theory based evaluations. PMID:25415751

  2. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  3. [Self assessment of health and psychical fitness among medical students of the CMUJ in Cracow].

    PubMed

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Łyszczarz, Justyna; Jaworska-Szyc, Jagoda

    2003-01-01

    The examination embraced 213 students (129 women--60.6% and 84% men--39.4%) of the fourth year of Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow. The standardized questionnaire estimating social conditions, lifestyle and health status of examined students was used in our examination. The differences between male and female students were evaluated with the use chi 2 test. 54% of examined persons descended from big cities, 31% from small towns and 15.4% from the countryside. 95.6% of students were single and 4.4% married. During the studies they lived mainly in family houses (35%), in student houses (32%) or they rented a flat (23%). 36.1% of students estimated their health status as very good, 50% as good, 13.1% as not very good and 0.8% as bad. During the medical review it was stated that among chronic diseases allergies (20.2% of male students and 25.6% of female students) were on the first position as far as the frequency was concerned. Chronic bronchitis (11.9% and 8.5% respectively) and eye diseases (9.5% and 14.7%) were on the second and third position. There were not statistically important differences between male and female students in above mentioned problems. On the other hand female students more frequently complained of headaches, feeling nervous or irritable. They were also less self confident. The presented results are a part of Polish examination that estimates health status, social conditions and lifestyle of students of medicine in our country.

  4. Overview of the Texas Youth Fitness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Zhu, Weimo; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical and legislative backgrounds leading to statewide testing of health-related physical fitness in Texas children grades 3-12 as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. The rationale and goals for an associated research project (the Texas Youth Fitness Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) to evaluate…

  5. Authentic Teaching of Fitness Concepts to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Kane, Jennifer

    This paper stresses the importance of teaching aerobic and muscle fitness concepts as part of a health-related fitness curriculum in physical education, recommending outcomes for teaching aerobic endurance and muscle/strength endurance in kindergarten through sixth grade. It describes important learning aid materials and presents national…

  6. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  7. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes. PMID:22508644

  8. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  9. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  10. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  11. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits. PMID:25496554

  12. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits.

  13. Setting an Example: The Health, Medical Care, and Health-Related Behavior of American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zill, Nicholas

    This report details a national survey study of parents, age 54 or younger, living with children under age 18. The study examined parents' physical health status, stress levels and negative feelings, health habits, and access to health care. Findings indicated that one in eight parents reported health problems, with health related to education,…

  14. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity.

  15. Application of simple anthropometry in the assessment of health risk: implications for the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Incremental improvements in our knowledge of the associations between human body composition and disease have been facilitated by advances in research technology. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography are among the technological advances that have helped unravel the mechanisms that link body composition and disease. However, because the use of these methods in large-scale studies and field settings is impractical, the potential relationships between body composition and health risk rely on the use of anthropometric tools. Indeed, the application of simple anthropometry to identify relationships between body composition and health risk in clinical practice is no less valuable than the use of advanced technologies to gain insight into the mechanistic links between body composition and disease in the laboratory. Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the ability of anthropometry to predict health risk and to act as surrogate measures of total and abdominal fat distribution. Because the ultimate objective is to make recommendations for revision to the Healthy Body Composition section of the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal (CPAFLA) manual, we focus on those anthropometric methods specific to CPAFLA. Consistent with this objective, when necessary we present original data to reinforce important concepts not suitably addressed in the literature.

  16. Age-related increases in human lymphocyte DNA damage: is there a role of aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Mota, Maria Paula; Duarte, José Alberto; Collins, Andrew; Gaivão, Isabel

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been advanced as one of the major causes of damage to DNA and other macromolecules. Although physical exercise may also increase oxidative stress, an important role has been recognized for regular exercise in improving the overall functionality of the body, as indicated by an increase in maximal aerobic uptake ((V)O2max), and in resistance to cell damage. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the association between DNA damage in human lymphocytes and age and 2) to evaluate the association between DNA damage in human lymphocytes and ((V)O2max. The sample was composed of 36 healthy and nonsmoking males, aged from 20 to 84 years. ((V)O2max was evaluated through the Bruce protocol with direct measurement of oxygen consumption. The comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage, strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites. We found a positive correlation of age with DNA strand breaks but not with FPG-sensitive sites. ((V)O2max was significantly inversely related with DNA strand breaks, but this relation disappeared when adjusted for age. A significantly positive relation between ((V)O2max and FPG-sensitive sites was verified. In conclusion, our results showed that younger subjects have lower DNA strand breaks and higher (V)O2max compared with older subjects and FPG-sensitive sites are positively related with ((V)O2max, probably as transient damage due to the acute effects of daily physical activity. PMID:24446564

  17. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose and Goals,"…

  18. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  19. Health and Health Related Career Exploration: Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The manual contains secondary level materials designed to integrate career education concepts into the Roosevelt High school (Portland, Oregon) health education curriculum. The materials are divided into three sections. The first concerns self-concepts and presents: short-term activities designed to encourage students to begin thinking about…

  20. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  1. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or

  2. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness. PMID:15206571

  3. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  4. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  5. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  6. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9’s-U18’s), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio’s (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08–6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4’s, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45–6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53–0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62–0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31–0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36–0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid

  7. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (r(s) = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (r(s) = .200), time spent online for health purposes (r(s) = .166), and number of searches for both illness (r(s) = .453) and wellness (r(s) = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted. PMID:24467278

  8. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  9. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  10. Student Reception, Sources, and Believability of Health-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Lowe, David; Taman, Sara; Faulkner, Guy E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the health topics students received information about, how students obtained health-related information, and perceived believability of those sources. Participants and Methods: Students (N = 1202) were surveyed using the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) of the American College Health…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Health-related stigma: rethinking concepts and interventions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Mitchell G; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Somma, Daryl

    2006-08-01

    As a feature of many chronic health problems, stigma contributes to a hidden burden of illness. Health-related stigma is typically characterized by social disqualification of individuals and populations who are identified with particular health problems. Another aspect is characterized by social disqualification targeting other features of a person's identity-such as ethnicity, sexual preferences or socio-economic status-which through limited access to services and other social disadvantages result in adverse effects on health. Health professionals therefore have substantial interests in recognizing and mitigating the impact of stigma as both a feature and a cause of many health problems. Rendering historical concepts of stigma as a discrediting physical attribute obsolete, two generations of Goffman-inspired sociological studies have redefined stigma as a socially discrediting situation of individuals. Based on that formulation and to specify health research interests, a working definition of health-related stigma is proposed. It emphasizes the particular features of target health problems and the role of particular social, cultural and economic settings in developing countries. As a practical matter, it relates to various strategies for intervention, which may focus on controlling or treating target health problems with informed health and social policies, countering the disposition of perpetrators to stigmatize, and supporting those who are stigmatized to limit their vulnerability and strengthen their resilience. Our suggestions for health studies of stigma highlight needs for disease- and culture-specific research that serves the interests of international health. PMID:17130065

  14. Explaining Disparities in Youth Aerobic Fitness and Body Mass Index: Relative Impact of Socioeconomic and Minority Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Background: To advance research on youth fitness promotion it is important to understand factors that may explain the disparities in fitness. Methods: We evaluated data from the FitnessGram NFL PLAY60 Partnership Project to examine school factors influencing aerobic capacity (AC) and body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren. Individual observations…

  15. Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequality.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Paul; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the characterisation and measurement of income-related health inequality using longitudinal data. The paper elucidates the nature of the Jones and López Nicolás (2004) index of "health-related income mobility" and explains the negative values of the index that have been reported in all the empirical applications to date. The paper further presents an alternative approach to the analysis of longitudinal data that brings out complementary aspects of the evolution of income-related health inequalities over time. In particular, we propose a new index of "income-related health mobility" that measures whether the pattern of health changes is biased in favour of those with initially high or low incomes. We illustrate our work by investigating mobility in the General Health Questionnaire measure of psychological well-being over the first nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 1999.

  16. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  17. Health-related research on older inmates: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Susan J; Abudagga, Azza

    2006-12-01

    The literature on older inmates' health is fragmented and insufficiently developed. In this integrative review, 21 research articles on health and older inmates were identified, critiqued, and synthesized to determine: the minimum age criterion most commonly used; health-related variables explored; health status; the health impact of incarceration; and aging-specific policies, programs, and facilities. Age 50 and older was used most often. The top three health variables were psychiatric conditions, physical illnesses, and substance abuse. Self-reports of health status varied across studies; however, inmates consistently reported health declines since incarceration. Older inmates' health needs appear often to be left unmet. Nursing investigations are needed leading to practice innovations to enhance prisoners' self-management to reduce disease burden and fiscal and societal costs. PMID:17131280

  18. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  19. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  20. A cross-sectional examination of the physical fitness and selected health attributes of recreational all-terrain vehicle riders and off-road motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jamie F; Jamnik, Veronica; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders - off-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to population norms and clinical health standards. Canadian off-road riders (n = 141) of both sexes aged 16 years and over were recruited through local and national off-road riding organizations. Anthropometry, fitness, and health measures of off-road motorcycle and all-terrain vehicle riders were compared with population norms, health standards, and physical activity guidelines. Off-road motorcycle riders had above average aerobic fitness (79th percentile), while all-terrain vehicle riders were lower than average (40th percentile). All riders had a healthy blood lipid profile and a low incidence of the metabolic syndrome (12.9%) compared with members of the general population. Off-road motorcycle riders had healthier body composition and fitness than all-terrain vehicle riders; however, the body composition of off-road motorcycle riders was no healthier than that of the general population and all-terrain vehicle riders were worse than the general population. Off-road motorcycle riders had healthier anthropometry and fitness than all-terrain vehicle riders and thus fewer health risk factors for future disease, demonstrating that the physiological profiles of off-road riders are dependent on vehicle type.

  1. Fitness for duty: A 3 minute version of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test predicts fatigue related declines in luggage screening performance

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Rubinstein, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of a 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) to predict fatigue related performance decrements on a simulated luggage screening task (SLST). Methods Thirty-six healthy non-professional subjects (mean age 30.8 years, 20 female) participated in a 4 day laboratory protocol including a 34 hour period of total sleep deprivation with PVT and SLST testing every 2 hours. Results Eleven and 20 lapses (355 ms threshold) on the PVT optimally divided SLST performance into high, medium, and low performance bouts with significantly decreasing threat detection performance A′. Assignment to the different SLST performance groups replicated homeostatic and circadian patterns during total sleep deprivation. Conclusions The 3 min PVT was able to predict performance on a simulated luggage screening task. Fitness-for-duty feasibility should now be tested in professional screeners and operational environments. PMID:21912278

  2. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  3. Cancer-Related Health Disparities in Women

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Croyle, Robert T.; Chollette, Veronica Y.; Pinn, Vivian W.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This article synthesizes information about cancer in 9 populations of minority women: Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban American, African American, Asian American, Native Hawaiian, American Samoan, American Indian, and Alaska Native. Methods. Cancer registry data, social indicators, government sources, and published articles were searched for information on the background and cancer experience of these 9 racial/ethnic groups. Results. Approximately 35 million women in these racial/ethnic groups live in the United States, and their numbers are increasing rapidly. Since 1992, incidence rates for major cancer sites have slowed or decreased among these groups, but declines in mortality have not occurred or have been smaller than for Whites. Gaps in early detection have narrowed, but minority women still lag behind Whites. Smoking and obesity remain common in these populations. Conclusions. More culturally appropriate interventions and research are needed, and these efforts must involve the community and raise the quality of health services. PMID:12554589

  4. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  5. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  6. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  7. [Valuation of health-related quality of life and utilities in health economics].

    PubMed

    Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group).

  8. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  9. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  10. Promoting Health-Related Fitness during Warm-Up Activities for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    It is common to begin a physical education class by having students run laps. Many teachers find that doing the same running warm-up day after day leads to boredom and a lack of interest in their students. This article provides teachers with developmentally appropriate warm-up activities that will not only motivate students, but also keep them…

  11. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  12. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  13. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model.

  14. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model. PMID:25735013

  15. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  16. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  17. Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Moses, M

    1989-03-01

    1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

  18. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations. PMID:26947151

  19. The Relationship bBetween Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michele M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between reading women's health and fitness magazines and using eating disordered diet methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, vomiting, and over-restricting calories) among adolescent high school girls. Student surveys found positive associations between reading frequency and use of unhealthy weight…

  20. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  1. Does a Fitness Factor Contribute to the Association between Intelligence and Health Outcomes? Evidence from Medical Abnormality Counts among 3654 US Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that an over-arching "fitness factor" (an index of general genetic quality that predicts survival and reproductive success) partially explains the observed associations between health outcomes and intelligence. As a proof of concept, we tested this idea in a sample of 3654 US Vietnam veterans aged 31-49 who completed five cognitive…

  2. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.

  3. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  4. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years) drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH) to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC) and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI) to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam) and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan) within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health inequalities in the

  5. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  6. I. An introduction to the relation of physical activity to cognitive and brain health, and scholastic achievement.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    The current pandemic of physical inactivity threatens both physical and cognitive health throughout the lifespan. This monograph describes the multidisciplinary study of aspects of childhood health and its relationship to cognitive and brain function, and scholastic performance. Specifically, we focus on physical activity and physical fitness along with nutrition and obesity; interconnected aspects of health that have declined over the past 30 years in children of industrialized nations. Although much emphasis has been placed on correcting physical aspects of these public health concerns, it is only more recently that attention has been paid to the relation between physical health and cognitive health among school age children. The monograph begins with an overview of current behavioral trends that compete with physical activity engagement and contribute to the failure to achieve the public health recommendations for physical activity among children in the United States. Following the epidemiological overview, the relation of childhood fitness to brain structure and function is examined among children with varying fitness levels. The observed dissimilarities between higher- and lower-fit children are discussed within the context of typical brain development. To broaden the scope of research presented herein, the relation of nutrient intake--among both undernourished and well-nourished children--and obesity on cognition and brain are discussed. Next, novel empirical data are presented from a correlational study that indicates a differential relation between childhood fitness and adiposity on various aspects of cognition. In an effort to provide a more comprehensive review, a later chapter is dedicated to describing a small body of literature investigating the relation of physical activity to special populations of children, including those with learning disorders. In doing so, practical applications as well as challenges and limitations of implementing physical

  7. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  8. Intellectual Differences of Adult Men Related to Age and Physical Fitness before and after an Exercise Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Mohamed; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Investigates intellectual differences among high-fit young and old and low-fit young and old adult men before and after an exercise program. It is not clear from this study whether improvement in cognitive functioning with exercise is due to physiological or psychological changes or both. (Author/CC)

  9. Defining and assessing health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Holcík, J; Koupilová, I

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in quality of life assessment in clinical research and practice, as well as in public health and policy analysis. Indicators of health-related quality of life are important not only for health professionals and their patients, but also for health administrators and health economists in health care planning and policy making. Most studies on the outcome of treatments and interventions now include some kind of a quality of life measure. This usually takes a form of an assessment of symptoms and physical functioning, measurement of psychological well-being, life satisfaction, or coping and adjustment. Numerous scales of psychological health, physical health status and physical functioning have been developed for use in the assessment of health outcomes and a wide range of instruments for measurement of health-related quality of life is available. These fall into two broad categories of generic and disease-specific instruments. The selection of an instrument depends upon its measurement properties but also upon the specific context in which the instrument is going to be used. Adequate attention needs to be paid to the translation and validation of instruments for use across countries and cultural contexts.

  10. Physical Activity is Related to Fatty Liver Marker in Obese Youth, Independently of Central Obesity or Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Clarice; Aires, Luisa; Júnior, Ismael Freitas; Silva, Gustavo; Silva, Alexandre; Lemos, Luís; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity and has been identified as the leading cause of liver disease in pediatric populations worldwide. Because cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is related to physical activity (PA) levels, and increased PA plays a protective role against NAFLD risk factors, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between PA and a fatty liver marker (alanine aminotransferase - ALT) in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. 131 obese children (83 girls, 7-15 year-olds) involved in a PA promotion program comprised the sample. Measurements included anthropometric and body composition evaluations (DEXA), biological measurements (venipuncture), CRF (progressive treadmill test), PA (accelerometry), and maturational stage (Tanner criteria). The associations between ALT with PA intensities, central obesity, and CRF were calculated by three different models of linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Level of significance was set at 95%. RESULTS: ALT was negatively associated with MVPA (β = -0.305), and CRF (β = -0.426), and positively associated with central obesity (β=.468). After adjustment for central obesity the negative and statistically significant association between ALT with MVPA (β = -0.364) and CRF (β = -0.550) still persists while a positive and significantly correlation was shown between ALT and SB (β = 0.382). Additional adjustment for CRF (Model 3) showed significant associations for all the PA intensities analyzed including light activity. PA at different intensities is associated to a fatty liver marker in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. Key points In a previous study our group observed that there might be a potential protective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) against abnormal ALT values; Considering that CRF is related to physical activity (PA

  11. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  12. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent…

  13. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  14. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  17. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  18. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  19. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  20. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...