Science.gov

Sample records for health related indicators

  1. Relative foraminiferan abundance as an indicator of seagrass sediment health:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajandig, P.; Quiros, A.; Nolan, H.; Tallman, R.; Cooper, N.; Ayala, J.; Courtier, C.

    2013-12-01

    Authors: Patrick Cajandig*, Jose Ayala**, Nathaniel Cooper**, Catherine Courtier**, Hannah Nolan**, Rachelle Tallman**, T.E. Angela L. Quiros** * Davis High-School CA, **University of California Santa Cruz, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department Seagrasses are a key component in coastal ecosystems. Found in shallow marine environments, they make a large contribution to coastal ecosystem health by sustaining water quality, stabilizing the sea bottom, and providing habitat as well as food for other organisms. Seagrasses accumulate tiny grains of sediment, increasing water clarity. Just like barren hills are prone to erosion compared to vegetated, rooted down hills, we find a similar situation in the ocean. Seagrasses have broad roots that extend vertically and horizontally to help stabilize the seabed. Seagrasses support a whole ecosystem, because some organisms feed off of the seagrass alone, while others feed off the inhabitants of the seagrass. The quality of sediment is a vital part of seagrass health, just like nutrient rich soils are important to land plants. But what in seagrass sediment is a good indication of health? We hypothesize that seagrass health measures such as percent cover and seagrass species diversity are related to the abundance of foraminiferans relative to other seagrass sediment components. My mentor, T. E. Angela L. Quiros, from the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), collected the sediment samples from seagrass beds in the Philippines. Samples were dried and brought to UCSC for sediment sieving. We used different sized sieves to sort the sediment. These sieves ranged from coarse to very fine sieves (Phi -2.0 (coarse) through +3.0 (fine) going in 0.5 intervals on a log scale). We weighed the sediment that was caught in each tray and separated them into bags of different size classes. To analyze each sample, we subsampled four size classes (Phi's -2.0, -1.5,-1.0, 0.0), and used a dissecting scope to identify and then weigh the

  2. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  3. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. PMID:23583444

  4. Social Indicators Research and Health-Related Quality of Life Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to build a bridge between two intersecting areas of research, social indicators research on the one hand and health-related quality of life research on the other. The first substantive section of the paper introduces key concepts and definitions in the social indicators research tradition, e.g., social indicators,…

  5. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  6. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  7. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2008-04-15

    We used data from a survey of 16493 West Virginians merged with county-level coal production and other covariates to investigate the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. Results of hierarchical analyses indicated that high levels of coal production were associated with worse adjusted health status and with higher rates of cardiopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, lung disease, and kidney disease. Research is recommended to ascertain the mechanisms, magnitude, and consequences of a community coal-mining exposure effect.

  8. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepicier, Veronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  9. Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator.

    PubMed

    Segner, Helmut; Sundh, Henrik; Buchmann, Kurt; Douxfils, Jessica; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan; Mathieu, Cédric; Ruane, Neil; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Toften, Hilde; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2012-02-01

    This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the loss of the coping ability and, thus, to impaired health. In the first part of the review, the physiological processes through which stressful husbandry conditions modulate health of farmed fish are examined. If fish are subjected to unfavourable husbandry conditions, the resulting disruption of internal homeostasis necessitates energy-demanding physiological adjustments (allostasis/acclimation). The ensuing energy drain leads to trade-offs with other energy-demanding processes such as the functioning of the primary epithelial barriers (gut, skin, gills) and the immune system. Understanding of the relation between husbandry conditions, allostatic responses and fish health provides the basis for the second theme developed in this review, the potential use of biological function and health parameters as operational welfare indicators (OWIs). Advantages of function- and health-related parameters are that they are relatively straightforward to recognize and to measure and are routinely monitored in most aquaculture units, thereby providing feasible tools to assess fish welfare under practical farming conditions. As the efforts to improve fish welfare and environmental sustainability lead to increasingly diverse solutions, in particular integrated production, it is imperative that we have objective OWIs to compare with other production forms, such as high-density aquaculture. However, to receive the necessary acceptance for legislation, more robust scientific backing of the health- and function-related OWIs is urgently needed.

  10. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  11. Following sustainable development in relation to the north-south dialogue: ecosystem health and sustainability indicators.

    PubMed

    De Kruijf, H A; Van Vuuren, D P

    1998-01-01

    The necessity for policy makers to follow the processes in relation to sustainability demands new tools for management, a major aspect of which is integrated attention to economic and sociocultural influences together with environmental issues. North and South have specific positions and responsibilities with regard to sustainable development, and management tools--such as indicators--should reflect them. Because the North-South dialogue is changing, different approaches to deal with the relationships are needed (e.g., introduction of reciprocity, equity, and participation), while at the same time doing justice to the individual social, economic, and cultural characteristics of a country. Ecosystem health can be defined by requirements such as resilience, vigor, organization, and relations, which may be used for totally different systems as well. Because integration is a crucial aspect of the new tools, it is argued that integrating conceptual tools such as the environment-economy-society triangle, the PSIR-causality chain, and the Daly triangle in addition to other described integration tools is fundamental for decision makers. Crucial issues when dealing with indicators for sustainable development are integration and balance, attention to users, use of system characteristics, and understanding southern perspectives in this context.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  13. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Sivarajan, Lekha

    1993-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:25372708

  14. Environmental health indicators and sanitation-related disease in developing countries: limitations to the use of routine data sources.

    PubMed

    Kolsky, P J; Blumenthal, U J

    1995-01-01

    This article explores conceptual issues in the development and use of environmental health indicators for basic problems related to water and sanitation in developing countries. In this context, faecal contamination is the most important environmental health problem, responsible for the death of approximately 3 million children a year, and the infection of hundreds of millions. Good indicators would be invaluable in assessing the magnitude and source of such problems in different settings. PMID:8585231

  15. Relative residential property value as a socio-economic status indicator for health research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residential property is reported as the most valuable asset people will own and therefore provides the potential to be used as a socio-economic status (SES) measure. Location is generally recognised as the most important determinant of residential property value. Extending the well-established relationship between poor health and socio-economic disadvantage and the role of residential property in the overall wealth of individuals, this study tested the predictive value of the Relative Location Factor (RLF), a SES measure designed to reflect the relationship between location and residential property value, and six cardiometabolic disease risk factors, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL), hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and high low density lipoprotein (LDL). These risk factors were also summed and expressed as a cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score. Methods RLF was calculated using a global hedonic regression model from residential property sales transaction data based upon several residential property characteristics, but deliberately blind to location, to predict the selling price of the property. The predicted selling price was divided by the actual selling price and the results interpolated across the study area and classified as tertiles. The measures used to calculate CMR were collected via clinic visits from a population-based cohort study. Models with individual risk factors and the cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score as dependent variables were respectively tested using log binomial and Poisson generalised linear models. Results A statistically significant relationship was found between RLF, the cumulative CMR score and all but one of the risk factors. In all cases, participants in the most advantaged and intermediate group had a lower risk for cardio-metabolic diseases. For the CMR score the RR for the most advantaged was 19% lower (RR = 0.81; CI 0.76-0.86; p <0.0001) and the

  16. The use of remote sensors to relate biological and physical indicators to environmental and public health problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between biological, ecological and botanical structures, and disease organisms and their vectors which might be detected and measured by remote sensing are determined. In addition to the use of trees as indicators of disease or potential disease, an attempt is made to identify environmental factors such as soil moisture and soil and water temperatures as they relate to disease or health problems and may be detected by remote sensing. The following three diseases and one major health problem are examined: Malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Encephalitis and Red Tide. It is shown that no single species of vascular plant nor any one environmental factor can be used as the indicator of disease or health problems. Entire vegetation types, successional stages and combinations of factors must be used.

  17. How do types of employment relate to health indicators? Findings from the Second European Survey on Working Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F; Benach, J; Diez-Roux, A; Roman, C

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To investigate the associations of various types of employment with six self reported health indicators, taking into account the part played by demographic variables, individual working conditions and four ecological indicators at the country level.
DESIGN—Cross sectional survey (structured interview) of a sample of the active population of 15 European countries aged 15 years or over. Main independent variables were nine types of employment categorised as follows: small employers, full and part time permanent employees, full and part time fixed term employees, full and part time sole traders and full and part time temporary contracts. Main outcome measures were three self reported health related outcomes (job satisfaction, health related absenteeism, and stress) and three self reported health problems (overall fatigue, backache, and muscular pains). Logistic regression and multilevel models were used in the analyses.
SETTING—15 countries of the European Union.
PARTICIPANTS—15 146 employed persons aged 15 or over.
MAIN RESULTS—Precarious employment was consistently and positively associated with job dissatisfaction but negatively associated with absenteeism and stress (as compared with full time permanent workers). Fatigue, backache and muscular pains also tended to be positively associated with precarious employment, particularly with full time precarious employment. Small employers reported high percentages of stress and fatigue, but absenteeism was relatively low. Sole traders generally reported high percentages of all outcomes, except for absenteeism, which was low. For each type of employment (except temporary contracts), full time workers tended to report worse health outcomes than part time workers. Patterns were generally consistent across countries. Associations persisted after adjustment for individual level working conditions and were not modified by country level variables.
CONCLUSIONS—This study is the first to

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  19. Ecosystem Health: Energy Indicators.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an ecosystem refers to the condition of the ecosystem as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of ecosystems is fundamental to establishing accurate ...

  20. Screen-based media use clusters are related to other activity behaviours and health indicators in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Screen-based media (SBM) occupy a considerable portion of young peoples’ discretionary leisure time. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether distinct clusters of SBM use exist, and if so, to examine the relationship of any identified clusters with other activity/sedentary behaviours and physical and mental health indicators. Methods The data for this study come from 643 adolescents, aged 14 years, who were participating in the longitudinal Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study through May 2003 to June 2006. Time spent on SBM, phone use and reading was assessed using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults. Height, weight, muscle strength were measured at a clinic visit and the adolescents also completed questionnaires on their physical activity and psychosocial health. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to analyse groupings of SBM use. Results Three clusters of SBM use were found; C1 ‘instrumental computer users’ (high email use, general computer use), C2 ‘multi-modal e-gamers’ (both high console and computer game use) and C3 ‘computer e-gamers’ (high computer game use only). Television viewing was moderately high amongst all the clusters. C2 males took fewer steps than their male peers in C1 and C3 (-13,787/week, 95% CI: -4619 to -22957, p = 0.003 and -14,806, 95% CI: -5,306 to -24,305, p = 0.002) and recorded less MVPA than the C1 males (-3.5 h, 95% CI: -1.0 to -5.9, p = 0.005). There was no difference in activity levels between females in clusters C1 and C3. Conclusion SBM use by adolescents did cluster and these clusters related differently to activity/sedentary behaviours and both physical and psychosocial health indicators. It is clear that SBM use is not a single construct and future research needs to take consideration of this if it intends to understand the impact SBM has on health. PMID:24330626

  1. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  2. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Erik R; Gonzales, Melissa; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Smith, Luther; Ross, Mary; Walsh, Debra; Rhoney, Scott; Andrews, Gina; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Neas, Lucas M

    2012-10-01

    Investigators examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas, public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. School-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air pollutants were estimated using a land use regression model. For 1,529 children with spirometry, overall geographic information system (GIS)-modeled residential levels of traffic-related ambient air pollution (calibrated to a 10-ppb increment in nitrogen dioxide levels) were associated with a 2.4% decrement in forced vital capacity (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.0, -0.7) after adjustment for demographic, anthropomorphic, and socioeconomic factors and spirometer/technician effects. After adjustment for these potential covariates, overall GIS-modeled residential levels of traffic-related ambient air pollution (calibrated to a 10-ppb increment in nitrogen dioxide levels) were associated with pulmonary function levels below 85% of those predicted for both forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR) = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.78) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.01). For children attending schools at elevations above 1,170 m, a 10-ppb increment in modeled nitrogen dioxide levels was associated with current asthma (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.50) after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and parental factors and random school effects. These results are consistent with previous studies in Europe and California that found adverse health outcomes in children associated with modeled traffic-related air pollutants.

  3. The IL-6 gene G-174C polymorphism related to health indices in Greek primary school children.

    PubMed

    Dedoussis, George V Z; Manios, Yannis; Choumerianou, Despoina M; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Skenderi, Katerina; Zampelas, Antonis

    2004-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed in many tissues. A polymorphism in the IL-6 gene, associated with differences in IL-6 transcription rate, has been recently described. Subjects with the -174GG genotype are prone to lipid abnormalities. We investigated the effect of the G-174C IL-6 polymorphism on health indices and lipid values of 184 Greek primary school children. The genotype distribution of the polymorphism was 37.5% for GG and 52.2% and 10.3% for GC and CC, respectively. No differences were observed between genotype distribution and gender (p = 0.37). Boys homozygous for the G allele showed higher triglyceride levels than boys carrying the C allele (86 +/- 28 vs. 74 +/- 20 mg/dL, p = 0.02) and lower mid-upper arm muscle circumference (17.46 +/- 1.86 vs. 18.91 +/- 2.53 cm, p = 0.013). In addition, girls homozygous for the G allele had higher values for suprailiac skinfolds compared with those bearing the C allele (21.28 +/- 12.56 vs. 17.09 +/- 13.36 mm, p = 0.06). These findings were confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling for age, sex, BMI, energy and total fat intake, and weekly physical activity. From the results of the present study, we concluded that individuals homozygous for G allele on the IL-6 gene have higher values in some parameters associated with obesity.

  4. Health related quality of life: is it another comprehensive evaluation indicator of Chinese medicine on acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment?

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Jiping

    2015-10-01

    Health related quality of life (HRQOL) can better reflect changes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and inform economic evaluation of AIDS treatment services, and the assessment of HRQOL can help us to detect problems that may influence the progression of the disease, hence HRQOL has become a particularly important assessment indictor for HIV comprehensive interventions. Being a multi-angle, multi-level, and diversified complex intervention, roles of Chinese medicine (CM) in AIDS treatment have been recognized and accepted by more and more patients, and HRQOL has been widely used to evaluate the comprehensive management effects of CM on AIDS. In this article, the authors analyze the definition and measurement of HRQOL, measurement of HRQOL of HIV/AIDS patients and effects of CM on AIDS, and give some reasonable advices for the usage of the scale of HRQOL. The authors hold that some new HRQOL instruments specific for CM treatment of AIDS should be developed and further prospective studies should be carried out to demonstrate the practicality, reliability and validity of HRQOL as an evaluation indictor for CM treatment of AIDS.

  5. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Paul T J; Cremers, Robbert; van Hout, Stef P R; Anzion, Rob B M

    2012-02-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during teaching hours. In the first week PATUs were turned off and in the second week they were turned on. On weekend days PATUs reduced indoor levels of PM-10 by 87% in February and by 70% in June compared to weekend days when PATUs were turned off. On schooldays, indoor PM-10 was increased by 6% in February and reduced by 42% in June. For PM-2.5 reductions on weekend days were 89% in February and 80% in June. On school days PM-2.5 was increased by 15% in February and reduced by 83% in June. Turning on the PATUs reduced total VOC by 80% on weekend days and by 57% on school days (but not in June). No influence on formaldehyde, NO(2), O(3) and molds was observed. PATUs appeared to be less effective in removal of air pollutants when used in an occupied classroom compared to an unoccupied setting. Our study suggests that such devices should be tested in real-life settings to evaluate their influence on indoor air quality.

  6. Validation of indicators for health policy research.

    PubMed

    Panerai, R B

    1998-01-01

    The information used to determine the subjects of health policy research takes the form of indicators obtained by data manipulation. Validation is the process whereby the ability of health indicators to measure what they are supposed to measure is determined. The author discusses ways of overcoming various limitations affecting the development of health indicators.

  7. Practical application of the vanishing tetrad test for causal indicator measurement models: an example from health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Lennox, Richard D; Dahly, Darren L

    2009-05-01

    Researchers are often faced with the task of trying to measure abstract concepts. The most common approach is to use multiple indicators that reflect an underlying latent variable. However, this 'effect indicator' measurement model is not always appropriate; sometimes the indicators instead cause the construct of interest. While the notion of 'causal indicators' has been known for some time, it is still too often ignored. However, there are limited means to determine whether a possible indicator should be treated as a cause or an effect of the latent construct of interest. Perhaps the best empirical way is to use the vanishing tetrad test (VTT), yet this method is still often overlooked. We speculate that one reason for this is the lack of published examples of its use in practice, written for an audience without extensive statistical training. The goal of this paper was to help fill this gap in the literature-to provide a basic example of how to use the VTT. We illustrated the VTT by looking at multiple items from a health related quality of life instrument that seem more likely to cause the latent variable rather than the other way around.

  8. [Relative validity of dietary indicators from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Passos, Michelle Delboni dos; Brito, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of the dietary indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample included 174 students. The following indicators were evaluated: regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy eating, markers for unhealthy eating, and routine eating habits (having meals with parents or guardians (MEAL), having breakfast (breakfast), and eating while studying or watching TV. The results of the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. For all the markers of healthy eating, there was no difference in the proportion of regular consumption when comparing the two methods. The rates detected by the questionnaire were higher for packaged snacks and crackers and lower for cold cuts and MEAL. The indicators for regular consumption of markers for healthy eating and that referring to BREAKFAST were those with the highest accuracy. The dietary indicators used by the PeNSE survey showed satisfactory validity. PMID:24936819

  9. Selecting performance indicators for prison health care.

    PubMed

    Asch, Steven M; Damberg, Cheryl L; Hiatt, Liisa; Teleki, Stephanie S; Shaw, Rebecca; Hill, Terry E; Benjamin-Johnson, Rhondee; Eisenman, David P; Kulkarni, Sonali P; Wang, Emily; Williams, Brie; Yesus, Ambeshie; Grudzen, Corita R

    2011-04-01

    Improving prison health care requires a robust measurement dashboard that addresses multiple domains of care. We sought to identify tested indicators of clinical quality and access that prison health managers could use to ascertain gaps in performance and guide quality improvement. We used the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi method to select the best indicators for correctional health. An expert panel rated 111 indicators on validity and feasibility. They voted to retain 79 indicators in areas such as access, cardiac conditions, geriatrics, infectious diseases, medication monitoring, metabolic diseases, obstetrics/gynecology, screening/prevention, psychiatric disorders/substance abuse, pulmonary conditions, and urgent conditions. Prison health institutions, like all other large health institutions, need robust measurement systems. The indicators presented here provide a basic library for prison health managers developing such systems. PMID:21525117

  10. [Information systems in health and health indicators: an integrating perspective].

    PubMed

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Elvira-Martínez, David; Labordena-Barceló, María Jesús; Loyola-Elizondo, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Health Information Systems (HIS) are the core support to decision-making in health organizations. Within HIS, health indicators (HI) reflect, numerically, events measured in the health-illness continuum. The integrated health information system is intended to standardize, integrate and organize all the information available in health information systems through an accessible and secure repository, and to conveniently distribute information for decision-making. To standardize information it is necessary to define standards and semantic information to enable us to identify concepts and relate them uniquely to each other. The definition of a catalog of entities (DEA) with concepts, attributes and domains will enable the configuration of the information system, so there will be a catalog of entities (concepts of information and domains). Based on operational systems, analytical systems enabling management and strategy in the management of organizations will be built. The maximum level of analysis is the Balanced Score Card (BSC), which is established as the strategic tool for managers. It is necessary for the organization an integrated information system to plan, manage, evaluate and therefore provide managers with a decision tool for strategic and tactical decision-making in short and medium term. PMID:20211346

  11. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  12. Electronic health indicators in the selected countries: Are these indicators the best?

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Somaye; Khorasani, Elahe; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Darab, Mohsen Ghaffari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many changes have been made in different sciences by developing and advancing information and communication technology in last two decades. E-health is a very broad term that includes many different activities related to the use of electronic devices, software as well as hardware in health organizations. Aims: The aim of this study is comparing electronic health indicators in the selected countries and discussion on the best indicators. Settings and Design: This study has chosen 12 countries randomly based on the regional division of the WHO. The relevant numbers of health indicators and general indicators and information technology indicators are extracted of these countries. We use data from the Bitarf's comparative study, which is conducted by the Iranian Supreme Council of Information Technology in 2007. Materials and Methods: By using Pearson correlation test, the relations between health general indicators and IT indicators are studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions Pearson correlation test were used. Results: The findings show that there is a positive relation between indicators related to IT and “Total per capita health, healthy life expectancy, percent literacy”. Furthermore, there is a mutual relation between IT indicators and “mortality indicator”. Conclusion: This study showed differences between selective indicators among different countries. The modern world, with its technological advances, is not powerless in the face of these geographic and health disparity challenges. Researchers must not rely on the available indicators. They must consider indicators like e-business companies, electronic data internet, medical supplies, health electronic record, health information system, etc., In future, continuous studies in this field, to provide the exact and regular reports of amount of using of these indicators through different

  13. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children?s Health Study examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. Then school-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air ...

  14. Quality measurement indicators for Iranian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, quality is a serious concern in development of organizations. There are various indicators to assess quality and the purpose of this study was to identify the main indicators for quality measurement of Iranian health centers. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in three stages: first, review of the literature was performed to identify different indicators for quality measurement in health centers; second, a tworound Delphi process was used with participation of 18 experts in both rounds; third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied to give weights to each indicator. Results: Twenty-seven indicators were identified from the literature review stage. The Delphi method reduced the list to 4 indicators. Developing a quality plan in the health center had the highest weight (38%) and percentage of followed complaints the lowest (12%). The consistency rate was 7.2% indicating appropriateness of the data. Conclusion: This list of indicators can be used as a template for measuring quality of health centers in Iran and possibly in other developing countries. PMID:26034730

  15. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health.

    PubMed

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is "at risk" is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  16. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  17. Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brook S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes Ohio's Scenic Rivers Monitoring Program that uses benthic macroinvertebrates, such as the stonefly, mayfly, and water penny beetle larva, as key indicators of water quality and stream health. Presents a three-category scheme for invertebrates based upon their tolerance to pollution. Students can collect samples of these organisms,…

  18. Health Indicators: A Tool for Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.

    2006-01-01

    A visual tool used to evaluate instructional program performance has been designed by the University of Hawaii Community College system. The tool combines features from traffic lights, blood-chemistry test reports, and industry production control charts, and is labeled the Program Health-Indicator Chart. The tool was designed to minimize the labor…

  19. Health literacy, smoking, and health indicators in African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Shete, Sanjay; Spears, Claire A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of health literacy (HL) with smoking and other established health indicators among 1,467 African American adults. Data emanated from a longitudinal cohort study designed to investigate cancer risk factors among church-going African American adults. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HL and health indicators. HL was assessed using an established single-item screening question. Outcomes included indicators of poor physical (cigarette smoking, self-rated general and physical health) and mental health (self-rated mental health, depressive symptoms, perceived stress). Nearly 19% of participants had low HL. Low HL was significantly associated with current smoking, poorer self-rated general and physical health, and higher perceived stress (ps < .05) even after controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, relationship status) and indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., education, income, insurance status). Low HL appears to be an independent risk factor for smoking and other indicators of poor physical and mental health in a large sample of African American adults. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26513028

  20. Air quality as respiratory health indicator: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    As part of the European Public Health project IMCA II validity and practicability of "air pollution" as a respiratory health indicator were analyzed. The definitions of air quality as an indicator proposed by the WHO project ECOEHIS and by IMCA I were compared. The public availability of the necessary data was checked through access to web-based data-bases. Practicability and interpretation of the indicator were discussed with project partners and external experts. Air quality serves as a kind of benchmark for the good health-related environmental policy. In this sense, it is a relevant health indicator. Although air quality is not directly in the responsibility of health policy, its vital importance for the population's health should not be neglected. In principle, data is available to calculate this IMCA indicator for any chosen area in Europe. The indicator is relevant and informative, but calculation and interpretation need input from local expert knowledge. The European health policy is well advised to take air quality into account. To that end, an interdisciplinary approach is warranted. The proposed definition of air quality as a (respiratory) health indicator is workable, but correct interpretation depends on expert and local knowledge.

  1. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  2. Environmental Health Indicators of Climate Change for the United States: Findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    English, Paul B.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. Data sources We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Data extraction Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. Data synthesis We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. Conclusions A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity. PMID:20049116

  3. Health-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham

    2009-04-01

    The concept of stigma, denoting relations of shame, has a long ancestry and has from the earliest times been associated with deviations from the 'normal', including, in various times and places, deviations from normative prescriptions of acceptable states of being for self and others. This paper dwells on modern social formations and offers conceptual and theoretical pointers towards a more convincing contemporary sociology of health-related stigma. It starts with an appreciation and critique of Goffman's benchmark sensitisation and traces his influence on the personal tragedy or deviance paradigm dominant in the medical sociology from the 1970s. To allow for the development of an argument, the focus here is on specific types of disorder--principally, epilepsy and HIV--rather than the research literature as a whole. Brief and critical consideration is given to attempts to operationalise or otherwise 'measure' health-related stigma. The advocacy of a rival oppression paradigm by disability theorists from the 1980s, notably through re-workings of the social model of disability, is addressed. It is suggested that we are now in a position to learn and move on from this paradigm 'clash'. A re-framing of notions of relations of stigma, signalling shame, and relations of deviance, signalling blame, is proposed. This framework, and the positing of a variable and changing dynamic between cultural norms of shame and blame--always embedded in social structures of class, command, gender, ethnicity and so on--is utilised to explore recent approaches to health stigma reduction programmes. PMID:19366430

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussions of the coastal environment and its health can be improved by more precise use of terms and clarification of the relationship, if any, between the health of ecosystems and the risks to human health. Ecosystem health is seldom defined and, in any case, has to be regarde...

  5. Age and Time-to-Death Trajectories of Change in Indicators of Cognitive, Sensory, Physical, Health, Social, and Self-Related Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Lindenberger, Ulman; Smith, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    Mortality-related processes are known to modulate late-life change in cognitive abilities, but it is an open question whether and how precipitous declines with impending death generalize to other domains of functioning. We investigated this notion by using 13-year longitudinal data from now-deceased participants in the Berlin Aging Study (N = 439;…

  6. Income-related health inequality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Humphries, K H; van Doorslaer, E

    2000-03-01

    This study uses data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey and applies the methods developed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer (1994, measuring inequalities in health in the presence of multiple-category morbidity indicators. Health Economics 3, 281-291) to measure the degree of income-related inequality in self-reported health in Canada by means of concentration indices. It finds that significant inequalities in self-reported ill-health exist and favour the higher income groups--the higher the level of income, the better the level of self-assessed health. The analysis also indicates that lower income individuals are somewhat more likely to report their self-assessed health as poor or less-than-good than higher income groups, at the same level of a more 'objective' health indictor such as the McMaster Health Utility Index. The degree of inequality in 'subjective' health is slightly higher than in 'objective' health, but not significantly different. The degree of inequality in self-assessed health in Canada was found to be significantly higher than that reported by van Doorslaer et al. (1997, income related inequalities in health: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics 16, 93-112) for seven European countries, but not significantly different from the health inequality measured for the UK or the US. It also appears as if Canada's health inequality is higher than what would be expected on the basis of its income inequality.

  7. Healthy People 2020: Leading Health Indicators

    MedlinePlus

    ... County Data Resources Federal Prevention Initiatives Healthy People eLearning Program Planning Content Syndication Tools for Professionals Public Health 3.0 Webinars & Events Webinars & Events Archive About ...

  8. DEVELOPING INDICATORS OF SALT MARSH HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We relate plant zonation in salt marshes to key ecosystem services such as erosion control and wildlife habitat. Ten salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, with similar geological bedrock and sea exchange, were identified to examine plant zonation. Sub-watersheds adjacent to the salt ...

  9. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  10. Indicators of environmental health in the urban setting.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    The North American population is approximately 80% urbanized and spends almost 90% of the time indoors. Accordingly, the built environment is the most important--one might almost say "natural"--human environment. Urban settlements incorporate within their boundaries natural ecosystems of plant and animal life (often highly adapted to the urban environment), and are in turn incorporated within wider bioregions and global ecosystems. But urban settlements are not just built and natural physical environments, they are social, economic, cultural and political environments; the whole constitutes an urban ecosystem. These ecosystems have profound implications for the physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual well-being of their human inhabitants, as well as for human beings remote from these urban ecosystems. Therefore, this paper discusses urban ecosystems and human health and presents a framework for indicators of environmental health in the urban setting based on such an understanding. The concepts of environmental viability, ecological sustainability, urban livability, community conviviality, social equity, and economic adequacy are discussed in relation to human health and are used to organize proposed candidate indicators for urban ecosystems and public health. PMID:12425175

  11. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  12. Healthy Cities indicators--a suitable instrument to measure health?

    PubMed

    Webster, Premila; Sanderson, Denise

    2013-10-01

    The evidence-base for a health strategy should include information on the determinants of health and how they link together if it is to influence the health of the population. The WHO European Healthy Cities Network developed a set of 53 healthy city indicators (HCIs), to describe the health of its citizens and capture a range of local initiatives addressing the wider dimensions of health. This was the first systematic effort to collect and analyze a range of data from European cities. The analysis provided important insights into the interpretation, availability, and feasibility of collecting data, resulting in the development of a revised set of 32 indicators with improved definitions. An analysis of the revised indicators showed that this data was more complete and feasible to collect. It provided useful information to cities contributing to developing a description of health and thus helping to identify health problems. It also highlighted issues about the importance of collecting qualitative as well as quantitative data, the number of indicators and the appropriateness of using the indicators to compare different cities. HCIs facilitated the collection of routinely available health data in a systematic manner. The introduction of HCIs has encouraged cities to adopt a structured process of collecting information on the health of their citizens and build on this information by collecting appropriate local data for developing a city health profile to underpin a city health plan that would set out strategies and interventions to improve health and provide the evidence-base for health plans.

  13. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport...

  14. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport...

  15. A closer look at the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This communication focuses on the World Health Organization's prescribing indicators. It describes the methods for computing the indicators and highlights their applicability as well as limitations in evaluating the patterns of medicines usage. PMID:27127400

  16. Development of Health Equity Indicators in Primary Health Care Organizations Using a Modified Delphi

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sabrina T.; Browne, Annette J.; Varcoe, Colleen; Lavoie, Josée; Fridkin, Alycia; Smye, Victoria; Godwin, Olive; Tu, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a core set of indicators that could be used for measuring and monitoring the performance of primary health care organizations' capacity and strategies for enhancing equity-oriented care. Methods Indicators were constructed based on a review of the literature and a thematic analysis of interview data with patients and staff (n = 114) using procedures for qualitatively derived data. We used a modified Delphi process where the indicators were circulated to staff at the Health Centers who served as participants (n = 63) over two rounds. Indicators were considered part of a priority set of health equity indicators if they received an overall importance rating of>8.0, on a scale of 1–9, where a higher score meant more importance. Results Seventeen indicators make up the priority set. Items were eliminated because they were rated as low importance (<8.0) in both rounds and were either redundant or more than one participant commented that taking action on the indicator was highly unlikely. In order to achieve health care equity, performance at the organizational level is as important as assessing the performance of staff. Two of the highest rated “treatment” or processes of care indicators reflects the need for culturally safe and trauma and violence-informed care. There are four indicators that can be used to measure outcomes which can be directly attributable to equity responsive primary health care. Discussion These indicators and subsequent development of items can be used to measure equity in the domains of treatment and outcomes. These areas represent targets for higher performance in relation to equity for organizations (e.g., funding allocations to ongoing training in equity-oriented care provision) and providers (e.g., reflexive practice, skill in working with the health effects of trauma). PMID:25478914

  17. Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators: How Children With Special Health Care Needs Fared

    PubMed Central

    Grason, Holly A.; Schempf, Ashley H.; Strickland, Bonnie B.; Kogan, Michael D.; Jones, Jessica R.; Nichols, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared estimates for children with and without special health care needs (SHCN) at 2 time periods for national health objectives related to the Healthy People 2010 leading health indicators (LHIs). Methods. Data were from the 2003 and 2007 National Surveys of Children’s Health. Seven survey items were relevant to the LHIs and available in both survey years: physical activity, obesity, household tobacco use, current insurance, personal health care provider, past-month depressive symptoms, and past-year emergency department visits. Results. In 2003 and 2007, children with SHCN fared worse than those without SHCN with respect to physical activity, obesity, household tobacco exposure, depressive symptomology, and emergency department visits, but fared better on current insurance and having a personal health care provider. Physical activity and access to a personal health care provider increased for all children, whereas the absolute disparity in personal provider access decreased 4.9%. Conclusions. Significant disparities exist for key population health indicators between children with and without SHCN. Analyses illustrated how population-based initiatives could be used to frame health challenges among vulnerable populations. PMID:23597380

  18. Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

  19. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  20. Developing the 18th indicator for interpreting indicators of rangeland health on Northern Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Resources Inventory (NRI) resource assessment report shows little to no departure on Rangeland Health for most Northern Great Plains Rangelands. This information is supported by Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) data collected at local to regional scales. There is however a...

  1. Disparities in Health Indicators for Latinas in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Portillo, Carmen J.; Garbanati, James Allen

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes health indicators for Latinas in rural and urban California. Discusses Latina demographics; causes of death; life expectancy; and profiles for breast cancer, cervical cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and AIDS. Examines Latina risk factors: poverty, high dropout rates, lack of health insurance, obesity, physical inactivity, low levels of…

  2. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions.

  3. Rangeland health attributes and indicators for qualitative assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Herrick, J.E.; Pellant, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Panels of experts from the Society for Range Management and the National Research Council proposed that status of rangeland ecosystems could be ascertained by evaluating an ecological site's potential to conserve soil resources and by a series of indicators for ecosystem processes and site stability. Using these recommendations as a starting point, we developed a rapid, qualitative method for assessing a moment-in-time status of rangelands. Evaluators rate 17 indicators to assess 3 ecosystem attributes (soil and site stability, hydrologic function, and biotic integrity) for a given location. Indicators include rills, water flow patterns, pedestals and terracettes, bare ground, gullies, wind scour and depositional areas, litter movement, soil resistance to erosion, soil surface loss or degradation, plant composition relative to infiltration, soil compaction, plant functional/structural groups, plant mortality, litter amount, annual production, invasive plants, and reproductive capability. In this paper, we detail the development and evolution of the technique and introduce a modified ecological reference worksheet that documents the expected presence and amount of each indicator on the ecological site. In addition, we review the intended applications for this technique and clarify the differences between assessment and monitoring that lead us to recommend this technique be used for moment-in-time assessments and not be used for temporal monitoring of rangeland status. Lastly, we propose a mechanism for adapting and modifying this technique to reflect improvements in understanding of ecosystem processes. We support the need for quantitative measures for monitoring rangeland health and propose some measures that we believe may address some of the 17 indicators.

  4. Identification of sentinel health events as indicators of environmental contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, C J; Hamilton, C B; Leaverton, P E

    1991-01-01

    The consensus process was applied to addressing a public health topic; this was a novel endeavor. The following question was addressed: What role, if any, should sentinel health events play in the decision-making process for identifying the effects of environmental exposure? The panel developed three levels of sentinel health events lists: those that are clearly identifiable, those that are potential signs, and those that are indicators of body burdens. Additionally, the panel developed several salient statements regarding the principles of environmental health surveillance and, especially, recommendations for future research. PMID:1683284

  5. SOME INDICATORS OF HEALTH CARE STATUS IN CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Poljičanin, Tamara; Mayer, Dijana

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the basic principles of health care, health care measures and strategic objectives of these measures in Croatia. The health of the population does not depend solely on the activities of the health care system but also on various demographic indicators. Our success in implementing health care depends largely on the structure of health facilities and health workers. The Croatian health system in late 2013 had permanently employed 74,489 workers. Out of these, 77% were health care workers. Most health care workers had only secondary school education (37.7%); physicians represented 17.4% of the workforce. On assessing the health of the population, certain health indicators are of utmost importance. The leading cause of deaths were circulatory diseases (in 2012, 24,988 persons died, 585.5/100,000). Neoplasms were the cause of death in 13,940 persons (326.6/100,000), then injuries and poisoning (69.1/100,000), diseases of the gastrointestinal system (53.1/100,000), and respiratory diseases (50.4/100,000). Data are presented on the basis of diseases reported from several national registries (cancer, psychoactive drug abuse, the disabled, diabetes, and suicides). The importance of vaccination for the control of infectious diseases in Croatia is especially emphasized, as well as the experience and excellent results achieved in this area. The epidemiological situation in Croatia in terms of infectious diseases can be assessed as favorable. This is due to the general living conditions, which contributed to the entire health system, making Croatia equal to other developed countries of Europe and throughout the world.

  6. SOME INDICATORS OF HEALTH CARE STATUS IN CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Poljičanin, Tamara; Mayer, Dijana

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the basic principles of health care, health care measures and strategic objectives of these measures in Croatia. The health of the population does not depend solely on the activities of the health care system but also on various demographic indicators. Our success in implementing health care depends largely on the structure of health facilities and health workers. The Croatian health system in late 2013 had permanently employed 74,489 workers. Out of these, 77% were health care workers. Most health care workers had only secondary school education (37.7%); physicians represented 17.4% of the workforce. On assessing the health of the population, certain health indicators are of utmost importance. The leading cause of deaths were circulatory diseases (in 2012, 24,988 persons died, 585.5/100,000). Neoplasms were the cause of death in 13,940 persons (326.6/100,000), then injuries and poisoning (69.1/100,000), diseases of the gastrointestinal system (53.1/100,000), and respiratory diseases (50.4/100,000). Data are presented on the basis of diseases reported from several national registries (cancer, psychoactive drug abuse, the disabled, diabetes, and suicides). The importance of vaccination for the control of infectious diseases in Croatia is especially emphasized, as well as the experience and excellent results achieved in this area. The epidemiological situation in Croatia in terms of infectious diseases can be assessed as favorable. This is due to the general living conditions, which contributed to the entire health system, making Croatia equal to other developed countries of Europe and throughout the world. PMID:26606780

  7. Health indicators: eliminating bias from convenience sampling estimators.

    PubMed

    Hedt, Bethany L; Pagano, Marcello

    2011-02-28

    Public health practitioners are often called upon to make inference about a health indicator for a population at large when the sole available information are data gathered from a convenience sample, such as data gathered on visitors to a clinic. These data may be of the highest quality and quite extensive, but the biases inherent in a convenience sample preclude the legitimate use of powerful inferential tools that are usually associated with a random sample. In general, we know nothing about those who do not visit the clinic beyond the fact that they do not visit the clinic. An alternative is to take a random sample of the population. However, we show that this solution would be wasteful if it excluded the use of available information. Hence, we present a simple annealing methodology that combines a relatively small, and presumably far less expensive, random sample with the convenience sample. This allows us to not only take advantage of powerful inferential tools, but also provides more accurate information than that available from just using data from the random sample alone. PMID:21290401

  8. Health-Promoting School Indicators: Schematic Models from Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sixsmith, Jane; Delaney, Ellen-Nora; Moore, Miriam; Inchley, Jo; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a three-stage process for engaging with students to develop school level indicators of health in sequential class groups students first generated, then categorised indicators and finally developed schematic representations of their analyses. There is a political and practical need to develop…

  9. A New Collaborative Tool for Visually Understanding National Health Indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Jewell, Brian C; Steed, Chad A; Schryver, Jack C

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose a new online collaborative tool for visually understanding national health indicators, which facilitates the full spectrum of investigation of indicators, from an overview of all the correlation coefficients between variables, to investigation of subsets of selected variables, and to individual data element analysis. this tool is publicly accessible at http://cda.ornl.gov/heat/heatmap.html. In this paper, they discuss the key issues regarding the interface design and implementation. They also illustrate how to use their interface for analyzing the health indicator dataset by showing some key system views. In the end, they introduce and discuss some ongoing research efforts extending this work.

  10. Setting an Example: The Health, Medical Care, and Health-Related Behavior of American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zill, Nicholas

    This report details a national survey study of parents, age 54 or younger, living with children under age 18. The study examined parents' physical health status, stress levels and negative feelings, health habits, and access to health care. Findings indicated that one in eight parents reported health problems, with health related to education,…

  11. [Indices based on entropy for measuring social inequalities in health].

    PubMed

    Bacallao, Jorge; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Mujica, Oscar J; Loyola, Enrique; Vidaurre, Manuel

    2002-12-01

    As described in the scientific literature, indices used to measure social inequalities in health have positive features, but they also have shortcomings, depending on how they are applied. The objective of this article is to put forward and to demonstrate, in both theoretical and practical terms, the advantages of measurements of inequality based on the notion of entropy, which is well known in physics and in information theory. The article defines and presents the main properties of indices based on the notions of entropy and redundancy. The application of the indices is illustrated with two fictitious data sets and also with real data derived from basic health indicators for the Americas, from the Pan American Health Organization. Indices based on the notion of entropy have properties that include: a) not varying with scale changes, b) being symmetrical, c) incorporating a socioeconomic dimension, and d) being easy to interpret thanks to the condition of equivalence between entropy and a system with two categories. PMID:12690729

  12. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  13. Relationships between sitting time and health indicators, costs, and utilization in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Cook, Andrea; Gell, Nancy; Lozano, Paula; Grothaus, Lou; Arterburn, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether self-reported sitting time is related to various health indicators, health costs, and utilization in adults over age 65. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted using the electronic health record (EHR) from an integrated health system in Washington State. Members who completed an online health risk assessment (HRA) between 2009 and 2011 (N = 3538) were eligible. The HRA assessed sitting time, physical activity, and health status. Diagnosis codes for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculations, health care utilization and health costs were extracted from the EHR. Linear regression models with robust standard errors tested differences in sitting time by health status, BMI category, diabetes and CVD, health costs, and utilization adjusting for demographic variables, BMI, physical activity, and health conditions. Results People classified as overweight and obese, that had diabetes or CVD, and with poorer self-rated health had significantly higher sitting time (p < .05). Total annual adjusted health care costs were $126 higher for each additional hour of sitting (p < .05; not significant in final models including health conditions). Conclusion Sitting time may be an important independent health indicator among older adults. PMID:26844078

  14. Relations of PC indices to further geophysical activity parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN for the index values derived from Thule magnetic data and PCS derived from Vostok data, relate to the polar cap ionospheric plasma convection driven mainly by the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Thus, the PC indices serve to monitor the input power from the solar wind which drives a range of geophysical disturbances such as magnetic storms and substorms, energization of the plasma trapped in the Earth's near space, auroral activity, and heating of the upper atmosphere. The presentation will demonstrate the relations between the PC indices and further parameters and indices used to describe geophysical activity such as polar cap potentials, auroral electrojet activity, Joule and particle heating of the upper atmosphere, mid-latitude magnetic variations, and ring current indices Dst, SYM-H and ASY-H.

  15. Race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans.

    PubMed

    Utsey, Shawn O; Payne, Yasser A; Jackson, Ebonique S; Jones, Antoine M

    2002-08-01

    This article examined the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. A sample of 127 elderly African Americans, consisting of 87 women and 26 men (and 14 missing values), were administered the Index of Race-Related Stress, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, the authors found that institutional racism-related stress was a significant predictor of psychological health in this sample of elderly African Americans.

  16. [Play, an indicator of the health of children].

    PubMed

    Ehlan, K B

    1985-12-01

    Africans attach much importance to the fact that their children like to play. A child who is not hungry and refuses to play is not in good health. When a sick child wants to play again one can be sure that his health is improving. Thus, play can be a health indicator and can help to form a diagnosis. Moreover, the way the child plays is a mental health indicator. During games one can distinguish the leaders who are mentally well-balanced, those who try to cheat and who must be carefully watched, and those who are shy and withdrawn. The latter will have difficulties in adapting to a normal social life. The author also discusses what games can be put in the hands of children and rejects all arms such as rifles, guns, pistols or tanks. He ends by recalling that article 7 of the Rights of Children specifies that children must be given every opportunity to play and that games should have an educational value.

  17. Has socialism failed? An analysis of health indicators under socialism.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1992-01-01

    This article analyzes the widely held assumption in academia and the mainstream press that capitalism has proven superior to socialism in responding to human needs. The author surveys the health conditions of the world's populations, continent by continent, and shows that, contrary to dominant ideology, socialism and socialist forces have been, for the most part, better able to improve health conditions than have capitalism and capitalist forces. In the underdeveloped world, socialist forces and regimes have, more frequently than not, improved health and social indicators better than capitalist forces and regimes, and in the developed world, countries with strong socialist forces have been better able to improve health conditions than those countries lacking or with weak socialist forces. The socialist experience has, of course, also included negative developments that have negated important components of the socialist project. Still, the evidence presented in this article shows that the historical experience of socialism has not been one of failure. To the contrary: it has been, for the most part, more successful than capitalism in improving the health conditions of the world's populations.

  18. African American caregiving grandmothers: results of an intervention to improve health indicators and health promotion behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Susan J; Whitley, Deborah M; Campos, Peter E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve the health of grandmothers raising grandchildren. A pre- and post-test design was employed with 504 African American grandmother participants. The intervention included monthly home-based visitation by registered nurses (RNs) and social workers, participation in support groups and parenting classes, referrals for legal services, and early intervention services for children with special needs. The Health Risk Appraisal was used to assess health indicators and health promotion behaviors. A comparison of pre- and post-test scores indicated significant (p < .002) changes in the desired direction for a number of health indicators and health promotion behaviors, including blood pressure, annual routine cancer screenings, frequency of weekly exercise, and improved dietary intake, as well as participants' perception of their health and life satisfaction. No improvements were observed in the proportion of participants who were obese or overweight. PMID:23007422

  19. [Environmental health and inequalities: building indicators for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (<0.500), and correspond to countries such as Laos, Yemen, Haiti and Madagascar. At national level, data for the decade show a significant improvement in economic indicators (decrease from 23% to 8.9% of people living on less than a quarter of the minimum wage); social indicators (increase from 86.5% to 90.2% of literacy in women), and the environmental indicator associated with access to the water grid, which also improved to a lesser extent (increase from 81% to 85%). It was concluded that in order to achieve sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil. PMID:22699633

  20. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health.

  1. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  2. Use of social media in health promotion: purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Hanson, Carl L; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D; Fagen, Michael C

    2012-03-01

    Despite the expanding use of social media, little has been published about its appropriate role in health promotion, and even less has been written about evaluation. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) outline purposes for social media in health promotion, (b) identify potential key performance indicators associated with these purposes, and (c) propose evaluation metrics for social media related to the key performance indicators. Process evaluation is presented in this article as an overarching evaluation strategy for social media.

  3. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  4. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  5. Vegetation Health and Productivity Indicators for Sustained National Climate Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment process is developing a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public. Implementing a 14 year record of Gross and Net Primary Productivity (GPP/NPP) derived from the NASA EOS MODIS satellite sensor we demonstrate how these products can serve as Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health National Climate Indicators for implementation in sustained National Climate Assessments. The NPP product combines MODIS vegetation data with daily global meteorology to calculate annual growth of all plant material at 1 sq. km resolution. NPP anomalies identify regions with above or below average plant growth that may result from climate fluctuations and can inform carbon source/sink dynamics, agricultural and forestry yield measures, and response to wildfire or drought conditions. The GPP product provides a high temporal resolution (8-day) metric of vegetation growth which can be used to monitor short-term vegetation response to extreme events and implemented to derive vegetation phenology metrics; growing season start, end, and length, which can elucidate land cover and regionally specific vegetation responses to a changing climate. The high spatial resolution GPP and NPP indicators can also inform and clarify responses seen from other proposed Pilot Indicators such as forest growth/productivity, land cover, crop production, and phenology. The GPP and NPP data are in continuous production and will be sustained into the future with the next generation satellite missions. The long-term Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health Indicators are ideal for use in sustained National Climate Assessments, providing regionally specific responses to a changing climate and complete coverage at the national scale.

  6. A preliminary taxonomy and a standard knowledge base for mental-health system indicators in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are many sources of information for mental health indicators but we lack a comprehensive classification and hierarchy to improve their use in mental health planning. This study aims at developing a preliminary taxonomy and its related knowledge base of mental health indicators usable in Spain. Methods A qualitative method with two experts panels was used to develop a framing document, a preliminary taxonomy with a conceptual map of health indicators, and a knowledge base consisting of key documents, glossary and database of indicators with an evaluation of their relevance for Spain. Results A total of 661 indicators were identified and organised hierarchically in 4 domains (Context, Resources, Use and Results), 12 subdomains and 56 types. Among these the expert panels identified 200 indicators of relevance for the Spanish system. Conclusions The classification and hierarchical ordering of the mental health indicators, the evaluation according to their level of relevance and their incorporation into a knowledge base are crucial for the development of a basic list of indicators for use in mental health planning. PMID:21122091

  7. Using lagging and leading indicators for the evaluation of occupational safety and health performance in industry.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) management is closely related to the development of OSH performance measurement, which should include OSH outcomes (e.g., occupational accidents), OSH inputs (including working conditions) and OSH-related activities. The indicators used to measure the OSH outcomes are often called lagging indicators, and the indicators of inputs and OSH activities are leading indicators. A study was conducted in 60 companies in order to determine what kinds of indicators were used for OSH performance measurement by companies with different levels of OSH performance. The results reveal that the indicators most commonly used in all of the companies are those related to ensuring compliance with the statutory requirements. At the same time, the leading indicators are much more often adopted in companies with a higher performance level. These companies also much more often monitor on a regular basis the indicators adopted for the evaluation of their OSH performance.

  8. Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia) as indicators of ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Three State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conferences have been held since 1996 to encourage the development of Great Lakes indicators of ecosystem health for use in reporting on progress in restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Here we report on the development of an indicator based on burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), using production and biomass as the indicator metrics. Burrowing mayflies were selected because they (1) were historically abundant in unpolluted, soft-bottomed mesotrophic habitats throughout the Great Lakes, (2) are intolerant of and were extirpated by pollution in most of those habitats during the 1940s to 1950s, (3) have shown the ability to recover in one of those habitats following pollution abatement, (4) are ecologically important as bioturbators of lakebed sediments and as trophic integrators that link detrital energy resources directly to fishes that feed preferentially on them, and (5) have highly visible mating flights, which carry the message directly to an informed public that the source water body is healthy. In addition, their annual production can be estimated from their mean annual biomass by the size-frequency method. Productivity and biomass can also be estimated with a 'cohort-direct' method, using the biomass of mature nymphs collected in May or early June from the cohort that is about to emerge as subimagos in late June or early July. Although both the size-frequency and cohort-direct methods provide reliable estimates of productivity and biomass, the latter method greatly reduces sample collection and processing effort and thus makes it feasible to use Hexagenia as an indicator of ecosystem health in surveys requiring the collection of large numbers of samples.

  9. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

  10. Indicators of ocean health and human health: developing a research and monitoring framework.

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony; Dewailly, Eric; Furgal, Chris; Galvin, Jennifer; Baden, Dan; Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael; Duguay, Linda; Fleming, Lora E; Ford, Tim; Moser, Fredricka; Owen, Richard; Suk, William A; Unluata, Umit

    2002-01-01

    We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups. We present a synthesis of the present state of understanding of the connection between ocean health and human health, a discussion of areas where resources are required, and a discussion of critical research needs and a template for future work in this field. To understand fully the interactions between ocean health and human health, programs should be organized around a "models-based" approach focusing on critical themes and attributes of marine environmental and public health risks. Given the extent and complex nature of ocean and human health issues, a program networking across geographic and disciplinary boundaries is essential. The overall goal of this approach would be the early detection of potential marine-based contaminants, the protection of marine ecosystems, the prevention of associated human illness, and by implication, the development of products to enhance human well-being. The tight connection between research and monitoring is essential to develop such an indicator-based effort. PMID:12204815

  11. Mental health services. Poor relations.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J; Sashidharan, S

    1999-04-01

    The case for London requiring greater resources for mental health services than other parts of the country has not been proved. Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester are among the six most deprived areas in England. Spending per capita on mental health services in inner London is double that in Birmingham and Liverpool and 40 per cent higher than in Manchester. A national strategy is needed to address inequities in funding.

  12. Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Davis, Devra L; Cushing, Erin; Telles, Adriana Gusman; Gouveia, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health indicators (EHIs) are applied in a variety of research and decision-making settings to gauge the health consequences of environmental hazards, to summarize complex information, or to compare policy impacts across locations or time periods. While EHIs can provide a useful means of conveying information, they also can be misused. Additional research is needed to help researchers and policy-makers understand categories of indicators and their appropriate application. In this article, we review current frameworks for environmental health indicators and discuss the advantages and limitations of various forms. A case study EHI system was developed for air pollution and health for urban Latin American centers in order to explore how underlying assumptions affect indicator results. Sixteen cities were ranked according to five indicators that considered: population exposed, children exposed, comparison to health-based guidelines, and overall PM(10) levels. Results indicate that although some overall patterns in rankings were observed, cities' relative rankings were highly dependent on the indicator used. In fact, a city that was ranked best under one indicator was ranked worst with another. The sensitivity of rankings, even when considering a simple case of a single pollutant, highlights the need for clear understanding of EHIs and how they may be affected by underlying assumptions. Careful consideration should be given to the purpose, assumptions, and limitations of EHIs used individually or in combination in order to minimize misinterpretation of their implications and enhance their usefulness.

  13. Vaccination against Q fever for biodefense and public health indications

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sara; Wolfe, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever, a disease that is often spread to humans via inhalational exposure to the bacteria from contaminated agricultural sources. Outbreaks have been observed all over the world with larger foci generating interest in vaccination programs, most notably in Australia and the Netherlands. Importantly, exposure rates among military personnel deployed to the Middle East can be relatively high as measured by seroconversion to C. burnetii-specific antibodies. Q fever has been of interest to the biodefense community over the years due to its low infectious dose and environmental stability. Recent advances in cell-free growth and genetics of C. burnetii also make this organism easier to culture and manipulate. While there is a vaccine that is licensed for use in Australia, the combination of biodefense- and public health-related issues associated with Q fever warrant the development of a safer and more effective vaccine against this disease. PMID:25566235

  14. Indigenous community health and climate change: integrating biophysical and social science indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donatuto, Jamie; Grossman, Eric E.; Konovsky, John; Grossman, Sarah; Campbell, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study evaluating the sensitivity of Indigenous community health to climate change impacts on Salish Sea shorelines (Washington State, United States and British Columbia, Canada). Current climate change assessments omit key community health concerns, which are vital to successful adaptation plans, particularly for Indigenous communities. Descriptive scaling techniques, employed in facilitated workshops with two Indigenous communities, tested the efficacy of ranking six key indicators of community health in relation to projected impacts to shellfish habitat and shoreline archaeological sites stemming from changes in the biophysical environment. Findings demonstrate that: when shellfish habitat and archaeological resources are impacted, so is Indigenous community health; not all community health indicators are equally impacted; and, the community health indicators of highest concern are not necessarily the same indicators most likely to be impacted. Based on the findings and feedback from community participants, exploratory trials were successful; Indigenous-specific health indicators may be useful to Indigenous communities who are assessing climate change sensitivities and creating adaptation plans.

  15. Perceptual indicators of environmental health, future land use, and stewardship.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Myers, O; Boring, C S; Dixon, C; Jeitner, J C; Leonard, J; Lord, C; McMahon, M; Ramos, R; Shukla, S; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-12-01

    There are important linkages between the health of humans and the environment, restoration of degraded lands, and long-term stewardship of public lands, yet most environmental indicators deal only with assessing the physical and biological aspects of ecosystems. In this article, we examine the ratings of perceptions of several environmental problems for their utility as indicators of environmental quality, and examine perceptions of future land use by people interviewed in Santa Fe, New Mexico, near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Overall, people with lower incomes rated environmental problems as more severe than others, were more willing to spend federal funds to solve them, and were consistent in their ratings of severity of environmental problems and their willingness to spend federal funds. Cleaning up LANL and other Department of Energy sites, received the highest rating for expenditure of federal funds. The highest rated future uses for DOE sites were for recreation and for National Environmental Research Parks. People with less education generally gave higher ratings to most future land uses for DOE than did those with more education. However, those with higher education gave higher ratings to nuclear reprocessing, and nuclear material storage. Where there were differences, the people interviewed at Santa Fe rated all environmental problems (except pesticides) as more severe than did those previously interviewed in Albuquerque (located farther from the LANL site), and they were more willing to spend federal funds on these problems. Ratings for all future land uses did not differ between the Santa Fe and Albuquerque respondents. These perception-based indicators show general agreement among people living close and farther away from LANL with respect to cleaning up LANL and the future land uses for the site. These indicators should be considered by regulators, site personnel, and policy makers in future management and

  16. Nutritional Aspects of Crewmembers' Cardiovascular Health Indicated by Dietary Lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Marcelle A.

    1999-01-01

    This summer's project examined the relationships between dietary and physiological factors on serum lipoproteins using data from past United States astronauts. Nutritional assessment was required to determine whether a relationship existed between dietary intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in crewmembers. Risk for CVD was assessed by the measurement of preflight, inflight, and postflight serum lipoproteins. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the dietary practices of past crewmembers before and during flight, and to examine their relationship with blood indicators of lipid status. Because of mortality and morbidity associated with CVD, such assessments are critical for the maintenance of astronaut health before, during, and after space flight. It was anticipated that the results from this project would assess the effects space flight and diet have on cardiovascular health, thus, defining the adequacy of the current dietary recommendations during space travel. It was hypothesized that the mean preflight serum lipoproteins compared to mean postflight serum lipoproteins would not be statistically different and that the current inflight diet is adequate in nutrient content, having little or no effect on lipoprotein levels.

  17. Transferability indices for health economic evaluations: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Antonanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto; Juárez, Carmelo; Hutter, Florencia; Lorente, Reyes; Pinillos, Mariola

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we have elaborated an index in two phases to measure the degree of transferability of the results of the economic evaluation of health technologies. In the first phase, we have considered the objective factors (critical and non-critical) to derive a general transferability index, which can be used to measure this internal property of the studies of economic evaluation applied to health technologies. In the second phase, with a more specific index, we have measured the degree of applicability of the results of a given study to a different setting. Both indices have been combined (arithmetic and geometric mean) to obtain a global transferability index. We have applied the global index to a sample of 27 Spanish studies on infectious diseases. We have obtained an average value for the index of 0.54, quite far from the maximum theoretical value of 1. We also found that 11 studies lacked some critical factor and were directly deemed as not transferable.

  18. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Joshua; Mittal, Sameer; Pereira, Keith; Bhatia, Shivank; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele. PMID:26658060

  19. Relating spectral indices to tensor and scalar amplitudes in inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.

    1994-02-01

    Within an expansion in slow-roll inflation parameters, we derive the complete second-order expressions relating the ratio of tensor to scalar density perturbations and the spectral index of the scalar spectrum. We find that ``corrections'' to previously derived formulae can dominate if the tensor to scalar ratio is small. For instance, if VV"/(V')2≠1 or if [mPI2/(4π)]||V'"/V'|| ≳ 1, where V(Φ) is the inflaton potential and mPlis the Planck mass, then the previously used simple relations between the indices and the tensor to scalar ratio fails. This failure occurs in particular for natural inflation, Coleman--Weinberg inflation, and ``chaotic'' inflation.

  20. Health literacy and women's health-related behaviors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N

    2012-04-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates, and monitoring physical changes) in women and to test whether the association is mediated by health knowledge. A national sample of 1,754 female adults in Taiwan was included in the study. Result showed that health literacy was positively and independently related to checking food expiration dates and monitoring physical changes, and that health literacy was not related to physical checkup and Pap smear screening. Interestingly, women with high health literacy were more likely to be a current smoker. Study findings suggest that efforts to improve health promotion behaviors in women should consider health literacy as an important factor and that the effect of health literacy on health prevention behaviors may vary by women's access to care. PMID:21742948

  1. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Knowledge of Personal and Target Levels of Cardiovascular Health Indicators.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Ma, Alyson

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine ethnic differences in knowledge of personal and target levels of cardiovascular health indicators between non-Hispanic whites and African Americans. A secondary objective was to evaluate the associations between knowledge of cardiovascular health indicators and health promotion behaviors. Participants (66.7% female) consisted of 265 whites and 428 African Americans, ages 18 and older recruited from primary care clinics and churches. Respondents completed a brief survey on blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, blood glucose, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. Whites were more likely than African Americans to report knowing their personal and target levels of cardiovascular health indicators. Knowledge of personal BP and/or BMI was positively associated with actual physical activity, and awareness of personal blood glucose was positively associated with healthy dietary practices for participants in both groups. Among whites, awareness of personal BP and knowledge of target levels for BP, total cholesterol, and BMI were also associated with healthy diet. Results suggest there are racial/ethnic disparities in knowledge of personal and ideal levels of cardiovascular health indicators, and that this knowledge is related to health promotion behaviors. Targeted educational efforts are warranted to enhance knowledge of personal risk indicators among African Americans.

  2. Indicator-based assessment of environmental hazards and health effects in the industrial cities of upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Wcislo, Eleonora; Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz; Konczalik, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Using an indicator-based approach, we assessed environmental hazards and related health effects in populations of industrial cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Upper Silesia, Poland, and analyzed the relationship between environment and health. We adopted the method developed by Dutkiewicz et al. for assessing large geographic areas. Based on routinely collected environmental and health data, two groups of indicators, environmental indicators (EIs) and health status indicators (HSIs), related to environmental contamination were selected. The EI and HSI values were normalized and aggregated into synthetic measures using Strahl's taxonometric method. The synthetic measures indicated the intensity of environmental hazards and health outcomes. We used a three-level index scale to compare and rank the cities under the study and, consequently, to facilitate decision making. Findings of the assessment identified cities where actions aimed at reducing environmental hazards and improving population health status should be established as priorities. These cities included Chorzów, Katowice, Sosnowiec, Bytom, and Zabrze. We found a high correlation between the synthetic measures of environmental indicators and the synthetic measure of health status indicators (r = 0.77), as well as a high level of consistency between environmental hazard indices and environmental-related health status indices (73%). This may indicate the existence of a causal relationship between the environmental contamination within industrial cities and the health status of their inhabitants. PMID:12417485

  3. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-01-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  4. Indicators of accessibility to primary health care coverage in rural Odukpani, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atting, I A; Egwu, I N

    1991-01-01

    Indicators of accessibility were investigated in Odukpani Local Government Area using a structured questionnaire administered to mothers or heads of households in the study area. The indicators considered included proportion of births attended by trained health personnel, proportion of children with diarrhea treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), distance from home to regular immunization site, and acceptability of primary health care services to the target population. Sociodemographic data revealed a typical developing country population profile and surprisingly high literacy rate (57.8%) relative to the national rate, an observation which may account for the appreciable level of awareness.

  5. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  6. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  7. Spatial and temporal dynamics of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) health indicators: linking individual-based indicators to a management-relevant endpoint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jones, Michael L.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.; Brenden, Travis O.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Wright, Gregory M.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of health indicators in four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks located in northern lakes Michigan and Huron from 2003 to 2006. The specific objectives were to (1) quantify spatial and temporal variability in health indicators; (2) examine relationships among nutritional indicators and stock-specific spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogen prevalence and intensity of infection; and (3) examine relationships between indicators measured on individual fish and stock-specific estimates of natural mortality. The percent of the total variation attributed to spatial and temporal sources varied greatly depending on the health indicator examined. The most notable pattern was a downward trend in the concentration of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), observed in all stocks, in the polar lipid fraction of lake whitefish dorsal muscle tissue over the three study years. Variation among stocks and years for some indicators were correlated with the prevalence and intensity of the swimbladder nematode Cystidicola farionis, suggesting that our measures of fish health were related, at some level, with disease dynamics. We did not find relationships between spatial patterns in fish health indicators and estimates of natural mortality rates for the stocks. Our research highlights the complexity of the interactions between fish nutritional status, disease dynamics, and natural mortality in wild fish populations. Additional research that identifies thresholds of health indicators, below (or above) which survival may be reduced, will greatly help in understanding the relationship between indicators measured on individual fish and potential population-level effects.

  8. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  9. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations.

  10. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. PMID:26077857

  11. Confronting environmental pressure, environmental quality and human health impact indicators of priority air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geelen, Loes M. J.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; den Hollander, Henri; Ragas, Ad M. J.; van Jaarsveld, Hans. A.; de Zwart, Dick

    This paper evaluates the ranking of 21 priority air pollutants with three indicator schemes: environmental pressure indicator (EPI), environmental quality indicator (EQI), and human health effect indicator (HEI). The EPI and EQI compare the emissions and concentrations with the target emissions and target concentrations, respectively. The HEI comprehends the steps from cause (i.e. national emissions) to effect (i.e. human health effects), and is the total human health burden, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years per year of exposure (DALYs year -1). We estimated a health burden in the Netherlands of 41 × 10 3 DALYs year -1 caused by Dutch air emissions of PM10 and its precursors in the year 2003. The burden due to 17 carcinogenic substances emitted to air, was much lower (140 DALYs year -1). In contrast, when the same substances were evaluated regarding environmental pressure and environmental quality, carbon tetrachloride (pressure) and benzo[ a]pyrene (quality) were of highest importance, whereas the importance of PM10 was substantially lower. This result is remarkable, because for the majority of substances evaluated, the target concentrations and target emissions are based on preventing human health damage. The differences in relevance are explained by the different weighting of interests in the indicators. The HEI is based on concentration-response relations, whereas the EPI and EQI also depend on other, policy-based, principles and on technical feasibility. Therefore, to effectively prioritize emission reduction measures in policy-making, substances should not only be evaluated as to whether emission targets and environmental quality targets are reached, but they should be evaluated regarding their human health impact as well. In this context, the HEI is a suitable indicator to evaluate the human health impact.

  12. [Health resources allocation in Canada provinces: the role of indicators of health needs].

    PubMed

    Thouez, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to limit their health care expenditures Canadian provinces have strengthened the necessity to allocate health care resources according to their population needs. The difficulties and limitations of the needs-based approach are explored. First, indicators of population needs for health care were introduced into a formula of resource allocation for hospital-based services in England in the late 1970. Secondly, there are broad similarities between both the philosophy and resource allocation strategies of Canada and Britain. Thirdly, the main definition of a needs indicator is to measure the level of equity- or inequity-in the distribution of health care resources between regions. Fourthly, a needs indicator, as least as developed by the Canadian provinces, concerns general and specialized services that should be found in each of their regions. Fifthly, a needs indicator constitutes a tool for the calculation of a capitation rate. Finally, future research should focus on parameters which are not an integral part of the allocation method, but which have a strong impact, in the attainment of regional equity such as administrative decisions that are taken when budgets are to be allocated or reduced between regions.

  13. [Health resources allocation in Canada provinces: the role of indicators of health needs].

    PubMed

    Thouez, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to limit their health care expenditures Canadian provinces have strengthened the necessity to allocate health care resources according to their population needs. The difficulties and limitations of the needs-based approach are explored. First, indicators of population needs for health care were introduced into a formula of resource allocation for hospital-based services in England in the late 1970. Secondly, there are broad similarities between both the philosophy and resource allocation strategies of Canada and Britain. Thirdly, the main definition of a needs indicator is to measure the level of equity- or inequity-in the distribution of health care resources between regions. Fourthly, a needs indicator, as least as developed by the Canadian provinces, concerns general and specialized services that should be found in each of their regions. Fifthly, a needs indicator constitutes a tool for the calculation of a capitation rate. Finally, future research should focus on parameters which are not an integral part of the allocation method, but which have a strong impact, in the attainment of regional equity such as administrative decisions that are taken when budgets are to be allocated or reduced between regions. PMID:12050941

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS: STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Purpose: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving in the direction of measuring and assessing human health and ecological outcomes. The new "outcome" measures complement the more traditional approaches by more closely reflecting the actual public health...

  15. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  16. Health-related worries, perceived health status, and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the association of health-related worries (over cancers, diabetes, work-related stress, heart attack, obesity, general physical fitness, and/or other health conditions) and perceived health status (excellent, good, fair or poor) to the utilization of health care services for 19, 139 Japanese local public service employees. Data on health-related worries and health status were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire survey in 1988 and analyzed in relation to the subsequent 12-month utilization of health care. Results showed that perceived health status was associated with the utilization for almost all medical conditions and so was worry over a specific condition and the subsequent utilization of health care services. The implication of these findings is that measures targeting the relief of an employee's health-related worries, through either health consultation or other health programs, may contribute to the reduction of an employee's health care utilization and costs.

  17. Catastrophic care-seeking costs as an indicator for lung health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Costs incurred during care-seeking for chronic respiratory disease are a major problem with severe consequences for socio-economic status and health outcomes. Most of the published evidence to date relates to tuberculosis (TB) and there is a lack of information for the major non-communicable chronic respiratory diseases: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). International policy is recognising the need to address this problem and measure progress towards eliminating catastrophic care-seeking costs (see the post-2015 TB strategy). Current tools for measuring, defining, and understanding the full consequences of catastrophic care-seeking costs are inadequate. We propose two areas of work which are urgently needed to prepare health systems and countries for the burden of chronic lung disease that will fall on poor populations in the coming 10-20 years: a) Rapid scale up of the number and scope of studies of patient costs associated with chronic non-communicable respiratory disease. b) Work towards deeper understanding and effective measurement of catastrophic care-seeking costs. This will produce a range of indicators, such as dissaving, which can more effectively inform health policy decision-making for lung health. These will also be useful for other health problems. We argue that reduction in care-seeking costs will be a key monitoring indicator for improvements in lung health in particular, and health in general, in the coming 10 to 20 years.

  18. Assessing the cost of electronic health records: a review of cost indicators.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Ana Isabel; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desmartis, Marie

    2010-11-01

    We systematically reviewed PubMed and EBSCO business, looking for cost indicators of electronic health record (EHR) implementations and their associated benefit indicators. We provide a set of the most common cost and benefit (CB) indicators used in the EHR literature, as well as an overall estimate of the CB related to EHR implementation. Overall, CB evaluation of EHR implementation showed a rapid capital-recovering process. On average, the annual benefits were 76.5% of the first-year costs and 308.6% of the annual costs. However, the initial investments were not recovered in a few studied implementations. Distinctions in reporting fixed and variable costs are suggested.

  19. Evolution of post-deployment indicators of oral health on the Family Health Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445

  20. Salutogenesis and Ayurveda: indications for public health management.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Antonio; Tosto, Carmen; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; Dalla Libera, Dacia

    2011-12-01

    Ayurveda, the ancient traditional medicine of India, defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and spiritual well-being. The focus of Ayurveda is on a predictive, preventive and personalized medicine. This is obtained through a low-cost personalized counseling about lifestyle measures (diet, activities, etc.), trying to involve the patient directly in the process of healing, increasing his self-awareness and good relationships with other people and nature. The approach of Ayurveda toward positive health shares its features with that of salutogenesis as described by Antonovsky. Prevention strategies pragmatically suggested by Ayurveda - including factors such as promotion of health education, individual awareness, integration of spirituality and ethics in healthcare system- may be applied in public health management, in order to improve perceived and objective life quality, promote healthy aging, limit drugs use (avoiding expensive side-effects) and reduce chronic diseases social costs. Ayurveda has a universal-coverage, being person-centered and consequently intercultural. PMID:23194327

  1. THE ROLE OF INDICATORS IN HEALTH AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of risk to public health or environmental resources requires competent characterization of stressors and the corresponding effects on organisms, populations, and communities. Because of the complexity of most stressor-response relationships, it is impossible to complet...

  2. Current Status of Sexual Health and Rights Indicators in Iran: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health and rights indicators provide essential tools for monitoring the status of individuals’ sexual health and its rights, in various countries. This paper discusses sexual health and rights indicators in Iran. The indicators under study are derived from similar indicators developed by Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Center for Women, for the 15th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development monitoring project. Four HIV-related and three other indicators, including legal age of marriage, median age of women at marriage, and status of violence against women (VAW) were examined in this study. Iran has made several achievements in combating HIV/AIDS, with the focus on injectable drug users, and has countered a series of challenges in the determination of VAW prevalence, the increase of high risk behavior in adolescents, and sexual education for this group. The most important message of this paper is that special attention to challenging issues in Iranian individuals’ sexual health could promote their current status. PMID:26328067

  3. Current Status of Sexual Health and Rights Indicators in Iran: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Sexual health and rights indicators provide essential tools for monitoring the status of individuals' sexual health and its rights, in various countries. This paper discusses sexual health and rights indicators in Iran. The indicators under study are derived from similar indicators developed by Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Center for Women, for the 15th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development monitoring project. Four HIV-related and three other indicators, including legal age of marriage, median age of women at marriage, and status of violence against women (VAW) were examined in this study. Iran has made several achievements in combating HIV/AIDS, with the focus on injectable drug users, and has countered a series of challenges in the determination of VAW prevalence, the increase of high risk behavior in adolescents, and sexual education for this group. The most important message of this paper is that special attention to challenging issues in Iranian individuals' sexual health could promote their current status. PMID:26328067

  4. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  5. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  6. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years) drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH) to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC) and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI) to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam) and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan) within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health inequalities in the

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in Canada: prevalence and associations with six health status indicators

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, C.; Gee, M. E.; Lagacé, C.; Parlor, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have considered the factors independently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and/or fibromyalgia (FM) or considered the impact of these conditions on health status using population-based data. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 59 101) to describe self-reported health professional-diagnosed CFS and/or FM, and their associations with 6 health status indicators. Results: In 2010, diagnosed CFS and FM are reported by 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%–1.6%) and 1.5% (1.4%–1.7%), respectively, of the Canadian household population aged 12 years and over, with comorbid CFS and FM affecting 0.3% (0.3%–0.4%) of that population. Prevalent CFS and/or FM were more common among women, adults aged 40 years and over, those with lowest income, and those with certain risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. obesity, physical inactivity and smoking). After controlling for differences between the groups, people with CFS and/or FM reported poorer health status than those with neither condition on 5 indicators of health status, but not on the measure of fair/poor mental health. Having both CFS and FM and having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with poorer health status. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of CFS and FM and having other chronic conditions were strongly related to poorer health status and accounted for much of the differences in health status. Understanding factors contributing to improved quality of life in people with CFS and/or FM, particularly in those with both conditions and other comorbidities, may be an important area for future research. PMID:25811400

  8. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  9. New mental health indicators provide a snapshot on performance of the mental health system in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carolyn; Couris, Chantal; Leeb, Kira

    2012-01-01

    Although the general hospital remains an important place for stabilizing crises, most services for mental illnesses are provided in outpatient/community settings. In the absence of comprehensive data at the community level, data that are routinely collected from general hospitals can provide insights on the performance of mental health services for people living with mental illness or poor mental health. This article describes three new indicators that provide a snapshot on the performance of the mental health system in Canada: self-injury hospitalization rate, 30-day readmission rate for mental illness and percentage of patients with repeat hospitalizations for mental illness. Findings suggest a need for the early detection and treatment of mental illnesses and for optimal transitions between general hospitals and community services.

  10. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  11. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hammami, A; Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, R J; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-06-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  12. Is the political system really related to health?

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  13. Combining Health Plan Performance Indicators into Simpler Composite Measures

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Shaul, James A.; Zaborski, Lawrence B.; Cioffi, Matthew J.; Cleary, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated how the Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Study (CAHPS®) survey and the Health Plan Employer Data Information System (HEDIS®) measures from Medicare managed care (MMC) plans could be combined into fewer summary performance scores. Four scores summarize most of the variability in these measures, representing (1) care at the doctor's office, (2) customer service and access, (3) vaccinations, and (4) clinical quality measures. These summaries are substantively interpretable, internally consistent, and describe the majority of variation among units in the performance scores analyzed. PMID:12500473

  14. [A system of indicators for identifying the specific healthcare needs of communities by large health departments].

    PubMed

    Ciaralli, Fabrizio; D'Ascanio, Italo; Saffioti, Concetto; Spunticchia, Giorgio; Perria, Carla; Vicario, Gianni; Zega, Maurizio; Panà, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Clinical governance of healthcare and community services by healthcare organizations requires the use of validated tools for identifying the specific healthcare needs of the local population. The population served by a local health organization may be large and although data regarding this population as a whole is useful for a preliminary evaluation, it may be too generic for an accurate estimation of the healthcare needs at the district level since different districts may face different challenges and have profoundly different realities. In this context, it can be strategically useful to use a system of indicators targeted at districts, the latter regarded as the basic unit of the health care system and characterized by a relatively constant structure and size.A set of district indicators has been developed and adopted by a local health authority in Rome (Italy) "ASL Roma B", as part of a collaborative project with the Public Health Agency of the Lazio region. In this paper, we present the main results of the first four years of implementation of the system (from 2007 to 2010).The data shows that even within a metropolitan health organization serving an apparently homogeneous population, health needs, provision of services and outcomes may vary greatly between different districts suggesting the adoption of diverse operational strategies. PMID:23064091

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS AT UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently published two different indicators reports, America's Children and the Environment (ACE) and the Draft Report on the Environment (see: http://www.epa.gov/indicators/ and http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/). ACE...

  16. Indicators of Partnership Success among MICHIANA Coordinated School Health Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Priscilla A.; Lohrmann, David; Shipley, Meagan; O'Neill, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated school health (CSH) is an increasingly popular approach used by school and community stakeholders for implementing policy and programmatic changes. Because funding is limited, examination of factors that maximize the potential for schools to build sustainable partnerships is crucially important. This study assessed the extent to which…

  17. The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.

    PubMed

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations). PMID:25037885

  18. The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.

    PubMed

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations).

  19. The evaluation of reproductive health PhD program in Iran: The input indicators analysis

    PubMed Central

    AbdiShahshahani, Mahshid; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Yamani, Nikoo; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appropriate quality achievement of a PhD program requires frequent assessment and discovering the shortcomings in the program. Inputs, which are important elements of the curriculum, are frequently missed in evaluations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the input indicators of reproductive health PhD program in Iran based on the Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) evaluation model. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and evaluative study based on the CIPP evaluation model. It was conducted in 2013 in four Iranian schools of nursing and midwifery of medical sciences universities. Statistical population consisted of four groups: heads of departments (n = 5), faculty members (n = 18), graduates (n = 12), and PhD students of reproductive health (n = 54). Data collection tools were five separate questionnaires including 37 indicators that were developed by the researcher. Content and face validity were evaluated based on the experts’ indications. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in order to obtain the reliability of the questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, percentage, and standard deviation), and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc tests to compare means between groups. Results: The results of the study indicated that the highest percentage of the heads of departments (80%), graduates (66.7%), and students (68.5%) evaluated the status of input indicators of reproductive health PhD program as relatively appropriate, while most of the faculties (66.7%) evaluated that as appropriate. Conclusions: It is suggested to explore the reasons for relatively appropriate evaluation of input indicators by further academic researches and improve the reproductive health PhD program accordingly. PMID:25558260

  20. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  1. Indicators of Teacher Ability to Relate to Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dene R.

    The purpose of this study was to find teacher behaviors which correlate significantly with a criterion measure of teacher ability to relate to students. Videotapes of 50 teacher interns were shown to 100 high school students of three different ethnic backgrounds--white, black and oriental. Teachers were rated on ability to relate to students.…

  2. Estimating relative demand for wildlife: Conservation activity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Gary G.; Larson, Joseph S.

    1982-09-01

    An alternative method of estimating relative demand among nonconsumptive uses of wildlife and among wildlife species is proposed. A demand intensity score (DIS), derived from the relative extent of an individual's involvement in outdoor recreation and conservation activities, is used as a weighting device to adjust the importance of preference rankings for wildlife uses and wildlife species relative to other members of a survey population. These adjusted preference rankings were considered to reflect relative demand levels (RDLs) for wildlife uses and for species by the survey population. This technique may be useful where it is not possible or desirable to estimate demand using traditional economic means. In one of the findings from a survey of municipal conservation commission members in Massachusetts, presented as an illustration of this methodology, poisonous snakes were ranked third in preference among five groups of reptiles. The relative demand level for poisonous snakes, however, was last among the five groups.

  3. Unusual but sound minds: mental health indicators in spiritual individuals.

    PubMed

    Farias, Miguel; Underwood, Raphael; Claridge, Gordon

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has linked certain types of modern spirituality, including New Age and Pagan, with either benign schizotypy or insecure attachment. While the first view emphasizes a positive aspect of spiritual believers' mental health (benign schizotypy), the second view emphasizes a negative aspect, namely the unhealthy emotional compensation associated with an insecure attachment style. This study addresses these two conflicting views by comparing a sample of modern spiritual individuals (N = 114) with a contrast group of traditional religious believers (N = 86). Measures of schizotypy and attachment style were combined with mental health scales of anxiety and depression. We further assessed death anxiety to determine whether modern spiritual beliefs fulfilled a similar function as traditional religious beliefs in the reduction of existential threat. Our results support a psychological contiguity between traditional and modern spiritual believers and reinforce the need to de-stigmatize spiritual ideas and experiences. Using hierarchical regression, we showed that unusual experiences and ideas are the major predictor of engagement in modern spiritual practices. Anxiety, depression variables, and insecure attachment were not significant predictors of spirituality or correlated with them; on the other hand, the results show that spiritual believers report high social support satisfaction and this variable predicts involvement in modern spirituality. Further, spiritual practices were negatively correlated with and negatively predicted by death anxiety scores. Overall, the results strengthen the association between modern spirituality, good mental health, and general well-being. PMID:23848387

  4. [Health status indicators: features of the economic approach].

    PubMed

    Ghislandi, S; Bertolini, G; Garattini, L

    2000-01-01

    Quality of Life (QoL) instruments are often considered similar, since they all concern subjective health state valuations. Actually, among the set of QoL scales, it is possible to distinguish two approaches, different in terms of both goals and tools. The clinical approach elicits functional limitations as perceived by patients, the economic approach is aimed at solving allocation problems generated by scarsity of resources. The major goal of this article is to analyse the economic approach to health state subjective valuation. By using QoL questionnaires, economists attempt to set up quantitative indexes which can value any kind of health outcome. Thus the economic approach seems to be more ambitious than the clinical one. However, the results so far achieved are quite disappointing, especially if compared to those of the clinical approach. In particular, economic scales still suffer a general lack of validation, due to the scarcity of studies conducted on relevant samples. Accordingly, indexes now available seem to require substantial revision. In general, further significant efforts seem necessary to improve the methodology inside the field of HRQoL measures. Integrating the two approaches, as recently attempted, could be a sound strategy.

  5. Active Video Games and Health Indicators in Children and Youth: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C.; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. Objective This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0–17 years). Data sources Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database) and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. Data selection Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute), adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment), opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events), adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play), learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology). Results 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3–17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006–2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. Conclusions Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as a

  6. Identifying Indicators Related to Constructs for Engineering Design Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    This study ranked constructs articulated by Childress and Rhodes (2008) and identified the key indicators for each construct as a starting point to explore what should be included on an instrument to measure the engineering design process and outcomes of students in high schools that use the PLTW and EbDTM curricula in Idaho. A case-study design…

  7. Building sustainability indicators in the health dimension for solid waste management 1

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Coutinho, Silvano da Silva; Andre, Silvia Carla Silva; Mendes, Adriana Aparecida; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to prepare a list of sustainability indicators in the health dimension, for urban solid waste management. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory study performed jointly with 52 solid waste specialists, using a three-steps Delphi technique, and a scale measuring the degree of importance for agreement among the researchers in this area. Results: the subjects under study were 92,3% PhD's concentrated in the age group from 30 to 40 years old (32,7%) and 51% were men. At the end of the 3rd step of the Delphi process, the average and standard deviation of all the proposed indicators varied from 4,22 (±0,79) to 4,72 (±0,64), in a scale of scores for each indicator from 1 to 5 (from "dispensable" to "very important"). Results showed the level of correspondence among the participants ranging from 82% to 94% related to those indicators. Conclusion: the proposed indicators may be helpful not only for the identification of data that is updated in this area, but also to enlarge the field of debates of the environmental health policies, directed not only for urban solid waste but for the achievement of better health conditions for the Brazilian context. PMID:27508905

  8. Status report on maternal and child health indicators.

    PubMed

    Givens, S R; Moore, M L

    1995-06-01

    The health of pregnant women and children has improved substantially since the 1960s. In the past decade, however, progress in preventing infant deaths, reducing the incidence of low-birth-weight infants, and ensuring first trimester prenatal care has slowed. African-American infants suffer a significantly higher risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Immunization rates for preschoolers remain low. Changing social conditions including a rising child poverty rate, a high teenage birth rate, an increased rate of births to unmarried women, and higher levels of unintended pregnancy may be contributing to stalled progress. PMID:7745540

  9. Evaluating Area-Based Socioeconomic Status Indicators for Monitoring Disparities within Health Care Systems: Results from a Primary Care Network

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Traore, Carine Y; Singer, Daniel E; Atlas, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which area-based socioeconomic status (SES) indicator is best suited to monitor health care disparities from a delivery system perspective. Data Sources/Study Setting 142,659 adults seen in a primary care network from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. Study Design Cross-sectional, comparing associations between area-based SES indicators and patient outcomes. Data Collection Address data were geocoded to construct area-based SES indicators at block group (BG), census tract (CT), and ZIP code (ZIP) levels. Data on health outcomes were abstracted from electronic records. Relative indices of inequality (RIIs) were calculated to quantify disparities detected by area-based SES indicators and compared to RIIs from self-reported educational attainment. Principal Findings ZIP indicators had less missing data than BG or CT indicators (p < .0001). Area-based SES indicators were strongly associated with self-report educational attainment (p < .0001). ZIP, BG, and CT indicators all detected expected SES gradients in health outcomes similarly. Single-item, cut point defined indicators performed as well as multidimensional indices and quantile indicators. Conclusions Area-based SES indicators detected health outcome differences well and may be useful for monitoring disparities within health care systems. Our preferred indicator was ZIP-level median household income or percent poverty, using cut points. PMID:25219917

  10. School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?

    PubMed

    Brolin Låftman, Sara; Modin, Bitte

    2012-05-01

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole.

  11. Helminth communities of fish as ecological indicators of lake health.

    PubMed

    Shah, Humaira Bashir; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals largely with the dynamics and changes in the helminth parasite communities of fish along the trophic gradient of lakes. The use of parasitological community data as a bioindicator of environmental health underlines the need to study parasite communities at comparable localities with known pollution levels. The comparison of the conditions in different habitats might be helpful to differentiate between normal fluctuations in ambient conditions and pollution-mediated effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the community structure of parasites in snow trout (Schizothorax niger Heckel) inhabiting 3 lakes of contrasting trophic status in Kashmir. The idea of selecting the lakes, namely Anchar (strongly hypereutrophic), Dal (eutrophic) and Manasbal (mesotrophic) for this study was intentional as they depict different trophic gradients and exhibit the desirable pattern which was a prerequisite for this study. The findings presented in this article suggest an apparent lake-wise gradient in community structure, as the increase in trematode and cestode infections in Anchar was markedly greater, to levels clearly distinguishable from those in the other two water bodies. We conclude that human-induced eutrophication of lakes modifies the parasite community at component level and community-level studies on parasites may provide information on health status of lakes. PMID:23127258

  12. [Evaluation of oral health indicators in Brazil: a trend towards equity in dental care?].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana de Kássia Braga; Pinho, Judith Rafaelle Oliveira; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca

    2016-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oral health indicators from the Pact for Primary Healthcare 2006, the Biennial Pact for Health 2010-2011, and the indicators for the transition from the Pact for Health to the 2012 Organizational Contract for Public Action in Health did not differ between states of Brazil with different Human Development Indices (HDI). A longitudinal ecological study was performed, comparing the states of Brazil with the highest and lowest HDIs. Data were obtained from the information systems of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and submitted to mixed-effects linear regression (alpha = 5%). All the indicators for opportunity of access to oral health care were inversely associated with HDI. For indicators of use, the association only occurred with two indicators. The results showed a trend towards equity for indicators of opportunity of access to oral health. PMID:26910254

  13. Relative performance of common biochemical indicators in detecting cigarette smoking

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Singleton, Edward G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Heishman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Many cities have banned indoor smoking in public places. Thus, an updated recommendation for a breath carbon monoxide (CO) cut-off is needed that optimally determines smoking status. We evaluated and compared the performance of breath CO and semiquantitative cotinine immunoassay test strips (urine and saliva NicAlert®) alone and in combination. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Urban drug addiction research and treatment facility. Participants Ninety non-treatment-seeking smokers and 82 non-smokers. Measurements Participants completed smoking histories and provided breath CO, urine and saliva specimens. Urine and saliva specimens were assayed for cotinine by NicAlert® and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Findings An optimal breath CO cut-off was established using self-report and LCMSMS analysis of cotinine, an objective indicator, as reference measures. Performance of smoking indicators and combinations were compared to the reference measures. Breath CO ≥5 parts per million (p.p.m.) optimally discriminated smokers from non-smokers. Saliva NicAlert® performance was less effective than the other indicators. Conclusions In surveys of smokers and non-smokers in areas with strong smoke-free laws, the breath carbon monoxide cut-off that discriminates most effectively appears to be ≥5 p.p.m. rather than the ≥10 p.p.m. cut-off often used. These findings may not generalize to clinical trials, regions with different carbon monoxide pollution levels or areas with less stringent smoke-free laws. PMID:21438939

  14. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  15. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  16. Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.

    1994-03-01

    The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

  17. Development of mental health quality indicators (MHQIs) for inpatient psychiatry based on the interRAI mental health assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mental health services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mental health providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mental health quality indicators (MHQIs) using the Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health (RAI-MH), a clinical assessment system mandated for use in Ontario, Canada as well as many other jurisdictions internationally. Methods Retrospective analyses were performed on two datasets containing RAI-MH assessments for 1,056 patients from 7 facilities and 34,788 patients from 70 facilities in Ontario, Canada. The RAI-MH was completed by clinical staff of each facility at admission and follow-up, typically at discharge. The RAI-MH includes a breadth of information on symptoms, functioning, socio-demographics, and service utilization. Potential MHQIs were derived by examining the empirical patterns of improvement and incidence in depressive symptoms and cognitive performance across facilities in both sets of data. A prevalence indicator was also constructed to compare restraint use. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk adjustment of MHQIs using patient case-mix index scores derived from the RAI-MH System for Classification of Inpatient Psychiatry. Results Subscales from the RAI-MH, the Depression Severity Index (DSI) and Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS), were found to have good reliability and strong convergent validity. Unadjusted rates of five MHQIs based on the DSI, CPS, and restraints showed substantial variation among facilities in both sets of data. For instance, there was a 29.3% difference between the first and third quartile facility rates of improvement in cognitive performance. The case-mix index score was significantly related to MHQIs for cognitive performance and restraints but had a

  18. Perceived health status and health insurance status: protective factors against health-related debt?

    PubMed

    Christy, Kameri; Hampton-Stover, Elena; Shobe, Marcia; Hammig, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Current health care debate has largely focused on the need for health insurance coverage rather than quality coverage. Yet the economic downturn has resulted in an increasing number of individuals who are uninsured or underinsured, and consequently face financial hardships. Multivariate analyses were used with 95 adults to examine relationships between health insurance, health status, and health debt. Controlling for demographics, and human and financial capital, findings suggest that health debt is not related to health insurance or health status. However, individuals with post-secondary education and non-homeowners appear to be more at risk for accumulating health debt.

  19. Indicators of waste management efficiency related to different territorial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Monti, Francesco; Morselli, Luciano; Villani, Barbara

    2011-04-15

    The amount of waste produced and the control of separate collection are crucial issues for the planning of a territorial Integrated Waste Management System, enabling the allocation of each sorted waste fraction to the proper treatment and recycling processes. The present study focuses on assessing indicators of different waste management systems in areas characterized by different territorial conditions. The investigated case study concerns the municipalities of Emilia Romagna (northern Italy), which present a rather uniform socioeconomic situation, but a variety of geographic, urban and waste management characteristics. A survey of waste generation and collection rates was carried out, and correlated with the different territorial conditions, classifying the municipalities according to altitude and population density. The best environmental performances, in terms of high separate collection rate, were found on average in rural areas in the plain, while the lowest waste generation was associated with rural hill towns.

  20. Defining and assessing health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Holcík, J; Koupilová, I

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in quality of life assessment in clinical research and practice, as well as in public health and policy analysis. Indicators of health-related quality of life are important not only for health professionals and their patients, but also for health administrators and health economists in health care planning and policy making. Most studies on the outcome of treatments and interventions now include some kind of a quality of life measure. This usually takes a form of an assessment of symptoms and physical functioning, measurement of psychological well-being, life satisfaction, or coping and adjustment. Numerous scales of psychological health, physical health status and physical functioning have been developed for use in the assessment of health outcomes and a wide range of instruments for measurement of health-related quality of life is available. These fall into two broad categories of generic and disease-specific instruments. The selection of an instrument depends upon its measurement properties but also upon the specific context in which the instrument is going to be used. Adequate attention needs to be paid to the translation and validation of instruments for use across countries and cultural contexts.

  1. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  2. Enhancing measurement of primary health care indicators using an equity lens: An ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction One important goal of strengthening and renewal in primary healthcare (PHC) is achieving health equity, particularly for vulnerable populations. There has been a flurry of international activity toward the establishment of indicators relevant to measuring and monitoring PHC. Yet, little attention has been paid to whether current indicators: 1) are sensitive enough to detect inequities in processes or outcomes of care, particularly in relation to the health needs of vulnerable groups or 2) adequately capture the complexity of delivering PHC services across diverse groups. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse regarding what ought to be considered a PHC indicator and to provide some concrete examples illustrating the need for modification and development of new indicators given the goal of PHC achieving health equity. Methods Within the context of a larger study of PHC delivery at two Health Centers serving people facing multiple disadvantages, a mixed methods ethnographic design was used. Three sets of data collected included: (a) participant observation data focused on the processes of PHC delivery, (b) interviews with Health Center staff, and (c) interviews with patients. Results Thematic analysis suggests there is a disjuncture between clinical work addressing the complex needs of patients facing multiple vulnerabilities such as extreme levels of poverty, multiple chronic conditions, and lack of housing and extant indicators and how they are measured. Items could better measure and monitor performance at the management level including, what is delivered (e.g., focus on social determinants of health) and how services are delivered to socially disadvantaged populations (e.g., effective use of space, expectation for all staff to have welcoming and mutually respectful interactions). New indicators must be developed to capture inputs (e.g., stability of funding sources) and outputs (e.g., whole person care) in ways that better align

  3. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  4. Genetic relations of oceanic basalts as indicated by lead isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.

    1966-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of lead and the concentrations of lead, uranium, and thorium in samples of oceanic tholeiite and alkali suites are determined, and the genetic relations of the oceanic basalts are discussed. Lead of the oceanic tholeiites has a varying lead-206 : lead-204 ratio between 17.8 and 18.8, while leads of the alkali basalt suites from Easter Island and Guadalupe Island are very radiogenic with lead-206 : lead-204 ratios between 19.3 and 20.4. It is concluded that (i) the isotopic composition of lead in oceanic tholeiite suggests that the upper mantle source region of the tholeiite was differentiated from an original mantle material more than 1 billion years ago and that the upper mantle is not homogeneous at the present time, (ii) less than 20 million years was required for the crystal differentiation within the alkali suite from Easter Island, (iii) no crustal contamination was involved in the course of differentiation of rocks from Easter Island; however, some crustal contamination may have affected Guadalupe Island rocks, and (iv) alkali basalt may be produced from the tholeiite in the oceanic region by crystal differentiation. Alternatively the difference in the isotopic composition of lead in oceanic basalts may be produced by partial melting at different depths of a differentiated upper mantle.

  5. Use of Electronic Health-Related Datasets in Nursing and Health-Related Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Aloush, Sami; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp

    2015-07-01

    Datasets of gigabyte size are common in medical sciences. There is increasing consensus that significant untapped knowledge lies hidden in these large datasets. This review article aims to discuss Electronic Health-Related Datasets (EHRDs) in terms of types, features, advantages, limitations, and possible use in nursing and health-related research. Major scientific databases, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, were searched for studies or review articles regarding using EHRDs in research. A total number of 442 articles were located. After application of study inclusion criteria, 113 articles were included in the final review. EHRDs were categorized into Electronic Administrative Health-Related Datasets and Electronic Clinical Health-Related Datasets. Subcategories of each major category were identified. EHRDs are invaluable assets for nursing the health-related research. Advanced research skills such as using analytical softwares, advanced statistical procedures, dealing with missing data and missing variables will maximize the efficient utilization of EHRDs in research.

  6. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  7. Quality evaluation and indicator comparison in health care.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, J

    2001-01-01

    By 2005 all healthcare organizations in Europe will be required to take part in a quality evaluation scheme and to collect data about the quality of their service. Hospitals and doctors will need to prove they are safe--quality is no longer assumed. These were the predictions of a recent workshop of Nordic quality experts. The pressures to assess quality are increasing, and there are many assessment, certification, accreditation and measurement schemes in use. Which is best? What evidence is there that any have been effective? How should a hospital or region introduce such a scheme? There are many proponents for different schemes, and an increasing amount of experience to help answer these questions, but little research. This paper provides an overview for non-specialists of the different quality evaluation and indicator schemes for inspection and improvement. It draws on the experiences of quality specialists and leaders in each Nordic country who have applied the schemes in public hospitals and healthcare services. How a scheme is introduced and used may be more important than which particular scheme is chosen. This is one conclusion of the Nordic workshop. Other conclusions are that there is a need for clinicians to be involved, a need to balance simplicity and low cost with scientific validity and credibility with clinicians, and a need for research into different schemes to discover their costs and benefits in healthcare.

  8. Correlation between Drug Market Withdrawals and Socioeconomic, Health, and Welfare Indicators Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kye Hwa; Kim, Grace Juyun; Kim, Ju Han

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the number of withdrawn/restricted drugs and socioeconomic, health, and welfare indicators were investigated in a comprehensive review of drug regulation information in the United Nations (UN) countries. A total of of 362 drugs were withdrawn and 248 were restricted during 1950-2010, corresponding to rates of 12.02 ± 13.07 and 5.77 ± 8.69 (mean ± SD), respectively, among 94 UN countries. A socioeconomic, health, and welfare analysis was performed for 33 OECD countries for which data were available regarding withdrawn/restricted drugs. The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, GDP per hour worked, health expenditure per GDP, and elderly population rate were positively correlated with the numbers of withdrawn and restricted drugs (P < 0.05), while the out-of-pocket health expenditure payment rate was negatively correlated. The number of restricted drugs was also correlated with the rate of drug-related deaths (P < 0.05). The World Bank data cross-validated the findings of 33 OECD countries. The lists of withdrawn/restricted drugs showed markedly poor international agreement between them (Fleiss's kappa = -0.114). Twenty-seven drugs that had been withdrawn internationally by manufacturers are still available in some countries. The wide variation in the numbers of drug withdrawals and restrictions among countries indicates the need to improve drug surveillance systems and regulatory communication networks.

  9. Correlation between Drug Market Withdrawals and Socioeconomic, Health, and Welfare Indicators Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kye Hwa; Kim, Grace Juyun

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the number of withdrawn/restricted drugs and socioeconomic, health, and welfare indicators were investigated in a comprehensive review of drug regulation information in the United Nations (UN) countries. A total of of 362 drugs were withdrawn and 248 were restricted during 1950-2010, corresponding to rates of 12.02±13.07 and 5.77±8.69 (mean±SD), respectively, among 94 UN countries. A socioeconomic, health, and welfare analysis was performed for 33 OECD countries for which data were available regarding withdrawn/restricted drugs. The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, GDP per hour worked, health expenditure per GDP, and elderly population rate were positively correlated with the numbers of withdrawn and restricted drugs (P<0.05), while the out-of-pocket health expenditure payment rate was negatively correlated. The number of restricted drugs was also correlated with the rate of drug-related deaths (P<0.05). The World Bank data cross-validated the findings of 33 OECD countries. The lists of withdrawn/restricted drugs showed markedly poor international agreement between them (Fleiss's kappa=-0.114). Twenty-seven drugs that had been withdrawn internationally by manufacturers are still available in some countries. The wide variation in the numbers of drug withdrawals and restrictions among countries indicates the need to improve drug surveillance systems and regulatory communication networks. PMID:26538999

  10. FIFTH NHEERL SYMPOSIUM FLYER -- INDICATORS IN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Announcement for NHEERL Fifth Symposium - Indicators in Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. The purpose of the symposium is to address assessment of risk to public health or environmental resources which requires competent characterization of stressors and corresponding effec...

  11. Global health indicators and maternal health futures: The case of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Public health indicators generally operate in the world as credible, apolitical and authoritative. But indicators are less stable than they appear. Clinical critiques of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) criteria have been forthcoming for decades. This article, though, takes up the measuring and calculation gradients of IUGR in the ultrasound machine itself, including the software algorithms that identify IUGR. One hospital where research was conducted incorrectly predicted pathological birth outcomes 14 of 14 times. We are at a historical moment when the global use of prenatal diagnostic ultrasound for the express purpose of assessing IUGR is set to escalate. Medical imaging device corporations like Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric and Phillips are quite literally banking on it, and new forms of ultrasound technology and diagnostic software are increasingly available on smartphones, tablets and laptops. Clinical guidelines for IUGR--assumed to be authoritative and evidence-based--are evolving right along with the installation throughout the world of the technology capable of diagnosing it. Maternal malnutrition remains the single strongest predictive factor for IUGR, regardless of the technological investments currently amassing to identify the indicator, which is cause for a reassessment of priority spending and investment. PMID:26172620

  12. Development of an Algorithm to Classify Colonoscopy Indication from Coded Health Care Data

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kenneth F.; Johnson, Eric A.; Chubak, Jessica; Kamineni, Aruna; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Williams, Andrew E.; Weinmann, Sheila; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic health data are potentially valuable resources for evaluating colonoscopy screening utilization and effectiveness. The ability to distinguish screening colonoscopies from exams performed for other purposes is critical for research that examines factors related to screening uptake and adherence, and the impact of screening on patient outcomes, but distinguishing between these indications in secondary health data proves challenging. The objective of this study is to develop a new and more accurate algorithm for identification of screening colonoscopies using electronic health data. Methods: Data from a case-control study of colorectal cancer with adjudicated colonoscopy indication was used to develop logistic regression-based algorithms. The proposed algorithms predict the probability that a colonoscopy was indicated for screening, with variables selected for inclusion in the models using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO). Results: The algorithms had excellent classification accuracy in internal validation. The primary, restricted model had AUC= 0.94, sensitivity=0.91, and specificity=0.82. The secondary, extended model had AUC=0.96, sensitivity=0.88, and specificity=0.90. Discussion: The LASSO approach enabled estimation of parsimonious algorithms that identified screening colonoscopies with high accuracy in our study population. External validation is needed to replicate these results and to explore the performance of these algorithms in other settings. PMID:26290883

  13. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with

  14. ["Public health goals"--concepts this side of utopia? Berlin Public Health Research Organization--divided project "Goals and goal indicators for East and West Berlin Public Health"].

    PubMed

    Baier, W K; Haberland, J; Bergmann, K E

    1995-05-01

    Objectives or targets for health have been presented by the World Health Organisation as well as a number of national health administrations. Health objectives are intended as guidelines attracting the commitment of decision makers and health professionals. As a "normative health indicator" a health objective should quantify the desired progress and give the time by which it could be attained. The article discusses general and methodical aspects which are thought to be relevant in identifying and quantifying health objectives for a population.

  15. Making the Case for Using Financial Indicators in Local Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Virginia; Denison, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the public health infrastructure determines the ability of local public health agencies to respond to emergencies and provide essential services. Organizational and systems capacity measures and assessments are important components of the public health infrastructure. Hospitals and governments have a long tradition of using financial indicators to assess fiscal and operational activities. We reviewed the literature on how hospitals use financial indicators to monitor financial risk, promote organizational sustainability, and improve organizational capacity. Given that financial indicators have not generally been employed by public health practitioners, we discuss how these measures can be applied to local public health agencies to improve their organizational capacity. PMID:21233438

  16. [The role of health education in promotion of health-related fitness concept].

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of health education is to shape the habits of attention to positive physical health, which determines the low risk of health problems, particularly in later life. Therefore, an important indicator of correct pro-health behaviors is to maintain an appropriate ratio between body weight and height, as well as maintaining fat distribution indices (BMI, WHR) at the appropriate level. Aim of this paper is to attempt a synthetic view of the health-related fineness--its development, and maintenance level for life in the context of the objectives of health education. The results of children and adolescents and the population of adult males from Cracow indicate that the percentage of children with elevated values of the fat distribution indices (BMI, WHR) between 8 and 19 years is systematically reduced in relation to international standards. At the same time in the adult male population dramatically increased to almost 50% in the group of men after the age of 50. This implies that educational activities related to the promotion of healthy lifestyle and maintain appropriate physical activity can not be finished at the stage of school education, but must also continue at a later date.

  17. State-level variations in income-related inequality in health and health achievement in the US.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke Tom

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state-level variations in income-related inequality in health and overall health achievement in the US. Data that were representative of the US and each state in 2001 were extracted from the Current Population Survey 2001. Income-related inequality in health and health achievement were measured by Health Concentration and Health Achievement Indices, respectively. Significant variations were found across states in income-related inequality in health and health achievement. In particular, states in the south and east regions, on average, experienced a higher degree of health inequality and lower health achievement. About 80% of the state-level variation in health achievement could be explained by demographics, economic structure and performance, and state and local government spending and burden. In contrast, medical care resource indicators were not found to contribute to health achievement in states. States with better health achievement were more urbanized, had lower proportions of minority groups, females and the elderly, fewer individuals below the poverty line, larger primary industry, and lower unemployment rates. Also, per capita state and local government spending, particularly the proportion spent on public health, was positively associated with better health achievement. Because of the direct implications of health level and distribution in resource allocation and social norms, states with a lower level of health achievement need to prioritize efforts in increasing and reallocating resources to diminish health inequality and to improve population health.

  18. Do self-reported health indicators predict mortality? Evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Abdur; Mustafa, A H M G; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2014-09-01

    In order to understand current and changing patterns of population health, there is a clear need for high-quality health indicators. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey platform and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries (INDEPTH) generated data for this study. A total of 4300 people aged 50 years or older were selected randomly from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The health indicators derived from these survey data are self-rated general health, overall health state, quality of life and disability levels. The outcome of the study is mortality over a 2-year follow-up since the survey. Among the four health indicators, only self-rated health was significantly associated with subsequent mortality irrespective of sex: those who reported bad health had higher mortality than those who reported good health, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. For all other three health indicators, such associations exist but are significant only for males, while for females it is significant only for 'quality of life'.

  19. 3D visualization environment for analysis of telehealth indicators in public health.

    PubMed

    Filho, Amadeu S Campos; Novaes, Magdala A; Gomes, Alex S

    2013-01-01

    With the growth of telehealth applications and the need for public health managers to have tools that facilitate visualization of indicators produced by telehealth services arose the need to have simple systems to better planning the interventions. Furthermore, Health systems are considers difficult in order to visualize the right information by many health professionals [1] because of the complexity of its Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the high cognitive load needed to handle it. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a 3D environment for the analysis of telehealth indicators in public health by managers of public health sites. Users who will use the environment are part of public health manager of family health sites that participate of Network of Telehealth Centers of Pernambuco (RedeNUTES) [2] that is part of Brazil telehealth program. This paper aims to present a 3D environment for analysis of telehealth indicators by public health manager.

  20. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  1. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  2. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  3. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  4. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  5. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain.

  6. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001

  7. Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. PMID:24762261

  8. Standardized Curricula for Allied Health and Related Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational and technical programs in Mississippi: allied health and related technology I (health cluster I) and allied health and related technology II (health cluster II). Introductory materials include the philosophy and aims of allied health and related technology in…

  9. Mapping Spatial Variability in Health and Wealth Indicators in Accra, Ghana Using High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, R.; Ashcroft, E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of research conducted that examines disparities in health and wealth of persons between urban and rural areas however, relatively little research has been undertaken to examine variations within urban areas. A major limitation to elucidating differences with urban areas is the lack of social and demographic data at a sufficiently high spatial resolution to determine these differences. Generally the only available data that contain this information are census data which are collected at most every ten years and are often difficult to obtain at a high enough spatial resolution to allow for examining in depth variability in health and wealth indicators at high spatial resolutions, especially in developing countries. High spatial resolution satellite imagery may be able to provide timely and synoptic information that is related to health and wealth variability within a city. In this study we use two dates of Quickbird imagery (2003 and 2010) classified into the vegetation-impervious surface-soil (VIS) model introduced by Ridd (1995). For 2003 we only have partial coverage of the city, while for 2010 we have a mosaic, which covers the entire city of Accra, Ghana. Variations in the VIS values represent the physical variations within the city and these are compared to variations in economic, and/or sociodemographic data derived from the 2000 Ghanaian census at two spatial resolutions, the enumeration area (approximately US Census Tract) and the neighborhood for the city. Results indicate a significant correlation between both vegetation and impervious surface to type of cooking fuel used in the household, population density, housing density, availability of sewers, cooking space usage, and other variables. The correlations are generally stronger at the neighborhood level and the relationships are stable through time and space. Overall, the results indicate that information derived from high resolution satellite data is related to

  10. Developing a Set of Health Indicators for People with Intellectual Disabilities: "Pomona" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Linehan, Christine; Kerr, M. P.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.; Buono, Serafino; Azema, Bernard; Aussilloux, Charles; Maatta, Tuomo; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; van Hove, Geert; Bjorkman, Monica; Ceccotto, Raymond; Kamper, Marion; Weber, Germain; Heiss, Cecilia; Haveman, Meindert; Jorgensen, Frank Ulmer; O'Farrell, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission's Health Monitoring Programme culminated in the development of a set of European Community Health Indicators (ECHI) for the general population. Despite evidence of marked disparities between the health of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their peers in the general population, the ECHI contain no significant…

  11. LGBT health in the midlands: a rural/urban comparison of basic health indicators.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Christopher M; Irwin, Jay A; Coleman, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    Research into the health and wellbeing of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations is limited. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to develop an online survey for LGBT Nebraskans. The 770 participants replied to an array of questions on social determinants of health and basic health outcomes. Only significant differences in having health insurance were found between urban and rural participants. Social determinants of health were explored. Results of this study suggest that regional culture may be more salient to health for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons living in the Midwest than rural or urban residence.

  12. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Vachon, J.; Dykxhoorn, J.; McRae, L.; Jayaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course. PMID:26789022

  13. Establishing Process Indicators for Joint Working in Mental Health: Rationale and Results from a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneau, Louise; Hill, Robert G.; Hancock, Mary; Wolf, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Developed and tested key indicators for collaboration between health and social services in mental health. Surveys of stakeholders indicated that collaboration was most effective when there was an agreed-upon strategy. Barriers to collaboration included differences in funding, accountability, governmental guidance, and the status and control of…

  14. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  15. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  16. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators, Vulnerability Assessments, and Projections of Future Impacts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) are used by local, state, and federal health agencies to track the status of environmental hazards; exposure to those hazards; health effects of exposure; and public health interventions designed to reduce or prevent the hazard, exposure, or resulting health effect. Climate and health EPHIs have been developed at the state, federal, and international levels. However, they are also needed at the local level to track variations in community vulnerability and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance community resilience. This review draws on a guidance document developed by the U.S. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative climate change working group to present a three-tiered approach to develop local climate change EPHIs. Local climate change EPHIs can assist local health departments (LHDs) in implementing key steps of the 10 essential public health services and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework. They also allow LHDs to incorporate climate-related trends into the larger health department planning process and can be used to perform vulnerability assessments which can be leveraged to ensure that interventions designed to address climate change do not exacerbate existing health disparities. PMID:25349621

  17. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  18. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-08-04

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools.

  19. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  20. [Assessing work-related stress: an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool].

    PubMed

    Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).

  1. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Frieden, T; Vermund, S H

    1987-01-01

    Since 1983, war in Nicaragua has slowed improvements in health which had developed rapidly from 1979-82. The rate of war-related deaths among Nicaraguans now exceeds that of the United States citizens in either the Vietnam War or World War II. Forty-two of the 84 documented war-related casualties among Nicaraguan health workers have been deaths. This high case fatality rate reflects the targeting of health workers by contra troops. The number of staff and services of the public medical system decreased by approximately 10 per cent from 1983 to 1985. Population movements, the establishment of new settlements, and war-related destruction of the primary health infrastructure are associated with recent epidemics of malaria, dengue, measles, and leishmaniasis. The estimated rate of infant mortality in Nicaragua, which had declined from 120 per 1,000 in 1978 to 76/1,000 live births in 1983, has since shown no further decline. Internationally mandated protections enjoyed by civilians and health workers during times of war do not appear to operate in this so-called "low intensity" conflict. Further declines in infant mortality, prevention of epidemics, and improvement in other health indicators will likely await the cessation of military hostilities. PMID:3565659

  2. Development of agroenvironmental indicators to evaluate the hygienic pressure of livestock production on human health.

    PubMed

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Infections by enteropathogenic microorganisms linked to agroenvironmental contamination represent a significant threat to urban and rural communities. To better characterize and manage this risk, it is necessary, not only to accurately describe enteric illnesses occurring over time or across regions, but also to correctly assess exposure attributable to this environmental pollution. New agroenvironmental hygienic pressure indicators (AHPIs) were developed to synthesise relevant data expressing this exposure. They were derived from a conceptual framework for developing sustainable agriculture indicators and specifically adapted for describing the microbial risk of water contamination by livestock operations. The proposed indicators include two components, and five attributes whose values are calculated at the livestock operation level from a set of available data related to the fields of microbiology, animal production, agronomy, hydrology, and meteorology. They are then aggregated at a higher geographical level to better express exposure of human populations to potential of water contamination by zoonotic enteropathogens. The indicators are calculated separately by zoonotic enteropathogens, and by water source (surface or groundwater). They take into account the various animal species within each livestock operation. When validated, the proposed indicators will allow decision-makers and public health officials to better manage crucial issues in the area of water safety and agriculture. PMID:15330396

  3. Development of agroenvironmental indicators to evaluate the hygienic pressure of livestock production on human health.

    PubMed

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Infections by enteropathogenic microorganisms linked to agroenvironmental contamination represent a significant threat to urban and rural communities. To better characterize and manage this risk, it is necessary, not only to accurately describe enteric illnesses occurring over time or across regions, but also to correctly assess exposure attributable to this environmental pollution. New agroenvironmental hygienic pressure indicators (AHPIs) were developed to synthesise relevant data expressing this exposure. They were derived from a conceptual framework for developing sustainable agriculture indicators and specifically adapted for describing the microbial risk of water contamination by livestock operations. The proposed indicators include two components, and five attributes whose values are calculated at the livestock operation level from a set of available data related to the fields of microbiology, animal production, agronomy, hydrology, and meteorology. They are then aggregated at a higher geographical level to better express exposure of human populations to potential of water contamination by zoonotic enteropathogens. The indicators are calculated separately by zoonotic enteropathogens, and by water source (surface or groundwater). They take into account the various animal species within each livestock operation. When validated, the proposed indicators will allow decision-makers and public health officials to better manage crucial issues in the area of water safety and agriculture.

  4. Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition on self-reported health status

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...

  5. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  6. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  7. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy. PMID:25310941

  8. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  9. The T-Health index: a composite indicator of dental health.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Suominen-Taipale, Anna L; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Nordblad, Anne; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate set of weights with which to calculate the number of sound-equivalent teeth (T-Health index) against perceived oral health, which was used as a proxy of oral health status. This study used data from 5,057 dentate subjects, > or = 30 yr of age, who ere participating in the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Subjects provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviours and perceived oral health, and had a clinical examination. The T-Health index was calculated by assigning different weights to missing, decayed, filled, and sound teeth. Thirty-six alternative sets of weights were evaluated. The most appropriate set of weights was judged by the strength of the adjusted association between the T-Health index and levels of perceived oral health in ordinal logistic regression models and by the invariance of this association according to the extent of restorative treatment (non-significant statistical interaction). Among the 36 sets of weights used to calculate the T-Health index, assigning twice the weight of a decayed tooth to a filled tooth whilst keeping the weight for a filled tooth < or = 0.20 provided the strongest association with levels of perceived oral health and did not vary according to the extent of restorative treatment.

  10. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  11. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  12. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  13. Disparities in Health Care Quality Indicators among US Children with Special Health Care Needs According to Household Language Use

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stella; Lin, Sue; Strickland, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower health care utilization and less favorable health outcomes have been demonstrated in children from Non-English Primary Language households (NEPL) in previous studies. This study examines prevalence of health care quality indicators among US children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and their association with household language use. Methods: We used data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, restricted to an analytic sample of 40,242 children. Logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of primary household language on the attainment of the 6 health care quality indicators for CSHCN. Results: Compared to CSHCN from English primary language households (EPL), CSHCN from NEPL households had 31% higher odds of not feeling like partners in health care decision-making. They had 67% higher odds of lacking care through a medical home and 42% higher odds of reporting inadequate health insurance. NEPL children had 32% higher odds of not receiving early and continuous screening for special health care needs. NEPL youths had 69% higher odds of not receiving services for transition to adulthood. Minority race/ethnicity, lower income and families other than two biological parents all conferred additional risks to not attaining quality indicators. Publicly insured or uninsured CSHCN were also at higher risk. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Our study provides compelling evidence that significant disparities exist for CSHCN by primary household language status across all health care quality indicators. Establishment of effective surveillance systems and targeting of outreach programs in both developed and developing countries may lead to improved understanding of health care needs and quality of services and reduction of health disparities for this underserved population.

  14. Developing quality indicators for family support services in community team-based mental health care.

    PubMed

    Serene Olin, S; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children's mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components. PMID:23709287

  15. Developing quality indicators for family support services in community team-based mental health care.

    PubMed

    Serene Olin, S; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children's mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components.

  16. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  17. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  18. Required qualifications in the Swedish Public Dental Health Service as indicators of organizational ideology.

    PubMed

    Franzén, C; Söderfeldt, B

    2001-12-01

    The manifestly required qualifications in job advertisements in the Journal of the Swedish Dental Association were analyzed as indicators of the organizational ideology in the Swedish Public Dental Health Service from the employers' viewpoint. All job advertisements that concerned dentists and managers on different hierarchical levels in general dentistry from January 1990 to December 1998 were included (n = 1152). The number of vacancies was 1856. The textual material was analyzed by content analysis, permitting quantitative descriptions of the text and analysis of the latent characteristics. Words and phrases were classified into categories on different levels of abstraction developed from the theoretical background and the purpose of the study. Altogether 5705 required qualifications were categorized. The inter-coder reliability of the first-level categorization resulted in 81% correspondence of the classification, and lambda = 0.90. Qualifications were more frequently required with higher hierarchical job positions, and personality characteristics were more frequent than technical competence and knowledge. Qualifications interpreted as related to economic goals occurred more frequently than those related to odontological goals. The qualification demands reflected the language of human resource management (HRM), emphasizing the 'soft' people-centered approach and was interpreted as an 'ideal' model of HRM. Dentists were regarded as a profitable organizational asset rather than participants in relations with patients. In conclusion, the results indicate an organizational ideology primarily of economic character. PMID:11831491

  19. Bevacizumab in Clinical Practice: Prescribing Appropriateness Relative to National Indications and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Bonifazi, Martina; Rossi, Marta; Moja, Lorenzo; Scigliano, Vincenzo Davide; Franchi, Matteo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zocchetti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical use of bevacizumab in Lombardy (9.5 million inhabitants), Italy, during 2006–2007 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) to evaluate compliance with the Italian Medicine Agency (AIFA) indications, the incidence of adverse events, and the survival rate. We performed computerized record linkage among three different Lombardy health care databases: File F registry, Regional discharge database, and Registry Office records. Patients were classified into approved and off-label uses according to the AIFA indications. Treatment with bevacizumab was administered to 780 patients, of whom 81.7% (n = 637) had mCRC. Among these, 37.8% (n = 241) of patients received the drug in observance of AIFA indications. Overall, ∼10% of patients had serious treatment-related toxicities (fistula, 3.5%; venous thromboembolism, 2.8%; hemorrhage, 1.9%; intestinal perforation and arterial thromboembolism, <1%). The 1-year survival rate was 74.3% and the 2-year survival rate was 39.2%. The median survival time was 20.5 months, and there were no meaningful differences between gender and age groups. There was a gap between the bevacizumab approved indication and clinical practice pattern: overall, less than one half of the patients received bevacizumab in observance with the regulatory indication. The main reason for nonadherence to the indication was use as a second-line or advanced line of therapy. The incidence of serious adverse events and the survival rates of mCRC patients were similar to those reported in clinical trials. PMID:22210090

  20. Brief Report: Applying an Indicator Set to Survey the Health of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia Noonan

    2008-01-01

    This report gives an account of applying a health survey tool by the "Pomona" Group that earlier documented the process of developing a set of health indicators for people with intellectual disabilities in Europe. The "Pomona" health indicator set mirrors the much larger set of health indicators prepared by the European Community Health Indicators…

  1. Cancer-Related Health Disparities in Women

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Croyle, Robert T.; Chollette, Veronica Y.; Pinn, Vivian W.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This article synthesizes information about cancer in 9 populations of minority women: Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban American, African American, Asian American, Native Hawaiian, American Samoan, American Indian, and Alaska Native. Methods. Cancer registry data, social indicators, government sources, and published articles were searched for information on the background and cancer experience of these 9 racial/ethnic groups. Results. Approximately 35 million women in these racial/ethnic groups live in the United States, and their numbers are increasing rapidly. Since 1992, incidence rates for major cancer sites have slowed or decreased among these groups, but declines in mortality have not occurred or have been smaller than for Whites. Gaps in early detection have narrowed, but minority women still lag behind Whites. Smoking and obesity remain common in these populations. Conclusions. More culturally appropriate interventions and research are needed, and these efforts must involve the community and raise the quality of health services. PMID:12554589

  2. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

  3. Screening candidate water quality indicators for associations with swimming-related illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Traditional (culture-based) indicator organisms (e.g. enterococci, fecal and total coliforms) are used to regulate marine beaches for protecting human health. Despite the recent proliferation of new technology, few studies have examined alternatives to this decades...

  4. Disparities in the quality of HIV care when using US Department of Health and Human Services indicators.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Keri N; Rebeiro, Peter; Brooks, John T; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly; Martin, Jeffrey; Hogg, Robert; Thorne, Jennifer E; Klein, Marina; Gill, M John; Sterling, Timothy R; Yehia, Baligh; Silverberg, Michael J; Crane, Heidi; Justice, Amy C; Gange, Stephen J; Moore, Richard; Kitahata, Mari M; Horberg, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    We estimated US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)-approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) indicators. Among patients, 71% were retained in care, 82% were prescribed treatment, and 78% had HIV RNA ≤200 copies/mL; younger adults, women, blacks, and injection drug users had poorer outcomes. Interventions are needed to reduce retention- and treatment-related disparities.

  5. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  6. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: Evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-01-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  7. Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia) as indicators of ecosystem health at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Phillips, William E.

    2004-01-01

    The present study describes the provisional use of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia [Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae]) as an indicator organism to assess and monitor the health of the Loon Lake and lower Platte River ecosystem within Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan.

  8. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  9. Identification of Vehicle Health Assurance Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Leone, Karen M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Trend analysis in aviation as related to vehicle health management (VHM) was performed by reviewing the most current statistical and prognostics data available from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident, and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident datasets. In addition, future directions in aviation technology related to VHM research areas were assessed through the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementations (SERFIs), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Most-Wanted List and recent open safety recommendations, the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, and the Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) areas of change. Future research direction in the VHM research areas is evidently strong as seen from recent research solicitations from the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), and VHM-related technologies actively being developed by aviation industry leaders, including GE, Boeing, Airbus, and UTC Aerospace Systems. Given the highly complex VHM systems, modifications can be made in the future so that the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project (VSST) technical challenges address inadequate maintenance crew's trainings and skills, and the certification methods of such systems as recommended by the NTSB, NRC, and FAST areas of change.

  10. Diagnosis: Indicators of the Health and Safety of Young Tennesseans. A Tennessee KIDS COUNT Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, Nashville.

    This Kids Count report examines the well being of Tennessee's children, focusing on their health and safety. The statistical portrait is based on 5 health and safety indicators of child well being: (1) adequate prenatal care; (2) low birthweight births; (3) infant mortality; (4) population under 21 years eligible for Medicaid; and (5) child…

  11. A test of vegetation-related indicators of wetland quality in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Newton, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    This study was part of an effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantitatively assess the environmental quality or 'health' of wetland resources on regional and national scales. During a two-year pilot study, we tested selected indicators of wetland quality in the U.S. portion of the prairie pothole region (PPR). We assumed that the amount of cropland versus non-cropland (mostly grassland) in the plots containing these basins was a proxy for their quality. We then tested indicators by their ability to discriminate between wetlands at the extremes of that proxy. Amounts of standing dead vegetation were greater in zones of greater water permanence. Depth of litter was greater in zones of greater water permanence and in zones of basins in poor-quality watersheds. Amounts of unvegetated bottom were greater in basins in poor-quality watersheds; lesser amounts occurred in all wetlands during a wetter year. Greater amounts of open water occurred during a wetter year and in zones of greater water permanence. When unadjusted for areas (ha) of communities, plant taxon richness was higher in wet-meadow and shallow-marsh zones in good-quality watersheds than in similar zones in poor-quality watersheds. Wet-meadow zones in good-quality watersheds had greater numbers of native perennials than those in poor-quality watersheds. This relation held when we eliminated all communities in good-quality watersheds larger than the largest communities in poor-quality watersheds from the data set. We conclude that although amounts of unvegetated bottom and plant taxon richness in wet-meadow zones were useful indicators of wetland quality during our study, the search for additional such indicators should continue. The value of these indicators may change with the notoriously unstable hydrological conditions in the PPR. Most valuable would be indicators that could be photographed or otherwise remotely sensed and would remain relatively stable under various hydrological

  12. Orthodontists' views on indications for and timing of orthodontic treatment in Finnish public oral health care.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilpo; Pietilä, Terttu; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Varrela, Juha; Alanen, Pentti

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the views of Finnish orthodontists on the indications for orthodontic treatment, timing of orthodontic assessment, and treatment methods used. The views were elicited by a questionnaire that was sent to all 146 specialist orthodontists under 65 years of age living in Finland in 2001. The response rate was 57 per cent. The association between an orthodontist's experience and timing of treatment was tested by Fisher's exact test. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the demographic characteristics of orthodontists and the tendency to start Class II division I treatment early. Most orthodontists recommended that the first assessment of occlusion should be carried out before 7 years of age. A crossbite was mentioned as the most frequent indication for treatment in the primary and early mixed dentition, and a severe Class II division I malocclusion with an increased overjet as the most frequent indication in the late mixed dentition. Most respondents preferred early treatment, but there was a wide variation in the choice of appliances and in the timing of treatment of malocclusions other than crossbite and Class II malocclusions. A quadhelix, headgear, and the eruption guidance appliance were the most frequently used appliances in early treatment, with fixed appliances being most frequently used during the late mixed and permanent dentition phase. Orthodontists working full time in municipal health centres tended to prefer early treatment more often than those working part-time or outside health centres. There was no statistically significant association between an orthodontist's experience and timing of Class II division I and Class III treatment (P = 0.142 and P = 0.296, respectively). The preference for an early start in Class II division I treatment might be related to differing professional decisions, but no explaining factors could be found in the regression

  13. Health-related quality of life assessment in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Meers, C; Singer, M A

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of biochemical responses to therapy is routine in the management of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), however, is less common. Previous research indicates that HRQOL is a meaningful indicator that should be integrated into clinical practice. HRQOL is longitudinally evaluated in in-centre hemodialysis patients using the RAND 36-item Health Survey 1.0. Caregivers incorporate scores from this instrument into their assessment of patient functioning and well-being. HRQOL scores can be utilized to evaluate responses to changes in therapy, and to direct clinical decision-making, adding an important dimension to holistic, quality care for ESRD patients. PMID:8900807

  14. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  15. The population value of quality indicator reporting: a framework for prioritizing health care performance measures.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, David O; Chung, Jeanette W

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports contain more than 250 quality indicators, such as whether a patient with a suspected heart attack received an aspirin. The Department of Health and Human Services National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identifies more than 2,100 such indicators. Because resources for making quality improvements are limited, there is a need to prioritize among these indicators. We propose an approach to assess how reporting specific quality indicators would change care to improve the length and quality of life of the US population. Using thirteen AHRQ quality indicators with readily available data on the benefits of indicator reporting, we found that seven of them account for 93 percent of total benefits, while the remaining six account for only 7 percent of total benefits. Use of a framework such as this could focus resources on indicators having the greatest expected impact on population health.

  16. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  17. Political and welfare state determinants of infant and child health indicators: an analysis of wealthy countries.

    PubMed

    Chung, Haejoo; Muntaner, Carles

    2006-08-01

    Economic indicators such as income inequality are gaining attention as putative determinants of population health. On the other hand, we are just beginning to explore the health impact on population health of political and welfare state variables such as political orientation of government or type of medical care coverage. To determine the socially structured impact of political and welfare state variables on low birth weight rate, infant mortality rate, and under-five mortality rate, we conducted an ecological study with unbalanced time-series data from 19 wealthy OECD countries for the years from 1960 to 1994. Among the political/welfare state variables, total public medical coverage was the most significant predictor of the mortality outcomes. The low birth weight rate was more sensitive to political predictors such as percentage of vote obtained by social democratic or labor parties. Overall, political and welfare state variables (including indicators of health policies) are associated with infant and child health indicators. While a strong medical care system seems crucial to some population health outcomes (e.g., the infant mortality rate), other population health outcomes might be impacted by social policies enacted by parties supporting strong welfare states (the low birth weight rate). Our investigation suggests that strong political will that advocates for more egalitarian welfare policies, including public medical services, is important in maintaining and improving the nation's health.

  18. Health status indicators for the year 2000: projections for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, C A; Zucconi, S L

    1993-01-01

    A consensus set of health status indicators was released in July 1991 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for use by public health officials at the Federal, State, and local levels in identifying and monitoring issues of public health importance. These health status indicators have been projected for the Year 2000 in Allegheny County, PA, with linear regression analyses of historical data. Indications are that mortality rates for black infants, breast cancer mortality, suicide, lung cancer mortality, incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the number of measles cases likely will not meet the year 2000 targets in Allegheny County. These data will prove useful in monitoring progress towards the year 2000 objectives and provide comparative data for other geographic areas of the United States with similar demographic characteristics. PMID:8265755

  19. Children's environmental health indicators in Australia: are we collecting the right information?

    PubMed

    Sly, Peter D; Sly, J Leith; Moore, Sophie E; Jagals, Paul

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess progress in improving children's health objectively standardized measurements are required. The World Health Organization (WHO) undertook a pilot project to develop and implement a series of children's environmental health indicators (CEHI) to facilitate this process. No countries in Oceania were included in this pilot. This project was undertaken to determine whether data collected and publicly available in Australia were sufficient to address the CEHI. Government documents and websites were searched to obtain publicly available data. These data adequately reflected outcome indicators but data addressing many exposure indicators were either missing or not available in a child-specific format. Australia does collect data on child health and well-being but not in a form compatible with the WHO CEHI. PMID:26982608

  20. Emerging Role of Quality Indicators in Physical Therapist Practice and Health Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Alexandria; Li, Linda C.; Jones, C. Allyson

    2016-01-01

    Quality-based care is a hallmark of physical therapy. Treatment effectiveness must be evident to patients, managers, employers, and funders. Quality indicators (QIs) are tools that specify the minimum acceptable standard of practice. They are used to measure health care processes, organizational structures, and outcomes that relate to aspects of high-quality care of patients. Physical therapists can use QIs to guide clinical decision making, implement guideline recommendations, and evaluate and report treatment effectiveness to key stakeholders, including third-party payers and patients. Rehabilitation managers and senior decision makers can use QIs to assess care gaps and achievement of benchmarks as well as to guide quality improvement initiatives and strategic planning. This article introduces the value and use of QIs to guide clinical practice and health service delivery specific to physical therapy. A framework to develop, select, report, and implement QIs is outlined, with total joint arthroplasty rehabilitation as an example. Current initiatives of Canadian and American physical therapy associations to develop tools to help clinicians report and access point-of-care data on patient progress, treatment effectiveness, and practice strengths for the purpose of demonstrating the value of physical therapy to patients, decision makers, and payers are discussed. Suggestions on how physical therapists can participate in QI initiatives and integrate a quality-of-care approach in clinical practice are made. PMID:26089040

  1. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  2. Study on Equity and Efficiency of Health Resources and Services Based on Key Indicators in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhao, Lin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Yaogang

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the dialectical relationship between equity and efficiency of health resource allocation and health service utilization in China. Methods We analyzed the inequity of health resource allocation and health service utilization based on concentration index (CI) and Gini coefficient. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to evaluate the inefficiency of resource allocation and service utilization. Factor Analysis (FA) was used to determine input/output indicators. Results The CI of Health Institutions, Beds in Health Institutions, Health Professionals and Outpatient Visits were -0.116, -0.012, 0.038, and 0.111, respectively. Gini coefficient for the 31 provinces varied between 0.05 and 0.43; out of these 23 (742%) were observed to be technically efficient constituting the “best practice frontier”. The other 8 (25.8%) provinces were technically inefficient. Conclusions Health professionals and outpatient services are focused on higher income levels, while the Health Institutions and Beds in Health Institutions were concentrated on lower income levels. In China, a few provinces attained a basic balance in both equity and efficiency in terms of current health resource and service utilization, thus serving as a reference standard for other provinces. PMID:26679187

  3. Published criteria for evaluating health related web sites: review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul; Eng, Thomas R; Deering, Mary Jo; Maxfield, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    evaluation of web based health information seems to be emergingOur results indicate that many authors agree on key criteria for evaluating health related web sites, and that efforts to develop a set of key criteria may be helpful PMID:10066209

  4. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context – results from an international workshop discussion

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A.; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs. PMID:23940840

  5. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs. PMID:23940840

  6. Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Berner, James; Dudarev, Alexey A; Mulvad, Gert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Parkinson, Alan; Rautio, Arja; Tikhonov, Constantine; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.

  7. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Methods Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Results Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. Conclusion The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator. PMID:26217479

  8. ON THE CHOICE OF HEALTH INEQUALITY MEASURE FOR THE LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF INCOME-RELATED HEALTH INEQUALITIES

    PubMed Central

    Allanson, Paul; Petrie, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Changes in rank-dependent income-related health inequality measures over time may usefully be decomposed into contributions due to changes in health outcomes and changes in individuals' positions in the income distribution. This paper establishes the normative implications of this type of decomposition by embedding it within a broader analysis of changes in the ‘health achievement’ index. We further show that the choice of health inequality measure implies a particular vertical equity judgement, which may be expressed on a common scale in terms of the concentration index of health changes that would be inequality preserving. We illustrate the empirical implications of this choice by reporting results from a longitudinal analysis of changes in income-related health inequality in Great Britain using the concentration, the Erreygers and Wagstaff indices of health attainments and the concentration index of health shortfalls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22368075

  9. On the choice of health inequality measure for the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Paul; Petrie, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Changes in rank-dependent income-related health inequality measures over time may usefully be decomposed into contributions due to changes in health outcomes and changes in individuals' positions in the income distribution. This paper establishes the normative implications of this type of decomposition by embedding it within a broader analysis of changes in the 'health achievement' index. We further show that the choice of health inequality measure implies a particular vertical equity judgement, which may be expressed on a common scale in terms of the concentration index of health changes that would be inequality preserving. We illustrate the empirical implications of this choice by reporting results from a longitudinal analysis of changes in income-related health inequality in Great Britain using the concentration, the Erreygers and Wagstaff indices of health attainments and the concentration index of health shortfalls. .

  10. Health-related quality of life and perceived need for mental health services in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Loiselle, Kristin A; Devine, Katie A; Simons, Laura E; Mee, Laura L; Blount, Ronald L

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to assess interest in mental health services among parents of adolescent solid organ transplant recipients and the relationship between parent perceived need for mental health services and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Sixty-three parents rated interest in receiving 10 mental health services, and patient HRQOL ratings were gathered from adolescent transplant recipients and their parents. Ninety-four percent of parents expressed some level of interest in at least one of the proposed services, with over 40 % indicating maximum interest. Parents' perceived need for mental health services was inversely related to adolescent and parent reports of HRQOL on the behavior, mental health, family cohesion, and parental impact-emotional domains. Results suggest that parents of adolescent solid organ transplant recipients are interested in receiving mental health services for their families. Assessment of need for mental health services and HRQOL may inform the medical team of families requiring intervention.

  11. Incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) into an Electronic Health Record to Create Indicators of Function: Proof of Concept Using the SF-12

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Nancy E.; Poissant, Lise; Ahmed, Sara; Finch, Lois; Higgins, Johanne; Salbach, Nancy M.; Soicher, Judith; Jaglal, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to assess the feasibility of using a generic health measure to create coded functional status indicators and compare the characterization of a stroke population using coded functional indicators and using health-related quality-of-life summary measures alone. Design: Multiple raters assigned International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) codes to the items of the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Data for comparing the information from the SF-12 and from ICF codes were derived from the Montreal Stroke Cohort Study that was set up to examine the long-term impact of stroke. Available for analysis were data from 604 persons with stroke, average age 69 years, and 488 controls, average age 62 years. Measurement: The SF-12 provides two summary scores, one for physical health and one for mental health. Domains of the ICF are coded to three digits, before the decimal; specific categorizations of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions are coded to four digits before the decimal. Results: Persons with stroke scored, on average, approximately 10 points lower than controls on physical and mental health. The ICF coding indicated that this was attributed, not surprisingly, to greater difficulty in doing moderate activities including housework, climbing stairs, and working and was not attributed to differences in pain. Differences in mental health were attributed most strongly to greater fatigue (impairment in energy), but all areas of mental health were affected to some degree. Conclusion: The ICF coding provided enhanced functional status information in a format compatible with the structure of administrative health databases. PMID:15298994

  12. Using Grunig's "Indices for Models of Public Relations" To Differentiate Job Functions within Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the function of a firm within the context of public relations practice. The assessment of James E. Grunig's "Indices for Models of Public Relations" (an instrument for measuring the type of public relations practiced by an organization) was of primary concern. This instrument places public relations practice into…

  13. Relations between family structure and students' health-related attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Theodorakis, Yannis; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Karastogianidou, Kaliopi

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relations between family structure and students' health-related behaviors. Participants were 6,130 Greek students, ages 11 to 16 years. They responded to questionnaires based on the Planned Behavior model assessing attitudes, perceived behavioral control, intentions and behavior regarding healthy and unhealthy habits. Students who reported growing up with one or no parent reported more unhealthy lifestyle attitudes and behaviors (smoking, drug use, violence, exercise, nutrition) than students growing up with both parents. The findings suggest that family structure is related to students' healthy or unhealthy lifestyle, indicating that in health education programs all members of the close environment within which the children live should be involved, especially for children who do not live with both parents.

  14. Indicators of "avoidable" mortality in health administrative areas in Sweden 1974-1985.

    PubMed

    Westerling, R

    1993-09-01

    When comparing health administrative areas in Sweden the variation in death rates for 13 suggested indicators of avoidable mortality was analysed for the time periods 1974-79 and 1980-85. For most indicators the variation was significant. The level of systematic (nonrandom) variance differed between the sexes for certain conditions. According to the theory of mass-significance it would be appropriate to use a sharpened significance test of high SMRs. For certain health policy indicators it was possible to detect areas accounting for nearly all the deviation above the national standard using a sharpened test (p < 0.001). For most medical care indicators, however, the high death rates had a lower level of significance. When sensitivity is given priority an ordinary test (p < 0.05) should be preferred. This means, however, dealing with potential false positive warning signals. Epidemiological surveillance of indicators of avoidable mortality should be the starting point for in-depth studies.

  15. Indicators of "avoidable" mortality in health administrative areas in Sweden 1974-1985.

    PubMed

    Westerling, R

    1993-09-01

    When comparing health administrative areas in Sweden the variation in death rates for 13 suggested indicators of avoidable mortality was analysed for the time periods 1974-79 and 1980-85. For most indicators the variation was significant. The level of systematic (nonrandom) variance differed between the sexes for certain conditions. According to the theory of mass-significance it would be appropriate to use a sharpened significance test of high SMRs. For certain health policy indicators it was possible to detect areas accounting for nearly all the deviation above the national standard using a sharpened test (p < 0.001). For most medical care indicators, however, the high death rates had a lower level of significance. When sensitivity is given priority an ordinary test (p < 0.05) should be preferred. This means, however, dealing with potential false positive warning signals. Epidemiological surveillance of indicators of avoidable mortality should be the starting point for in-depth studies. PMID:8235504

  16. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  17. The Dynamics of Income-related Health Inequality among US Children

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Pinka; Lahiri, Kajal; Song, Jingya

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We estimate and decompose income-related inequality in child health in the US and analyze its dynamics using the income-related health mobility index recently introduced by Allanson et al., 2010. Data come from the 1997, 2002, and 2007 waves of the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The findings show that income-related child health inequality remains stable as children grow up and enter adolescence. The main factor underlying income-related child health inequality is income itself, although other factors, such as maternal education, also play a role. Decomposition of income-related health mobility indicates that health changes over time are more favorable to children with lower initial family incomes vs. children with higher initial family incomes. However, offsetting this effect, our findings also suggest that changes in income ranking over time are positively related to children’s subsequent health status. PMID:22514158

  18. A Review of Medication Use as an Indicator of Human Health Impact in Environmentally Stressed Areas.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha A; Kim, Diane Dabok; Jagals, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed from literature the feasibility of medication use as an indicator of health outcomes in environmentally stressed areas, especially where a paucity of typical epidemiological and other risk-based data are encountered. The majority of studies reported were about medication use as an indicator of adverse respiratory effects from air pollution in developed countries. Studies to a lesser extent pointed to medication use as indicator of health outcomes associated with other environmental health stressors such as water, noise pollution, and habitat conditions. The relationship between environmental stressors and medication use strongly suggests that medication use could be used to measure the impact of environmental stressors that otherwise could not be measured by epidemiological or other impact assessment studies, typically in settings where morbidity and mortality data might not be not accessible. PMID:27325069

  19. Identifying Quality Indicators Used by Patients to Choose Secondary Health Care Providers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Saman Sara; Kahlon, Gurnaaz Kaur; Naik, Aditi; Jessel, Amar Singh; Nanavati, Niraj; Shah, Akash; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients in health systems across the world can now choose between different health care providers. Patients are increasingly using websites and apps to compare the quality of health care services available in order to make a choice of provider. In keeping with many patient-facing platforms, most services currently providing comparative information on different providers do not take account of end-user requirements or the available evidence base. Objective To investigate what factors were considered most important when choosing nonemergency secondary health care providers in the United Kingdom with the purpose of translating these insights into a ratings platform delivered through a consumer mHealth app. Methods A mixed methods approach was used to identify key indicators incorporating a literature review to identify and categorize existing quality indicators, a questionnaire survey to formulate a ranked list of performance indicators, and focus groups to explore rationales behind the rankings. Findings from qualitative and quantitative methodologies were mapped onto each other under the four categories identified by the literature review. Results Quality indicators were divided into four categories. Hospital access was the least important category. The mean differences between the other three categories hospital statistics, hospital staff, and hospital facilities, were not statistically significant. Staff competence was the most important indicator in the hospital staff category; cleanliness and up-to-date facilities were equally important in hospital facilities; ease of travel to the hospital was found to be most important in hospital access. All quality indicators within the hospital statistics category were equally important. Focus groups elaborated that users find it difficult to judge staff competence despite its importance. Conclusions A mixed methods approach is presented, which supported a patient-centered development and evaluation of a

  20. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. Objective: To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. Methods: We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. Results: A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). Conclusion: More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. Results indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services. PMID:25482656

  1. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  2. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge on bacterial indicators and swimmer health at Avalon Beach, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Yau, Vincent M; Schiff, Kenneth C; Arnold, Benjamin F; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2014-08-01

    Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring beach water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship that can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Avalon Beach, California (USA), where the indicator relationship is potentially affected by the discharge of sewage-contaminated groundwater and by solar radiation levels at this shallow, relatively quiescent beach. The goals of this study were to determine: 1) if swimmers exposed to marine water were at higher risk of illness than non-swimmers; 2) if FIB measured in marine water were associated with swimmer illness, and; 3) if the associations between FIB and swimmer health were modified by either submarine groundwater discharge or solar radiation levels. There were 7317 individuals recruited during the summers of 2007-08, 6165 (84%) of whom completed follow-up within two weeks of the beach visit. A total of 703 water quality samples were collected across multiple sites and time periods during recruitment days and analyzed for FIB using both culture-based and molecular methods. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated that swimmers who swallowed water were more likely to experience Gastrointestinal Illness (GI Illness) within three days of their beach visit than non-swimmers, and that this risk was significantly elevated when either submarine groundwater discharge was high (AOR [95% CI]:2.18 [1.22-3.89]) or solar radiation was low (2.45 [1.25-4.79]). The risk of GI Illness was not significantly elevated for swimmers who swallowed water when groundwater discharge was low or solar radiation was high. Associations between GI Illness incidence and FIB levels (Enterococcus EPA Method 1600) among swimmers who swallowed water were not significant when we did not account for groundwater discharge, but were strongly associated when groundwater discharge was high (1.85 [1.06, 3.23]) compared to

  3. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes. PMID:22508644

  4. Patterns of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-Based Media Use and Positive and Negative Health Indicators in the U.S. and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Janssen, Ian; Boyce, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine: 1) how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media use (SBM) relate to physical and social health indicators, and 2) cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Essentially identical questions and methodologies were used in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children cross-sectional surveys of nationally-representative samples of American (N = 14,818) and Canadian (N = 7,266) students in grades 6 to 10. Items included questions about frequency of PA, SBM, positive health indicators (health status, self-image, quality of life, and quality of family and peer relationships), and negative health indicators (health complaints, physical aggression, smoking, drinking, and marijuana use). Results In regression analyses controlling for age and gender, positive health indicators were uniformly positively related to PA while two negative health indicators were negatively related to PA. However, PA was positively related to physical aggression. The pattern for SBM was generally the opposite; SBM was negatively related to most positive health indices and positively related to several of the negative health indicators. The notable exception was that SBM was positively related to the quality of peer relationships. Although there were cross-national differences in the strength of some relationships, these patterns were essentially replicated in both countries. Conclusions Surveys of nationally representative samples of youth in two countries provide evidence of positive physical and social concomitants of PA and negative concomitants of SBM. These findings suggest potential positive consequences of increasing PA and decreasing SBM in adolescents and provide further justification for such efforts. PMID:19380098

  5. Applying the workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method in Namibia: challenges and implications for human resources for health policy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As part of ongoing efforts to restructure the health sector and improve health care quality, the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) in Namibia sought to update staffing norms for health facilities. To establish an evidence base for the new norms, the MoHSS supported the first-ever national application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method, a human resource management tool developed by the World Health Organization. Application The WISN method calculates the number of health workers per cadre, based on health facility workload. It provides two indicators to assess staffing: (1) the gap/excess between current and required number of staff, and (2) the WISN ratio, a measure of workload pressure. Namibian WISN calculations focused on four cadres (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants) and all four levels of public facilities (clinics, health centers, district hospitals, intermediate hospitals). WISN steps included establishing a task force; conducting a regional pilot; holding a national validation workshop; field verifying data; collecting, uploading, processing, and analyzing data; and providing feedback to policy-makers. Challenges The task force faced two challenges requiring time and effort to solve: WISN software-related challenges and unavailability of some data at the national level. Findings WISN findings highlighted health worker shortages and inequities in their distribution. Overall, staff shortages are most profound for doctors and pharmacists. Although the country has an appropriate number of nurses, the nurse workforce is skewed towards hospitals, which are adequately or slightly overstaffed relative to nurses’ workloads. Health centers and, in particular, clinics both have gaps between current and required number of nurses. Inequities in nursing staff also exist between and within regions. Finally, the requirement for nurses varies greatly between less and more busy clinics (range = 1 to 7

  6. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  7. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  8. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  9. Human health risk implications of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in a recreational waterbody.

    PubMed

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Schoen, Mary E; Varghese, Arun; Ichida, Audrey M; Boehm, Alexandria B; Eftim, Sorina; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Ravenscroft, John E

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the influence of multiple sources of enterococci (ENT) as faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrate that risks vary with the proportion of culturable ENT in water bodies derived from these sources and estimate corresponding ENT densities that yield the same level of health protection that the recreational water quality criteria in the United States seeks (benchmark risk). The benchmark risk is based on epidemiological studies conducted in water bodies predominantly impacted by human faecal sources. The key result is that the risks from mixed sources are driven predominantly by the proportion of the contamination source with the greatest ability to cause human infection (potency), not necessarily the greatest source(s) of FIB. Predicted risks from exposures to mixtures comprised of approximately 30% ENT from human sources were up to 50% lower than the risks expected from purely human sources when contamination is recent and ENT levels are at the current water quality criteria levels (35 CFU 100 mL(-1)). For human/non-pathogenic, human/gull, human/pig, and human/chicken faecal mixtures with relatively low human contribution, the predicted culturable enterococci densities that correspond to the benchmark risk are substantially greater than the current water quality criteria values. These findings are important because they highlight the potential applicability of site specific water quality criteria for waters that are predominantly un-impacted by human sources.

  10. Racial Disparities in Health Care Access and Cardiovascular Disease Indicators in Black and White Older Adults in the Health ABC Study

    PubMed Central

    ROOKS, RONICA N.; SIMONSICK, ELEANOR M.; HARRIS, TAMARA B.; KLESGES, LISA M.; NEWMAN, ANNE B.; AYONAYON, HILSA

    2009-01-01

    Black adults consistently exhibit higher rates and poorer outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to other racial groups, even after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Whether factors related to health care access can further explain racial disparities in CVD have not been thoroughly examined. Using logistic regression we examined racial and health care [i.e. health insurance and access to care] associations with CVD indicators [i.e. hypertension, low ankle-arm index, and left ventricular hypertrophy] in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, a longitudinal study of 3,075 well-functioning adults aged 70–79 in 1997. We found older Black versus White adults had significantly worse health care. Overall, health care only slightly reduced the significant association between being Black and CVD, while race remained strongly associated with CVD after adjusting for demographics, SES, body mass index, and comorbidity. Research on health care quality may contribute to our understanding of these disparities. PMID:18625758

  11. The dynamics of income-related health inequality among American children.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Lahiri, Kajal; Song, Jingya

    2013-05-01

    We estimate and decompose income-related inequality in child health in the USA and analyze its dynamics using the recently introduced health mobility index. Data come from the 1997, 2002, and 2007 waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The findings show that income-related child health inequality remains stable as children grow up and enter adolescence. The main factor underlying income-related child health inequality is income itself, although other factors, such as maternal education, also play a role. Decomposition of income-related health mobility indicates that health changes over time are more favorable to children with lower initial family incomes versus children with higher initial family incomes. However, offsetting this effect, our findings also suggest that changes in income ranking over time are positively related to children's subsequent health status.

  12. Risk indicators related to peri-implant disease: an observational retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the influence of potential risk indicators on the development of peri-implant disease. Methods Overall, 103 patients referred for implant treatment from 2000 to 2012 were randomly enrolled. The study sample consisted of 421 conventional-length (>6 mm) non-turned titanium implants that were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to pre-established clinical and patient-related parameters by a single investigator. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis rank test and a logistic regression model were used for the statistical analysis of the recorded data at the implant level. Results The diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis was made for 173 (41.1%) and 19 (4.5%) implants, respectively. Age (≥65 years), patient adherence (professional hygiene recalls <2/year) and the presence of plaque were associated with higher peri-implant probing-depth values and bleeding-on-probing scores. The logistic regression analysis indicated that age (P=0.001), patient adherence (P=0.03), the absence of keratinized tissue (P=0.03), implants placed in pristine bone (P=0.04), and the presence of peri-implant soft-tissue recession (P=0.000) were strongly associated with the event of peri-implantitis. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, patients aged ≥65 years and non-adherent subjects were more prone to develop peri-implant disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and a systematic maintenance-care program are essential for maintaining peri-implant tissue health, especially in older patients. PMID:27588216

  13. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rasella, Davide; Machado, Daiane Borges; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeirrer; Paim, Jairnilson; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Lima, Diana; Magno, Laio; Pedrana, Leo; Medina, Maria Guadalupe; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH) and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC) in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH. PMID:26853898

  14. Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Pragti

    2014-07-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  15. Role of Nematodes in Soil Health and Their Use as Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    The composition of nematode communities (plant-parasitic and free-living) may be used as bioindicators of soil health or condition because composition correlates well with nitrogen cycling and decomposition, two critical ecological processes in soil. Maturity and trophic diversity indices withstand statistical rigor better than do abundances, proportions, or ratios of trophic groups. Maturity indices respond to a variety of land-management practices, based largely on inferred life history characteristics of families. Similarity indices may be more useful than diversity indices because they reflect taxon composition. Improving existing indices or developing alternative indices refined by a greater understanding of the biology of key taxa may enhance the utility of nematodes as bioindicators. PMID:19265875

  16. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  17. Serum amyloid A as an indicator of health status in falcons.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; McKinney, Peter; Bailey, Tom; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is used as an indicator of health status in many species. To investigate the possible use of SAA as a health indicator in falcons, SAA levels were measured in 259 falcons of varying species and health status. A significant increase (P < .001) in SAA concentrations was observed in falcons affected by inflammatory disease compared with healthy birds and birds with noninflammatory disease. Serum amyloid A concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.8 mg/L (mean [SD], 3.4 +/- 1.4 mg/L) in the healthy group, from 0.8 to 8.5 mg/L (mean [SD], 4.0 +/- 3.1 mg/L) in the group with noninflammatory disease, and from 2.3 to 137.5 mg/L (mean [SD], 47.7 +/- 29.7 mg/L) in the group with inflammatory disease. In birds with chronic pododermatitis or fungal pneumonia/airsacculitis, SAA levels remained significantly increased throughout the study period. These results indicate that SAA concentrations can be used in avian medicine to assess the health status of falcons and as a prognostic indicator of certain pathologic disease processes.

  18. Human Health Risk Implications of Multiple Sources of Faecal Indicator Bacteria in a Recreational Waterbody

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate the influence of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrat...

  19. ESCHERICHIA COLI: THE BEST BIOLOGICAL DRINKING WATER INDICATOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not to analyze drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal feces at concentrations of 10 log 9/gram. It does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was ch...

  20. Potentially mineralizable nitrogen as a soil health indicator in a Long-Term Agroecosystem Research site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) has demonstrated utility as a valuable soil health indicator. However, the relationship between the total PMN pool and nitrogen mineralization rates has not been well described. A better understanding of PMN dynamics in agroecosystems is essential for optimiz...

  1. Moving from Descriptive to Causal Analytics: Case Study of the Health Indicators Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, Jack C.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Xu, Songhua

    2012-01-01

    The KDD community has described a multitude of methods for knowledge discovery on large datasets. We consider some of these methods and integrate them into an analyst s workflow that proceeds from the data-centric descriptive level to the model-centric causal level. Examples of the workflow are shown for the Health Indicators Warehouse, which is a public database for community health information that is a potent resource for conducting data science on a medium scale. We demonstrate the potential of HIW as a source of serious visual analytics efforts by showing correlation matrix visualizations, multivariate outlier analysis, multiple linear regression of Medicare costs, and scatterplot matrices for a broad set of health indicators. We conclude by sketching the first steps toward a causal dependence hypothesis.

  2. [Health risk behaviors and psychosocial distress indicators in high school students].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Priscila Diniz de; Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de; Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Santos, Carla Menêses; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the association between health risk behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, and drug use) and psychosocial distress indicators among high school students. The sample consisted of 4,210 adolescent students from public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to collect personal (demographic and socioeconomic) and behavioral data and to obtain measures of psychosocial distress indicators (outcome variables). Prevalence rates were observed for sadness, loneliness, suicidal ideation, sleeplessness due to worries, and suicidal planning. Self-reported prevalence rates for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use were 7.7%, 30.3%, and 6.9%. Psychosocial distress was more prevalent among girls, while health risk behaviors were more common among boys. The study concludes that drug use is directly associated with suicidal ideation and planning, and that among girls, alcohol consumption was associated with psychosocial distress.

  3. Assessment of soil health and fertility indicators with mobile phone imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkenhead, Matt; Gwatkin, Richard; Coull, Malcolm; Donnelly, David

    2015-04-01

    Work on rapid soil assessment in the field has led to many hand-held sensors for soil monitoring (e.g. NIR, FTIR, XRF). Recent work by a research team at the James Hutton Institute has led to an integrated framework of mobile phones, apps and server-side processing. One example of this is the SOCIT app for estimating soil organic matter and carbon using geolocated mobile phone camera imagery. The SOCIT app is only applicable for agricultural soils in Scotland, and our intention is to expand this work both geographically and in functional ability. Ongoing work for the development of a prototype app for estimating soil characteristics across Europe using mobile phone imagery and the JRC LUCAS dataset will be described. Additionally, we will demonstrate recent work in estimating a number of soil health indicators from more detailed analysis of soil photographs. Accuracy levels achieved for estimating soil organic matter and organic carbon content, pH, structure, cation exchange capacity and texture vary and are not as good as those achieved with laboratory analysis, but are suitable for rapid field-based assessment. Issues relating to this work include colour stabilisation and calibration, integration with data on site characteristics, data processing, model development and the ethical use of data captured by others, and each of these topics will also be discussed.

  4. Development of evidence-based Australian medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations: a modified RAND appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, Gillian E; Kalisch Ellett, Lisa M; Wong, Te Ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective Indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations have been adopted internationally as a measure of health system performance; however, few assess appropriate processes of care around medication use, that if followed may prevent hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate evidence-based medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations. Setting Australian primary healthcare. Participants Medical specialists, general practitioners and pharmacists. A modified RAND appropriateness method was used for the development of medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations, which included a literature review, assessment of the strength of the supporting evidence base, an initial face and content validity by an expert panel, followed by an independent assessment of indicators by an expert clinical panel across various disciplines, using an online survey. Primary outcome measure Analysis of ratings was performed on the four key elements of preventability; the medication-related problem must be recognisable, the adverse outcomes foreseeable and the causes and outcomes identifiable and controllable. Results A total of 48 potential indicators across all major disease groupings were developed based on level III evidence or greater, that were independently assessed by 78 expert clinicians (22.1% response rate). The expert panel considered 29 of these (60.4%) sufficiently valid. Of these, 21 (72.4%) were based on level I evidence. Conclusions This study provides a set of face and content validated indicators of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalisations, linking suboptimal processes of care and medication use with subsequent hospitalisation. Further analysis is required to establish operational validity in a population-based sample, using an administrative health database. Implementation of these indicators within routine monitoring of healthcare systems will highlight those

  5. Health and Health Related Career Exploration: Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The manual contains secondary level materials designed to integrate career education concepts into the Roosevelt High school (Portland, Oregon) health education curriculum. The materials are divided into three sections. The first concerns self-concepts and presents: short-term activities designed to encourage students to begin thinking about…

  6. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  7. Machine health prognostics using the Bayesian-inference-based probabilistic indication and high-order particle filtering framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2015-12-01

    Prognostics is much efficient to achieve zero-downtime performance, maximum productivity and proactive maintenance of machines. Prognostics intends to assess and predict the time evolution of machine health degradation so that machine failures can be predicted and prevented. A novel prognostics system is developed based on the data-model-fusion scheme using the Bayesian inference-based self-organizing map (SOM) and an integration of logistic regression (LR) and high-order particle filtering (HOPF). In this prognostics system, a baseline SOM is constructed to model the data distribution space of healthy machine under an assumption that predictable fault patterns are not available. Bayesian inference-based probability (BIP) derived from the baseline SOM is developed as a quantification indication of machine health degradation. BIP is capable of offering failure probability for the monitored machine, which has intuitionist explanation related to health degradation state. Based on those historic BIPs, the constructed LR and its modeling noise constitute a high-order Markov process (HOMP) to describe machine health propagation. HOPF is used to solve the HOMP estimation to predict the evolution of the machine health in the form of a probability density function (PDF). An on-line model update scheme is developed to adapt the Markov process changes to machine health dynamics quickly. The experimental results on a bearing test-bed illustrate the potential applications of the proposed system as an effective and simple tool for machine health prognostics.

  8. Quality Indicators for Multidisciplinary Team Functioning in Community-Based Children’s Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Kutash, Krista; Acri, Mary; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the organizational social context in 21 community-based programs serving youth at-risk for out-of-home care due to emotional or behavioral disorders and their families and program performance on five quality indicators of team functioning in teams that included a family support specialist. Results indicate that programs with higher performance on structures to facilitate teamwork, informal communication mechanisms among team members, and the ability to integrate family support specialists as equal members of the team showed more positive organizational functioning. Implications for the role of quality indicators in health care reform efforts are discussed. PMID:23873037

  9. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  10. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  11. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness. PMID:15206571

  12. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-02-04

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αϵ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough.

  13. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  14. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  15. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  16. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (r(s) = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (r(s) = .200), time spent online for health purposes (r(s) = .166), and number of searches for both illness (r(s) = .453) and wellness (r(s) = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted. PMID:24467278

  17. Soil health indicators: A case study with smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Pohl, Walther; Okalany, Emmanuel; Probst, Lorenz; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Schomakers, Jasmin

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to determine soil health indicators of 46 coffee smallholder farmers in the area of Mbale, Mount Elgon region (1200m ~ 1900m) in the southeast of Uganda. Forty of these farmers are working under an organic farmers association and are certified. They are compared to six conventional coffee production systems. The organic farms are agroforestry systems, whereas the conventional coffee farms have nearly no shading trees. Topsoil and subsoil samples, in a depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm were collected from each farm and analyzed. The following parameters were determined: pH (H2O), electric conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4) , sulfate (SO4) carbonate, dissolved total nitrogen (TN), plant available phosphorus (PO4 CAL), plant available potassium (K CAL) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These parameters were used as indicators for soil health. A set of 33 quantitative and qualitative indicators was exclusively developed for coffee farmers to best describe a functioning ecosystem through social, economic and ecological indicators. These ecosystem-indicators were assessed through a questionnaire, carried out parallel to the soil sampling and further transformed into a scoring matrix where a scoring system from 0 to 100 points was used to normalize the collected data. There is a significant difference between the soil health indicators of organic and conventional coffee producers. The soil samples of conventional farms show higher pH values than those of organic farming systems referring to high turnover rates of the organic material. DOC release is on average higher in organic production systems. A major difference in the system is the higher plant available phosphate content, as well as a higher CEC in organic systems, which is due to the high organic matter input. The soil health indicator systems allowed to differentiate and to evaluate organic farms. Outlook Through the different management

  18. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  19. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  20. [Study of nasal and tonsillar mucosal microbiocenoses as one of the health indices].

    PubMed

    Khusnutdinova, L M; Usviatsov, B Ia; Soboleva, Iu V; Bukharin, O V

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative compositions of nasal and tonsillar mucosal biocenoses were studied in healthy individuals and patients with chronic tonsillitis as an ecological criterion for assessing the stability of biocenosis and human health. The qualitative composition of tonsillar mucosal biocenosis turned out to be steady-state both in health and disease. The human nasal mucosa showed itself as an indicator system. Staphylococcal strains with a high persistent potential and polyantibiotic resistance, which may cause an exacerbation of the inflammatory process on translocation to the tonsillar mucosa, were selected on the nasal mucosa of patients with chronic tonsillitis. PMID:19799231

  1. Immigration and selected indicators of health status and healthcare utilization among the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Blewett, Lynn A

    2010-08-01

    We examined indicators of health status and healthcare utilization according to immigration status to assess the 'healthy immigrant effect' for Chinese adults. Data for Chinese in Taiwan (n = 15,549) were from the 2001 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Data for U.S.-born Chinese (n = 964) and Chinese Immigrants in the U.S. (n = 253) were from the 1998-2004 U.S. NHIS. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the adjusted odds of perceived poor health, having ever smoked, and past year emergency room visits according to immigration status. For Chinese immigrants, more years in the U.S. were associated with lower odds of reporting poor health (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.8) and past-year emergency room use (OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9). Compared with recent Chinese immigrants (<5 years in U.S.), Chinese in Taiwan had higher odds of reporting poor health (OR = 6.2; 95% CI = 3.2-12.1) and having ever smoked (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.5). Our results suggest that those who migrate have better health profiles than those who do not migrate. However, recent Chinese immigrants were not significantly different than U.S.-born Chinese.

  2. Student Reception, Sources, and Believability of Health-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Lowe, David; Taman, Sara; Faulkner, Guy E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the health topics students received information about, how students obtained health-related information, and perceived believability of those sources. Participants and Methods: Students (N = 1202) were surveyed using the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) of the American College Health…

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Health-related stigma: rethinking concepts and interventions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Mitchell G; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Somma, Daryl

    2006-08-01

    As a feature of many chronic health problems, stigma contributes to a hidden burden of illness. Health-related stigma is typically characterized by social disqualification of individuals and populations who are identified with particular health problems. Another aspect is characterized by social disqualification targeting other features of a person's identity-such as ethnicity, sexual preferences or socio-economic status-which through limited access to services and other social disadvantages result in adverse effects on health. Health professionals therefore have substantial interests in recognizing and mitigating the impact of stigma as both a feature and a cause of many health problems. Rendering historical concepts of stigma as a discrediting physical attribute obsolete, two generations of Goffman-inspired sociological studies have redefined stigma as a socially discrediting situation of individuals. Based on that formulation and to specify health research interests, a working definition of health-related stigma is proposed. It emphasizes the particular features of target health problems and the role of particular social, cultural and economic settings in developing countries. As a practical matter, it relates to various strategies for intervention, which may focus on controlling or treating target health problems with informed health and social policies, countering the disposition of perpetrators to stigmatize, and supporting those who are stigmatized to limit their vulnerability and strengthen their resilience. Our suggestions for health studies of stigma highlight needs for disease- and culture-specific research that serves the interests of international health. PMID:17130065

  6. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is related to indicators of overall physical fitness in healthy postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate vitamin D status is related to increased adiposity, risk of falls, and muscle weakness, particularly in the elderly. We hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D) is related to physical fitness indices (androidal fat, whole body lean mass, balance, strength) in healthy...

  7. Structural Analysis of a Consumption-Based Stratification Indicator: Relational Proximity of Household Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Gerro, Tally; Talmud, Ilan

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis of consumption inequality using relational methods, derived from network images of social structure. We combine structural analysis with theoretical concerns in consumer research to propose a relational theory of consumption space, to construct a stratification indicator, and to demonstrate its analytical…

  8. Evaluation of a Regional Monitoring Program's Statistical Power to Detect Temporal Trends in Forest Health Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year-1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year-1 in most indicators.

  9. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators.

    PubMed

    Perles, Stephanie J; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J; Manning, Douglas R; Callahan, Kristina K; Marshall, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year(-1) for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year(-1) in most indicators.

  10. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  11. A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catharina C; Murray, Carien; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of cardiac autonomic activity and control via heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) is known to provide prognostic information in clinical populations. Issues with regard to standardization and interpretation of HRV data make the use of the more easily accessible HR on its own as an indicator of autonomic cardiac control very appealing. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of associations between an important cardio vascular health metric such as VO2max and the following: HR, HRV indicators, and HR normalized HRV indicators. A cross sectional descriptive study was done including 145 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. HRV was quantified by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analysis. Indirect VO2max was determined using the Multistage Coopers test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the strength of the associations. Both simple linear and multiple stepwise regressions were performed to be able to discriminate between the role of the individual indicators as well as their combined association with VO2max. Only HR, RR interval, and pNN50 showed significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.03) correlations with VO2max. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that, when combining all HRV indicators the most important predictor of cardio vascular fitness as represented by VO2max, is HR. HR explains 17% of the variation, while the inclusion of HF (high frequency HRV indicator) added only an additional 3.1% to the coefficient of determination. Results also showed when testing the normalized indicators, HR explained of the largest percentage of the changes in VO2max (16.5%). Thus, HR on its own is the most important predictor of changes in an important cardiac health metric such as VO2max. These results may indicate that during investigation of exercise ability (VO2max) phenomena, quantification of HRV may not add significant value. PMID:24312058

  12. Identification of sensitive indicators to assess the interrelationship between soil quality, management practices and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, R.; Acosta, J. A.; Bastida, F.; Domínguez, S. G.; Toledo, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2014-09-01

    Soil quality (SQ) assessment has been a challenging issue since soils present high variability in properties and functions. This paper aims to increase understanding of SQ through review of SQ assessments in different scenarios providing evidence about the interrelationship between SQ, land use and human health. There is a general consensus that there is a need to develop methods to assess and monitor SQ for assuring sustainable land use with no prejudicial effects on human health. This review points out the importance of adopting indicators of different nature (physical, chemical and biological) to achieve a holistic image of SQ. Most authors use single indicators to assess SQ and its relationship with land uses, being the most used indicators soil organic carbon and pH. The use of nitrogen and nutrients content has resulted sensitive for agricultural and forest systems, together with physical properties such as texture, bulk density, available water and aggregate stability. These physical indicators have also been widely used to assess SQ after land use changes. The use of biological indicators is less generalized, being microbial biomass and enzyme activities the most selected indicators. Although most authors assess SQ using independent indicators, it is preferable to combine some of them into models to create a soil quality index (SQI), since it provides integrated information about soil processes and functioning. The majority of revised articles used the same methodology to establish a SQI, based on scoring and weighting of different soil indicators, selected by multivariate analyses. The use of multiple linear regressions has been successfully used under forest land use. Urban soil quality has been poorly assessed, with lack of adoption of SQIs. In addition, SQ assessments were human health indicators or exposure pathways are incorporated are practically inexistent. Thus, new efforts should be carried out to establish new methodologies not only to assess

  13. Identification of sensitive indicators to assess the interrelationship between soil quality, management practices and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, R.; Acosta, J. A.; Bastida, F.; Domínguez, S. G.; Toledo, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2015-02-01

    Soil quality (SQ) assessment has long been a challenging issue, since soils present high variability in properties and functions. This paper aims to increase the understanding of SQ through the review of SQ assessments in different scenarios providing evidence about the interrelationship between SQ, land use and human health. There is a general consensus that there is a need to develop methods to assess and monitor SQ for assuring sustainable land use with no prejudicial effects on human health. This review points out the importance of adopting indicators of different nature (physical, chemical and biological) to achieve a holistic image of SQ. Most authors use single indicators to assess SQ and its relationship with land uses - soil organic carbon and pH being the most used indicators. The use of nitrogen and nutrient content has resulted sensitive for agricultural and forest systems, together with physical properties such as texture, bulk density, available water and aggregate stability. These physical indicators have also been widely used to assess SQ after land use changes. The use of biological indicators is less generalized, with microbial biomass and enzyme activities being the most selected indicators. Although most authors assess SQ using independent indicators, it is preferable to combine some of them into models to create a soil quality index (SQI), since it provides integrated information about soil processes and functioning. The majority of revised articles used the same methodology to establish an SQI, based on scoring and weighting of different soil indicators, selected by means of multivariate analyses. The use of multiple linear regressions has been successfully used for forest land use. Urban soil quality has been poorly assessed, with a lack of adoption of SQIs. In addition, SQ assessments where human health indicators or exposure pathways are incorporated are practically inexistent. Thus, further efforts should be carried out to establish new

  14. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P; Klatt, Arthur R

    2010-07-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r(2) >0.6-0.8) with leaf water potential (psi(leaf)) across a broad range of values (-2.0 to -4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (psi(soil)) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision

  15. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Klatt, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r2 >0.6–0.8) with leaf water potential (ψleaf) across a broad range of values (–2.0 to –4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (ψsoil) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision phenotyping

  16. Post-disaster health indicators for pregnant and postpartum women and infants.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Marianne E; Williams, Amy M; Wako, Etobssie

    2015-06-01

    United States (U.S.) pregnant and postpartum (P/PP) women and their infants may be particularly vulnerable to effects from disasters. In an effort to guide post-disaster assessment and surveillance, we initiated a collaborative process with nationwide expert partners to identify post-disaster epidemiologic indicators for these at-risk groups. This 12 month process began with conversations with partners at two national conferences to identify critical topics for P/PP women and infants affected by disaster. Next we hosted teleconferences with a 23 member Indicator Development Working Group (IDWG) to review and prioritize the topics. We then divided the IDWG into three population subgroups (pregnant women, postpartum women, and infants) that conducted at least three teleconferences to discuss the proposed topics and identify/develop critical indicators, measures for each indicator, and relevant questions for each measure for their respective population subgroup. Lastly, we hosted a full IDWG teleconference to review and approve the indicators, measures, and questions. The final 25 indicators and measures with questions (available online) are organized by population subgroup: pregnant women (indicators = 9; measures = 24); postpartum women (indicators = 10; measures = 36); and infants (indicators = 6; measures = 30). We encourage our partners in disaster-affected areas to test these indicators and measures for relevancy and completeness. In post-disaster surveillance, we envision that users will not use all indicators and measures but will select ones appropriate for their setting. These proposed indicators and measures promote uniformity of measurement of disaster effects among U.S. P/PP women and their infants and assist public health practitioners to identify their post-disaster needs.

  17. Relationship Between Depression and Specific Health Indicators Among Hypertensive African American Parents and Grandparents

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Artinian, Nancy T.; Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    African Americans are at greater risk for hypertension than are other ethnic groups. This study examined relationships among hypertension, stress, and depression among 120 urban African American parents and grandparents. This study is a secondary analysis of a larger nurse-managed randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of a telemonitoring intervention. Baseline data used in analyses, with the exception of medication compliance, were collected at 3 months' follow-up. Health indicators, perceived stress, and social support were examined to determine their relationship with depressive symptoms. A total of 48% of the variance in depressive symptomology was explained by perceived stress and support. Health indicators including average systolic blood pressure explained 21% of the variance in depressive symptomology. The regression analysis using average diastolic blood pressure explained 26% of the variance in depressive symptomology. Based on study results, African Americans should be assessed for perceived stress and social support to alleviate depressive symptomology. PMID:18843828

  18. Integrating Condition Indicators and Usage Parameters for Improved Spiral Bevel Gear Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of combining Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) data with usage monitoring system data when detecting rotorcraft transmission health. Six gear sets were tested in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig. Damage was initiated and progressed on the gear and pinion teeth. Damage progression was measured by debris generation and documented with inspection photos at varying torque values. A contact fatigue analysis was applied to the gear design indicating the effect temperature, load and reliability had on gear life. Results of this study illustrated the benefits of combining HUMS data and actual usage data to indicate progression of damage for spiral bevel gears.

  19. Integrating Condition Indicators and Usage Parameters for Improved Spiral Bevel Gear Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Delgado, Irebert, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of combining Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) data with usage monitoring system data when detecting rotorcraft transmission health. Three gear sets were tested in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig. Damage was initiated and progressed on the gear and pinion teeth. Damage progression was measured by debris generation and documented with inspection photos at varying torque values. A contact fatigue analysis was applied to the gear design indicating the effect temperature, load and reliability had on gear life. Results of this study illustrated the benefits of combining HUMS data and actual usage data to indicate progression of damage for spiral bevel gears.

  20. Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequality.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Paul; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the characterisation and measurement of income-related health inequality using longitudinal data. The paper elucidates the nature of the Jones and López Nicolás (2004) index of "health-related income mobility" and explains the negative values of the index that have been reported in all the empirical applications to date. The paper further presents an alternative approach to the analysis of longitudinal data that brings out complementary aspects of the evolution of income-related health inequalities over time. In particular, we propose a new index of "income-related health mobility" that measures whether the pattern of health changes is biased in favour of those with initially high or low incomes. We illustrate our work by investigating mobility in the General Health Questionnaire measure of psychological well-being over the first nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 1999.

  1. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  2. Assessment of temporal trends in ecosystem health using an holistic indicator.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Jessica; Raffaelli, Dave; Smart, James C R; White, Piran C L

    2010-07-01

    The Ecosystem Approach to environmental management, with its explicit acknowledgment of the environmental, social and economic elements within ecological systems, is becoming increasingly adopted by managers and policy makers. However, there are few specific prescriptions as to exactly how these different elements should be integrated, or examples where historical changes have been tracked. Here, we assess the potential benefits and challenges of applying an Ecosystem Approach to management using one particular method, the Holistic Ecosystem Health Indicator (HEHI), which integrates data from the ecological, social and interactive dimensions into a single composite index of ecosystem 'health'. We apply it to one of the best-documented catchments in the UK, the Ythan Estuary in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, based on a 50-year time series of data. The evaluation of ecosystem health over time is lacking in previous applications of HEHI, yet is crucial for the assessment of the utility of this approach to ecosystem management. The application of HEHI yielded different insights to those revealed from the traditional application of biophysical approaches for managing the Ythan. Overall, ecological health declined through the 50-year period, although it increased marginally in the last decade, while social and interactive dimensions followed the opposite trend. HEHI indicated a steady increase in ecosystem health overall except for the last decade, when it declined marginally. Our evaluation of the application of ecosystem health for the Ythan revealed major data gaps. For the approach to be used more widely, issues of data availability and the temporal and geographical mismatch between ecological and social research boundaries need to be overcome.

  3. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with lower indicators of psychological health and quality of life in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. However, there exists limited information regarding its effect on psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate association of SO with several indices of psychological health and quality of life (QoL) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 11521 participants older than 20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Sarcopenic obesity was defined by a low appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and by a high waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men and at least 85 cm for women. Psychological health status, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation, as well as QoL, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Association between SO and psychological health status was assessed under a logistic regression model. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, SO was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.44; P value = .004) and suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.50; P value = .010). In addition, SO was found to have a negative association with a range of QoL indicators. Interestingly, these association patterns were more significant in participants younger than 60 years. In conclusion, our results suggest that SO was associated with adverse psychological health and lower QoL more than body mass index-based general obesity.

  4. Health-related research on older inmates: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Susan J; Abudagga, Azza

    2006-12-01

    The literature on older inmates' health is fragmented and insufficiently developed. In this integrative review, 21 research articles on health and older inmates were identified, critiqued, and synthesized to determine: the minimum age criterion most commonly used; health-related variables explored; health status; the health impact of incarceration; and aging-specific policies, programs, and facilities. Age 50 and older was used most often. The top three health variables were psychiatric conditions, physical illnesses, and substance abuse. Self-reports of health status varied across studies; however, inmates consistently reported health declines since incarceration. Older inmates' health needs appear often to be left unmet. Nursing investigations are needed leading to practice innovations to enhance prisoners' self-management to reduce disease burden and fiscal and societal costs. PMID:17131280

  5. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India.

  6. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  7. The coastal environment and human health: microbial indicators, pathogens, sentinels and reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jill R; Gast, Rebecca J; Fujioka, Roger S; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Meschke, J Scott; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; del Castillo, Erika; Polz, Martin F; Collier, Tracy K; Strom, Mark S; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Moeller, Peter DR; Holland, A Fredrick

    2008-01-01

    Innovative research relating oceans and human health is advancing our understanding of disease-causing organisms in coastal ecosystems. Novel techniques are elucidating the loading, transport and fate of pathogens in coastal ecosystems, and identifying sources of contamination. This research is facilitating improved risk assessments for seafood consumers and those who use the oceans for recreation. A number of challenges still remain and define future directions of research and public policy. Sample processing and molecular detection techniques need to be advanced to allow rapid and specific identification of microbes of public health concern from complex environmental samples. Water quality standards need to be updated to more accurately reflect health risks and to provide managers with improved tools for decision-making. Greater discrimination of virulent versus harmless microbes is needed to identify environmental reservoirs of pathogens and factors leading to human infections. Investigations must include examination of microbial community dynamics that may be important from a human health perspective. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecology of non-enteric water-transmitted diseases. Sentinels should also be established and monitored, providing early warning of dangers to ecosystem health. Taken together, this effort will provide more reliable information about public health risks associated with beaches and seafood consumption, and how human activities can affect their exposure to disease-causing organisms from the oceans. PMID:19025674

  8. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-07-13

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12-18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents.

  9. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12–18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. PMID:27420094

  10. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12-18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. PMID:27420094

  11. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  12. Survival tucker: improved diet and health indicators in an aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Lee, A J; Bailey, A P; Yarmirr, D; O'Dea, K; Mathews, J D

    1994-09-01

    The poor nutritional status of Aboriginal Australians is a serious and complex public health concern. We describe an unusually successful health and nutrition project initiated by the people of Minjilang, which was developed, implemented and evaluated with the community. Apparent community dietary intake, assessed by the 'store-turnover' method, and biochemical, anthropometric and haematological indicators of health and nutritional status were measured before intervention and at three-monthly intervals during the intervention year. Following intervention, there was a significant decrease in dietary intake of sugar and saturated fat, an increase in micronutrient density, corresponding improvements in biochemical indices (for example, a 12 per cent decrease in mean serum cholesterol, increases in serum and red cell folate, serum vitamin B6 and plasma ascorbic acid), decrease in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, a normalisation of body mass index, and a normalisation of haematologic indices. The success of this project demonstrates that Aboriginal communities can bring about improvements in their generally poor nutritional status, and that the store-turnover method provides a valid, inexpensive and noninvasive method for evaluating the resultant changes in community diet. Although the project was undoubtedly effective in the short term, further work is in progress to assess individual strategies with respect to sustainability, cost-effectiveness and generalisability.

  13. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, have been studied at a global level. Participants Data from 50 participating countries in the World Health Survey were investigated. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Level of statistical relationships between variables. Results Principal component analysis established a very high contribution of the black tea consumption parameter on the third axis (81%). The correlation circle confirmed that the ‘black tea’ vector was negatively correlated with the diabetes vector and was not correlated with any of the other four health indicators. A linear correlation model then confirmed a significant statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence. Conclusions This innovative study establishes a linear statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence in the world. These results are consistent with biological and physiological studies conducted on the effect of black tea on diabetes and confirm the results of a previous ecological study in Europe. Further epidemiological research and randomised studies are necessary to investigate the causality. PMID:23138107

  14. The use of regional platforms for managing electronic health records for the production of regional public health indicators in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In France, recent developments in healthcare system organization have aimed at strengthening decision-making and action in public health at the regional level. Firstly, the 2004 Public Health Act, by setting 100 national and regional public health targets, introduced an evaluative approach to public health programs at the national and regional levels. Meanwhile, the implementation of regional platforms for managing electronic health records (EHRs) has also been under assessment to coordinate the deployment of this important instrument of care within each geographic area. In this context, the development and implementation of a regional approach to epidemiological data extracted from EHRs are an opportunity that must be seized as soon as possible. Our article addresses certain design and organizational aspects so that the technical requirements for such use are integrated into regional platforms in France. The article will base itself on organization of the Rhône-Alpes regional health platform. Discussion Different tools being deployed in France allow us to consider the potential of these regional platforms for epidemiology and public health (implementation of a national health identification number and a national information system interoperability framework). The deployment of the Rhône-Alpes regional health platform began in the 2000s in France. By August 2011, 2.6 million patients were identified in this platform. A new development step is emerging because regional decision-makers need to measure healthcare efficiency. To pool heterogeneous information contained in various independent databases, the format, norm and content of the metadata have been defined. Two types of databases will be created according to the nature of the data processed, one for extracting structured data, and the second for extracting non-structured and de-identified free-text documents. Summary Regional platforms for managing EHRs could constitute an important data source for

  15. The relation of the new international economic order to health.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1983-06-01

    Despite national independence, hunger, illiteracy, the extremes of ill health, and other manifestations of poverty continue for the bulk of the population of most 3rd world countries. Additionally, the countries of the 3rd world remain heavily dependent upon economic and political decisions made in Europe and North America. It is estimated that about 2/3 of the world's people are poor, and that 1/4 live in absolute poverty or destitution. In regard to mortality, the single most striking fact is that despite the massive economic growth and technological progress of the post World War 2 period, the same basic complex of infectious, parasitic, and respiratory diseases, compounded by nutritional deficiencies, remain responsible for most of the world's deaths. From the end of World War 2 until the late 1960s the solution to 3rd world underdevelopment was seen to lie in a relatively rapid growth of national product. "Nonproductive" expenditures such as those for health were to be limited to the greatest degree possible, and in practice they always were. The 1950s and 1960s were relatively successful in terms of economic development. During this period little attention was given to the question of the distribution of this growth, both between and within countries. A most important change of this period was the rapid growth of populations, mostly because of falling infant and child mortality rates. The decline was generally argued to be because of public health measures such as the international smallpox and malaria campaigns, the increasing availability of supplies of clean water, and improved nutritonal status. By the middle and the late 1960s there was increasing disillusionment with "growthmanship" as the appropriate development model, and during the 1970s the strategy became that of meeting basic needs (BN) of the world's population. Most 3rd world countries maintain that a new international economic order (NIEO) is intimately linked to their own potential for

  16. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  17. Immigration, work and health in Spain: the influence of legal status and employment contract on reported health indicators

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Benavides, Fernando G.; Schenker, Marc; García, Ana M.; Benach, Joan; Delclos, Carlos; López-Jacob, María José; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship of legal status and employment conditions with health indicators in foreign-born and Spanish-born workers in Spain. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1,849 foreign-born and 509 Spanish-born workers (2008–2009, ITSAL Project). Considered employment conditions: permanent, temporary and no contract (foreign-born and Spanish-born); considered legal statuses: documented and undocumented (foreign-born). Joint relationships with self-rated health (SRH) and mental health (MH) were analyzed via logistical regression. Results When compared with male permanently contracted Spanish-born workers, worse health is seen in undocumented foreign-born, time in Spain ≤3 years (SRH aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.09–6.56; MH aOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15–4.42); in Spanish-born, temporary contracts (SRH aOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.04–5.53); and in foreign-born, temporary contracts, time in Spain >3 years (MH: aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.13–3.38). In females, highest self-rated health risks are in foreign-born, temporary contracts (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13–4.91) and without contracts, time in Spain >3 years (aOR 4.63, 95% CI 1.95–10.97). Conclusions Contract type is a health determinant in both foreign-born and Spanish-born workers. This study offers an uncommon exploration of undocumented migration and raises methodological issues to consider in future research. PMID:20401513

  18. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. Methods The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. Results It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. Conclusions The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and

  19. Leading and lagging indicators of occupational health and safety: The moderating role of safety leadership.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Shea, Tracey; Cooper, Brian; Cieri, Helen De

    2016-07-01

    In response to the call for empirical evidence of a connection between leading and lagging indicators of occupational health and safety (OHS), the first aim of the current research is to consider the association between leading and lagging indicators of OHS. Our second aim is to investigate the moderating effect of safety leadership on the association between leading and lagging indicators. Data were collected from 3578 employees nested within 66 workplaces. Multi-level modelling was used to test the two hypotheses. The results confirm an association between leading and lagging indicators of OHS as well as the moderating impact of middle management safety leadership on the direct association. The association between leading and lagging indicators provides OHS practitioners with useful information to substantiate efforts within organisations to move away from a traditional focus on lagging indicators towards a preventative focus on leading indicators. The research also highlights the important role played by middle managers and the value of OHS leadership development and investment at the middle management level.

  20. [RANK INDICES METHOD AND ITS USE FOR THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Bolshakov, A M; Krutko, V N; Smirnova, T M; Chankov, S V

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a calculation method aimed to elevate the informative value of the integral indices of the social and hygienic monitoringfor purposes of comparative analysis. The method of rank indices is based on the ranking of monitoring objects on the values of primary indices on the base of which there are calculated the integral such indices as, for example, life expectancy. There are presented results of the use of this method for the comparative analysis of mortality rate in WHO Member States for the period of 1990-2011. There were revealed specialfeatures of mortality trends which cannot be detected when using only mortality rates or the life expectancy. In particular, for Russia there was shown that, in spite of the downward trend in child and adolescent mortality rate observed in the last decade, the country's world rankings for these indices fail to achieve the level of 1990. This means that the competitiveness of the country, sharply declined in the 90's, was not restored until now. There are described some features of the use of the method of rank indices for the analysis of indices of the environment state, public health and its socio-economic determinants. PMID:27266035

  1. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  2. Dental indicators of health and stress in early Egyptian and Nubian agriculturalists: a difficult transition and gradual recovery.

    PubMed

    Starling, Anne P; Stock, Jay T

    2007-12-01

    Although agriculture is now the globally predominant mode of food production, studies of the skeletal remains of early agriculturalists have indicated high levels of physiological stress and poor health relative to hunter-gatherers in similar environments. Previous studies identifying this trend in different regions prompt further research of the causes and effects of subsistence transitions in human societies. Here, 242 dentitions from five ancient Egyptian and Nubian populations are examined: 38 individuals from Jebel Sahaba (Upper Paleolithic), 56 from Badari (Predynastic), 54 from Naqada (Predynastic), 47 from Tarkhan (Dynastic), and 47 from Kerma (Dynastic). These populations span the early period of agricultural intensification along the Nile valley. Skeletal remains were scored for the presence of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) of the dentition, an established indicator of physiological stress and growth interruption. The prevalence of LEH was highest in the "proto-agricultural" (pastoralist) Badari population, with a gradual decline throughout the late Predynastic and early Dynastic periods of state formation. This suggests that the period surrounding the emergence of early agriculture in the Nile valley was associated with high stress and poor health, but that the health of agriculturalists improved substantially with the increasing urbanization and trade that accompanied the formation of the Egyptian state. This evidence for poor health among proto- and early agriculturalists in the Nile valley supports theories that agricultural intensification occurred as a response to ecological or demographic pressure rather than simply as an innovation over an existing stable subsistence strategy. PMID:17786997

  3. Health problems of data entry clerks and related job stressors.

    PubMed

    Billette, A; Piché, J

    1987-12-01

    A study was made of health problems reported by data entry clerks working in two large data pools within the Québec Public Service Administration. In order to collect the data, 350 clerks answered a questionnaire, representing a return rate of 92%. The results indicate that, in comparison with women in other occupations, the data entry clerks have a high rate of occurrence of psychiatric symptoms (measured by the Ilfeld index) as well as a high degree of use of over-the-counter and prescription drugs. In addition, these two problems are more prevalent in full-time clerks than in part-time clerks. The psychiatric symptoms appear related to the combined influence of two main factors: work overload and the monotony of work specialization. A third factor, the quality of the relationships among workers in the pool, also seemed to affect the regular full-time clerks. PMID:2892901

  4. [Valuation of health-related quality of life and utilities in health economics].

    PubMed

    Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group).

  5. Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: case study in northern coastal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-03-01

    To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations.

  6. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  7. Response of Soil Properties and Microbial Communities to Agriculture: Implications for Primary Productivity and Soil Health Indicators.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is placing tremendous pressure on the soil's capacity to maintain its functions leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation and loss of productivity in the long term. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find early indicators of soil health degradation in response to agricultural management. In recent years, major advances in soil meta-genomic and spatial studies on microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics can now be exploited as 'biomarker' indicators of ecosystem processes for monitoring and managing sustainable soil health under global change. However, a continental scale, cross biome approach assessing soil microbial communities and their functional potential to identify the unifying principles governing the susceptibility of soil biodiversity to land conversion is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis from a dataset generated from 102 peer-reviewed publications as well as unpublished data to explore how properties directly linked to soil nutritional health (total C and N; C:N ratio), primary productivity (NPP) and microbial diversity and composition (relative abundance of major bacterial phyla determined by next generation sequencing techniques) are affected in response to agricultural management across the main biomes of Earth (arid, continental, temperate and tropical). In our analysis, we found strong statistical trends in the relative abundance of several bacterial phyla in agricultural (e.g., Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi) and natural (Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria) systems across all regions and these trends correlated well with many soil properties. However, main effects of agriculture on soil properties and productivity were biome-dependent. Our meta-analysis provides evidence on the predictable nature of the microbial community responses to vegetation type. This knowledge can be exploited in future for developing a new set of indicators for primary productivity and soil

  8. Response of Soil Properties and Microbial Communities to Agriculture: Implications for Primary Productivity and Soil Health Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Anderson, Ian C.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is placing tremendous pressure on the soil’s capacity to maintain its functions leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation and loss of productivity in the long term. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find early indicators of soil health degradation in response to agricultural management. In recent years, major advances in soil meta-genomic and spatial studies on microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics can now be exploited as ‘biomarker’ indicators of ecosystem processes for monitoring and managing sustainable soil health under global change. However, a continental scale, cross biome approach assessing soil microbial communities and their functional potential to identify the unifying principles governing the susceptibility of soil biodiversity to land conversion is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis from a dataset generated from 102 peer-reviewed publications as well as unpublished data to explore how properties directly linked to soil nutritional health (total C and N; C:N ratio), primary productivity (NPP) and microbial diversity and composition (relative abundance of major bacterial phyla determined by next generation sequencing techniques) are affected in response to agricultural management across the main biomes of Earth (arid, continental, temperate and tropical). In our analysis, we found strong statistical trends in the relative abundance of several bacterial phyla in agricultural (e.g., Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi) and natural (Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria) systems across all regions and these trends correlated well with many soil properties. However, main effects of agriculture on soil properties and productivity were biome-dependent. Our meta-analysis provides evidence on the predictable nature of the microbial community responses to vegetation type. This knowledge can be exploited in future for developing a new set of indicators for primary productivity and

  9. Long-term effects of Hurricane Andrew: revisiting mental health indicators.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S; Troiano, R P; Barker, N; Noji, E; Hlady, W G; Hopkins, R

    1995-09-01

    Two population-based surveys of South Dade County, Florida, were conducted after Hurricane Andrew to compare hurricane-related symptoms of mental distress and describe the impact of mental health outreach teams. Households were selected by three-stage cluster sampling and findings from the two surveys, 13 months apart, were compared. Response rates were 75 per cent and 84 per cent. The prevalence of symptoms of mental distress decreased over time. However, in the households contacted by the teams (25 per cent of sample), the prevalence of symptoms (50 per cent) did not differ from households not contacted (43 per cent). Households contacted by teams that reported symptoms were just as likely to have been referred for help by the teams (72 per cent) as those without symptoms (68 per cent). Households reporting symptoms were equally likely to get counselling regardless of whether the teams visited. Mental health teams had no significant impact on mental health symptoms or the use of mental health services. Alternative approaches to mental health outreach teams need to be explored.

  10. African American college students' health behaviors and perceptions of related health issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, D S; Goode, C R

    1994-03-01

    The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133

  11. Precipitation extremes and their relation to climatic indices in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarekarizi, Mahkameh; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Recently research has focused on the influence of climate indices on precipitation extremes. In the current study, we present the analysis of the precipitation-based extremes in Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific North-West USA. We first analyzed the precipitation-based extreme indices using statistically downscaled past and future climate projections from ten GCMs. Seven different precipitation-based indices that help inform about the flood duration/intensity are used in the study. These indices would give firsthand information on spatial and temporal scales for different service sectors including energy, agriculture, forestry etc. in the area. Temporally, historical and future projections are analyzed over the whole CRB using ten CMIP5 models. For each scenario, we have mapped out these indices over the area to see the spatial variation of past and future extremes. The analysis shows that high values of extreme indices are clustered in either western or southern parts of the basin while northern part of the basin is experiencing high increase in the indices in future scenarios. Here we focus our attention on evaluating the relation of these extreme and climate indices in historical period to understand which climate indices have more impact on extremes over CRB. Various climate indices are evaluated for their relationship using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Results indicated that, out of fifteen climate indices used in the study, CRB is being most affected negatively by East Pacific (EP), Western Pacific Index (WP), Eastern Asia (EA) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  12. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  13. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  14. Obesity utilization and health-related quality of life in Medicare enrollees.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, Rochelle L; Elliott, Marc N; Giordano, Laura A; Grace, Susan C; Burroughs, James N

    2013-01-01

    The obese, with disproportionate chronic disease incidence, consume a large share of health care resources and drive up per capita Medicare spending. This study examined the prevalence of obesity and its association with health status, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), function, and outpatient utilization among Medicare Advantage seniors. Results indicate that obese beneficiaries, much more than overweight beneficiaries, have poorer health, functions, and HRQOL than normal weight beneficiaries and have substantially higher outpatient utilization. While weight loss is beneficial to both the overweight and obese, the markedly worse health status and high utilization of obese beneficiaries may merit particular attention.

  15. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  16. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  17. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all. PMID:20849605

  18. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.

    PubMed

    Martens, Pim; Akin, Su-Mia; Maud, Huynen; Mohsin, Raza

    2010-09-17

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-11-03

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  1. Relation between indicators for quality of occupational rehabilitation of employees with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    van der Weide, W. E.; Verbeek, J. H.; van Dijk, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess if the implementation of guidelines for occupational rehabilitation of patients with low back pain by means of process variables--a set of objective criteria for technical performance and continuity of care--led to a better outcome in clinical and return to work variables. METHODS: The study group consisted of 59 patients with at least 10 days of sick leave because of low back pain. Univariate analyses as well as multiple logistic regression and Cox's regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quality of care and outcome. RESULTS: Process indicators for technical competence, continuity of care, and total performance were all significantly related to satisfaction of employees. Continuity of care and total performance were significantly related to working status at 3 months, and time to return to work. None of the process indicators was related to pain or disability after 3 months follow up. Satisfaction was not related to any of the other outcome variables. This indicates that if guidelines for occupational rehabilitation are met, outcome is better. CONCLUSION: Quality of the process of care was related to outcome. Interventions of occupational physicians need improvement in the areas of continuity of care and communication with treating physicians. The effectiveness of an improved intervention should be studied in a subsequent randomised clinical trial.   PMID:10472321

  2. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  3. Experiences of Transgender-Related Discrimination and Implications for Health: Results From the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Honnold, Julie A.; Xavier, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between social determinants of health and experiences of transgender-related discrimination reported by transgender people in Virginia. Methods. In 2005 through 2006, 387 self-identified transgender people completed a statewide health needs assessment; 350 who completed eligibility questions were included in this examination of factors associated with experiences of discrimination in health care, employment, or housing. We fit multivariate logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to adjust for survey modality (online vs paper). Results. Of participants, 41% (n = 143) reported experiences of transgender-related discrimination. Factors associated with transgender-related discrimination were geographic context, gender (female-to male spectrum vs male-to-female spectrum), low socioeconomic status, being a racial/ethnic minority, not having health insurance, gender transition indicators (younger age at first transgender awareness), health care needed but unable to be obtained (hormone therapy and mental health services), history of violence (sexual and physical), substance use health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol), and interpersonal factors (family support and community connectedness). Conclusions. Findings suggest that transgender Virginians experience widespread discrimination in health care, employment, and housing. Multilevel interventions are needed for transgender populations, including legal protections and training for health care providers. PMID:23153142

  4. The affective response to health-related information and its relationship to health anxiety: an ambulatory approach.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Fabian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias; Rommel, Thilo; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Affective reactions to health-related information play a central role in health anxiety. Therefore, using ambulatory assessment, we analysed the time course of negative affect in a control group (CG, n = 60) which only rated their negative affect and an experimental group (EG, n = 97) which also rated the presence of somatic symptoms (e.g., back pain). By means of mixed regression models, we observed a decline of negative affect following the symptom self-ratings in the EG and a stable affect in the CG. The decline of negative affect was not moderated by the degree of health anxiety. Our findings might indicate that evaluating one's health status leads to a general reduction of negative affect in healthy individuals. The results of the study are in line with a bidirectional symptom perception model and underline the crucial role of affect regulation in the processing of health-related information. PMID:24955947

  5. The affective response to health-related information and its relationship to health anxiety: an ambulatory approach.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Fabian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias; Rommel, Thilo; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Affective reactions to health-related information play a central role in health anxiety. Therefore, using ambulatory assessment, we analysed the time course of negative affect in a control group (CG, n = 60) which only rated their negative affect and an experimental group (EG, n = 97) which also rated the presence of somatic symptoms (e.g., back pain). By means of mixed regression models, we observed a decline of negative affect following the symptom self-ratings in the EG and a stable affect in the CG. The decline of negative affect was not moderated by the degree of health anxiety. Our findings might indicate that evaluating one's health status leads to a general reduction of negative affect in healthy individuals. The results of the study are in line with a bidirectional symptom perception model and underline the crucial role of affect regulation in the processing of health-related information.

  6. Use of different subjective health indicators to assess health inequalities in an urban immigrant population in north-western Italy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the steady growth of the immigrant population in Italy, data on the health status of immigrants are scarce. Our main goals were to measure Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), Self-Rated Health (SRH) and morbidity among immigrants in Genoa. We aimed to assess the relative contribution of some social, structural and behavioral determinants to “within-group” health disparities. Methods We enrolled 502 subjects by means of snowball sampling. The SF-12 questionnaire, integrated with socio-demographic and health-related items, was used. Multivariate logistic and Poisson regression models were applied in order to identify characteristics associated with poor SRH, lower SF-12 scores and prevalence of self-reported morbidities. Results Subjects showed relatively moderate levels of HRQoL (median physical and mental scores of 51.6 and 47.3, respectively) and about 15% of them rated their health as fair or poor. Lower scores in the physical dimension of HRQoL were associated with the presence of morbidities and immigration for work and religious reasons, while those who had migrated for religious and family reasons displayed a lower probability of lower scores in the mental dimension of HRQoL. Poor SRH was associated with female gender, overweight/obesity and presence of morbidities. Moreover, compared with immigrants from countries with a low human development index, immigrants from highly developed societies showed significantly lower odds of reporting poor SRH. About one-third of respondents reported at least one medical condition, while the prevalence of multi-morbidity was 10%. Females, over 45-year-olds, overweight and long-term immigrants had a higher prevalence of medical conditions. Conclusions Our study confirms the presence of health inequalities within a heterogeneous immigrant population. HRQoL, SRH and morbidity are valid, relatively rapid and cheap tools for measuring health inequalities, though they do so in different ways. These

  7. Decomposition of sources of income-related health inequality applied on SF-36 summary scores: a Danish health survey

    PubMed Central

    Gundgaard, Jens; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Background If the SF-36 summary scores are used as health status measures for the purpose of measuring health inequality it is relevant to be informed about the sources of the inequality in order to be able to target the specific aspects of health with the largest impact. Methods Data were from a Danish health survey on health status, health behaviour and socio-economic background. Decompositions of concentration indices were carried out to examine the sources of income-related inequality in physical and mental health, using the physical and mental health summary scores from SF-36. Results The analyses show how the different subscales from SF-36 and various explanatory variables contribute to overall inequality in physical and mental health. The decompositions contribute with information about the importance of the different aspects of health and off-setting effects that would otherwise be missed in the aggregate summary scores. However, the complicated scoring mechanism of the summary scores with negative coefficients makes it difficult to interpret the contributions and to draw policy implications. Conclusion Decomposition techniques provide insights to how subscales contribute to income-related inequality when SF-36 summary scores are used. PMID:16925801

  8. Relative urban ecosystem health assessment: a method integrating comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2010-12-01

    Regarding the basic roles of urban ecosystem health assessment (i.e., discovering the comprehensive health status, and diagnosing the limiting factors of urban ecosystems), the general framework integrating comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis is established, from both bottom-up and top-down directions. Emergy-based health indicators are established to reflect the urban ecosystem health status from a biophysical viewpoint. Considering the intrinsic uncertainty and relativity of urban ecosystem health, set pair analysis is combined with the emergy-based indicators to fill the general framework and evaluate the relative health level of urban ecosystems. These techniques are favorable for understanding the overall urban ecosystem health status and confirming the limiting factors of concerned urban ecosystems from biophysical perspective. Moreover, clustering analysis is applied by combining the health status with spatial geographical conditions. Choosing 26 typical Chinese cities in 2005, relative comprehensive urban ecosystem health levels were evaluated. The higher health levels of Xiamen, Qingdao, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai are in particular contrast to those of Wuhan, Beijing, Yinchuan, and Harbin, which are relatively poor. In addition, the conditions of each factor and related indicators are investigated through set pair analysis, from which the critical limiting factors of Beijing are confirmed. According to clustering analysis results, the urban ecosystems studied are divided into four groups. It is concluded that the proposed framework of urban ecosystem health assessment, which integrates comprehensive evaluation and detailed analysis and is fulfilled by emergy synthesis and set pair analysis, can serve as a useful tool to conduct diagnosis of urban ecosystem health.

  9. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  10. Developmental Indices among Central American Immigrants Exposed to War-Related Trauma: Clinical Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the separate levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) among 68 Central American immigrants who had been exposed to war-related trauma, as a function of developmental disruptions resulting in mistrust, identity confusion, and isolation. Findings indicate that variance in depression, anxiety,…

  11. Assessment of the ecological security of immobilized enzyme remediation process with biological indicators of soil health.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Dong, Xiaonan; Jiang, Zhao; Cao, Bo; Ge, Shijie; Hu, Miao

    2013-08-01

    This study used the enzymes extracted from an atrazine-degrading strain, Arthrobacter sp. DNS10, which had been immobilized by sodium alginate to rehabilitate atrazine-polluted soil. Meanwhile, a range of biological indices were selected to assess the ecological health of contaminated soils and the ecological security of this bioremediation method. The results showed that there was no atrazine detected in soil samples after 28 days in EN+AT (the soil containing atrazine and immobilized enzyme) treatment. However, the residual atrazine concentration of the sample in AT (the soil containing atrazine only) treatment was about 5.02 ± 0.93 mg kg(-1). These results suggest that the immobilized enzyme exhibits an excellent ability in atrazine degradation. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could relieve soil microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial respiration intensity to 772.33 ± 34.93 mg C kg(-1) and 5.01 ± 0.17 mg CO(2) g(-1) soil h(-1), respectively. The results of the polymerase chain reaction-degeneration gradient gel electrophoresis experiment indicated that the immobilized enzyme also could make the Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index of the soil sample increase from 1.02 and 0.74 to 1.51 and 0.84, respectively. These results indicated that the immobilized enzymes not only could relieve the impact from atrazine on the soil, but also revealed that the immobilized enzymes did no significant harm on the soil ecological health.

  12. Family relations and health over the life course. A Lebanese perspective.

    PubMed

    Ajrouch, Kristine J; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-01-01

    The link between family relations and well-being in old age has received ample attention in the international literature, but remains least examined in the Arab region where cultural ideals assume positive intergenerational relations within families as the norm. In this paper, we employ survey data collected in Greater Beirut in 2009 to explore associations between family relations and health. over the life course. We tested (1) the extent to which age and social relation characteristics predict health; and (2) whether the association between age and health is stronger for those who report: smaller social networks and poorer relationship quality. We employed self-rated health and self-reported chronic illness as the health outcome measures and:social network size, positive quality and negative quality with family members as the social relations measures. Our findings suggest that social relations are differentially important depending on the health status indicator examined. The single dimension that influenced both self-rated health and the probability of reporting a chronic illness was positive relationship quality with spouse. Further, social relations, particularly having a negative relationship quality with spouse and adult child, exert stronger effects on both self-rated health and chronic illness for older compared to younger adults. The findings of the present study are important for clinical practitioners who often consider the role and importance of available social resources as they address the health needs of older adults. PMID:25906508

  13. Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Moses, M

    1989-03-01

    1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

  14. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations. PMID:26947151

  15. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Oyediran, Kola’ A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-01-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect—that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  16. Relating Indices of Knowledge Structure Coherence and Accuracy to Skill-Based Performance: Is There Utility in Using a Combination of Indices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuelke, Matthew J.; Day, Eric Anthony; McEntire, Lauren E.; Boatman, Paul R.; Boatman, Jazmine Espejo; Kowollik, Vanessa; Wang, Xiaoqian

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relative criterion-related validity of knowledge structure coherence and two accuracy-based indices (closeness and correlation) as well as the utility of using a combination of knowledge structure indices in the prediction of skill acquisition and transfer. Findings from an aggregation of 5 independent samples (N = 958)…

  17. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises.

    PubMed

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers' working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers' health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers' disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers' sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  18. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  19. Individual and Work-Related Factors Influencing Burnout of Mental Health Professionals: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…

  20. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  1. Indicators of rational drug use and health services in Hadramout, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Bashrahil, K A

    2010-02-01

    WHO standard indicators of rational drug use, this study analysed 550 prescriptions from 20 health facilities at different levels throughout Hadramout governorate, Yemen. A mean of 2.8 (SD 0.2) drugs were prescribed per prescription, with a low rate of prescribing drugs by generic name (39.2%). The proportion of prescriptions for antibiotics was 66.2%, for injectable drugs 46.0% and for vitamins/tonics 23.6%. The essential drugs list was available in 78.9% of facilities and a high percentage of drugs were prescribed from the list (81.2%). Other official sources of local drug information were less available. PMID:20799566

  2. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Gu, K D; Zhang, Y Z; Zhu, Y X; Zhou, Y K; Ye, L X

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 microg/L (1.56), 11.7 microg/g (1.75), 12.5 microg/g (2.82), and 25.3 microg/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of > or =100 microg/L. Boys, 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements revealed areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  3. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  4. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent…

  5. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  6. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  7. ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zou Da; Fu, Frank H.

    1994-01-01

    Three articles examine the Asia Youth Health Related Fitness Test proposed by the Asia Regional Board of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. The articles look at test results on fitness levels and knowledge from Japan, China, and Hong Kong. (SM)

  8. Evaluation of Maternal Health Service Indicators in Urban Slum of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Saira Parveen; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Afsana, Kaosar; Yunus, Fakir Md; Chowdhury, Ahmed M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A continuous influx of poor people to urban slums poses a challenge to Bangladesh’s health system as it has failed to tackle maternal morbidity and mortality. BRAC is the largest non-governmental organisation in Bangladesh. BRAC has been working to reduce maternal, neonatal and under-five children morbidity and mortality of slum dwellers in cities. BRAC has been doing this work for a decade through a programme called MANOSHI. This programme provides door-to-door services to its beneficiaries through community health workers (CHWs) and normal delivery service through its delivery and maternity centres. BRAC started the ‘MANOSHI’ programme in Narayanganj City Corporation during 2011 to address maternal, neonatal and child health problems facing slum dwellers. We investigated the existing maternal health-service indicators in the slums of Narayanganj City Corporation and compared the findings with a non-intervention area. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012, in 47 slums of Narayanganj City Corporation as intervention and 10 slums of Narsingdi Sadar Municipality as comparison area. A total of 1206 married women, aged 15–49 years, with a pregnancy outcome in the previous year were included for interview. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and maternal health-care practices like use of contraceptive methods, antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, postnatal care (PNC) were collected through a structured questionnaire. The chi-square test, Student t test, Mann Whitney U-test, factor analysis and log-binominal test were performed by using STATA statistical software for analysing data. Results The activities of BRAC CHWs significantly improved four or more ANC (47% vs. 21%; p<0.000) and PNC (48% vs. 39%; p<0.01) coverage in the intervention slums compared to comparison slums. Still, about half of the deliveries in both areas were attended at home by unskilled birth attendants, of which a very few received PNC

  9. Retaining the mental health nursing workforce: early indicators of retention and attrition.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sarah; Murrells, Trevor; Smith, Elizabeth M

    2005-12-01

    In the UK, strategies to improve retention of the mental health workforce feature prominently in health policy. This paper reports on a longitudinal national study into the careers of mental health nurses in the UK. The findings reveal little attrition during the first 6 months after qualification. Investigation of career experiences showed that the main sources of job satisfaction were caregiving opportunities and supportive working relationships. The main sources of dissatisfaction were pay in relation to responsibility, paperwork, continuing education opportunities, and career guidance. Participants were asked whether they predicted being in nursing in the future. Gender and ethnicity were related to likelihood to remain in nursing in 5 years time. Age, having children, educational background, ethnic background, and time in first job were associated with likelihood of remaining in nursing at 10 years. Associations between elements of job satisfaction (quality of clinical supervision, ratio of qualified to unqualified staff, support from immediate line manager, and paperwork) and anticipated retention are complex and there are likely to be interaction effects because of the complexity of the issues. Sustaining positive experiences, remedying sources of dissatisfaction, and supporting diplomats from all backgrounds should be central to the development of retention strategies. PMID:16296990

  10. Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge of Student Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Compared the health-related fitness knowledge of students in allied health care professions, assessing 48 athletic training students, 33 nursing students, and 36 physical therapy students. On the posttest, athletic training and physical therapy groups scored higher than the nursing group. Discusses implications for health profession education.…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  13. Early-warning health and process indicators for sentinel surveillance in Madagascar 2007-2011

    PubMed Central

    Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Ravolomanana, Lisette; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Piola, Patrice; Finlay-Vickers, Alyssa; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Richard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemics pose major threats in resource-poor countries, and surveillance tools for their early detection and response are often inadequate. In 2007, a sentinel surveillance system was established in Madagascar, with the aim of rapidly identifying potential epidemics of febrile or diarrhoeal syndromes and issuing alerts. We present the health and process indicators for the five years during which this system was constructed, showing the spatiotemporal trends, early-warning sign detection capability and process evaluation through timely analyses of high-quality data. Methods: The Malagasy sentinel surveillance network is currently based on data for fever and diarrhoeal syndromes collected from 34 primary health centres and reported daily via the transmission of short messages from mobile telephones. Data are analysed daily at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar to make it possible to issue alerts more rapidly, and integrated process indicators (timeliness, data quality) are used to monitor the system. Results: From 2007 to 2011, 917,798 visits were reported. Febrile syndromes accounted for about 11% of visits annually, but the trends observed differed between years and sentinel sites. From 2007 to 2011, 21 epidemic alerts were confirmed. However, delays in data transmission were observed (88% transmitted within 24 hours in 2008; 67% in 2011) and the percentage of forms transmitted each week for validity control decreased from 99.9% in 2007 to 63.5% in 2011. Conclusion: A sentinel surveillance scheme should take into account both epidemiological and process indicators. It must also be governed by the main purpose of the surveillance and by local factors, such as the motivation of healthcare workers and telecommunication infrastructure. Permanent evaluation indicators are required for regular improvement of the system. PMID:25598869

  14. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Chastin, Sebastien F M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between movement behaviours (sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity) and health indicators in a representative sample of children and youth using compositional analyses. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4169 children and youth (aged 6-17 years) from cycles 1 to 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Sedentary time (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer-derived. Sleep duration was subjectively measured. Body mass index z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, and aerobic fitness were measured in the full sample. Triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were measured in a fasting subsample. The composition of movement behaviours was entered into linear regression models via an isometric log ratio transformation and was found to be associated with all health indicators (p < 0.01). Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB or LPA was positively associated (p < 0.04) and time spent in MVPA or sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.02) with obesity risk markers. Similarly, LPA was positively associated (p < 0.005) and sleep was negatively associated (p < 0.03) with unfavourable behavioural strengths and difficulties scores and systolic blood pressure. Relative to other movement behaviours, time spent in SB was negatively associated (p < 0.001) and time spent in MVPA (p < 0.001) was positively associated with aerobic fitness. Likewise, MVPA was also negatively associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers (p < 0.008). Compositional data analyses provide novel insights into collective health implications of 24-h movement behaviours and can facilitate interesting avenues for future investigations. PMID:27306435

  15. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  16. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  17. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  18. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  19. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  20. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related...

  1. Health indicators in children from Meulaboh, Indonesia, following the tsunami of December 26, 2004.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Nau, Antoine; Halbert, Edouard; Todesco, Alain

    2008-09-01

    The French Army medical service carried out an epidemiological survey to estimate health indicators in children living in Meulaboh, Indonesia, in the weeks following the tsunami of December 26, 2004, within a sample from refugee camps, schools, and quarters of the town. Thirty-four percent of the children in camps, 21.9% in schools, and 49.5% from quarters presented psychological trauma. Malnutrition affected 20.5% in camps and 34.4% in the town between 6 and 59 months, 11.3% in camps, and 7.6% in schools between 6 and 15 years. The children had suffered various symptoms since the tsunami; access to care was possible for 53.9% in the camps, 23.8% from schools, and 39.3% from the town. Those results have been subsequently used by the local health authorities to improve child health care. The method used for this survey could be applied for future disaster scenarios. PMID:18816931

  2. Selection of sustainability indicators for health services in challenging environments: balancing scientific approach with political engagement.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Karl; Girois, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Sustainability evaluation has become a key component of international health. However, evaluators have faced a number of challenges linked to the lack of consensus on the meaning of the concept of "sustainability". This paper aims to describe a methodology, the Sustainability Analysis Process, based on several conceptual frameworks and tested in five different countries in the physical rehabilitation sector. The methodology consists of five successive steps: (i) overview of the context; (ii) system boundary; (iii) consensus vision of sustainability, and derivation of stakeholder perspectives; (iv) selection of sustainability indicators and characterization and analysis of local system sustainability; and (v) verification and modification. The paper also discusses the place of the evaluator and researcher in the process: the methodology aims to help evaluators objectively measure the level of sustainability of a health system with the challenge of dealing with a subjective notion, the concept of sustainability, and a diversity of actors. The Sustainability Analysis Process also aims to capture the dynamics of systems by repeating the process on a regular basis. The methodology highlights the need for evaluators build consensus amongst stakeholders on a common vision of the future of a health system.

  3. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    PubMed

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.

  4. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    PubMed

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique. PMID:27170822

  5. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Andrew S.; Cipriano, Gabriela C.; Tsouri, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student’s seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique. PMID:27170822

  6. Amenable mortality as a performance indicator of Italian health-care services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality amenable to health-care services (‘amenable mortality’) has been defined as “premature deaths that should not occur in the presence of timely and effective health care” and as “conditions for which effective clinical interventions exist.” We analyzed the regional variability in health-care services using amenable mortality as a performance indicator. Convergent validity was examined against other indicators, such as health expenditure, GDP per capita, life expectancy at birth, disability-free life expectancy at age 15, number of diagnostic and laboratory tests per 1,000 inhabitants, and the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Methods Amenable mortality rate was calculated as the average annual number of deaths in the population aged 0–74 years per 100,000 inhabitants, and it was then stratified by gender and region. Data were drawn from national mortality statistics for the period 2006–08. Results During the study period (2006–08), the age-standardized death rate (SDR) amenable to health-care services in Italy was 62.6 per 100,000 inhabitants: 66.0 per 100,000 for males and 59.1 per 100,000 for females. Significant regional variations ranged from 54.1 per 100,000 inhabitants in Alto Adige to 76.3 per 100,000 in Campania. Regional variability in SDR was examined separately for male and females. The variability proved to be statistically significant for both males and females (males: Q-test = 638.5, p < 0.001; females: Q-test = 700.1, p < 0.001). However, among men, we found a clear-cut divide in SDR values between Central and Southern Italy; among women, this divide was less pronounced. Amenable mortality was negatively correlated with life expectancy at birth for both genders (male: r = −0.64, p = 0.002; female: r = −0.88, p <0.001) and with disability-free life expectancy at age 15 (male: r = −0.70, p <0.001; female: r = −0.67, p <0.001). Amenable mortality displayed a statistically significant negative

  7. Relation Between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health Among Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063

  8. Self-care behaviors and health indicators in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Compeán Ortiz, Lidia Guadalupe; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther Carlota; González González, José Gerardo; Gómez Meza, Marco Vinicio

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study aimed to analyze self-care behaviors and their relationship with health indicators represented by glycemic control, lipid profile, Body Mass Index [BMI], waist circumference and body fat percentage in a sample of 98 adults with type 2 diabetes in an area of Nuevo Leon, Mexico (August 2005/May 2006). The results showed a low self-care behaviors index (X = 36.94, SD=15.14). A significant relationship was found between self-care behaviors and glycosilated hemoglobin [HbA1c] (r s=-.379, p<.001), triglycerides (r s=-.208, p=.040), BMI (r s=-.248, p=.014) and body fat percentage (r s=-.221, p=.029). Multivariate analysis revealed the influence of self-care behaviors on HbA1c, BMI and body fat percentage with explained variances of 9 to 41% (p < .05). From all self-care dimensions, diet was the most predictive for health indicators, moderated by gender and understanding of diabetes contents (p< .05).

  9. A Survey of Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge Among Preservice and Inservice Physical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Housner, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the health-related physical-fitness knowledge of preservice and inservice physical education teachers and graduate students in physical education and exercise physiology. Survey results indicated that exercise-physiology graduate students surpassed all others in knowledge. Though preservice teachers had relatively poor knowledge levels,…

  10. Preconception health indicators: a comparison between non-Appalachian and Appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Short, Vanessa L; Oza-Frank, Reena; Conrey, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    To compare preconception health indicators (PCHIs) among non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years residing in Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties in 13 U.S. states. Data from the 1997-2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate the prevalence of PCHIs among women in states with ≥1 Appalachian county. Counties were classified as Appalachian (n = 36,496 women) or non-Appalachian (n = 88,312 women) and Appalachian counties were categorized according to economic status. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined differences in PCHIs among women by (1) Appalachian residence, and (2) economic classification. Appalachian women were younger, lower income, and more often white and married compared to women in non-Appalachia. Appalachian women had significantly higher odds of reporting health (AOR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06-1.22), no health insurance (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.05-1.19), no annual checkup (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.04-1.20), no recent Pap test (AOR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.08-1.33), smoking (AOR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.03-1.14), <5 daily fruits/vegetables (AOR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.02-1.21), and overweight/obesity (AOR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.09). Appalachian women in counties with weaker economies had significantly higher odds of reporting less education, no health insurance, <5 daily fruits/vegetables, overweight/obesity, and poor mental health compared to Appalachian women in counties with the strongest economies. For many PCHIs, Appalachian women did not fare as well as non-Appalachians. Interventions sensitive to Appalachian culture to improve preconception health may be warranted for this population.

  11. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  12. Remotely-sensed indicators of N-related biomass allocation in Schoenoplectus acutus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Connell, Jessica L.; Byrd, Kristin B.; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marshes depend on belowground biomass of roots and rhizomes to contribute to peat and soil organic carbon, accrete soil and alleviate flooding as sea level rises. For nutrient-limited plants, eutrophication has either reduced or stimulated belowground biomass depending on plant biomass allocation response to fertilization. Within a freshwater wetland impoundment receiving minimal sediments, we used experimental plots to explore growth models for a common freshwater macrophyte, Schoenoplectus acutus. We used N-addition and control plots (4 each) to test whether remotely sensed vegetation indices could predict leaf N concentration, root:shoot ratios and belowground biomass of S. acutus. Following 5 months of summer growth, we harvested whole plants, measured leaf N and total plant biomass of all above and belowground vegetation. Prior to harvest, we simulated measurement of plant spectral reflectance over 164 hyperspectral Hyperion satellite bands (350–2500 nm) with a portable spectroradiometer. N-addition did not alter whole plant, but reduced belowground biomass 36% and increased aboveground biomass 71%. We correlated leaf N concentration with known N-related spectral regions using all possible normalized difference (ND), simple band ratio (SR) and first order derivative ND (FDN) and SR (FDS) vegetation indices. FDN1235, 549 was most strongly correlated with leaf N concentration and also was related to belowground biomass, the first demonstration of spectral indices and belowground biomass relationships. While S. acutus exhibited balanced growth (reduced root:shoot ratio with respect to nutrient addition), our methods also might relate N-enrichment to biomass point estimates for plants with isometric root growth. For isometric growth, foliar N indices will scale equivalently with above and belowground biomass. Leaf N vegetation indices should aid in scaling-up field estimates of biomass and assist regional monitoring.

  13. Remotely-Sensed Indicators of N-Related Biomass Allocation in Schoenoplectus acutus

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jessica L.; Byrd, Kristin B.; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marshes depend on belowground biomass of roots and rhizomes to contribute to peat and soil organic carbon, accrete soil and alleviate flooding as sea level rises. For nutrient-limited plants, eutrophication has either reduced or stimulated belowground biomass depending on plant biomass allocation response to fertilization. Within a freshwater wetland impoundment receiving minimal sediments, we used experimental plots to explore growth models for a common freshwater macrophyte, Schoenoplectus acutus. We used N-addition and control plots (4 each) to test whether remotely sensed vegetation indices could predict leaf N concentration, root:shoot ratios and belowground biomass of S. acutus. Following 5 months of summer growth, we harvested whole plants, measured leaf N and total plant biomass of all above and belowground vegetation. Prior to harvest, we simulated measurement of plant spectral reflectance over 164 hyperspectral Hyperion satellite bands (350–2500 nm) with a portable spectroradiometer. N-addition did not alter whole plant, but reduced belowground biomass 36% and increased aboveground biomass 71%. We correlated leaf N concentration with known N-related spectral regions using all possible normalized difference (ND), simple band ratio (SR) and first order derivative ND (FDN) and SR (FDS) vegetation indices. FDN1235, 549 was most strongly correlated with leaf N concentration and also was related to belowground biomass, the first demonstration of spectral indices and belowground biomass relationships. While S. acutus exhibited balanced growth (reduced root:shoot ratio with respect to nutrient addition), our methods also might relate N-enrichment to biomass point estimates for plants with isometric root growth. For isometric growth, foliar N indices will scale equivalently with above and belowground biomass. Leaf N vegetation indices should aid in scaling-up field estimates of biomass and assist regional monitoring. PMID:24614037

  14. The effect of education on health among US residents in relation to country of birth.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bosu; Senauer, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the impact of education on health in relation to an individual's country of birth using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2001-2004. We analyze health equations that relate health to education and other variables. Health is measured in terms of self-reported overall health, an index of biological risk factors, and body mass index. The primary hypothesis tested is whether education has a greater impact on immigrants' productive and allocative efficiency, because of their need to learn about how to remain healthy and access appropriate health care in a new environment. The empirical results indicate that for US residents, who were foreign-born, education is associated with a greater beneficial effect on every health outcome compared to those born in the United States. More education is related to an even greater positive effect on health for immigrants from Mexico, the origin of most immigrants, than from other countries. These results provide additional support for the portions of the 2007 Immigration Reform Act rejected by the US Congress, which placed a higher priority on education and job skills than current law. Since increased education and improved health are associated, such policy reform would help reduce the demands on the US health-care system.

  15. Influence of Peer Social Experiences on Positive and Negative Indicators of Mental Health among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Gelley, Cheryl D.; Roth, Rachel A.; Bateman, Lisa P.

    2015-01-01

    Modern definitions of complete mental health include both positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning. We examined the associations between peer relationships (victimization and receipt of prosocial acts) and multiple indicators of mental health that represent subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative…

  16. Low health-related quality of life among abused women.

    PubMed

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Nortvedt, Monica W; Baste, Valborg

    2006-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to all the women's shelters in Norway to describe health-related quality of life among women who had experienced violence from an intimate partner. Every woman who could understand Norwegian and was staying at a women's shelter in Norway for more than 1 week from October 2002 to May 2003 was asked to participate. We described violence by intimate partners by using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Index. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to measure health-related quality of life. These women experienced a multitude of threats and actual physical and psychological violence during their partnership. Their health-related quality of life was low and significantly (p<0.001) below the norm for the female population of Norway in all dimensions. The SF-36 mental health dimension was 2.5 standard deviations below the norm. Women at women's shelters in Norway who had experienced domestic violence had very low and clinically significantly reduced health-related quality of life scores. Health care workers must give priority to developing intervention plans for victims of violence from intimate partners.

  17. Rotor anisotropy as a blade damage indicator for wind turbine structural health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Structural damage of a rotor blade causes structural anisotropy of the rotor. In rotor dynamic, the anisotropy affects the symmetry of the rotor mode shapes, and the latter can be utilized to detect the blade damage. The mode shape symmetry can be characterized by relative blades' magnitude and phase. The study examines the potential use of these parameters as rotor damage indicators. Firstly the indicators are studied analytically using a simple 6 degrees-of-freedom model of a rotating rotor. Floquet analysis is used due to the time periodic nature of the considered system. Floquet analysis allows one to perform analytical modal decomposition of the system and study the sensitivity of the damage indicators to the amount of damage. Secondly, operational modal analysis (OMA) is involved to extract the same damage indicators from simulated experimental data, which was synthesized via numerical simulations. Finally, the same procedure was applied to operating Vestas V27 wind turbine, first using the simulated experimental data obtained by using aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 and then using the data acquired during the measurement campaign on a real wind turbine. The study demonstrates that the proposed damage indicators are significantly more sensitive than the commonly used changes in natural frequency, and in contrast to the latter, can also pinpoint the faulty blade. It is also demonstrated that these indicators can be derived from blades vibration data obtained from real life experiment.

  18. Bill color, not badge size, indicates testosterone-related information in house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Kempenaers, Bart; Dale, James

    2010-01-01

    The honesty of ornamental signals of quality is often argued to be enforced via costs associated with testosterone. It is still poorly understood, however, how seasonal variation of testosterone within individuals is related to the timing and extent of ornament development. Here, we studied inter- and intra-individual variability of plasma testosterone levels in a population of 150 captive male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) through the course of a full year. We further analyzed the relationship between plasma testosterone levels and two sexually dimorphic ornaments: badge size and bill coloration. Also, because of a known negative relation between molt and circulating testosterone levels, we analyzed the relationship between ornamentation and molt status during the fall. We found that testosterone levels increased towards the breeding season and decreased before the onset of annual molt. However, within individuals, relative testosterone titers demonstrated low repeatability between seasons. Plasma testosterone levels were not correlated with badge size in any season but were correlated strongly with bill coloration during all periods, except the breeding season when variation in bill color was low. Finally, we found that bill coloration strongly correlated with molt status during fall. Our results indicate that bill coloration, not badge size, is the best ornamental indicator of a “running average” of male testosterone in house sparrows and therefore the best potential indicator of qualities and/or behavioral strategies associated with testosterone. PMID:20730125

  19. Social relations and self-reported health: a prospective analysis of the French Gazel cohort.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Berkman, Lisa F; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chea, Maline; Goldberg, Marcel

    2003-04-01

    Social networks and social support are strongly associated with health, yet the pathways between social relations and health are not well understood. In one of the very few studies on this issue conducted in France, we used data from the French GAZEL cohort of employees of the national gas and electricity company, to (1) explore the relationship between the structure and function of the social environment upon self-reported health and (2) test the hypothesis that social relations directly affect health. In a prospective analysis over a 12-month follow-up period, we found that a lack of social support and dissatisfaction with social relations are predictive of poor health status, while weak social networks are not. Thus, functional aspects of social relations are better predictors of poor health than the structure of social interactions. Low social support was an independent risk factor for poor health in men and women: for men the effect was strongest among individuals who held a high occupational status, for women among those in high and low occupational groups. This study suggests that in France social relations exert an independent effect on health, modified by gender and socio-economic factors. Our results indicate that both clinicians in their practice and researchers may do well to focus increased attention on the health impact of social support.

  20. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  1. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory. PMID:15189005

  2. On the measurement of relative and absolute income-related health inequality.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philip M; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Johannesson, Magnus; Bingefors, Kerstin; Smith, Len

    2002-12-01

    In recent work on international comparisons of income-related inequalities in health, the concentration index has been used as a measure of health inequality. A drawback of this measure is that it is sensitive to whether it is estimated with respect to health or morbidity. An alternative would be to use the generalized concentration index that is based on absolute rather than relative health differences. In this methodological paper, we explore the importance of the choice of health inequality measure by comparing the income-related inequality in health status and morbidity between Sweden and Australia. This involves estimating a concentration index and a generalized concentration index for the eight-scale health profile of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey. We then transform the scores for each scale into a measure of morbidity and show that whether the concentration index is estimated with respect to health or morbidity has an impact on the results. The ranking between the two countries is reversed for two of the eight dimensions of SF-36 and within both countries the ranking across the eight SF-36 scales is also affected. However, this change in ranking does not occur when the generalized concentration index is compared and we conclude with the implications of these results for reporting comparisons of income-related health inequality in different populations.

  3. Performance Indicators Related to Points Scoring and Winning in International Rugby Sevens

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Dean G.; Hopkins, Will G.; Pyne, David B.; Anson, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team’s points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key points Successful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball. Selected performance indicators may be used

  4. Calving body condition score affects indicators of health in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Schütz, K E; Matthews, L R; Verkerk, G A; Meier, S; Loor, J J; Rogers, A R; McGowan, J; Morgan, S R; Taukiri, S; Webster, J R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of calving body condition score (BCS) on cow health during the transition period in a pasture-based dairying system. Feed inputs were managed during the second half of the previous lactation so that BCS differed at drying off (BCS 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively: a 10-point scale); feed allowance was managed after cows were dried off, such that the BCS differences established during lactation remained at the subsequent calving (BCS 5.5, 4.5, and 3.5; n=20, 18, and 19, for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively). After calving, cows were allocated pasture and pasture silage to ensure grazing residuals >1,600 kg of DM/ha. Milk production was measured weekly; blood was sampled regularly pre- and postpartum to measure indicators of health, and udder and uterine health were evaluated during the 6 wk after calving. Milk weight, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and fat content increased with calving BCS during the first 6 wk of lactation. The effect of calving BCS on the metabolic profile was nonlinear. Before calving, cows in the low group had lower mean plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and serum Mg concentrations and greater mean serum urea than cows in the medium and high BCS groups, which did not differ from each other. During the 6 wk after calving, cows in the low group had lower serum albumin and fructosamine concentrations than cows in the other 2 treatment groups, whereas cows in the low- and medium-BCS groups had proportionately more polymorphonucleated cells in their uterine secretions at 3 and 5 wk postpartum than high-BCS cows. In comparison, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased linearly in early lactation with calving BCS, consistent with a greater negative energy balance in these cows. Many of the parameters measured did not vary with BCS. The results highlight that calving BCS and, therefore, BCS through early

  5. Health-related quality of life in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    This month's question addressed something that many of us perhaps still have not formally incorporated into clinical practice, although we all are interested in our patients' health-related quality of life and want our inventions to result in improvements within this area. This view is exemplified by the response from Australia, which is one of several similar, unpublished, replies from the International Panel on this month's question (others came from Germany and Sweden). As mentioned in the introduction, health-related quality of life is becoming increasingly important as an outcome measure in clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions and several new measures have been and are developed. It is interesting and encouraging to hear about the new developments within this area that are being made by neuroscience nurses in different countries and within different subspecialties around the globe. As reported from the International Panel in here, new HRQL measures are currently developed in Canada and the UK focusing on patients with brains injuries and Huntington's disease (HD), respectively. In contrast to most established measures, the Canadian study has primarily been aimed at the positive aspects of life and not merely absence of the negative ones. Steve Smith in the UK has recently started developing a scale for use in clinical management of patients with HD. As far as I have been able to determine, this is the first measure of this kind to be developed for HD. Anyone who would like to know more about Steve's work or take part thereof is encouraged to contact him at this address above. Despite the fact that there already are several HRQL measures available, there is still a need for new instruments reflecting new aspects of health and disease. In addition, tools need to be designed for challenging conditions not readily addressed by existing measures. The replies from Canada and the UK represent these needs. It will be very interesting to eventually take

  6. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  7. Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

  8. Health-related behaviors in women with lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kozica, Samantha L; Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J; Moran, Lisa J

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle related diseases associated with physical inactivity and poor diet quality, represent a major health burden. This study assessed negative and positive health habits and health care utilization in healthy women (n = 50) and women with lifestyle related diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (n = 50), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (n = 44) and type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 43). A significant difference existed across groups for negative health habits (P = .012) with a trend for positive health habits (P = .06) elevated in women with PCOS. Women with DM2 had the highest amount of health care utilization including doctors office visits (P < .001), overnight hospital treatments (P < .001) and emergency room treatments (P = .01). Health practitioners would benefit from both encouraging positive health habits and addressing negative health habits. Furthermore, self-management and emphasizing the pivotal role patients' have in managing their illness is important for optimizing health outcomes. Elevated health care utilization rates were observed in women with DM2 but there were no differences in positive health habits across sub-groups. Encouraging lifestyle modification in women with precursor diseases such as GDM and PCOS is vital in order to prevent progression to DM2.

  9. A Genome-Wide Screen Indicates Correlation between Differentiation and Expression of Metabolism Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Akhilesh; Singh, Anupama; Meena, Anil; Ghosal, Ritika; Ranganathan, Madhav; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated tissues may be considered as materials with distinct properties. The differentiation program of a given tissue ensures that it acquires material properties commensurate with its function. It may be hypothesized that some of these properties are acquired through production of tissue-specific metabolites synthesized by metabolic enzymes. To establish correlation between metabolism and organogenesis we have carried out a genome-wide expression study of metabolism related genes by RNA in-situ hybridization. 23% of the metabolism related genes studied are expressed in a tissue-restricted but not tissue-exclusive manner. We have conducted the screen on whole mount chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from four distinct developmental stages to correlate dynamic changes in expression patterns of metabolic enzymes with spatio-temporally unique developmental events. Our data strongly suggests that unique combinations of metabolism related genes, and not specific metabolic pathways, are upregulated during differentiation. Further, expression of metabolism related genes in well established signaling centers that regulate different aspects of morphogenesis indicates developmental roles of some of the metabolism related genes. The database of tissue-restricted expression patterns of metabolism related genes, generated in this study, should serve as a resource for systematic identification of these genes with tissue-specific functions during development. Finally, comprehensive understanding of differentiation is not possible unless the downstream genes of a differentiation cascade are identified. We propose, metabolic enzymes constitute a significant portion of these downstream target genes. Thus our study should help elucidate different aspects of tissue differentiation. PMID:23717462

  10. Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

  11. Relating indices of knowledge structure coherence and accuracy to skill-based performance: Is there utility in using a combination of indices?

    PubMed

    Schuelke, Matthew J; Day, Eric Anthony; McEntire, Lauren E; Boatman, Jazmine Espejo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Kowollik, Vanessa; Boatman, Paul R

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined the relative criterion-related validity of knowledge structure coherence and two accuracy-based indices (closeness and correlation) as well as the utility of using a combination of knowledge structure indices in the prediction of skill acquisition and transfer. Findings from an aggregation of 5 independent samples (N = 958) whose participants underwent training on a complex computer simulation indicated that coherence and the accuracy-based indices yielded comparable zero-order predictive validities. Support for the incremental validity of using a combination of indices was mixed; the most, albeit small, gain came in pairing coherence and closeness when predicting transfer. After controlling for baseline skill, general mental ability, and declarative knowledge, only coherence explained a statistically significant amount of unique variance in transfer. Overall, the results suggested that the different indices largely overlap in their representation of knowledge organization, but that coherence better reflects adaptable aspects of knowledge organization important to skill transfer.

  12. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience.

  13. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. PMID:25113152

  14. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  15. Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Harris, Calliandra B; Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Mishchuk, Darya O; Satre, Mike A; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Rucker, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) influences energy-related metabolism and neurologic functions in animals. The mechanism of action involves interactions with cell signaling pathways and mitochondrial function. However, little is known about the response to PQQ in humans. Using a crossover study design, 10 subjects (5 females, 5 males) ingested PQQ added to a fruit-flavored drink in two separate studies. In study 1, PQQ was given in a single dose (0.2 mg PQQ/kg). Multiple measurements of plasma and urine PQQ levels and changes in antioxidant potential [based on total peroxyl radical-trapping potential and thiobarbituric acid reactive product (TBAR) assays] were made throughout the period of 48 h. In study 2, PQQ was administered as a daily dose (0.3 mg PQQ/kg). After 76 h, measurements included indices of inflammation [plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6 levels], standard clinical indices (e.g., cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, etc.) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance estimates of urinary metabolites related in part to oxidative metabolism. The standard clinical indices were normal and not altered by PQQ supplementation. However, dietary PQQ exposure (Study 1) resulted in apparent changes in antioxidant potential based on malonaldehyde-related TBAR assessments. In Study 2, PQQ supplementation resulted in significant decreases in the levels of plasma C-reactive protein, IL-6 and urinary methylated amines such as trimethylamine N-oxide, and changes in urinary metabolites consistent with enhanced mitochondria-related functions. The data are among the first to link systemic effects of PQQ in animals to corresponding effects in humans.

  16. Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Related Procedures in Children: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Kotagal, Suresh; Nichols, Cynthia D.; Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M.; Marcus, Carole L.; Witmans, Manisha B.; Kirk, Valerie G.; D'Andrea, Lynn A.; Hoban, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This evidence-based review provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the literature regarding the utility of polysomnography for the evaluation of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children including hypersomnias, parasomnias, sleep-related movement disorders, and sleep in other special populations. Methods: A task force of pediatric sleep medicine experts performed a systematic review of the literature regarding the use of polysomnography for non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. They identified and graded 76 papers as evidence. Results: The main results include (1) polysomnography combined with the multiple sleep latency test is useful for evaluating disorders of excessive somnolence to objectively quantify sleepiness. The results have to be interpreted with consideration of the pubertal stage and regularity of the sleep patterns of the child; (2) polysomnography is indicated in children with parasomnias or sleep related movement disorders who have a high likelihood of having obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); (3) polysomnography is not routinely indicated in children with enuresis unless there is a high likelihood of OSA; (4) polysomnography can be helpful in evaluating children with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and when periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is suspected. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, polysomnography should be a part of a comprehensive sleep evaluation in selected circumstances to determine the nature of the events in more detail or when the suspicion of OSA is relatively high. Citation: Kotagal S; Nichols CD; Grigg-Damberger MM; Marcus CL; Witmans MB; Kirk VG; D'Andrea LA; Hoban TF. Non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and related procedures in children: an evidence-based review. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1451-1466. PMID:23115394

  17. The Relation of Cultural Mistrust and Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Tyronn J.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The relation between cultural mistrust and psychological health was examined using a sample of 125 African American students. Results did not support the notion that mistrust of Whites is psychologically healthy but suggested that a moderate amount of trust of Whites is related to perceptions of personal well-being. (Contains 5 tables.)

  18. Generalizability of the AAHPERD Health Related Skinfold Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The amount of variation associated with the assessment of skinfolds of preadolescents was investigated because skinfold assessment is a component of the Health Related Physical Fitness Test. Results suggest skinfold measurements vary relatively little due to testers, instruments, or repeated trials. (Author/MT)

  19. Health crises and media relations: relationship management-by-fire.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruthann

    2007-01-01

    Media relations is an important function in the operation of any health organization, yet it is often relegated as a simple task function. Such an orientation can be problematic, particularly in times of crisis. This article provides an overview of some of the inherent internal conflicts within health organizations that may mitigate against the best media relations practices in times of crises. The article surveys some of the predominant theoretical models used for crisis management, and suggests directions for the further development of media relations and crisis communication theory and practice. PMID:19042529

  20. Health crises and media relations: relationship management-by-fire.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruthann

    2007-01-01

    Media relations is an important function in the operation of any health organization, yet it is often relegated as a simple task function. Such an orientation can be problematic, particularly in times of crisis. This article provides an overview of some of the inherent internal conflicts within health organizations that may mitigate against the best media relations practices in times of crises. The article surveys some of the predominant theoretical models used for crisis management, and suggests directions for the further development of media relations and crisis communication theory and practice.

  1. Indicators of national focus of the research published by Public Health journals edited in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Packer, Abel Laerte

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a set of bibliometric indicators and statistics which explain the high level of production of articles on research in public and collective health in Brazil which are published in the main nationally edited journals in the field. The predominance of publications in the Portuguese language by Brazilian authors results in a lower impact in terms of citations received as measured by the bibliometric indexes Scimago/Scopus and JCR/WoS. These bibliometric indexes are used to measure the production and performance of research and journals. Nevertheless, the performance of these same journals stands out in SciELO, and is competitive internationally in the broader context of Google Scholar Metrics. The challenge faced by journals in Brazil is developing and applying editorial policies for the valuation of research with a national focus, and its internationalization. PMID:26132237

  2. We should be using nonlinear indices when relating heart-rate dynamics to cognition and mood

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hayley; Benton, David

    2015-01-01

    Both heart rate (HR) and brain functioning involve the integrated output of a multitude of regulatory mechanisms, that are not quantified adequately by linear approximations such as means and standard deviations. It was therefore considered whether non-linear measures of HR complexity are more strongly associated with cognition and mood. Whilst resting, the inter-beat (R-R) time series of twenty-one males and twenty-four females were measured for five minutes. The data were summarised using time, frequency and nonlinear complexity measures. Attention, memory, reaction times, mood and cortisol levels were assessed. Nonlinear HR indices captured additional information, enabling a greater percentage of the variance in behaviour to be explained. On occasions non-linear indices were related to aspects for behaviour, for example focused attention and cortisol production, when time or frequency indices were not. These effects were sexually dimorphic with HR complexity being more strongly associated with the behaviour of females. It was concluded that nonlinear rather than linear methods of summarizing the HR times series offers a novel way of relating brain functioning and behaviour. It should be considered whether non-linear measures of HR complexity can be used as a biomarker of the integrated functioning of the brain. PMID:26565560

  3. Glomalin related soil protein as indicator of fire severity: a laboratory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Elena; Chrenková, Katarina; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jiménez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Glomalin Related Soil Protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Wright and Upadhyaya, 1996), was studied to determinate its effectiveness as an indicator of fire severity. Laboratory heating treatments were carried out at 180, 200, 250, 300, 400 and 500°C in soil samples from eight different sites of E Spain with different soil characteristics. Soil water repellency (SWR) and soil organic carbon (SOC) content were also studied to compare their sensitivity to temperature between certain parameters. Results showed that GRSP was affected even at low temperature, contrary to SOC, whose concentrations remained without changes at below 250°C. SWR did not appear in wettable soils after heating and disappeared in water repellent ones at temperatures over 200°C. GRSP behavior to temperature was different between soils. Redundancy Analyses divided sandy soils from the others. Silt, SOC, total content of aggregates (TCA) and initial GRSP concentrations were the significant properties explaining the response of GRSP to temperature. GRSP was more sensitive to temperature than SWR and SOC at low temperatures. Our results indicate that GRSP could be a useful indicator of fire severity. Key words: Arbuscular mycorrizhal fungi; Glomalin related soil protein; Soil water repellency; Soil aggregates. References: Wright, S.F, Upadhyaya, A., 1996. Extraction of an abundant and unusual protein from soil and comparison with hyphal protein of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Sciences 161, 575-586

  4. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.

  5. Endocrine check-up in adolescents and indications for referral: A guide for health care providers

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Fiscina, Bernadette; Elsedfy, Heba; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed; Skordis, Nicos; Di Maio, Salvatore; Piacentini, Giorgio; Kholy, Mohamed El

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that young people between the ages of 11 and 21 years should be seen annually by their pediatricians, since annual checkups can be an important opportunity for health evaluation and anticipatory guidance. Parents of infants and young children are accustomed to regularly visiting a pediatrician for their child's checkups. Unfortunately, when children reach the teen years, these annual checkups may decrease in frequency. In routine check-ups and medical office visits, particular attention should be paid to the possibility of a developmental or endocrine disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent medical complications in adulthood and foster age-appropriate development. Our purpose is to acquaint readers with the concept, based on current scientific understanding, that some endocrine disorders may be associated with a wide range of deleterious health consequences including an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, increased risk of coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, significant anxiety and lack of self-esteem. Understanding the milestones and developmental stages of adolescence is essential for pediatricians and all other health providers who care for adolescents. Treating adolescents involves knowledge of a variety of medical, social and legal information; in addition, close working relationships must be established within the adolescent's network to create an effective care system. In summary, we underline the importance of a periodic endocrine checkup in adolescents in order to identify endocrine problems early and develop an approach to treatment for those patients who need help during this time. Indications for endocrine referral for professional and other healthcare providers are also included. These lists are clearly not intended to be comprehensive, but will hopefully serve as a guide for specific clinical circumstances. PMID:25538875

  6. Automatically identifying health- and clinical-related content in wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Agarwal, Shashank; Bennett, Andrew S; Yu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Physicians are increasingly using the Internet for finding medical information related to patient care. Wikipedia is a valuable online medical resource to be integrated into existing clinical question answering (QA) systems. On the other hand, Wikipedia contains a full spectrum of world's knowledge and therefore comprises a large partition of non-health-related content, which makes disambiguation more challenging and consequently leads to large overhead for existing systems to effectively filter irrelevant information. To overcome this, we have developed both unsupervised and supervised approaches to identify health-related articles as well as clinically relevant articles. Furthermore, we explored novel features by extracting health related hierarchy from the Wikipedia category network, from which a variety of features were derived and evaluated. Our experiments show promising results and also demonstrate that employing the category hierarchy can effectively improve the system performance.

  7. Burrowing mayflies as indicators of ecosystem health: status of populations in two western Lake Superior embayments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Gorman, Owen T.; Evrard, Lori M.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada are supporting the development of indicators of ecosystem health that can be used to report on progress in restoring and maintaining the Great Lakes ecosystem, as called for in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada. One indicator under development for Great Lakes mesotrophic environments is based on burrowing mayflies ( Hexagenia: Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae). In this paper, we report the results of a benthic survey in spring 2002 to determine the status of nymphal populations of Hexagenia in two western Lake Superior embayments, the St. Louis River estuary, an area with significant water-use impairments, and Chequamegon Bay, an area with no known water-use impairments. Ponar grab samples collected throughout these embayments showed nymphs were generally abundant in finely particulate, cohesive substrate (clay or mixtures of clay and sand) in both embayments. However, in the St. Louis River estuary nymphs were absent in those preferred substrates at 11 stations in the eastern portion of St. Louis Bay and the adjoining northwestern portion of the Duluth-Superior Harbor, where the sediments were variously contaminated with visible amounts of taconite pellets, paint chips, oil, or combusted coal waste (clinkers). Our results suggest that human activities have rendered those portions of the St. Louis River estuary unsuitable for habitation by Hexagenia nymphs and we recommend that trend monitoring of the nymphal population there be conducted to permit reporting on progress in restoring and maintaining the health and integrity of this Great Lakes ecosystem embayment, consistent with the intent of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

  8. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  9. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction

  10. Correlates of Health-Related Social Media Use Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. Objectives The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. Methods The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.91%), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, P<.001). Lower odds of consulting online reviews were associated with less formal education (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.65, P<.001) and being male (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.87, P<.001). Respondents with higher incomes were 1.5 times as likely to consult online rankings or reviews (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.10-2.24, P=.05), than respondents with a regular provider (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.78, P<.001), or

  11. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on biological indicators used for ethylene oxide sterilization.

    PubMed Central

    Oxborrow, G S; Placencia, A M; Danielson, J W

    1983-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects of temperature and moisture on the D-value of a common biological indicator. Relative humidity (RH) was varied between 10 and 70% in increments of 10%, and temperature was varied between 30 and 70 degrees C in increments of 10 degrees C. Temperature was found to have a pronounced effect on the D-value. At 60% RH, the D-value varied from 15.0 min at 30 degrees C to 1.1 min at 70 degrees C. When RH was plotted against the average D-value at the various temperatures, the temperature curves at or above 50 degrees C were more erratic and the RH had a significant effect. The study showed that temperature and RH must be controlled if biological indicators are to be properly calibrated for use in ethylene oxide sterilization. PMID:6402979

  12. Relations between the Birkeland currents, the auroral electrojet indices and high latitude Joule heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nisbet, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Field-aligned currents were postulated by Birkeland (1908) to explain the magnetic perturbations in the auroral zone. Theoretical models have been developed to examine the effect of these currents on the ionosphere. These models, in general, involve very extensive computer programs, and it is difficult to see how their very complicated boundary conditions and assumptions affect the relationships between the Birkeland currents and magnetic activity. In the present investigation, a simplified analysis is used to study the average behavior of the large-scale ionospheric current paths and to examine the interrelationships of various parameters. The relationship of the parameters of the current deposition regions to the magnetic indices is investigated along with the polar cap potential. Attention is given to the experimental values of coefficients, and relations between the Birkeland current densities, current intensities, currents, and the AL, AU, AE indices are discussed.

  13. Performance Indicators of the Top Basketball Players: Relations with Several Variables.

    PubMed

    Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in performance indicators for top senior male basketball players, with respect to several independent variables: position in the team, total situation-related efficiency, age, playing experience and the time spent on the court within the game and during championship season. The final sample of participants was selected from all teams in A-1 Croatian men's basketball league. Significant differences have been found according to the players': position in the team, total situation-related efficiency, and in interactions of the position in the team / total situation-related efficiency and minutes spent on the court in a game / playing experience. The differences in the situation-related efficiency between players have not been found according to the players' age and the number of games played. Further research can be directed towards deeper analysis of the influence of more complex differentiated variables playing experience and time spent on the court in a game on situation-related efficiency in basketball. PMID:26898057

  14. Performance Indicators of the Top Basketball Players: Relations with Several Variables.

    PubMed

    Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in performance indicators for top senior male basketball players, with respect to several independent variables: position in the team, total situation-related efficiency, age, playing experience and the time spent on the court within the game and during championship season. The final sample of participants was selected from all teams in A-1 Croatian men's basketball league. Significant differences have been found according to the players': position in the team, total situation-related efficiency, and in interactions of the position in the team / total situation-related efficiency and minutes spent on the court in a game / playing experience. The differences in the situation-related efficiency between players have not been found according to the players' age and the number of games played. Further research can be directed towards deeper analysis of the influence of more complex differentiated variables playing experience and time spent on the court in a game on situation-related efficiency in basketball.

  15. Listening to patients' voices: linguistic indicators related to diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ulla; Anton, Marta; Goering, Elizabeth; Lauten, Kathryn; Hayat, Amir; Roach, Paris; Balunda, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research in health care has examined a wide range of variables to better understand the degree to which patients follow the advice of medical professionals in managing their health, known as adherence. This paper explains the development of the linguistic systems to describe and evaluate two psychosocial constructs (i.e. control orientation and agency) that have been found to be related to adherence in previous research for subjects with diabetes (Trento et al. 2007; Wangberg 2007; O'Hea et al. 2009). The present data came from 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews of subjects with Type 2 diabetes. One-on-one interviews with open-ended questions elicited subjects' 'stories' about living with diabetes, and the transcribed interviews were analyzed to develop the linguistic systems of control orientation and agency. The resultant systems were applied to the 43 interviews by raters with high inter-rater reliability. The results showed demarcations of clearly identified codings of patient types. The paper presents the linguistic coding systems developed in the study, the results of their application to the patient interview data, and recommendations for improved communication with patients.

  16. Proposed methods for assessing greenspace and neighborhood indicators as influential factors for childhood respiratory health in the CCAAPS study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a risk factor for childhood respiratory health. Health benefits or risks of green space, defined as open land covered with vegetation, on asthma have not been thoroughly investigated. While public health benefits of green spaces...

  17. Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M; Wood, A; Lawrence, M; Mhurchu, C N; Albert, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling.

  18. A comparison of cardiovascular risk as measured by compound blood lipid indices and two indices including lifestyle factors in occupational health service.

    PubMed

    Berg, J E

    1996-08-01

    Healthy employees in a non-manufacturing firm (n = 252) were divided into low and high cardiovascular risk subjects in order to compare different indices of cardiovascular risk for use in occupational health service. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), a compound index of blood lipid components, the 'atherogenic index' (ATH-index) defined as ([TC-HDLc] x [apoB])/([HDLc] x [apoA]), and two other compound indices, one Norwegian (Westlund) and one Scottish (Dundee score) were compared. Information on smoking habits and blood pressure were part of the two last indices. Cut-off values to separate between low and high risk subjects were defined with TC = 6.5 mmol/l, HDLc = 0.9 mmol/l, apoA = 1.8 g/l and apoB = 1.3 g/l, all values based on clinical guidelines in Norway. No smoking and a systolic blood pressure < 150 mmHg was included as cut-off of the combined indices. According to the three indices (ATH, Westlund and Dundee) 102, 25 and 116 employees were allocated to the increased risk group. Persons allocated to the increased risk group by the combined indices and not by the compound index were practically all smokers. Systolic blood pressure differed between indices only for persons with extreme pressures. A compound blood lipid index of CV risk, which may be drawn easily in an occupational health setting in an unfasting state and sent by post to a laboratory, mimics the allocation of persons to an increased risk group using combined indices. Smokers with normal lipid values would be allocated to increased risk by the combined indices, but not necessarily by the compound index. The use of the compound index together with advice to stop smoking is suggested as a time-saving strategy.

  19. Employment relations, social class and health: a review and analysis of conceptual and measurement alternatives.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan; Kim, Il Ho; Ng, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    Employment relations, as a theoretical framework for social class, represent a complementary approach to social stratification. Employment relations introduce social relations of ownership and control over productive assets to the analysis of inequalities in economic (e.g., income), power (occupational hierarchy), and cultural (e.g., education) resources. The objectives of this paper are to briefly clarify the theoretical background on socio-economic indicators used in social epidemiology and to conduct a review of empirical studies that adopt relational social class indicators in the socio-epidemiological literature. Measures of employment relations in social determinants of health research can be classified within two major conceptual frameworks: 1) "Neo-Weberian", like the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) which is widely used in the United Kingdom; and 2) "Neo-Marxian", like Erik O. Wright's social class indicators, which are being used by social epidemiologists in the Americas and Europe. Our review of empirical findings (49 articles found) reveals that the relation between employment relations and health does not necessarily imply a graded relationship. For example, small employers can exhibit worse health than highly skilled workers, and supervisors can display worse health than frontline workers. The policy implications of employment relations research are therefore different, and complement those of income or education health gradient studies. While the latter studies tend to emphasize income redistribution policy options, employment relations implicate other factors such as workplace democracy and social protection. Our analysis confirms that the current transformation of employment relations calls for new social class concepts and measures to explain social inequalities in health and to generate policies to reduce them.

  20. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years.

    PubMed

    Zmijewski, Piotr; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Kozdron, Ewa; Szczypiorski, Piotr; Frysztak, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA). Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC), improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI), and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years. PMID:26106642

  1. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Krzysztof; Kozdron, Ewa; Szczypiorski, Piotr; Frysztak, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA). Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC), improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI), and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years. PMID:26106642

  2. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years.

    PubMed

    Zmijewski, Piotr; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Kozdron, Ewa; Szczypiorski, Piotr; Frysztak, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA). Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC), improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI), and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years.

  3. Buffer zones promoting oligotrophication in golf course runoffs: fiddler crabs as estuarine health indicators.

    PubMed

    George, R Y; Bodnar, G; Gerlach, S L; Nelson, R M

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution above a threshold level induces a eutrophication process in coastal creek ecosystems and consequently impacts on the water quality. The remedy for this scenario is the introduction of methods to enhance oligotrophication by means of constructed wetlands and buffer zones. This paper discusses new data on nitrogen flux and population changes in the primary consumers in the Bradley Creek ecosystem, adjacent to the Duck Haven Golf Course in southeastern North Carolina. In 1998-99, over different seasons, density distribution of the field populations of the fiddler crab Uca minax, was monitored as an indicator of environmental health. A control site at Whiskey Creek, adjacent to the University Center for Marine Sciences, was monitored in the same period since this site is not influenced by any golf course nutrient flux. The results pointed out that threshold level for optimum population density in Spartina grandiflora salt marsh is 0.1 mg/L of nitrates. A dense crab population, adjacent to the golf course with a buffer zone, was indicative of restoration of the estuarine ecosystem. A model, involving the use of constructed wetlands for oligotrophication, is being prepared on the basis of studies conducted by the University of South Alabama for a stormwater wetland constructed adjacent to the university's golf course. PMID:11804155

  4. Prevalence of Perceived Stress and Mental Health Indicators Among Reserve-Component and Active-Duty Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Marian E.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined stress levels and other indicators of mental health in reservists and active-duty military personnel by deployment status. Methods. We used data from the Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors surveys, which collect comprehensive, population-based data for reserve and active-duty forces. Data were collected from 18 342 reservists and 16 146 active-duty personnel. Results. Overall, with adjustment for sociodemographic and service differences, reservists reported similar or less work and family stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms than did active-duty personnel. However, reservists who had been deployed reported higher rates of suicidal ideation and attempts than did active-duty personnel who had been deployed and higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology than did any active-duty personnel and reservists who had not been deployed. The highest rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were among reservists who had served in theaters other than Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusions. Our results suggest that deployment has a greater impact on reservists than on active-duty members, thus highlighting the urgent need for services addressing reservists’ unique postdeployment mental health issues. Also, deployment to any theater, not only Iraq or Afghanistan, represents unique threats to all service members’ mental well-being. PMID:22571709

  5. Transitional properties of droughts and related impacts of climate indices in the Pearl River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Liu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Drought is the natural hazard poorly understood so far due to various mechanisms behind. Moreover, disastrous effects of drought on human society necessitate accurate forecasting of drought behaviors. In this case, to improve forecasting of drought in the Pearl River basin, a trivariate copula model has been developed and used to include the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) into model structure of Markov chain. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been used to monitor the drought in this study. Comparison with the preliminary correlation analysis between each month climate index and SPEI series indicated that the trivariate copula performs satisfactorily well in evaluation of influences of climate indices on the transition probabilities of drought. It is considered that the region with the negative vertical velocity is dominated by more precipitation and vice versa. Moreover, field patterns of 500 hPa vertical velocity anomalies related to each climate index have further corroborated the influences of climate indices on the drought behaviors. Besides, the mean extreme drought durations under different conditions of each climate index have also been investigated in this study. Results indicated that the mean extreme drought duration tends to be longer in the western part of the Pearl River basin during positive phase of ENSO while tends to be shorter during the positive phase of NAO and vice versa; in the central part of the Pearl River basin, the mean extreme drought duration tends to be shorter during the positive phase of ENSO, NAO and PDO while tends to be longer during the positive episode of IOD, and vice versa; in the eastern part of the Pearl River basin, the mean extreme drought duration tends to be shorter during the positive episode of ENSO and PDO, and vice versa. This study sheds new light on transitional behaviors of

  6. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.

  7. Efficient use of health care resources: the interaction between improved health and reduced health related income loss.

    PubMed

    Hoel, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Cost effectiveness is a criterion that is often recommended for prioritizing between different types of health care. A modified use of this criterion can be justified as the outcome of a choice that is made "behind a veil of ignorance." Reduced health will in many cases also gives an income loss that is shared between the patient and society ar large. In the special case where the marginal utilities of health status (measured by QALYs) and income are independent of the health state, an efficient allocation of health resources is characterized by net marginal costs per QALY being equalized across different types of health care. Net marginal costs are equal to gross marginal costs minus the reduction in health related income losses due to treatment. In the general case where marginal utilities depend on the health state this rule must be modified.

  8. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  9. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Désirée B; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-08-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, on the basis of the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic, and muscle-strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition.

  10. Physician's emerging roles relating to trends in health information technology.

    PubMed

    David Johnson, J

    2014-08-12

    Objective: To determine the new roles that physicians will adopt in the near future to adjust to accelerating trends from managed care to outcome-based practice to health care reform to health information technology to the evolving role of health consumers. Methods: Trends and related developments concerning the changing roles of physicians based on prior literature reviews. Results: Six possible roles, traditional, gatekeeper, coach, navigator, informatician and one voice among many, are discussed in terms of physician's centrality, patient autonomy, decision-making and uncertainty, information seeking, satisfaction and outcomes, particularly those related to compliance. Conclusion: A greater understanding of these emerging roles could lead to more efficacious outcomes in our ever changing, increasingly complex medical system. Patients often have little understanding of emerging trends that lead to the development of specialized roles such as hospitalist and navigators and, relatedly, the evolving roles of physicians.

  11. Disaster-related mental health needs of women and children.

    PubMed

    Corrarino, Jane E

    2008-01-01

    Since the events of September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina, the world has become more acutely aware of disasters and their sequelae, and efforts have been made to improve preparedness-related skills of healthcare professionals. One area that requires more skill building concerns the ability to deal with mental health-related needs. Although the appearance of postdisaster psychological symptoms in adults varies, the incidence of psychopathology in women and children is high after disasters. Children are disproportionately affected by disasters, and their special needs have only recently begun to be understood and considered in disaster-related planning. Categories of psychological effects include distress symptoms, risk behaviors, and psychiatric disorders. These issues require ongoing care, not single interventions. This article describes how maternal child health nurses can develop and use the requisite skills to effectively assist families to optimize their mental health status and prevent sequelae after a disaster.

  12. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  13. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth. PMID:26863866

  14. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  15. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

  16. Predicting health-related quality of life by using a health promotion model among Iranian adolescent girls: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Eftekhar, Hasan; Rahimi, Abas; Mohamad, Hosein Taghdisi; Shojaiezade, Davod; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-06-01

    Predicting the significant determinants of health-related quality of life through the application of structural equation modeling in adolescents has received little attention in the health education and health promotion literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-efficacy, barriers, social support, health-promoting lifestyle, and health-related quality of life among Iranian adolescent girls. Pender's health promotion model guided this study. This was a cross-sectional survey of 500 students who were recruited in Kashan, Iran. Their health-related quality of life was measured by using the Short Form Health Survey. A path analysis was conducted to predict the health-related quality of life determinants. The results indicated that 71% of the variance in health-related quality of life could be predicted by the variables. The results affirmed that self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of the students' health-related quality of life. It was concluded that interventions that are aimed at improving self-efficacy can lead to the enhancement of health-related quality of life among adolescent girls in the developing country of Iran.

  17. Involvement of users and relatives in mental health service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Angelo; D'Avanzo, Barbara; D'Anza, Vito; Montorfano, Emanuele; Savio, Monica; Corbascio, Caterina G

    2014-06-01

    Although Italian mental health (MH) services are community based, user and relative participation in service evaluation lagged behind until lately. We here review three recent studies involving stakeholder participation in service evaluation: two were quantitative studies, one on 204 users in an MH service in Pistoia (Central Italy) and the other on 2259 relatives, conducted with the National Union of Associations for Mental Health. The third (supported by The Centro per il Controllo delle Malattie, the ministerial Center for Disease Control) was a qualitative study in seven MH services, involving users, relatives, and professionals together, which collected interviews from 136 users, 119 relatives, and 79 professionals. In the quantitative studies, positive evaluations outnumbered negative ones. The qualitative study explored negative aspects in greater depth. Common findings were insufficient information, underinvolvement of users-relatives in planning, no choice of clinician, psychiatrist domination, and limited helpfulness of interventions. With stakeholder participation in service evaluation, the present medical framework will need reshaping.

  18. The Hα surface brightness-radius relation: a robust statistical distance indicator for planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, David J.; Parker, Q. A.; Bojičić, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distances to Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) has been an intractable problem for many decades. We have now established a robust optical statistical distance indicator, the Hα surface brightness-radius or SHα-r relation, which addresses this problem. We developed this relation from a critically evaluated sample of primary calibrating PNe. The robust nature of the method results from our revised calibrating distances with significantly reduced systematic uncertainties, and the recent availability of high-quality data, including updated nebular diameters and integrated Hα fluxes. The SHα-r technique is simple in its application, requiring only an angular size, an integrated Hα flux, and the reddening to the PN. From these quantities, an intrinsic radius is calculated, which when combined with the angular size, yields the distance directly. Furthermore, we have found that optically thick PNe tend to populate the upper bound of the trend, while optically thin PNe fall along the lower boundary in the SHα-r plane. This enables sub-trends to be developed which offer even better precision in the determination of distances, as good as 18 per cent in the case of optically thin, high-excitation PNe. This is significantly better than any previous statistical indicator. We use this technique to create a catalogue of statistical distances for over 1100 Galactic PNe, the largest such compilation in the literature to date. Finally, in an appendix, we investigate both a set of transitional PNe and a range of PN mimics in the SHα-r plane, to demonstrate its use as a diagnostic tool. Interestingly, stellar ejecta around massive stars plot on a tight locus in SHα-r space with the potential to act as a separate distance indicator for these objects.

  19. Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Indices for Carbon Related Parameters in Corn Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. E.; Daughtry, C. S.

    2006-05-01

    The relative success in monitoring physiological or stand properties related to carbon (C) assimilation using narrow band (hyperspectral) reflectance and fluorescence indices was evaluated at leaf and canopy levels for mature corn crops (Zea mays L.) in two years. The corn crops were arranged in plots, each receiving a controlled nitrogen (N) fertilization regime at one of four dosages in experiments conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the USDA facility in Beltsville, MD, USA. Leaf reflectance spectra were obtained in conjunction with leaf level photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF), and chemistry (chlorophyll and carotenoid content per leaf area; percent C and N by dry mass). Whole plant canopy spectra and leaf area index data were obtained the same week as leaf measurements, followed by determinations of yields and biomass at harvest. The spectra were acquired using a spectroradiometer (ASD-FR FieldSpec Pro, Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA), either coupled with a hemisphere for leaf optical properties or to measure nadir radiances 1 m above plant canopies within a 22o field of view. In situ photosynthesis and ChlF parameters were determined simultaneously with a photosynthetic system (Li-Cor 6400, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) fitted with a fluorimeter under controlled conditions (temperature, irradiance, carbon dioxide, and humidity). Canopy-level steady state ChlF emissions were extracted from the apparent canopy reflectance spectra at 688 and 760 nm using the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principal. Both fluorescence and reflectance indices were successful in discriminating foliar constituents (e.g., pigment ratios, C/N ratios) but only fluorescence indices were correlated with light use efficiency (LUE) and corn yields in both years. LUE was inversely correlated (r = 0.85) with the ratio of non-photochemical (Qn) to photochemical (Qp) quenching of ChlF, (Qn/Qp). LUE was not strongly influenced by pigment levels, including the chlorophyll

  20. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India

  1. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  2. Disclosing personal health information relating to adults who lack capacity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The need to share information about patients is vital to effective care and protection, especially where it relates to adults who lack decision-making capacity but it has to be balanced against the right to confidentiality. Like other health professionals, district nurses have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information, and incapable adults have the right to expect their personal health information to be kept private. This right is guaranteed by the common-law duty of confidence, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the NHS Care Record Guarantee and confidentiality policy. This article discusses the district nurse's legal obligations when considering sharing information in relation to an incapable adult

  3. The Law and Health Personnel; A Study of Minnesota Law Related to Selected Health Manpower Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Rehabilitation Foundation, Minneapolis, Minn. Inst. for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    This report surveys Minnesota laws relating to the use of health manpower. It presents a summary of Minnesota licensure laws as they apply to categories of health personnel and paramedical personnel currently unrecognized by the law. An analysis is also made of malpractice decisional law to examine whether such laws prohibit or inhibit optimal…

  4. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  5. Relations between soil moisture and satellite vegetation indices in the U.S. Corn Belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Carleton, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation indices extracted over locations representative of midwestern U.S. cropland and forest for the period 1990-94 are analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the indices to neutron probe soil moisture measurements of the Illinois Climate Network (ICN). The deseasoned (i.e., departures from multiyear mean annual cycle) soil moisture measurements are shown to be weakly correlated with the deseasoned full resolution (1 km ?? 1 km) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data over both land cover types. The association, measured by the Pearson-moment-correlation coefficient, is stronger over forest than over cropland during the growing season (April-September). The correlations improve successively when the NDVI and FVC pixel data are aggregated to 3 km ?? 3 km, 5 km ?? 5 km, and 7 km ?? 7 km areas. The improved correlations are partly explained by the reduction in satellite navigation errors as spatial aggregation occurs, as well as the apparent scale dependence of the NDVI-soil moisture association. Similarly, stronger relations are obtained with soil moisture data that are lagged by up to 8 weeks with respect to the vegetation indices, implying that soil moisture may be a useful predictor of warm season satellite-derived vegetation conditions. This study suggests that a "long-term" memory of several weeks is present in the near-surface hydrological characteristics, especially soil water content, of the Midwest Corn Belt. The memory is integrated into the satellite vegetation indices and may be us??eful for predicting crop yield estimates and surface temperature anomalies.

  6. Drinking water and sanitation: progress in 73 countries in relation to socioeconomic indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess progress in the provision of drinking water and sanitation in relation to national socioeconomic indicators. Methods We used household survey data for 73 countries – collected between 2000 and 2012 – to calculate linear rates of change in population access to improved drinking water (n = 67) and/or sanitation (n = 61). To enable comparison of progress between countries with different initial levels of access, the calculated rates of change were normalized to fall between –1 and 1. In regression analyses, we investigated associations between the normalized rates of change in population access and national socioeconomic indicators: gross national income per capita, government effectiveness, official development assistance, freshwater resources, education, poverty, Gini coefficient, child mortality and the human development index. Findings The normalized rates of change indicated that most of the investigated countries were making progress towards achieving universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation. However, only about a third showed a level of progress that was at least half the maximum achievable level. The normalized rates of change did not appear to be correlated with any of the national indicators that we investigated. Conclusion In many countries, the progress being made towards universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation is falling well short of the maximum achievable level. Progress does not appear to be correlated with a country’s social and economic characteristics. The between-country variations observed in such progress may be linked to variations in government policies and in the institutional commitment and capacity needed to execute such policies effectively. PMID:26957676

  7. Stability-indicating UPLC method for determining related substances and degradants in dronedarone.

    PubMed

    Pydimarry, Surya Prakash Rao; Cholleti, Vijay Kumar; Vangala, Ranga Reddy

    2014-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible method was developed on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection for the quantitative determination of dronedarone hydrochloride (DRO) in drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is applicable for the quantification of related substances and assays of drug substances. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity UPLC BEH C8 100 mm, 2.1 mm and 1.7 µm columns, using gradient elution within a short run time of 10.0 min. The eluted compounds were monitored at 288 nm, the flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was maintained at 40°C. The resolution of DRO and 11 impurities (potentials and by-products) was greater than 2.0 for all pairs of components. The high correlation coefficient value (>0.9995) indicates the clear correlations between the concentrations of investigated compound and their peak areas within the test ranges. The repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed by the relative standard deviation, were less than 2.5%. The accuracy and validity of the method were further ascertained by performing recovery studies via a spike method. The accuracy of the method, expressed as relative error, was satisfactory. No interference was observed from concomitant substances normally added to the tablets. DRO was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. DRO was found to degrade significantly in acid and base stress conditions and to remain stable in thermal, photolytic degradation, oxidative and hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from primary peak and its impurities, proving that the method is stability indicating. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, solution stability and robustness

  8. Trajectories of diurnal cortisol in mothers of children with autism and other developmental disabilities: Relations to health and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Lambert, Warren

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63%) or steep (37%). Mothers in the blunted (versus steep) trajectory had higher stress levels, lower health ratings, and 89% of mothers of children with autism, and 53% with other disabilities, belonged to this trajectory. Atypical cortisol awakening responses and evening rises were differentially associated with anxiety, depression, health problems and employment status. Stress-reducing interventions are needed for parents of children with autism and other disabilities that include biomarkers as indices of risk or treatment outcome. PMID:23468069

  9. Trajectories of diurnal cortisol in mothers of children with autism and other developmental disabilities: relations to health and mental health.

    PubMed

    Dykens, Elisabeth M; Lambert, Warren

    2013-10-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63 %) or steep (37 %). Mothers in the blunted (vs. steep) trajectory had higher stress levels, lower health ratings, and 89 % of mothers of children with autism, and 53 % with other disabilities, belonged to this trajectory. Atypical cortisol awakening responses and evening rises were differentially associated with anxiety, depression, health problems and employment status. Stress-reducing interventions are needed for parents of children with autism and other disabilities that include biomarkers as indices of risk or treatment outcome.

  10. The health-related behaviors and attitudes of student nurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vowell, Maribeth

    Nurses are an important component of primary medical care, and patient education is a common and important role of most nurses. Patient education and positive role modeling by nurses have the potential to influence patients' life style choices and the serious diseases that may be affected by those choices. A greater understanding of the ways nurses think about their own health could help facilitate healthier choices for them and in their patients. The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of student nurses related to their personal health, and to investigate those experiences, attitudes and beliefs as they relate to their education, relationships, values and career choice. The purpose was achieved through phenomenological interviews with eleven senior nursing students, nine females and two males, encouraging them to provide in as much detail as possible their attitudes and values about their personal health. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and phenomenologically analyzed. A thematic structure emerged such that the nursing students experiences were represented by the four interrelated themes of caring for myself/caring for others ; I control my health/my world controls my health; I have energy/I'm tired; and feeling good/looking good. The contextual grounds for the themes that emerged during the analysis were the Body and Time. This structure was presented in terms of its relationship to health education, other research and to current theory.