Science.gov

Sample records for health score rhs

  1. Computer Health Score

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-03

    The algorithm develops a single health score for office computers, today just Windows, but we plan to extend this to Apple computers. The score is derived from various parameters, including: CPU Utilization Memory Utilization Various Error logs Disk Problems Disk write queue length It then uses a weighting scheme to balance these parameters and provide an overall health score. By using these parameters, we are not just assessing the theoretical performance of the components of the computer, rather we are using actual performance metrics that are selected to be a more realistic representation of the experience of the person using the computer. This includes compensating for the nature of their use. If there are two identical computers and the user of one places heavy demands on their computer compared with the user of the second computer, the former will have a lower health score. This allows us to provide a 'fit for purpose' score tailored to the assigned user. This is very helpful data to inform the mangers when individual computers need to be replaced. Additionally it provides specific information that can facilitate the fixing of the computer, to extend it's useful lifetime. This presents direct financial savings, time savings for users transferring from one computer to the next, and better environmental stewardship.

  2. 7 CFR 3550.159 - Borrower actions requiring RHS approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Borrower actions requiring RHS approval. 3550.159 Section 3550.159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing §...

  3. 7 CFR 3550.159 - Borrower actions requiring RHS approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Borrower actions requiring RHS approval. 3550.159 Section 3550.159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing §...

  4. 7 CFR 3550.159 - Borrower actions requiring RHS approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Borrower actions requiring RHS approval. 3550.159 Section 3550.159 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing §...

  5. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Legislative Affairs Staff. The duties and responsibilities of this staff have now been aligned under the Office of Communication, headed by a director who reports directly to the Under Secretary for O&M. The... Waste Management Fund, coordinating the Debarment and Suspension process for RHS, tracking the use...

  6. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Legislative Affairs Staff. The duties and responsibilities of this staff have now been aligned under the Office of Communication, headed by a director who reports directly to the Under Secretary for O&M. The... Waste Management Fund, coordinating the Debarment and Suspension process for RHS, tracking the use...

  7. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Legislative Affairs Staff. The duties and responsibilities of this staff have now been aligned under the Office of Communication, headed by a director who reports directly to the Under Secretary for O&M. The... Waste Management Fund, coordinating the Debarment and Suspension process for RHS, tracking the use...

  8. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Legislative Affairs Staff. The duties and responsibilities of this staff have now been aligned under the Office of Communication, headed by a director who reports directly to the Under Secretary for O&M. The... Waste Management Fund, coordinating the Debarment and Suspension process for RHS, tracking the use...

  9. 7 CFR 2003.18 - Functional organization of RHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Legislative Affairs Staff. The duties and responsibilities of this staff have now been aligned under the Office of Communication, headed by a director who reports directly to the Under Secretary for O&M. The... Waste Management Fund, coordinating the Debarment and Suspension process for RHS, tracking the use...

  10. Computerization of Mental Health Integration complexity scores at Intermountain Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Oniki, Thomas A; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P; Wilcox, Adam B; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare's Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient's mental health complexity as "mild," "medium," or "high" based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer's conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34).

  11. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  12. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  13. PAAR-Rhs proteins harbor various C-terminal toxins to diversify the antibacterial pathways of type VI secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiale; Sun, Min; Dong, Wenyang; Pan, Zihao; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2017-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) of bacteria plays a key role in competing for specific niches by the contact-dependent killing of competitors. Recently, Rhs proteins with polymorphic C-terminal toxin-domains that inhibit or kill neighboring cells were identified. In this report, we identified a novel Rhs with an MPTase4 (Metallopeptidase-4) domain (designated as Rhs-CT1) that showed an antibacterial effect via T6SS in Escherichia coli. We managed to develop a specific strategy by matching the diagnostic domain-architecture of Rhs-CT1 (Rhs with an N-terminal PAAR-motif and a C-terminal toxin domain) for effector retrieval and discovered a series of Rhs-CTs in E. coli. Indeed, the screened Rhs-CT3 with a REase-3 (Restriction endonuclease-3) domain also mediated interbacterial antagonism. Further analysis revealed that vgrGO1 and eagR/DUF1795 (upstream of rhs-ct) were required for the delivery of Rhs-CTs, suggesting eagR as a potential T6SS chaperone. In addition to chaperoned Rhs-CTs, neighborless Rhs-CTs could be classified into a distinct family (Rhs-Nb) sharing close evolutionary relationship with T6SS2-Rhs (encoded in the T6SS2 cluster of E. coli). Notably, the Rhs-Nb-CT5 was confirmed bioinformatically and experimentally to mediate interbacterial antagonism via Hcp2B-VgrG2 module. In a further retrieval analysis, we discovered various toxin/immunity pairs in extensive bacterial species that could be systematically classified into eight referential clans, suggesting that Rhs-CTs greatly diversify the antibacterial pathways of T6SS.

  14. Chronic mountain sickness score was related with health status score but not with hemoglobin levels at high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or lack of adaptation to live in high altitudes is related to environmental hypoxia and excessive erythrocytosis (EE) (Hemoglobin>21 and >19g/dl for men and women, respectively). Diagnosis of CMS (“Qinghai CMS Score”) is based on seven signs/symptoms (breathlessness and/or palpitations, sleep disturbance, cyanosis, dilatation of veins, paresthesia, headache, tinnitus) and the score for EE. The present study was designed to determine the association between hemoglobin, Qinghai CMS score, CMS clinical score (7 signs/symptoms) and Health Status using a health survey composed of 20 items. The rate of CMS (32.6%) was higher than the rate of EE (9.7%; P<0.002). A significant inverse relationship was observed between CMS clinical score and health status score (r=−0.56 for men, and r=−0.55 for women, P<0.01). However, CMS clinical score was not different in groups with different Hb levels. Health status score was significantly higher in subjects without CMS. In conclusion, elevated hemoglobin levels were not associated with elevated CMS clinical score. PMID:23770310

  15. Identification of Functional Toxin/Immunity Genes Linked to Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) and Rearrangement Hotspot (Rhs) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Stephen J.; Diner, Elie J.; Aoki, Stephanie K.; Braaten, Bruce A.; t'Kint de Roodenbeke, Claire; Low, David A.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is mediated by the CdiA/CdiB family of two-partner secretion proteins. Each CdiA protein exhibits a distinct growth inhibition activity, which resides in the polymorphic C-terminal region (CdiA-CT). CDI+ cells also express unique CdiI immunity proteins that specifically block the activity of cognate CdiA-CT, thereby protecting the cell from autoinhibition. Here we show that many CDI systems contain multiple cdiA gene fragments that encode CdiA-CT sequences. These “orphan” cdiA-CT genes are almost always associated with downstream cdiI genes to form cdiA-CT/cdiI modules. Comparative genome analyses suggest that cdiA-CT/cdiI modules are mobile and exchanged between the CDI systems of different bacteria. In many instances, orphan cdiA-CT/cdiI modules are fused to full-length cdiA genes in other bacterial species. Examination of cdiA-CT/cdiI modules from Escherichia coli EC93, E. coli EC869, and Dickeya dadantii 3937 confirmed that these genes encode functional toxin/immunity pairs. Moreover, the orphan module from EC93 was functional in cell-mediated CDI when fused to the N-terminal portion of the EC93 CdiA protein. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the genetic organization of CDI systems shares features with rhs (rearrangement hotspot) loci. Rhs proteins also contain polymorphic C-terminal regions (Rhs-CTs), some of which share significant sequence identity with CdiA-CTs. All rhs genes are followed by small ORFs representing possible rhsI immunity genes, and several Rhs systems encode orphan rhs-CT/rhsI modules. Analysis of rhs-CT/rhsI modules from D. dadantii 3937 demonstrated that Rhs-CTs have growth inhibitory activity, which is specifically blocked by cognate RhsI immunity proteins. Together, these results suggest that Rhs plays a role in intercellular competition and that orphan gene modules expand the diversity of toxic activities deployed by both CDI and Rhs systems. PMID:21829394

  16. Technical Evaluation of the RHS 200 for High Speed Ferry Applications and Coast Guard Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    GUARD THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE ,, FERRY SERVICE SERVICE , SPRIN(;IELD. VIRGINIA 22161 RHS 200 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION S~tiett 14 .1 . s...TOE FERRY SERVICE EVALUATION INCLUDED SHIP COMPLIANCE WITH USCG APPLICABLE REQUIREMENIS AND OPERATIONAL AND ARRANGEMENT INFORMATION PERTINENT TO FERkY...Maintenpnce Cost fttimat.e ............................. o. 165 2q - Niqhliqhts of Passenqer Service Reliability, Maintainahility avid Availabiltity Per

  17. How Criterion Scores Predict the Overall Impact Score and Funding Outcomes for National Institutes of Health Peer-Reviewed Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eblen, Matthew K.; Wagner, Robin M.; RoyChowdhury, Deepshikha; Patel, Katherine C.; Pearson, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with successful funding outcomes of research project grant (R01) applications is critical for the biomedical research community. R01 applications are evaluated through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) peer review system, where peer reviewers are asked to evaluate and assign scores to five research criteria when assessing an application’s scientific and technical merit. This study examined the relationship of the five research criterion scores to the Overall Impact score and the likelihood of being funded for over 123,700 competing R01 applications for fiscal years 2010 through 2013. The relationships of other application and applicant characteristics, including demographics, to scoring and funding outcomes were studied as well. The analyses showed that the Approach and, to a lesser extent, the Significance criterion scores were the main predictors of an R01 application’s Overall Impact score and its likelihood of being funded. Applicants might consider these findings when submitting future R01 applications to NIH. PMID:27249058

  18. RHS6-mediated chromosomal looping and nuclear substructure binding is required for Th2 cytokine gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soo Seok; Jang, Sung Woong; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2017-03-01

    Subset-specific gene expression is a critical feature of CD4 T cell differentiation. Th2 cells express Th2 cytokine genes including Il4, Il5, and Il13 and mediate the immune response against helminths. The expression of Th2 cytokine genes is regulated by Rad50 hypersensitive site 6 (RHS6) in the Th2 locus control region; however, the molecular mechanisms of RHS6 action at the chromatin level are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that RHS6 is crucial for chromosomal interactions and nuclear substructure binding of the Th2 cytokine locus. RHS6-deficient cells had a marked reduction in chromatin remodeling and in intrachromosomal interactions at the Th2 locus. Deficiency of RHS6-binding transcription factors GATA3, SATB1, and IRF4 also caused a great reduction in chromatin remodeling and long-range chromosomal interactions involving the Th2 locus. RHS6 deficiency abrogated association of the Th2 locus with the nuclear substructure and RNA polymerase II. Therefore, RHS6 serves as a crucial cis-acting hub for coordinate regulation of Th2 cytokine genes by forming chromosomal loops and binding to a nuclear substructure.

  19. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed.

  20. Child and Mother Client Satisfaction Questionnaire Scores regarding Mental Health Services: Race, Age, and Gender Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr; Koeske, Gary; Greeno, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) to examine the level of consumer satisfaction with children's (ages 8 to 17 years) outpatient mental health services. Analyses were completed using both individual satisfaction items and a summed scale score. The CSQ scale had satisfactory internal consistency reliability for both…

  1. 7 CFR 1822.278 - Special requirements for RHS section 523 loans (loans to organizations providing sites for self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to organizations providing sites for self-help housing). 1822.278 Section 1822.278 Agriculture... organizations providing sites for self-help housing). Loans to organizations which will provide sites for self-help housing (RHS sec. 523 loans) will be made under the provisions of this subpart with the...

  2. Assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of the Leg Score: a Dutch Claw Health Scoring System for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Holzhauer, M; Middelesch, H; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K; Verhoeff, J; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    The optimal moment for trimming the claws of all dairy cows in a herd was investigated by assessing the external rotation of the hind claws of individual cows relative to the spinal column. This leg score consisted of three independent descriptors: 1 (good/normal), 2 (moderately deviant), and 3 (severely deviant). This study assessed the repeatability and the reproducibility of the leg score system, and the consistency of the advice given subsequently about trimming of the hind claws of all cows in the herd. Repeatability was assessed for 52 cows that were scored twice on the same day by 11 observers; the kappa value ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 (mean: 0.36). The probability of the same result for both assessments ranged from 0.49 to 0.80 (mean: 0.61). Claw trimming was advised if at least 20% of the cows had a leg score of 3. On the basis of the scores, 3 observers consistently advised trimming of the hind claws of all the cows in the herd, and 6 observers consistently advised against the need for trimming in the short term; 2 observers had an inconsistent advice. The reproducibility of the scoring system was assessed in two dairy herds (62 and 50 cows). Eight observers evaluated the leg score of the cows of both herds on the same day. The mean kappa value of the leg score for all pairs of different observers (A-B, A-C etcetera) was 0.24 [-0.08-0.49]. In conclusion, the leg score is not a reliable method for determining the optimal moment for claw trimming in dairy cattle. The reasons for the inconsistent observations require further investigation.

  3. Identifying the spatial scale of land use that most strongly influences overall river ecosystem health score.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Fran; Peterson, Erin E; Boone, Ed L; Sippel, Suzanne; Bunn, Stuart E; Harch, Bronwyn D

    2012-12-01

    Catchment and riparian degradation has resulted in declining ecosystem health of streams worldwide. With restoration a priority in many regions, there is an increasing interest in the scale at which land use influences stream ecosystem health. Our goal was to use a substantial data set collected as part of a monitoring program (the Southeast Queensland, Australia, Ecological Health Monitoring Program data set, collected at 116 sites over six years) to identify the spatial scale of land use, or the combination of spatial scales, that most strongly influences overall ecosystem health. In addition, we aimed to determine whether the most influential scale differed for different aspects of ecosystem health. We used linear-mixed models and a Bayesian model-averaging approach to generate models for the overall aggregated ecosystem health score and for each of the five component indicators (fish, macroinvertebrates, water quality, nutrients, and ecosystem processes) that make up the score. Dense forest close to the survey site, mid-dense forest in the hydrologically active near-stream areas of the catchment, urbanization in the riparian buffer, and tree cover at the reach scale were all significant in explaining ecosystem health, suggesting an overriding influence of forest cover, particularly close to the stream. Season and antecedent rainfall were also important explanatory variables, with some land-use variables showing significant seasonal interactions. There were also differential influences of land use for each of the component indicators. Our approach is useful given that restoring general ecosystem health is the focus of many stream restoration projects; it allowed us to predict the scale and catchment position of restoration that would result in the greatest improvement of ecosystem health in the regions streams and rivers. The models we generated suggested that good ecosystem health can be maintained in catchments where 80% of hydrologically active areas in close

  4. Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme in the context of the health MDGs: an empirical evaluation using propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Joseph; Oppong, Joseph R; Schmidt, Christoph M

    2010-09-01

    In 2003 the Government of Ghana established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to improve health-care access for Ghanaians and eventually replace the cash-and-carry system. This study evaluates an important aspect of its promise in the context of the Millennium Development Goals #4 and #5 which deal with the health of women and children. We use Propensity Score Matching techniques to balance the relevant background characteristics in our survey data and compare health indicators of recent mothers who are enrolled in the NHIS with those who are not. Our findings suggest that NHIS women are more likely to receive prenatal care, deliver at a hospital, have their deliveries attended by trained health professionals, and experience less birth complications. We conclude that NHIS is an effective tool for improving health outcomes among those who are covered, which should encourage the Ghanaian government to promote further enrollment, in particular among the poor.

  5. Mental Health Screening Among Newly-Arrived Refugees Seeking Routine Obstetric and Gynecologic Care

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E.; Allen, Jennifer; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne F.; Ramirez, Glenda; Hollifield, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are the most common mental health disorders in the refugee population. High rates of violence, trauma, and PTSD among refugee women remain unaddressed. The process of implementing a mental health screening tool among multi-ethnic, newly-arrived refugee women receiving routine obstetric and gynecologic care in a dedicated refugee women’s health clinic is described. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) is a culturally-responsive, efficient, validated screening instrument that detects symptoms of emotional distress across diverse refugee populations and languages. An interdisciplinary community partnership was established with a local behavioral health services agency to facilitate the referral of women scoring positive on the RHS-15. Staff and provider training sessions, as well as the incorporation of bi-cultural, multi-lingual Cultural Health Navigators, greatly facilitated linguistically-appropriate care coordination for refugee women in a culturally sensitive manner. Twenty-six (23.2%) of the 112 women who completed the RHS-15 scored positive; of which 14 (53.8%) were Iraqi, one (3.8%) was Burmese, and three (11.5%) were Somali. Among these 26 women, eight (30.8%) are actively receiving mental health services, and five (19.2%) have appointments scheduled. However 13 (50%) are not enrolled in mental health care due to either declining services (46.2%), or a lack of insurance (53.8%). Screening for mental disorders among refugee women will promote greater awareness and identify those individuals who would benefit from further mental health evaluation and treatment. Sustainable interdisciplinary models of care are necessary to promote health education, dispel myths and reduce the stigma of mental health. PMID:25383999

  6. Mental health screening among newly arrived refugees seeking routine obstetric and gynecologic care.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E; Allen, Jennifer; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne F; Ramirez, Glenda; Hollifield, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are common mental health disorders in the refugee population. High rates of violence, trauma, and PTSD among refugee women remain unaddressed. The process of implementing a mental health screening tool among multiethnic, newly arrived refugee women receiving routine obstetric and gynecologic care in a dedicated refugee women's health clinic is described. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) is a culturally responsive, efficient, validated screening instrument that detects symptoms of emotional distress across diverse refugee populations and languages. An interdisciplinary community partnership was established with a local behavioral health services agency to facilitate the referral of women scoring positive on the RHS-15. Staff and provider training sessions, as well as the incorporation of bicultural, multilingual cultural health navigators, greatly facilitated linguistically appropriate care coordination for refugee women in a culturally sensitive manner. Twenty-six (23.2%) of the 112 women who completed the RHS-15 scored positive, of which 14 (53.8%) were Iraqi, 1 (3.8%) was Burmese, and 3 (11.5%) were Somali. Among these 26 women, 8 (30.8%) are actively receiving mental health services and 5 (19.2%) have appointments scheduled. However, 13 (50%) are not enrolled in mental health care because of either declining services (46.2%) or a lack of insurance (53.8%). Screening for mental disorders among refugee women will promote greater awareness and identify those individuals who would benefit from further mental health evaluation and treatment. Sustainable interdisciplinary models of care are necessary to promote health education, dispel myths, and reduce the stigma of mental health.

  7. Electronic health records in rheumatology: emphasis on automated scoring and additional use.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jutta G; Chehab, Gamal; Schneider, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records are increasingly used and frequently required from various regulatory authorities. Apart from their day-to-day use by health care professionals for routine clinical practice and/or the improvement of quality of care processes, patients with chronic inflammatory disease may become increasingly involved in the data retrieval process by self-monitoring and providing patient-reported (outcome) data. Among key features of electronic health records are automated scoring, visualisation of validated measures, and long-term systematic patient-centered data collection in a structured and standardised manner. Data derived from electronic health records are increasingly incorporated into patient-centered research, registries, and other secondary uses. Thus, electronic health records offer opportunities to improve knowledge and to create new process flows in rheumatology health care. The article summarises some of these opportunities in patient care, as well as an overview of secondary use scenarios. In addition, the article focuses on patients' active involvement in the disease management process via health information applications, reports on patients' perspectives, as well as some legal and regulatory matters concerning electronic health records.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP

    PubMed Central

    Cubeta, Marc A.; Dean, Ralph A.; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M.; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B.; Pakala, Suchitra M.; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  9. Health Behaviors and Standardized Test Scores: The Impact of School Health Climate on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Whitney D.; Daly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Research has found that many characteristics are related to performance on standardized tests. Many of these are not necessarily "academic" attributes. One area of this research is on the connection between physical health or lifestyles and test performance. The research that exists in this area is often disconnected with each other and…

  10. Life Orientation Test- Revised (LOT-R) Versus Academic Score in Various First Year Health Professional Students

    PubMed Central

    Vedi, Neeraj; Gandotra, Achleshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student. Aim To find an association of LOT-R with the academic score of health professional students and assess gender variation. Materials and Methods A total of 350 students enrolled for academic year 2015-16 in health professional program of medicine, dental and physiotherapy institutes of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University were considered. Non-randomized and purposive study was done by providing LOT-R questionnaire to students. Average academic score of Anatomy and Physiology course was used for analysis excluding the biochemistry due to non-availability of tangible data at the time of study. Data was collected, analysed statistically using independent t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc and correlation analysis. Result Statistical significant for one-way ANOVA was assessed for academic score between the group of health professional students. While no statistical correlation of significance was observed for LOT-R score with that of academic score. As per gender distribution there was no statistical significant observation for LOT-R score within the groups. Conclusion The present study highlighted the need of student’s counseling for their approach towards health education; as their career. Psychological self-reliance and optimism improves the academic score. A study needs to be compared with the socio-economic status of the student to have a better understanding of the LOT-R. PMID:27891334

  11. Observation of Chlorine and other RHS Species in the Marine Boundary Layer at Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Tschritter, Jens; Lampel, Johannes; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS) have a significant influence on the marine atmosphere as they react with ozone, change the oxidation capacity and may form particles. However, their release processes, the emissions and concentrations of different RHS species are mostly uncertain. Only a few measurements exist and results are sometimes very different. Most studies focused on iodine and bromine species. Chlorine was mostly not investigated as it is typically more difficult to measure and it was expected that it has a smaller impact on the marine atmosphere and thus less significant. Recent model studies show that this assumption is probably not correct and more information of chlorine is needed to understand the processes in the marine atmosphere. We present results from measurements at the Cape Verde atmospheric research station (CVAO) during the HALOCAVE campaign in 2010 (June to October) using the LP-DOAS technique. Simultaneous measurements of a series of trace gases ranging from RHS like BrO, IO, ClO, OClO and other species like NO2, O3, CHOCHO, HCHO, SO2, HONO, NO3 have been performed along different measurement paths. In contrast to previous observations we could not observe IO above the detection limit of 0.5ppt. Also simultaneous CE-DOAS measurements could not observe IO above the detection limit of 1.0ppt. Profile retrievals of IO MAX-DOAS measurements show a concentration between 0.2 to 0.5ppt and thus in agreement with our LP-DOAS observations but not with previous findings. For BrO we found with the LP-DOAS concentrations up to 5ppt, a characteristic daily cycle with high variability from day to day indicating various metrological parameters to be significant for the bromine emission. ClO could not be observed above the relative high detection limit of approx. 25ppt. However, we found significant OClO concentrations in the night of up to 8ppt, which is most likely formed from ClO. This indicates significant chlorine concentrations in the marine atmosphere

  12. Mobile Health Applications, in the Absence of an Authentic Regulation, Does the Usability Score Correlate with a Better Medical Reliability?

    PubMed

    Yasini, Mobin; Marchand, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Health-related mobile applications (apps) have been shown to improve the quality of health and patient care. Their use in clinical and health-related environments is becoming more considerable. The number of health-related apps available for download has considerably increased, while the regulatory position of this new industry is not well known. Despite this lack of regulation, measuring the usability score of these apps is not difficult. We compared two samples of twenty health-related applications each. One of the samples contained the apps with top-rated usability scores, and the other contained the apps with lowest-rated usability scores. We found that a good usability score correlates with a better medical reliability of the app's content (p<0.005). In the period in which a valid regulation is still lacking, calculation and attribution of usability scores to mobile applications could be used to identify apps with better medical quality. However, the usability score method ought to be rigorous and should not be rounded off with a simple five stars rating (as is the case in the classic app stores).

  13. Clinical scoring systems in predicting health-related quality of life of children with injuries.

    PubMed

    Mestrović, Julije; Mestrović, Marija; Polić, Branka; Markić, Josko; Kardum, Goran; Gunjaca, Grgo; Matas, Anita; Catipović, Tatjana; Radonić, Marija

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), and the long-term outcome of children with injuries. The health related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed by using the Royal Alexandra Hospital for children Measure of Function (RAHC MOF), 12 months post discharge. Out of 118 children with injuries (9% of all patients), 75 had injury of the head as the leading injury. There were no significant differences at admission in the severity of clinical condition, as expressed by PIM2 and ISS, between patients with head injuries and patients with other injured leading body regions. Children with head injuries had significantly worse HRQOL than children with other leading injured body region (p < 0.045), and children from road traffic accidents had significantly worse HRQL (p = 0.004), compared to other mechanisms of injury. HRQL correlated significantly with GCS (p = 0.027), but not with ISS and PIM2. As the conclusion, among all scoring systems applied, only GCS, which demonstrates severity of head injury, showed significant impact on long-term outcome of injured children.

  14. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score and its Correlation with Three Surgical Strategies for Management of Ileal Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Mittal, Sushil; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, Jyoti; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ileal perforation peritonitis is a common surgical emergency in the Indian subcontinent and in tropical countries. It is reported to constitute the fifth common cause of abdominal emergencies due to high incidence of enteric fever and tuberculosis in these management based on Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Methods: The following study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Patiala. A total of 57 patients were studied and divided in to Group I, II, and III. APACHE II score accessed and score between 10 and 19 were blindly randomized into three procedures primary closure, resection-anastomosis, and ileostomy. The outcome was compared. Results: Ileal perforations were most commonly observed in the third and fourth decade of life with male dominance. APACHE II score was accessed and out of total 57 patients, 6 patients had APACHE II score of 0–9, 48 patients had APACHE II score of 10–19, and 3 patients had APACHE II score of ≥20. In APACHE II score 10–19, 15 patients underwent primary closure, 16 patients underwent resection-anastomosis, and 17 patients underwent ileostomy. Discussion and Conclusion: Primary closure of perforation is advocated in patients with single, small perforation (<1 cm) with APACHE II score 10–19 irrespective of duration of perforation. Ileostomy is advocated in APACHE II score 10–19, where the terminal ileum is grossly inflamed with multiple perforations, large perforations (>1 cm), fecal peritonitis, matted bowel loops, intraoperative evidence of caseating lymph nodes, strictures, and an unhealthy gut due to edema. PMID:27512550

  15. Calving body condition score affects indicators of health in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Schütz, K E; Matthews, L R; Verkerk, G A; Meier, S; Loor, J J; Rogers, A R; McGowan, J; Morgan, S R; Taukiri, S; Webster, J R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of calving body condition score (BCS) on cow health during the transition period in a pasture-based dairying system. Feed inputs were managed during the second half of the previous lactation so that BCS differed at drying off (BCS 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively: a 10-point scale); feed allowance was managed after cows were dried off, such that the BCS differences established during lactation remained at the subsequent calving (BCS 5.5, 4.5, and 3.5; n=20, 18, and 19, for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively). After calving, cows were allocated pasture and pasture silage to ensure grazing residuals >1,600 kg of DM/ha. Milk production was measured weekly; blood was sampled regularly pre- and postpartum to measure indicators of health, and udder and uterine health were evaluated during the 6 wk after calving. Milk weight, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and fat content increased with calving BCS during the first 6 wk of lactation. The effect of calving BCS on the metabolic profile was nonlinear. Before calving, cows in the low group had lower mean plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and serum Mg concentrations and greater mean serum urea than cows in the medium and high BCS groups, which did not differ from each other. During the 6 wk after calving, cows in the low group had lower serum albumin and fructosamine concentrations than cows in the other 2 treatment groups, whereas cows in the low- and medium-BCS groups had proportionately more polymorphonucleated cells in their uterine secretions at 3 and 5 wk postpartum than high-BCS cows. In comparison, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased linearly in early lactation with calving BCS, consistent with a greater negative energy balance in these cows. Many of the parameters measured did not vary with BCS. The results highlight that calving BCS and, therefore, BCS through early

  16. Comparison of Knowledge Scores of Medical Students in Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Curriculum on Public Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurpinar, Erol; Musal, Berna; Aksakoglu, Gazanfer; Ucku, Reyhan

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to compare the knowledge scores of medical students in Problem-based Learning and traditional curriculum on public health topics. Methods: We planned a cross-sectional study including the fifth and sixth year medical students of Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey. The fifth year students (PBL group, n = 56)…

  17. SF-36 total score as a single measure of health-related quality of life: Scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    According to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire developers, a global measure of health-related quality of life such as the “SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score” cannot be generated from the questionnaire. However, studies keep on reporting such measure. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to describe some characteristics of articles reporting the SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score in the scientific literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was adapted to a scoping review. We performed searches in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, BVS, and Cochrane Library databases for articles using such scores. We found 172 articles published between 1997 and 2015; 110 (64.0%) of them were published from 2010 onwards; 30.0% appeared in journals with Impact Factor 3.00 or greater. Overall, 129 (75.0%) out of the 172 studies did not specify the method for calculating the “SF-36 Total Score”; 13 studies did not specify their methods but referred to the SF-36 developers’ studies or others; and 30 articles used different strategies for calculating such score, the most frequent being arithmetic averaging of the eight SF-36 domains scores. We concluded that the “SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score” has been increasingly reported in the scientific literature. Researchers should be aware of this procedure and of its possible impacts upon human health. PMID:27757230

  18. Using “Big Data” to Capture Overall Health Status: Properties and Predictive Value of a Claims-Based Health Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Cullen, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual’s overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of “big data,” researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such “health risk score,” the DxCG Intelligence tool. Methods We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996–2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score’s association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score’s association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. Results and Conclusions We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers. PMID:25951622

  19. Multifactor Screener in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement: Scoring Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables, using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  20. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Scoring Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  1. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    SciTech Connect

    Goix, Sylvaine; Lévêque, Thibaut; Xiong, Tian-Tian; Schreck, Eva; and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Health literacy is associated with healthy eating index scores and sugar-sweetened beverage intake: findings from the rural lower Mississippi delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for more than a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. This study, evaluates health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores and sugar-sweetened bev...

  3. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  4. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  5. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: assessment of threat scores.

    PubMed

    Goix, Sylvaine; Lévêque, Thibaut; Xiong, Tian-Tian; Schreck, Eva; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Geret, Florence; Uzu, Gaëlle; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO(4), Sb(2)O(3), and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl2~CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO(4)>Sb(2)O(3). Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb(2)O(3) threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management.

  6. Cardiac health for astronauts: coronary calcification scores and CRP as criteria for selection and retention.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Douglas R; Murray, Jocelyn D; Ball, Chad G

    2006-04-01

    Due to the limited treatment and return capabilities of most space vehicles, an in-flight cardiac event could result in significant mission impact or even failure. The current literature supports including electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) and highly selective C-reactive protein (hsCRP) for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic, low-pretest probability cohorts. This paper will examine the issues surrounding adding these tests to astronaut retention and selection algorithms. An evidenced-based literature review was performed and consensus obtained from subject-matter experts to create novel cardiac screening algorithms for astronaut applicants and the current astronaut corps. The main focus of this paper is to derive an evidenced-based approach for improving the diagnosis of significant CAD using EBCT and hsCRP testing. The recommended initial astronaut selection and long-duration mission assignment screening algorithms use EBCT-derived calcium scores and serum hsCRP levels to screen for CAD and predict individual cardiac risk. The current medical evidence is compelling for the international space medicine community to consider: (1) Astronaut candidates with a coronary artery calcium score >0 should be disqualified from initial selection; (2) Astronauts with a coronary artery calcium score >100 should be disqualified from selection for long-duration missions; (3) Elevated hsCRP is a reliable risk factor for helping predict future cardiac events that should warrant primary prevention but not necessarily medical disqualification.

  7. Greater Equality: The Hidden Key to Better Health and Higher Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Richard; Pickett, Kate

    2011-01-01

    There are now many studies of income inequality and health that compare countries, American states, or other large regions, and the majority of these studies show that more egalitarian societies tend to be healthier. Inequality is associated with lower life expectancy, higher rates of infant mortality, shorter height, poor self-reported health,…

  8. Hydroxy tricyclic 1,5-naphthyridinone oxabicyclooctane-linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents-SAR of RHS moiety (Part-3).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Kaelin, David E; Wu, Jin; Miesel, Lynn; Tan, Christopher M; Gill, Charles; Black, Todd; Nargund, Ravi; Meinke, Peter T; Olsen, David B; Lagrutta, Armando; Wei, Changqing; Peng, Xuanjia; Wang, Xiu; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Shibue, Taku; Ohata, Kohei; Takano, Hisashi; Ban, Shizuka; Nishimura, Akinori; Fukuda, Yasumichi

    2015-06-15

    Novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) are a new class of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents targeting bacterial Gyrase A and ParC and have potential utility in combating antibiotic resistance. (R)-Hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridinone left-hand side (LHS) oxabicyclooctane linked pyridoxazinone right-hand side (RHS) containing NBTIs showed a potent Gram-positive antibacterial profile. SAR around the RHS moiety, including substitutions around pyridooxazinone, pyridodioxane, and phenyl propenoids has been described. A fluoro substituted pyridoxazinone showed an MIC against Staphylococcus aureus of 0.5 μg/mL with reduced functional hERG activity (IC50 333 μM) and good in vivo efficacy [ED90 12 mg/kg, intravenous (iv) and 15 mg/kg, oral (p.o.)]. A pyridodioxane-containing NBTI showed a S. aureus MIC of 0.5 μg/mL, significantly improved hERG IC50 764 μM and strong efficacy of 11 mg/kg (iv) and 5 mg/kg (p.o.). A phenyl propenoid series of compounds showed potent antibacterial activity, but also showed potent hERG binding activity. Many of the compounds in the hydroxy-tricyclic series showed strong activity against Acinetobacter baumannii, but reduced activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bicyclic heterocycles appeared to be the best RHS moiety for the hydroxy-tricyclic oxabicyclooctane linked NBTIs.

  9. Combining propensity score-based stratification and weighting to improve causal inference in the evaluation of health care interventions.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    When a randomized controlled trial is not feasible, a key strategy in observational studies is to ensure that intervention and control groups are comparable on observed characteristics and assume that the remaining unmeasured characteristics will not bias the results. In the past few years, propensity score-based techniques such as matching, stratification and weighting have become increasingly popular for evaluating health care interventions. Recently, marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMWS) has been introduced as a flexible pre-processing approach that combines the salient features of propensity score stratification and weighting to remove imbalances of pre-intervention characteristics between two or more groups under study. The weight is then used within the appropriate outcome model to provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects. In this paper, the MMWS technique is introduced by illustrating its implementation in three typical experimental conditions: a binary treatment (treatment versus control), an ordinal level treatment (varying doses) and nominal treatments (multiple independent arms). These methods are demonstrated in the context of health care evaluations by examining the pre-post difference in hospitalizations following the implementation of a disease management program for patients with congestive heart failure. Because of the flexibility and wide application of MMWS, it should be considered as an alternative procedure for use with observational data to evaluate the effectiveness of health care interventions.

  10. Priority-Setting for Children’s Mental Health: Clinical Usefulness and Validity of the Priority Criteria Score

    PubMed Central

    Cawthorpe, David; Wilkes, T. Chris R.; Rahman, Abdul; Smith, Derryck H.; Conner-Spady, Barbara; McGurran, John J.; Noseworthy, Tom W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The 17-item PCS was designed for priority-setting and queue management of children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Here we assess aspects of the validity of the Children’s Mental Health (CMH) Priority Criteria Score (PCS), developed by the Western Canada Waiting List Project (WCWL). The PCS was evaluated across clinical settings of increasing acuity and in terms of its relationship to two variables reflecting criteria-related validity and actual wait times. Method Intake workers completed PCS forms for 497 referrals enrolled for treatment in three clinical areas over approximately two fiscal years. The completion time of the PCS form was estimated in relation to the total referral and screening process. Intake workers completed the PCS items and did not use the total score at the time of intake and form completion to triage or place clients; hence, the PCS was independent of enrollment and placement within the continuum of care. Furthermore, clinicians in the receiving programs had to accept the triage decisions for the PCS to be used in the study analysis. Results The PCS score was meaningfully related to the measures of criteria-related validity (e.g., clinician perceived urgency, clinician perceived maximum acceptable waiting times) and triage to clinical settings of increasing acuity. There was a significant mean difference in the PCS for those accepted to community, day, or inpatient settings. Conclusions The PCS appears to be a useful, efficient measure of clinical urgency adequate for use in priority-setting for children waiting for mental health services. PMID:18392175

  11. The impact of subsidized health insurance for the poor: evaluating the Colombian experience using propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Portillo, Jorge E; Vernon, John A

    2005-09-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of Colombia's subsidized health insurance program (SUBS) on medical care utilization. Colombia's SUBS program is a demand-side subsidy intended for low-income families, where the screening of beneficiaries takes place in decentralized locations across the country. Due to the self-selection problems associated with non-experimental data, we implement Propensity Score Matching (PSM) methods to measure the impact of this subsidy on medical care utilization. By combining unique household survey data with community and regional data, we are able to compute propensity scores in a way that is consistent with both the local government's decision to offer the subsidy, and with the individual's decision to accept the subsidy. Although the application of PSM using these rich datasets helps to achieve a balance between the treatment and control groups along observable dimensions, we also present instrumental variable estimates to control for the potential endogeneity of program participation. Using both methods, we find that Colombia's subsidized insurance program greatly increased medical care utilization among the country's poor and uninsured. This evidence supports the case for other Latin American countries implementing similar subsidy programs for health insurance for the poor.

  12. Impact of dental neglect score on oral health among patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Chandra, Subhash; Dilip Kumar, H. P.; Gupta, Ashish; Bhandari, Poonam Preet; Rathod, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance of meticulous oral health practices is critical for patients who are under orthodontic treatment as failure to do so can result in deterioration of periodontal health. Thus, the present study was commenced to assess dental negligence and oral health status among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using dental neglect scale (DNS) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was planned and carried out among the 40 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The study comprised of two questionnaires, one was close-ended questionnaire which consisted of questions regarding patient practice in maintenance of oral health and other questionnaire comprised of DNS followed by examination of oral hygiene status using Oral Hygiene Index Simplified. Data so obtained were subjected to analysis using SPSS version 20 and Chi-square test was used to statistically analyze data with P < 0.05 regarded as a statistically significant value. Results: The present study revealed that 63% among the studied orthodontic patients brushed once daily, 26% brushed twice daily, and 11% brushed thrice. About one-fourth was using brush with soft bristles and only 9% among the respondents used interdental aids. Data revealed positive correlation between DNS and oral hygiene index-simplified score with P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study found that less frequency of brushing, rinsing mouth, and eating sticky and hard food can be attributed to self-neglect of the orthodontic patients. PMID:27114950

  13. 'The Healthy Migrant Effect' for Mental Health in England: Propensity-score Matched Analysis Using the EMPIRIC Survey.

    PubMed

    Dhadda, Amrit; Greene, Giles

    2017-04-07

    Evidence has demonstrated that immigrants have a mental health advantage over the indigenous population of developed countries. However, much of the evidence-base demonstrating this mental health advantage is susceptible to confounding and inadequate adjustment across immigrant and non-immigrant groups preventing a rigorous assessment of a 'healthy migrant effect'. To compare the risk of common mental disorders in the immigrant population compared to the non-immigrant population in ethnic minority groups in England. A propensity-score matched analysis was carried out to adequately balance immigrant and non-immigrant groups for known confounders using the EMPIRIC national survey of Black-Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups. The mental health of participants was assessed using the validated Revised Clinical Interview Schedule tool. Immigrant participants were significantly less likely to have a common mental disorder than non-immigrant participants; OR = 0.47, (95% CI 0.40, 0.56). The results from this study demonstrate that a mental health advantage exists in ethnic minority immigrants compared to non-immigrants when balancing the two groups for confounding factors. This may be due to immigrants possessing certain personality traits, such as "psychological hardiness", that the migration process may select for.

  14. Population-Based Questionnaire Survey on Health Effects of Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around U.S. Airfields in the RYUKYUS—PART II: AN Analysis of the Discriminant Score and the Factor Score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HIRAMATSU, K.; MATSUI, T.; MIYAKITA, T.; ITO, A.; TOKUYAMA, T.; OSADA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, T.

    2002-02-01

    Discriminant function values of psychosomatics and neurosis are calculated using the 12 scale scores of the Todai Health Index, a general health questionnaire, obtained in the survey done around the Kadena and Futenma U.S. airfields in Okinawa, Japan. The total number of answers available for the analysis is 6301. Factor analysis is applied to the 12 scale scores by means of the principal factor method, and Oblimin rotation is done because the factors extracted are considered likely to correlate with each other to a greater or lesser extent. The logistic regression analysis is made with the independent variables of discriminant function (DF) values and factor scores and with the dependent variables of Ldn, age (six levels), sex, occupation (four categories) and the interaction of age and sex. Results indicate that the odds ratio of the DF values regarding psychosomatic disorder and of the score of somatic factor have clear dose-response relationship. The odds ratios of the DF value of neurosis and of the score of the mental factor increase in the area where noise exposure is very intense.

  15. Effects of Repeated Anesthesia Containing Urethane on Tumor Formation and Health Scores in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Tonia S; Boyd, Kelli; Apple, Troy; Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Vail, Krystal; Wallace, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Repeated injection of urethane (ethyl carbamate) is carcinogenic in susceptible strains of mice. Most recent cancer studies involving urethane-induced tumor formation use p53+/– mice, which lack one copy of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, the same protocol elicits at most a single tumor in wildtype C57BL/6 mice. The effect of repeatedly injecting urethane as a component of a ketamine–xylazine anesthetic mixture in the highly prevalent mouse strain C57BL/6 is unknown. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 30; age, 3 mo) were anesthetized once monthly for 4 mo by using 560 mg/kg urethane, 28 mg/kg ketamine, and 5.6 mg/kg xylazine. The physical health of the mice was evaluated according to 2 published scoring systems. The average body condition score (scale, 1 to 5; normal, 3) was 3.3, 3.3, and 3.4 after the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th injections, respectively. The visual assessment score was 0 (that is, normal) at all time points examined. Within 1 wk after the 4th injection, the mice were euthanized, necropsied, and evaluated histopathologically. No histopathologic findings were noteworthy. We conclude that repeated monthly injection with urethane as a component of an anesthetic cocktail does not cause clinically detectable abnormalities or induce neoplasia in C57BL/6J mice. These findings are important because urethane combined with low-dose ketamine, unlike other anesthetic regimens, allows for accurate recording of neuronal activity in both the brain and retina. Longitudinal neuronal recordings minimize the number of mice needed and improve the analysis of disease progression and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:27177562

  16. Relationship between cardiovascular health score and year-to-year blood pressure variability in China: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    An, Shasha; Bao, Minghui; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhifang; Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Shuohua; Li, Junjuan; Yang, Xinchun; Wu, Shouling; Cai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives On the basis of cardiovascular health factors and behaviours, the American Heart Association proposed the Cardiovascular Health Score (CHS). It has been widely used to estimate the cardiovascular health status of individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CHS and year-to-year blood pressure variability (BPV). Design Prospective cohort study. Settings We stratified participants into two groups by gender: first group, female group; second group, male group. The relationship between CHS and year-to-year blood pressure variability were analysed. Participants A total of 41 613 individuals met the inclusion criteria (no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack, myocardial infarction, malignant tumour or atrial fibrillation) and had complete blood pressure data. Results The coefficient of the variation of systolic blood pressure (SCV) was 8.33% in the total population and 8.68% and 8.22% in female and male groups, respectively (p<0.05). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that higher CHS was inversely associated with increasing year-to-year BPV, which persisted after adjusting for baseline systolic blood pressure and other risk factors. Each SD increase in CHS could lead to a 0.016SD decrease in SCV (p<0.05). Conclusions In summary, CHS was inversely related to year-to-year BPV, which suggested that a healthy lifestyle may contribute to better blood pressure management. PMID:26503389

  17. Apgar Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... because she is blue and not pink. Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. Because their ... between 8 and 10. A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than ... low scores than infants with normal births. These scores may reflect difficulties ...

  18. XadM, a novel adhesin of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, exhibits similarity to Rhs family proteins and is required for optimum attachment, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Binod B; Ranjan, Manish; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2012-09-01

    By screening a transposon-induced mutant library of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, we have identified a novel 5.241-kb open reading frame (ORF) named xadM that is required for optimum virulence and colonization. This ORF encodes a protein, XadM, of 1,746 amino acids that exhibits significant similarity to Rhs family proteins. The XadM protein contains several repeat domains similar to a wall-associated surface protein of Bacillus subtilis, which has been proposed to be involved in carbohydrate binding. The role of XadM in X. oryzae pv. oryzae adhesion was demonstrated by the impaired ability of an xadM mutant strain to attach and form biofilms. Furthermore, we show that XadM is exposed on the cell surface and its expression is regulated by growth conditions and plays an important role in the early attachment and entry inside rice leaves. Interestingly, XadM homologs are present in several diverse bacteria, including many Xanthomonas spp. and animal-pathogenic bacteria belonging to Burkholderia spp. This is the first report of a role for XadM, an Rhs family protein, in adhesion and virulence of any pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  20. Joint health scores in a haemophilia A cohort from Pakistan with minimal or no access to factor VIII concentrate: correlation with thrombin generation and underlying mutation.

    PubMed

    Khanum, F; Bowen, D J; Kerr, B C; Collins, P W

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilia A is associated with recurrent joint bleeding which leads to synovitis and debilitating arthropathy. Coagulation factor VIII level is an important determinant of bleed number and development of arthropathy . The aim of this study was to compare the haemophilia joint health score (HJHS) and Gilbert score with severity, age, thrombin generation (TG) and underlying mutation in a haemophilia A cohort which had minimal access to haemostatic replacement therapy. Ninety-two haemophilia A individuals were recruited from Pakistan. Age, age at first bleed, target joints, haemophilic arthropathy joints, HJHS and Gilbert score were recorded. A strong correlation was found between HJHS and Gilbert score (r = 0.98), both were significantly higher in severe (n = 59) compared with non-severe (n = 29) individuals before the age of 12 years (P ≤ 0.01) but not thereafter. When individuals were divided according to developmental age (<12 years, 12-16 years and >16 years), both HJHS and Gilbert score were significantly lower in the youngest group (P ≤ 0.001), there was no difference between 12-16 years and >16 years. In severe individuals there was no correlation between in vitro TG and joint score, whereas in non-severe individuals there was a weak negative correlation. In the severe group, no significant difference was observed for either joint score according to the underlying mutation type (inversion, missense, nonsense, frameshift). In this cohort of haemophilia A individuals with minimal access to haemostatic treatment, haemophilic arthropathy correlated with severity and age; among severe individuals, joint health scores did not relate to either the underlying mutation or in vitro TG.

  1. Health-related quality of life and affective status in liver transplant recipients and patients on the waiting list with low MELD scores

    PubMed Central

    Benzing, Christian; Krezdorn, Nicco; Förster, Julia; Hinz, Andreas; Krenzien, Felix; Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background This study seeks to examine the impact of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and mental health in patients with different MELD scores. Methods Patients who has undergone orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) or were on the waiting list for OLT were submitted to HRQoL and depression/anxiety assessment by questionnaire: Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ-M), Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). Data were analysed following division of patients into three groups: pretransplant patients with a MELD score <10, ≥10, and OLT recipients. Results The surveys were sent to 940 consecutive patients within one week in June 2013. Of these 940 patients, 869 (92.4%) met the inclusion criteria. In total, 291 (33.5%) eligible questionnaires (OLT group: 235, MELD <10: 25; MELD _10: 31) were suitable for analysis. General health (GH), vitality (VIT), and mental health (MH) were lower in both pretransplant groups compared to the OLT group (all p < 0.05). Anxiety and depression were higher in the MELD <10 group than in the OLT group (anxiety: p < 0.05; depression: p < 0.01). Discussion Patients with low MELD scores seem to benefit from OLT with regards to HRQoL and mental health. PMID:27154809

  2. Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Feon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

  3. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  4. Biologic score and mortality based on a 30-year mortality follow-up: radiation effects research foundation adult health study.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Fujita, Shoichiro

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether scored biologic functions can predict individual life expectancies and to investigate the disease-related and time-related differences in evaluated associations. A biologic score was defined as the first principal component score of the five physiological tests. Study participants were 4,871 people aged 35-74 years at baseline examination in 1970-1972 and followed until the end of 1999. We evaluated the prognostic value of the biologic score by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In all age and sex groups, increasing trends of mortality for all diseases by increment of biologic score were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. The validity of the biologic score was significant throughout the entire study period. Each disease except cancer showed a significant association with biologic score at baseline examination. In conclusion, the biologic score is a valid predictor of life span in this large-scale prospective study of middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  5. Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values.

  6. Estimating the effectiveness of health-risk communications with propensity-score matching: application to arsenic groundwater contamination in four US locations.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a demonstration of propensity-score matching estimation methods to evaluate the effectiveness of health-risk communication efforts. This study develops a two-stage regression model to investigate household and respondent characteristics as they contribute to aversion behavior to reduce exposure to arsenic-contaminated groundwater. The aversion activity under study is a household-level point-of-use filtration device. Since the acquisition of arsenic contamination information and the engagement in an aversion activity may be codetermined, a two-stage propensity-score model is developed. In the first stage, the propensity for households to acquire arsenic contamination information is estimated. Then, the propensity scores are used to weight observations in a probit regression on the decision to avert the arsenic-related health risk. Of four potential sources of information, utility, media, friend, or others, information received from a friend appears to be the source of information most associated with aversion behavior. Other statistically significant covariates in the household's decision to avert contamination include reported household income, the presence of children in household, and region-level indicator variables. These findings are primarily illustrative and demonstrate the usefulness of propensity-score methods to estimate health-risk communication effectiveness. They may also be suggestive of areas for future research.

  7. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  8. Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

  9. Achutha Menon Centre Diabetes Risk Score: A Type 2 Diabetes Screening Tool for Primary Health Care Providers in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, P. Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to develop a diabetes risk score for primary care providers in rural India. They used the baseline data of 451 participants (15-64 years) of a cohort study in a rural area of Kerala, India. The new risk score with age, family history of diabetes, and waist circumference identified 40.8% for confirmatory testing, had a sensitivity of 81.0%, specificity of 68.4%, positive predictive value of 37.0%, and negative predictive value of 94.0% for an optimal cutoff ≥4 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.812 (95% confidence interval = 0.765-0.860). The new risk score with 3 simple, easy-to-measure, less time-consuming, and less expensive variables could be suitable for use in primary care settings of rural India. PMID:22865719

  10. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  11. National Institutes of Health chronic graft-versus-host disease staging in severely affected patients: organ and global scoring correlate with established indicators of disease severity and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin; Steinberg, Seth M; Grkovic, Lana; Pulanic, Drazen; Cowen, Edward W; Mitchell, Sandra A; Williams, Kirsten M; Datiles, Manuel B; Bishop, Rachel; Bassim, Carol W; Mays, Jacqueline W; Edwards, Dean; Cole, Kristen; Avila, Daniele N; Taylor, Tiffany; Urban, Amanda; Joe, Galen O; Comis, Leora E; Berger, Ann; Stratton, Pamela; Zhang, Dan; Shelhamer, James H; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C; Sportes, Claude; Fowler, Daniel H; Gress, Ronald E; Pavletic, Steven Z

    2013-04-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, 189 adult patients were enrolled on the National Cancer Institute's cross-sectional chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) natural history study. Patients were evaluated by multiple disease scales and outcome measures, including the 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Project cGVHD severity scores. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the NIH scoring variables as determinants of disease severity in severely affected patients in efforts to standardize clinician evaluation and staging of cGVHD. Out of 189 patients enrolled, 125 met the criteria for severe cGVHD on the NIH global score, 62 of whom had moderate disease, with a median of 4 (range, 1-8) involved organs. Clinician-assigned average NIH organ score and the corresponding organ scores assigned by subspecialists were highly correlated (r = 0.64). NIH global severity scores showed significant associations with nearly all functional and quality of life outcome measures, including the Lee Symptom Scale, Short Form-36 Physical Component Scale, 2-minute walk, grip strength, range of motion, and Human Activity Profile. Joint/fascia, skin, and lung involvement affected function and quality of life most significantly and showed the greatest correlation with outcome measures. The final Cox model with factors jointly predictive for survival included the time from cGVHD diagnosis (>49 versus ≤49 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.23; P = .0011), absolute eosinophil count at the time of NIH evaluation (0-0.5 versus >0.5 cells/μL, HR = 3.95; P = .0006), and NIH lung score (3 versus 0-2, HR = 11.02; P < .0001). These results demonstrate that NIH organs and global severity scores are reliable measures of cGVHD disease burden. The strong association with subspecialist evaluation suggests that NIH organ and global severity scores are appropriate for clinical and research assessments, and may serve as a surrogate for more complex subspecialist examinations. In this

  12. Effectiveness of and Factors Related to Possession of a Mother and Child Health Handbook: An Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Sugishita, Tomohiko; Oruenjo, Kennedy; Wakhule, Stephen; Kibosia, Kennedy; Were, Eric; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mother and Child Health handbooks (MCH handbooks) serve as useful health education tools for mothers and sources of information that allow health care professionals to understand patient status. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of and identify the factors related to possession of an MCH handbook among parents in…

  13. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  14. Pulmonary symptoms measured by the national institutes of health lung score predict overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and patient-reported outcomes in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jeanne; Williams, Kirsten; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Chai, Xiaoyu; Martin, Paul J; Tomas, Linus Santo; Cutler, Corey; Weisdorf, Daniel; Kurland, Brenda F; Carpenter, Paul A; Pidala, Joseph; Pavletic, Steven Z; Wood, William; Jacobsohn, David; Arai, Sally; Arora, Mukta; Jagasia, Madan; Vogelsang, Georgia B; Lee, Stephanie J

    2014-03-01

    The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference recommended assessment of lung function in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by both pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and assessment of pulmonary symptoms. We tested whether pulmonary measures were associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Clinician and patient-reported data were collected serially in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Available PFT data were abstracted. Cox regression models were fit for outcomes using a time-varying covariate model for lung function measures and adjusting for patient and transplantation characteristics and nonlung chronic GVHD severity. A total of 1591 visits (496 patients) were used in this analysis. The NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with NRM (P = .02), OS (P = .02), patient-reported symptoms (P < .001) and functional status (P < .001). Worsening of NIH symptom-based lung score over time was associated with higher NRM and lower survival. All other measures were not associated with OS or NRM; although, some were associated with patient-reported lung symptoms. In conclusion, the NIH symptom-based lung symptom score of 0 to 3 is associated with NRM, OS, and PRO measures in patients with chronic GVHD. Worsening of the NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with increased mortality.

  15. Scoring Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)

  16. Z-score discordance and contributing factors in healthy premenopausal women with low bone mineral density: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyeong Hye; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2016-11-01

    The premenopausal period is important for bone health and prevention of future fractures, but measuring bone mineral density (BMD) at only one site may not be sufficient to determine therapeutic strategies for low BMD in premenopausal women due to the presence of Z-score discordance. In this study, we investigated Z-score discordance in addition to contributing factors of idiopathic low BMD in healthy premenopausal Korean women. We studied 3003 premenopausal women aged 18-50 years, without secondary causes for low BMD and history of fragility fracture, who had participated in the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2009). Low body mass index (BMI), low vitamin D level, and low body muscle mass were associated with low BMD even in premenopausal women. Risk factors differed depending on the anatomic site. Low BMI and low vitamin D level were risk factors for low femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD), but not for low lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD). Only total muscle mass had a slight effect on low LS-BMD. Z-score discordance was much higher than expected, in 75 and 73.8 % of the low LS-BMD and low FN-BMD groups, respectively. Our findings suggest the need to consider BMD discordance in premenopausal women and also to provide information on correctable factors affecting low BMD in younger populations. Long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the possible effect of Z-score discordance on the prognosis of osteoporosis and subsequent fracture risk.

  17. Ideal cardiovascular health score and incident end-stage renal disease in a community-based longitudinal cohort study: the Kailuan Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Quan Le; Wu, Shou Ling; Liu, Xiao Xue; An, Sha Sha; Wu, Yun Tao; Gao, Jing Sheng; Chen, Shuo Hua; Liu, Xiao Kun; Zhang, Qi; Mao, Rui Ying; Shang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate an association between ideal cardiovascular health metrics (CVH) and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Setting Community of Kailuan in Tangshan/China. Participants We examined in a community-based longitudinal cohort study 91 443 participants without history of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline in 2006–2007, with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥15 mL/min at baseline, and who participated in at least 1 of 3 follow-up examinations in 2008–2009, 2010–2011 and 2012–2013. Interventions CVH was measured by 7 key health factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, healthy dietary score, total cholesterol blood concentration, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose) each of which ranged between ‘ideal’ (2) and ‘poor’ (0). With a maximal CVH score of 14, the study participants were divided into categories of <5, 5–9 and 10–14 points. Primary and secondary outcome measures CHV, incidence of ESRD. Results Incidence of ESRD ranged from 7.06‰ in the lowest CVH category to 2.34‰ in the highest CVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, educational level, income, alcohol consumption and GFR, the lowest CVH category as compared with the highest CVH category had a significantly higher risk of incident ESRD (adjusted HR 2.87; 95% CI 1.53 to 5.39). For every decrease in group number of the cum-CVH score, the risk of ESRD increased by 20% (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.28). The effect was consistent across sex and all age groups. Conclusions A low CVH score significantly increased the risk of incident ESRD. Risk factors for cardiovascular events may also be associated with an increased risk for kidney failure. PMID:27899399

  18. Validation of the National Institutes of Health chronic GVHD Oral Mucosal Score using component-specific measures.

    PubMed

    Bassim, C W; Fassil, H; Mays, J W; Edwards, D; Baird, K; Steinberg, S M; Williams, K M; Cowen, E W; Mitchell, S A; Cole, K; Taylor, T; Avila, D; Zhang, D; Pulanic, D; Grkovic, L; Fowler, D; Gress, R E; Pavletic, S Z

    2014-01-01

    Oral chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is a common, late complication of alloSCT that is associated with significant patient morbidity. The NIH Oral Mucosal Score (NIH OMS) was developed to assess oral cGVHD therapeutic response, but has not been fully validated. This study's purpose was to conduct a rigorous construct validity and internal consistency analysis of this score and its components (erythema, lichenoid, ulcers, mucoceles) using established measures of oral pain, oral function, oral-related quality-of-life, nutrition and laboratory parameters in 198 patients with cGVHD. The construct validity of the NIH OMS was supported: a moderate correlation was observed between NIH OMS and mouth pain (rho=0.43), while a weaker correlation was observed with low albumin (rho=-0.26). Total NIH OMS, erythema and lichenoid components were associated with malnutrition, oral pain and impaired oral QOL, while ulcers were only associated with oral pain. No associations were found between mucoceles and any indicator evaluated, including salivary function or xerostomia. Kappa determined between scale components was low overall (all 0.35), supporting a conclusion that each component measures a distinct manifestation of oral cGVHD. This study supports the use of the NIH OMS and its components (erythema, lichenoid and ulcerations) to measure clinician-reported severity of oral cGVHD.

  19. Validation of the National Institutes of Health chronic GVHD Oral Mucosal Score using component-specific measures

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, CW; Fassil, H; Mays, JW; Edwards, D; Baird, K; Steinberg, SM; Williams, KM; Cowen, EW; Mitchell, SA; Cole, K; Taylor, T; Avila, D; Zhang, D; Pulanic, D; Grkovic, L; Fowler, D; Gress, RE; Pavletic, SZ

    2016-01-01

    Oral chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is a common, late complication of alloSCT that is associated with significant patient morbidity. The NIH Oral Mucosal Score (NIH OMS) was developed to assess oral cGVHD therapeutic response, but has not been fully validated. This study’s purpose was to conduct a rigorous construct validity and internal consistency analysis of this score and its components (erythema, lichenoid, ulcers, mucoceles) using established measures of oral pain, oral function, oral-related quality-of-life, nutrition and laboratory parameters in 198 patients with cGVHD. The construct validity of the NIH OMS was supported: a moderate correlation was observed between NIH OMS and mouth pain (rho =0.43), while a weaker correlation was observed with low albumin (rho = −0.26). Total NIH OMS, erythema and lichenoid components were associated with malnutrition, oral pain and impaired oral QOL, while ulcers were only associated with oral pain. No associations were found between mucoceles and any indicator evaluated, including salivary function or xerostomia. Kappa determined between scale components was low overall (all ≤0.35), supporting a conclusion that each component measures a distinct manifestation of oral cGVHD. This study supports the use of the NIH OMS and its components (erythema, lichenoid and ulcerations) to measure clinician-reported severity of oral cGVHD. PMID:23995099

  20. Validation of National Institutes of Health global scoring system for chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) according to overall and GVHD-specific survival.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lambie, Anna; Ellis, Laura; Hamad, Nada; Uhm, Jieun; Gupta, Vikas; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Messner, Hans A; Kuruvilla, John; Kim, Dennis

    2014-04-01

    A new severity grading system for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria (NCC). However, its prognostic value still needs to be validated. Four hundred twenty-five consecutive patients who survived beyond 100 days after allogeneic stem cell transplantation were reviewed and reclassified using NCC. GVHD-specific survival (GSS) and cumulative incidence of relapse were compared according to the NIH global score at the onset and peak of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Of 346 patients with cGVHD diagnosed by the Revised Seattle Criteria, 317 patients were reclassified according to the NCC as classic cGVHD (n = 144) and overlap syndrome (n = 173). The NIH global scores at onset were mild (43.2%), moderate (42.3%), and severe (14.5%), whereas more moderate (55.5%) and severe (31.6%) cGVHD was observed at the peak of cGVHD. With a median follow-up duration of 34 months, the 5-year GSS was significantly worse for the severe group than the moderate/mild groups at onset and at peak: 50.9% ± 7.8% versus 89.7% ± 3.2% versus 93.5% ± 2.4% at onset (P < .001) and 69.1% ± 5.2% versus 93.2% ± 2.1% versus 97.3% ± 2.7% at peak (P < .001). Severe NIH global score at onset and peak were confirmed as a poor prognostic factor for GSS in multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of relapse did not differ among the severity groups at onset or peak. In conclusion, the new NIH global scoring system was shown to differentiate a high-risk group of patients (with severe grade cGVHD) in terms of long-term transplant outcomes.

  1. Effects of a social accountability approach, CARE’s Community Score Card, on reproductive health-related outcomes in Malawi: A cluster-randomized controlled evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Galavotti, Christine; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Msiska, Thumbiko; Hastings, Phil; Marti, C. Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Social accountability approaches, which emphasize mutual responsibility and accountability by community members, health care workers, and local health officials for improving health outcomes in the community, are increasingly being employed in low-resource settings. We evaluated the effects of a social accountability approach, CARE’s Community Score Card (CSC), on reproductive health outcomes in Ntcheu district, Malawi using a cluster-randomized control design. Methods We matched 10 pairs of communities, randomly assigning one from each pair to intervention and control arms. We conducted two independent cross-sectional surveys of women who had given birth in the last 12 months, at baseline and at two years post-baseline. Using difference-in-difference (DiD) and local average treatment effect (LATE) estimates, we evaluated the effects on outcomes including modern contraceptive use, antenatal and postnatal care service utilization, and service satisfaction. We also evaluated changes in indicators developed by community members and service providers in the intervention areas. Results DiD analyses showed significantly greater improvements in the proportion of women receiving a home visit during pregnancy (B = 0.20, P < .01), receiving a postnatal visit (B = 0.06, P = .01), and overall service satisfaction (B = 0.16, P < .001) in intervention compared to control areas. LATE analyses estimated significant effects of the CSC intervention on home visits by health workers (114% higher in intervention compared to control) (B = 1.14, P < .001) and current use of modern contraceptives (57% higher) (B = 0.57, P < .01). All 13 community- and provider-developed indicators improved, with 6 of them showing significant improvements. Conclusions By facilitating the relationship between community members, health service providers, and local government officials, the CSC contributed to important improvements in reproductive health-related outcomes. Further, the CSC builds

  2. Development of a Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) for Predicting Osteoporotic Fracture Risk: Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Park, ByeongJu; Kim, Tae-Young; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian-specific prediction models for estimating individual risk of osteoporotic fractures are rare. We developed a Korean fracture risk prediction model using clinical risk factors and assessed validity of the final model. Methods A total of 718,306 Korean men and women aged 50–90 years were followed for 7 years in a national system-based cohort study. In total, 50% of the subjects were assigned randomly to the development dataset and 50% were assigned to the validation dataset. Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture were assessed at the biennial health check. Data on osteoporotic fractures during the follow-up period were identified by ICD-10 codes and the nationwide database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). Results During the follow-up period, 19,840 osteoporotic fractures were reported (4,889 in men and 14,951 in women) in the development dataset. The assessment tool called the Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) is comprised of a set of nine variables, including age, body mass index, recent fragility fracture, current smoking, high alcohol intake, lack of regular exercise, recent use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis. The KFRS predicted osteoporotic fractures over the 7 years. This score was validated using an independent dataset. A close relationship with overall fracture rate was observed when we compared the mean predicted scores after applying the KFRS with the observed risks after 7 years within each 10th of predicted risk. Conclusion We developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures. The KFRS was able to predict risk of fracture in the primary population without bone mineral density testing and is therefore suitable for use in both clinical setting and self-assessment. The website is available at http://www.nhis.or.kr. PMID:27399597

  3. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. PMID:27688627

  4. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Charice S; Slaughter, Susan E; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S

    2015-06-30

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  5. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL. PMID:27417776

  6. Vitamin D and Urinary Incontinence among Korean Women: a Propensity Score-matched Analysis from the 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A recent study investigated the role of vitamin D in urinary incontinence (UI). However, very few data are available on this topic. Therefore, we evaluated these relationships using nationally representative data from Korea. We included 6,451 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. We conducted a propensity-matched study by identifying women with UI. Women without UI, matched for menopause, number of pregnancies, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, age, stroke, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were selected as a control group at a 2:1 ratio. The χ2 test, t-test and logistic regression analyses were used. Following propensity score matching, 558 UI cases and 1,116 normal controls were included, and confounders (menopause, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, age, obesity, and number of pregnancies) were evenly dispersed and did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no significant difference between the mean vitamin D levels of the UI and normal groups (vitamin D: 18.4 ± 6.6 vs. 18.5 ± 7.0 ng/mL; P = 0.752). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the distribution of vitamin D levels (< 20 ng/mL, 20–30 ng/mL, > 30 ng/mL: 63.8%, 30.5%, and 5.7% in normal controls, 64.0%, 27.8%, and 8.2% in UI cases; P = 0.107). In conclusion, low serum vitamin D is not significantly and independently related to female UI after propensity score matching in representative Korean data. PMID:28244294

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Brazilian Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (BRAZPD): Socio-economic Status Not a Barrier

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi; Fernandes, Natália; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Silva Fernandes, Neimar; Bastos, Kleyton; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background and Objectives: A large proportion of the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Brazil have low levels of education and family income. The present study assessed whether education level and family income are associated with baseline and longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores during the first year of PD therapy. ♦ Methods: We evaluated 1624 incident patients from the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) at baseline, and 486 of them after 12 months. The SF-36 was used to determine HRQOL and the Karnofsky index (KI), physical performance. ♦ Results: At baseline, patients received high KI scores compared with scores on the SF-36. The means of the mental and physical components at baseline and after 12 months were 39.9 ± 10.5 compared with 38.7 ± 11.7 and 41.8 ± 9.6 compared with 40.7 ± 9.8 respectively, which were not statistically different. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were predictors of the mental component (respectively, β = 0.12, p < 0.001; β = 0.11, p < 0.001; β = -0.08, β = 0.007; and β = -0.07, p = 0.007) and that age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hemoglobin, glucose, and creatinine were predictors of the physical component (respectively, β = -0.28, p < 0.001; β = 0.06, p = 0.009; β = -0.09, p = 0.002; β = -0.09, p = 0.001; β = 0.07, p = 0.004; β = -0.05, p = 0.040; and β = 0.05, p = 0.040). Education level and family income were not significantly associated with HRQOL (mental and physical components) in the multivariate regression. ♦ Conclusions: The results indicate that, as predictors, family income and education level have no impact on HRQOL, supporting the idea that socio-economic status should not be a barrier to the selection of PD as a treatment modality in Brazil. PMID:24335126

  8. Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron

    2011-02-01

    The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome.

  9. Test facilities for SCORE-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.

  10. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  11. The use of weighted health-related Quality of Life scores in people with diabetic macular oedema at baseline in a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, P H; Loftus, J; Starita, C; Stratton, I M

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between visual acuity in each eye and Quality of Life (QoL) outcomes in people with diabetic macular oedema. Methods Cross sectional retrospective analysis of data collected at baseline in 289 people entered into a randomized clinical trial with diabetic macular oedema which investigated the safety and efficacy of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, pegaptanib sodium. At the baseline visit, visual acuity was measured through refraction and using retro-illuminated modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Log MAR charts, and patient health-related QoL was determined using the European Quality of Life EQ–5D–3L and the Visual Functioning Questionnaire–25 (NEI–VFQ25). A regression analysis with QoL score from each vision-related domain as the dependent variable was fitted using linear and quadratic terms of the better and worse eye, age, gender, adjusted for number of concurrent conditions, ethnicity and level of diabetes control. Results For all vision-related QoL domains from NEI–VFQ25 and EQ–5D–3L except ocular pain, both visual acuity in the better-seeing and the worse-seeing eye gave a significant increase in correlation coefficient over that obtained from clinical and demographic data. The NEI–VFQ25 correlation was most closely associated with a weighted visual acuity measure of 0.75 in the better and 0.25 in the worse eye or 0.60 in the better and 0.40 in the worse eye. Conclusions We recommend that a weighted visual acuity measure from both eyes is considered in future diabetic macular oedema trials. PMID:25251842

  12. Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Chad M.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Elbekai, Reem H.; Paranjpe, Madhav G.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M.; Bichteler, Anne; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.

    2015-08-01

    Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.

  13. Vegetable intake is associated with lower Frammingham risk scores in Korean men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Observational studies suggest that an association between vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the daily intake of vegetables on a national level and its effect on the risk of CHD risk, as determined by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted a cross-sectional design of 2,510 male adults 40-64y of age who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vegetable was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption frequency of vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The odd ratio of CHD risk according to daily intake and frequency of vegetables was analyzed. RESULTS Total vegetable intake was inversely and significantly associated with the risk of CHD (Model 1: 4th vs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.96, P for trend = 0.0015), and the significant relationship with CHD risk remained even after adjusting for potential confounders (Model 3: 4th vs. 1st quartile, adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.95, P for trend = 0.0492). Subjects in the higher quartiles of non-salted vegetable intake had 31% lower odds of the risk of CHD compared to those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for various potential confounders in model 3 (aOR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.49-0.97, P for trend = 0.0478). No significant associations between the frequency of vegetable intake (total, green, white and red vegetable) and the risk of CHD were found. CONCLUSIONS The major results of this study indicate that higher vegetable intake may help prevent CHD in Korean men. PMID:26865921

  14. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  15. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composite scores. 414.1260 Section 414.1260 Public... Modifier Under the Physician Fee Schedule § 414.1260 Composite scores. (a)(1) The standardized score for... determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination....

  16. 42 CFR 414.1260 - Composite scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composite scores. 414.1260 Section 414.1260 Public... Modifier Under the Physician Fee Schedule § 414.1260 Composite scores. (a)(1) The standardized score for... determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination....

  17. Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score among the general adult population: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Paprott, Rebecca; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Mensink, Gert B M; Thiele, Silke; Schulze, Matthias B; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Heidemann, Christin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) among the general adult German population for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes. Methods The longitudinal sample for prediction of incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes included 3625 persons who participated both in the examination survey in 1997–1999 and the examination survey in 2008–2011. Incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes was defined as first-time physician diagnosis or antidiabetic medication during 5 years of follow-up excluding potential incident type 1 and gestational diabetes. The cross-sectional sample for detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes included 6048 participants without diagnosed diabetes of the examination survey in 2008–2011. Prevalent undiagnosed diabetes was defined as glycated haemoglobin ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). We assessed discrimination as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC (95% CI)) and calibration through calibration plots. Results In longitudinal analyses, 82 subjects with incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes were identified after 5 years of follow-up. For prediction of incident diagnosed diabetes, the GDRS yielded an ROC-AUC of 0.87 (0.83 to 0.90). Calibration plots indicated excellent prediction for low diabetes risk and overestimation for intermediate and high diabetes risk. When considering the entire follow-up period of 11.9 years (ROC-AUC: 0.84 (0.82 to 0.86)) and including incident undiagnosed diabetes (ROC-AUC: 0.81 (0.78 to 0.84)), discrimination decreased somewhat. A previously simplified paper version of the GDRS yielded a similar predictive ability (ROC-AUC: 0.86 (0.82 to 0.89)). In cross-sectional analyses, 128 subjects with undiagnosed diabetes were identified. For detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes, the ROC-AUC was 0.84 (0.81 to 0.86). Again, the simplified version yielded a similar result (ROC-AUC: 0.83 (0.80 to 0.86)). Conclusions The GDRS might be applied

  18. Relationship Between Forced Vital Capacity and Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score Beyond the Presence of Metabolic Syndrome: The Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lim, Seong Yong

    2015-11-01

    Impaired lung function is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. However, it has not been well established whether FVC reduction even within normal range is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether reduced FVC is an independent relationship of CVD irrespective of metabolic syndrome. Thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between FVC and CV-event risk using the FRS beyond the presence of metabolic syndrome or abdominal obesity in a representative Korean population based on data from the nationwide Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).The study population included 9688 subjects ≥ 30 years of age with no previous diagnosis of CVD and obstructive lung disease. Using a logistic regression model and area under the curve (AUC) analysis, we evaluated the relationship between FVC quintiles and CV-event risk using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS; ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). In addition, we examined the effect of FVC on CV-event risk based on the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abdominal obesity.After adjusting for covariates, comparison of subjects in the lowest FVC (% pred) quintile (Q1) with those in the highest quintile (Q5) yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.91-2.71) for intermediate and high risk, and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31-3.61) for high risk. The ORs for cardiovascular risk using FRS also increased irrespective of the presence of abdominal obesity and MetS without significant interaction. Furthermore, the addition of FVC status to MetS status and abdominal obesity status significantly increased the AUC of the model predicting CV-event risk (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001).Our study demonstrates that FVC is inversely associated with 10-year CV-event risk, irrespective of MetS and abdominal obesity in the general population without obstructive lung disease. Furthermore, the addition of FVC to MetS or abdominal obesity increased prediction of CVD event risks, implying a potential role of FVC to predict CV

  19. Population-Based Questionnaire Survey on Health Effects of Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around U.S. Airfields in the RYUKYUS—PART i: AN Analysis of 12 Scale Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIYAKITA, T.; MATSUI, T.; ITO, A.; TOKUYAMA, T.; HIRAMATSU, K.; OSADA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, T.

    2002-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was made of health effects of aircraft noise on residents living around Kadena and Futenma airfields using the Todai Health Index. Aircraft noise exposure expressed by Ldnranged from under 55 to over 70 in the surveyed area. The number of valid answers was 7095, including 848 among the control group. Twelve scale scores were converted to dichotomous variables based on scale scores of the 90 percentile value or the 10 percentile value in the control group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done taking 12 scale scores converted into the dependent variable andLdn , age (six levels), sex, occupation (four categories) and the interaction of age and sex as the independent variables. Significant dose-response relationships were found in the scale scores for vague complaints, respiratory, digestive, mental instability, depression and nervousness. The results suggest that the residents living around Kadena and Futenma airfields may suffer both physical and mental effects as a result of exposure to military aircraft noise and that such responses increase with the level of noise exposure (Ldn).

  20. Confounding Factors Affecting the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Organ-Specific Score and Global Severity

    PubMed Central

    Aki, Sahika Zeynep; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Carpenter, Paul A.; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Martin, Paul J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2005 NIH chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) organ severity is based on the assessment of current status regardless of whether abnormalities are due to GVHD. The score assignment does not require knowledge of past manifestations, attribution, or whether cGVHD is still active. The aim of this study is to describe confounding factors affecting organ scores in patients with cGVHD. The study included 189 consecutive cGVHD patients evaluated at our center in 2013. Providers completed the NIH 0–3 organ-specific scoring evaluation with two questions added for each organ to identify abnormalities that were 1) not attributed to cGVHD, or 2) attributed to cGVHD plus other causes. Abnormalities attributed to causes other than GVHD were recorded. Eighty (14%) abnormalities were not attributed to cGVHD in at least one organ, and 41 (7%) abnormalities were attributed to cGVHD plus other causes in at least one organ. A total of 436 (78%) abnormalities were attributed only to cGVHD. Abnormalities not attributed to cGVHD were observed most frequently in the lung, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Most common abnormalities included pre-transplant condition, sequelae from GVHD, deconditioning, infections and medications. Our results support the the 2014 NIH consensus recommendation to consider attribution when scoring organ abnormalities. PMID:27214071

  1. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  2. A composite scoring of genotypes discriminates coronary heart disesase risk beyond conventional risk factors in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), integrating the additive associations of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CHD, we examined the consequences of the joint presence of a high GPS and conventional risk factors (CRFs). Methods and results: We studied...

  3. The UPA score and teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Garlick, R; Ineichen, B; Hudson, F

    1993-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is often said to be the result of deficient contraceptive and abortion services. Using data from the Public Health Common Data Set (PH CDS) we demonstrate two important effects in a Regional Health Authority: higher rates of conception are related to a live birth rather than an abortion pregnancy outcome; District Health Authorities (DHAs) with high underprivileged area scores (UPA) are more likely to have high rates of conception in the teenage years than those districts with low scores.

  4. The effect of a health communication campaign on compliance with mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya--the SCORE project.

    PubMed

    Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Awiti, Alphonce; Musuva, Rosemary; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA.

  5. Comparing different revisions of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire to reduce the ceiling effect and improve score distribution: Data from a multi-center European cohort study of children with JIA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The original version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ30orig) suffers from a ceiling effect and hence has reduced clinical validity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding eight more demanding items (CHAQ38) and a new categorical response option (CATII) on discriminant validity and score distribution in a European patient sample. Methods Eighty-nine children with Juvenile Idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 22 healthy controls, aged 7-16 years, were recruited from eight centres across Europe. Eight new CHAQ items and scoring option were translated back and forth for the countries in which they were not already present. Demographic, clinical, and CHAQ data were collected on-site. Subsequently, five different scoring methods were applied, i.e. the original method (CHAQ30orig) and four alternatives. These alternatives consisted of the mean item scores for the 30 and 38-question versions with either the original (CATI), or the new categorical response option (CATII). The five versions were tested for their ability to distinguish between patients and controls. Furthermore score distributions were evaluated and visualized by box and whisker plots. Results Two CHAQ revisions with the new response option showed poor discriminative ability, whereas one revised version (CHAQ38CATI) had comparable discriminative ability comparable to the original CHAQ. A profound ceiling effect was observed in the original scoring method of the CHAQ (27%). The addition of eight more demanding items and application of a plain mean item score reduced this significantly to 14% (χ2 = 4.21; p < 0.05). Conclusions Revising the CHAQ by adding eight more demanding items and applying a plain mean item scoring (CHAQ38CATI) maintained discriminant ability and reduced the ceiling effect in a European patient sample. The new categorical response option (CATII) seemed promising, but was less able to distinguish children with JIA from healthy controls and

  6. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  7. Comparative gene expression of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and peptide levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) in the pituitary of wild and cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstocks.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, J M; Rubio, M; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Klenke, U; Kight, K; Cross, I; Sánchez-Ramos, I; Riaza, A; Rebordinos, L; Sarasquete, C; Zohar, Y; Mañanós, E L

    2009-07-01

    The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a valuable flatfish for aquaculture, but it presents important reproductive problems in captivity. Spawning is achieved by wild-caught breeders but cultured broodstocks fail to spawn spontaneously and, when they do, eggs are unfertilized. To gain knowledge on the physiological basis underlying this reproductive dysfunction, this study aimed at analyzing comparative hormone levels between wild and cultured broodstocks at the spawning season. The Senegalese sole gonadotropin (GTH) subunits, FSHbeta, LHbeta and GPalpha, were cloned and qualitative (in situ hybridization) and quantitative (real-time PCR) assays developed to analyze pituitary GTH gene expression. In females, FSHbeta and GPalpha mRNA levels were higher in wild than in cultured broodstocks, whereas in males all three subunits were highest in cultured. By ELISA, three GnRH forms were detected in the pituitary, displaying a relative abundance of GnRH2>GnRH1>GnRH3. All GnRHs were slightly more abundant in wild than cultured females, whereas no differences were observed in males. Plasma levels of vitellogenin and sex steroids were also analyzed. Results showed endocrine differences between wild and cultured broodstocks at the spawning period, which could be related to the endocrine failure of the reproductive axis in cultured breeders.

  8. "You Are Not Alone" Strategies for Addressing Mental Health and Health Promotion with a Refugee Women's Sewing Group.

    PubMed

    Salt, Rebekah J; Costantino, Margaret E; Dotson, Emma L; Paper, Bruce M

    2017-04-01

    Resettlement can be an uncertain time for refugees as they have often suffered life-threatening circumstances prior to flight from their countries, yet few resettlement programs screen for mental health. The purpose of this study was to pilot the Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) to assess mental health and the Pathways to Wellness intervention to identify internal and structural barriers affecting resettlement with a refugee women's sewing group. Community collaborations that create healthy social and physical environments through access to resources, economic opportunities, and social support promote a holistic approach to health and can improve quality of life for this vulnerable population.

  9. Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ghani, Nawalyah Abdul; Rahman, Hejar Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members.

  10. Comparing Self-Rated Health, Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scores between Diabetics and Others Living in the Bella Coola Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Angela; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tildesley, Hugh; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative effect that diabetes has on self-rated health, satisfaction with various specific domains of life, and satisfaction with quality of life operationalized as happiness, satisfaction with life as a whole, and satisfaction with overall quality of life. Design: Mixed methods--mailed survey and chart review. Study…

  11. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  12. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  13. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  14. The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) score to predict clinical outcomes and health service costs in older people discharged from UK acute medical units

    PubMed Central

    Edmans, Judi; Bradshaw, Lucy; Gladman, John R. F.; Franklin, Matthew; Berdunov, Vladislav; Elliott, Rachel; Conroy, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: tools are required to identify high-risk older people in acute emergency settings so that appropriate services can be directed towards them. Objective: to evaluate whether the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) predicts the clinical outcomes and health and social services costs of older people discharged from acute medical units. Design: an observational cohort study using receiver–operator curve analysis to compare baseline ISAR to an adverse clinical outcome at 90 days (where an adverse outcome was any of death, institutionalisation, hospital readmission, increased dependency in activities of daily living (decrease of 2 or more points on the Barthel ADL Index), reduced mental well-being (increase of 2 or more points on the 12-point General Health Questionnaire) or reduced quality of life (reduction in the EuroQol-5D) and high health and social services costs over 90 days estimated from routine electronic service records. Setting: two acute medical units in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: a total of 667 patients aged ≥70 discharged from acute medical units. Results: an adverse outcome at 90 days was observed in 76% of participants. The ISAR was poor at predicting adverse outcomes (AUC: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.54–0.65) and fair for health and social care costs (AUC: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59–0.81). Conclusions: adverse outcomes are common in older people discharged from acute medical units in the UK; the poor predictive ability of the ISAR in older people discharged from acute medical units makes it unsuitable as a sole tool in clinical decision-making. PMID:23666405

  15. Mortality scoring in ITU.

    PubMed

    Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortage of ITU beds makes decisions on admission difficult and responsible. The use of computer-based mortality scoring should help in decision-making and for this purpose, a number of different scoring systems have been created; in principle, they should be easy to use, adaptable to all populations of patients and suitable for predicting the risk of mortality during both ITU and hospital stay. Most of existing scales and scoring systems were included in this review. They are frequently used in ITUs and become a necessary tool to describe ITU populations and to explain differences in mortality. As there are several pitfalls related to the interpretation of the numbers supplied by the systems, they should be used with the knowledge on the severity scoring science. Moreover, the cost and significant workload limit the use of scoring systems; in many cases an extra person has to be employed for collection and analysis of data only.

  16. Quality of care in a low-income consumer-driven health plan: assessment of healthcare effectiveness data information set (HEDIS) scores for secondary prevention.

    PubMed

    Westover, Chad; Arredondo, Patricia H; Chapa, Griselda; Cole, Evan; Campbell, Claudia R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) may create an estimated 16 million new Medicaid enrollees. This underscores the need to develop innovative strategies to provide efficient care to this population without compromising quality. To address concerns that consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) and cost sharing discourage individuals from seeking needed care, we examined the Healthcare Effectiveness Data Information Set (HEDIS) measures of secondary prevention for a CDHP offered to uninsured, non-Medicaid eligible adults with incomes under 200% of the federal poverty level and compared them to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) benchmarks achieved by national Medicaid and commercially insured health plans. Results suggest that the cost-sharing component in the CDHP plan did not deter these low-income enrollees from pursuing or receiving appropriate care when compared to either Medicaid or commercially insured populations. As these results are only descriptive and not statistical measures, further research is needed with comparable populations and more detailed data for hypothesis testing.

  17. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  18. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  19. Check the score: Field validation of Street Smart Walk Score in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; McGetrick, Jennifer Ann; Crick, Katelynn; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-12-01

    Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada. In 2015, using street-level systematic observations collected in Bonnyville, Medicine Hat, and North Central Edmonton in 2008 (part of the Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project), we reverse engineered 2181 scores with the network Walk Score® algorithm. We computed means, 95% confidence intervals, and t-tests (α = 0.05) for both sets of scores. Applying the Clifford-Richardson adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, we calculated Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients (rho, rs) and adjusted p-values to measure the strength of association between the derived scores and original network scores provided by Walk Score®. Spearman's rho for scores were very high for Bonnyville (rs = 0.950, adjusted p < 0.001), and high for Medicine Hat (rs = 0.790, adjusted p < 0.001) and North Central Edmonton (rs = 0.763, adjusted p < 0.001). High to very high correlations between derived scores and Walk Scores® field validated this metric across small, medium, and large population centres in Alberta, Canada. However, we suggest caution in interpreting Walk Score® for planning and evaluating health promotion interventions, since the strength of association between destinations and walking may vary across different municipal types.

  20. Does Future Diabetes Risk Impair Current Quality of Life? A Cross-Sectional Study of Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)

    PubMed Central

    Väätäinen, Saku; Cederberg, Henna; Roine, Risto; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Saramies, Jouko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Present study examines the relationship between the estimated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We quantify the association between Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and HRQoL, and examine the potential use of FINDRISC as tool to evaluate HRQoL indirectly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 707 Finnish people without a diagnosis of T2D between the ages of 51 and 75 years. The risk of developing T2D was assessed using the validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0–26 points), and quality of life was measured using two preference-based HRQoL instruments (15D and SF-6D) and one health profile instrument (SF-36). Effects of the individual FINDRISC items and demographic and clinical characteristics, such as co-morbidities, on HRQoL were studied using multivariable Tobit regression models. Results Low HRQoL was significantly and directly associated with the estimated risk of developing T2D. An approximate 4–5 point change in FINDRISC score was observed to be associated with clinically noticeable changes in the preference-based instrument HRQoL index scores. The association between HRQoL and the risk of developing T2D was also observed for most dimensions of HRQoL in all applied HRQoL instruments. Overall, old age, lack of physical activity, obesity, and history of high blood glucose were the FINDRISC factors most prominently associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions The findings may help the health care professionals to substantiate the possible improvement in glucose metabolism and HRQoL potentially achieved by lifestyle changes, and better convince people at high risk of T2D to take action towards healthier lifestyle habits. FINDRISC may also provide an accurate proxy for HRQoL, and thus by estimating the risk of T2D with the FINDRISC, information about patients’ HRQoL may also be obtained indirectly, when it is not feasible to use HRQoL instruments. PMID:26840374

  1. Propensity score weighting with multilevel data.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Landrum, Mary Beth

    2013-08-30

    Propensity score methods are being increasingly used as a less parametric alternative to traditional regression to balance observed differences across groups in both descriptive and causal comparisons. Data collected in many disciplines often have analytically relevant multilevel or clustered structure. The propensity score, however, was developed and has been used primarily with unstructured data. We present and compare several propensity-score-weighted estimators for clustered data, including marginal, cluster-weighted, and doubly robust estimators. Using both analytical derivations and Monte Carlo simulations, we illustrate bias arising when the usual assumptions of propensity score analysis do not hold for multilevel data. We show that exploiting the multilevel structure, either parametrically or nonparametrically, in at least one stage of the propensity score analysis can greatly reduce these biases. We applied these methods to a study of racial disparities in breast cancer screening among beneficiaries of Medicare health plans.

  2. Placing clinical variables on a common linear scale of empirically based risk as a step towards construction of a general patient acuity score from the electronic health record: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Steven I; Rothman, Michael J; Solinger, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the hypothesis that placing clinical variables of differing metrics on a common linear scale of all-cause postdischarge mortality provides risk functions that are directly correlated with in-hospital mortality risk. Design Modelling study. Setting An 805-bed community hospital in the southeastern USA. Participants 42302 inpatients admitted for any reason, excluding obstetrics, paediatric and psychiatric patients. Outcome measures All-cause in-hospital and postdischarge mortalities, and associated correlations. Results Pearson correlation coefficients comparing in-hospital risks with postdischarge risks for creatinine, heart rate and a set of 12 nursing assessments are 0.920, 0.922 and 0.892, respectively. Correlation between postdischarge risk heart rate and the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) component for heart rate is 0.855. The minimal excess risk values for creatinine and heart rate roughly correspond to the normal reference ranges. We also provide the risks for values outside that range, independent of expert opinion or a regression model. By summing risk functions, a first-approximation patient risk score is created, which correctly ranks 6 discharge categories by average mortality with p<0.001 for differences in category means, and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test confirmed that the means were all different at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions Quantitative or categorical clinical variables can be transformed into risk functions that correlate well with in-hospital risk. This methodology provides an empirical way to assess inpatient risk from data available in the Electronic Health Record. With just the variables in this paper, we achieve a risk score that correlates with discharge disposition. This is the first step towards creation of a universal measure of patient condition that reflects a generally applicable set of health-related risks. More importantly, we believe that our approach opens the door to a way of

  3. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  4. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; P<0.00001; I²=61%, 95% CI 20% to 81%), cardiovascular disease (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81; P<0.00001; I²=45%, 95% CI 13% to 66%), cancer (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88; P<0.00001; I²=77%, 95% CI 68% to 84%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.00001; I²=74%, 95% CI 52% to 86%). Differences observed for neurodegenerative diseases were not significant. Egger regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias. Diets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance.

  5. [Overview of regulatory aspects guiding tablet scoring].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares

    2016-06-01

    Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.

  6. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  7. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  8. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  9. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  10. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  11. [Scoring--criteria for operability].

    PubMed

    Oestern, H J

    1997-01-01

    For therapeutic recommendations three different kinds of scores are essential: 1. The severity scores for trauma; 2. Severity scores for mangled extremities; 3. Intensive care scores. The severity of polytrauma patients is measurable by the AIS, ISS, RTS, PTS and TRISS which is a combination of RTS, ISS, age, and mechanism of injury. For mangled extremities there are also different scores available: MESI (Mangled Extremity Syndrome Index) and MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score). The aim of these scores is to assist in the indication with regard to amputate or to save the extremity. These scoring indices can be used to evaluate the severity of a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome with respect to multiple organ failure. All scores are dynamic values which are variable with improvement of therapy.

  12. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  13. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by…

  14. Definition of True Score Appropriate for Estimated True Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1970-01-01

    It is shown that all obtained scores must meet the requirements for classical test-score theory with respect to definitions of true scores and errors of measurement if that frame of reference is to yield valid variance errors of measurement. (DG)

  15. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  16. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  17. On The Factor Score Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bert F. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A summary and interpretation of the recent literature on the indeterminancy of factor scores is given in simple terms. A good index of factor score determinancy is the squared multiple correlation of the factor with the observed variables. (Author)

  18. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  19. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  20. Increasing Score Reliability with Item-Pattern Scoring: An Empirical Study in Several Score Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy M.; Candell, Gregory L.

    Reliabilities are compared for two types of test score data: number correct, and item response patterns. Item-pattern scoring using three-parameter item response theory takes into account how many and which items a student answers correctly. This procedure theoretically results in greater reliability than does number-correct scoring. Empirical…

  1. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined.

  2. Propensity score matching and complex surveys.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Jembere, Nathaniel; Chiu, Maria

    2016-07-26

    Researchers are increasingly using complex population-based sample surveys to estimate the effects of treatments, exposures and interventions. In such analyses, statistical methods are essential to minimize the effect of confounding due to measured covariates, as treated subjects frequently differ from control subjects. Methods based on the propensity score are increasingly popular. Minimal research has been conducted on how to implement propensity score matching when using data from complex sample surveys. We used Monte Carlo simulations to examine two critical issues when implementing propensity score matching with such data. First, we examined how the propensity score model should be formulated. We considered three different formulations depending on whether or not a weighted regression model was used to estimate the propensity score and whether or not the survey weights were included in the propensity score model as an additional covariate. Second, we examined whether matched control subjects should retain their natural survey weight or whether they should inherit the survey weight of the treated subject to which they were matched. Our results were inconclusive with respect to which method of estimating the propensity score model was preferable. In general, greater balance in measured baseline covariates and decreased bias was observed when natural retained weights were used compared to when inherited weights were used. We also demonstrated that bootstrap-based methods performed well for estimating the variance of treatment effects when outcomes are binary. We illustrated the application of our methods by using the Canadian Community Health Survey to estimate the effect of educational attainment on lifetime prevalence of mood or anxiety disorders.

  3. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  4. Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Kluender, Raymond; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-04-01

    "Big data" and statistical techniques to score potential transactions have transformed insurance and credit markets. In this paper, we observe that these widely-used statistical scores summarize a much richer heterogeneity, and may be endogenous to the context in which they get applied. We demonstrate this point empirically using data from Medicare Part D, showing that risk scores confound underlying health and endogenous spending response to insurance. We then illustrate theoretically that when individuals have heterogeneous behavioral responses to contracts, strategic incentives for cream skimming can still exist, even in the presence of "perfect" risk scoring under a given contract.

  5. Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Kluender, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    “Big data” and statistical techniques to score potential transactions have transformed insurance and credit markets. In this paper, we observe that these widely-used statistical scores summarize a much richer heterogeneity, and may be endogenous to the context in which they get applied. We demonstrate this point empirically using data from Medicare Part D, showing that risk scores confound underlying health and endogenous spending response to insurance. We then illustrate theoretically that when individuals have heterogeneous behavioral responses to contracts, strategic incentives for cream skimming can still exist, even in the presence of “perfect” risk scoring under a given contract. PMID:27429712

  6. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  7. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227,…

  8. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  9. What is propensity score modelling?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Propensity score methodology is being increasingly used to try and make inferences about treatments when randomised trials are either impossible or not conducted and the only data are from observational studies. This paper reviews the basis of propensity scores and the current state of knowledge about them. It uses and critiques a current paper in the Emergency Medicine Journal to illustrate the methodology.

  10. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  11. Hedonism or Higher Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Donald C.

    2004-01-01

    In the 20 years since the federal report on education "A Nation at Risk" appeared, much has been written on test scores of students in the United States versus their counterparts elsewhere. One of the issues is whether their scores are in fact inferior, or merely a statistical difference due to their universal schooling philosophy. Since…

  12. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  13. Guidelines for Improving SAT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott; DeLeonibus, Nancy

    The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) identified 34 high schools whose students maintained or improved their SAT scores from 1973 to 1976 or whose mean scores in 1973 were approximately the same as in 1965. In an open-ended questionnaire, the principals of these schools were asked to identify success factors. Their…

  14. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  15. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    PubMed

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.

  16. Scoring the SF-36 in Orthopaedics: A Brief Guide.

    PubMed

    Laucis, Nicholas C; Hays, Ron D; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

    2015-10-07

    The Short Form-36 (SF-36) is the most widely used health-related quality-of-life measure in research to date. There are currently two sources for the SF-36 and scoring instructions: licensing them from Optum, Inc., or obtaining them from publicly available documentation from the RAND Corporation. The SF-36 yields eight scale scores and two summary scores. The physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were derived using an orthogonal-factor analytic model that forced the PCS and MCS to be uncorrelated, and it has been shown to contribute to an inflation of the MCS in patients with substantial physical disability. Oblique scoring can reduce this inflation of the MCS in orthopaedic studies. Spreadsheets to score the SF-36, along with a copy of the questionnaire, are provided.

  17. [Intraoperative crisis and surgical Apgar score].

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.

  18. Statistical Significance of Threading Scores

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value. PMID:22149633

  19. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  20. Customizing scoring functions for docking.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan A; Jain, Ajay N

    2008-05-01

    Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.

  1. Customizing scoring functions for docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan A.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2008-05-01

    Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.

  2. Pediatric trauma BIG score: Predicting mortality in polytraumatized pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Gamasy, Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; Elezz, Ahmed Abd El Basset Abo; Basuni, Ahmed Sobhy Mohamed; Elrazek, Mohamed El Sayed Ali Abd

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a worldwide health problem and the major cause of death and disability, particularly affecting the young population. It is important to remember that pediatric trauma care has made a significant improvement in the outcomes of these injured children. Aim of the Work: This study aimed at evaluation of pediatric trauma BIG score in comparison with New Injury Severity Score (NISS) and Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) in Tanta University Emergency Hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Tanta University Emergency Hospital to all multiple trauma pediatric patients attended to the Emergency Department for 1 year. Pediatric trauma BIG score, PTS, and NISS scores were calculated and results compared to each other and to observed mortality. Results: BIG score ≥12.7 has sensitivity 86.7% and specificity 71.4%, whereas PTS at value ≤3.5 has sensitivity 63.3% and specificity 68.6% and NISS at value ≥39.5 has sensitivity 53.3% and specificity 54.3%. There was a significant positive correlation between BIG score value and mortality rate. Conclusion: The pediatric BIG score is a reliable mortality-prediction score for children with traumatic injuries; it uses international normalization ratio (INR), Base Excess (BE), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) values that can be measured within a few minutes of sampling, so it can be readily applied in the Pediatric Emergency Department, but it cannot be applied on patients with chronic diseases that affect INR, BE, or GCS. PMID:27994378

  3. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  4. Optimally combining propensity score subclasses.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Colson, K Ellicott; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ahern, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    Propensity score methods, such as subclassification, are a common approach to control for confounding when estimating causal effects in non-randomized studies. Propensity score subclassification groups individuals into subclasses based on their propensity score values. Effect estimates are obtained within each subclass and then combined by weighting by the proportion of observations in each subclass. Combining subclass-specific estimates by weighting by the inverse variance is a promising alternative approach; a similar strategy is used in meta-analysis for its efficiency. We use simulation to compare performance of each of the two methods while varying (i) the number of subclasses, (ii) extent of propensity score overlap between the treatment and control groups (i.e., positivity), (iii) incorporation of survey weighting, and (iv) presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. Both methods perform well in the absence of positivity violations and with a constant treatment effect with weighting by the inverse variance performing slightly better. Weighting by the proportion in subclass performs better in the presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. We apply these methods to an illustrative example estimating the effect of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood on risk of past-year anxiety and depressive disorders among U.S. urban adolescents. This example entails practical positivity violations but no evidence of treatment effect heterogeneity. In this case, weighting by the inverse variance when combining across propensity score subclasses results in more efficient estimates that ultimately change inference. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M

    2011-06-27

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects, and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions, and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well-known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms.

  6. Addendum: han, y.; grogan-kaylor, a.; delva, j.; xie, y. Estimating the heterogeneous relationship between peer drinking and youth alcohol consumption in chile using propensity score stratification. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public health 2014, 11, 11879-11897.

    PubMed

    Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-30

    The authors wish to update the Acknowledgments in their paper published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [1], doi:10.3390/ijerph111111879, website: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/11/11879.[...].

  7. Finding Nearly Optimal GDT Scores

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai Cheng; Bu, Dongbo; Xu, Jinbo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Global Distance Test (GDT) is one of the commonly accepted measures to assess the quality of predicted protein structures. Given a set of distance thresholds, GDT maximizes the percentage of superimposed (or matched) residue pairs under each threshold, and reports the average of these percentages as the final score. The computation of GDT score was conjectured to be NP-hard. All available methods are heuristic and do not guarantee the optimality of scores. These heuristic strategies usually result in underestimated GDT scores. Contrary to the conjecture, the problem can be solved exactly in polynomial time, albeit the method would be too slow for practical usage. In this paper we propose an efficient tool called OptGDT to obtain GDT scores with theoretically guaranteed accuracies. Denote ℓ as the number of matched residue pairs found by OptGDT for a given threshold d. Let ℓ′ be the optimal number of matched residues pairs for threshold d/(1 + ε), where ε is a parameter in our computation. OptGDT guarantees that ℓ ≥ ℓ′. We applied our tool to CASP8 (The eighth Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction Techniques) data. For 87.3% of the predicted models, better GDT scores are obtained when OptGDT is used. In some cases, the number of matched residue pairs were improved by at least 10%. The tool runs in time O(n3 log n/ε5) for a given threshold d and parameter ε. In the case of globular proteins, the tool can be improved to a randomized algorithm of O(n log2 n) runtime with probability at least 1 − O(1/n). Released under the GPL license and downloadable from http://bioinformatics.uwaterloo.ca/∼scli/OptGDT/. PMID:21554017

  8. A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

  9. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  10. 24 CFR 902.63 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... four PHAS indicators in this part will be scored individually, and then will be used to determine an overall score for the PHA. Components within each of the four PHAS indicators will be scored individually... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's...

  11. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  12. Turning Merit Scores into Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a single formula for merit-raise salary schemes based on either a fixed cash amount, a percentage of base salary, or any combination of the two. Explains that the formula makes explicit how merit scores, together with prior salaries and the money available for raises, determine individual salaries. (CMK)

  13. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  14. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  15. Intensive care unit scoring systems outperform emergency department scoring systems for mortality prediction in critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple scoring systems have been developed for both the intensive care unit (ICU) and the emergency department (ED) to risk stratify patients and predict mortality. However, it remains unclear whether the additional data needed to compute ICU scores improves mortality prediction for critically ill patients compared to the simpler ED scores. Methods We studied a prospective observational cohort of 227 critically ill patients admitted to the ICU directly from the ED at an academic, tertiary care medical center. We compared Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, APACHE III, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Prince of Wales Emergency Department Score (PEDS), and a pre-hospital critical illness prediction score developed by Seymour et al. (JAMA 2010, 304(7):747–754). The primary endpoint was 60-day mortality. We compared the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the different scores and their calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and visual assessment. Results The ICU scores outperformed the ED scores with higher area under the curve (AUC) values (p = 0.01). There were no differences in discrimination among the ED-based scoring systems (AUC 0.698 to 0.742; p = 0.45) or among the ICU-based scoring systems (AUC 0.779 to 0.799; p = 0.60). With the exception of the Seymour score, the ED-based scoring systems did not discriminate as well as the best-performing ICU-based scoring system, APACHE III (p = 0.005 to 0.01 for comparison of ED scores to APACHE III). The Seymour score had a superior AUC to other ED scores and, despite a lower AUC than all the ICU scores, was not significantly different than APACHE III (p = 0.09). When data from the first 24 h in the ICU was used to calculate the ED scores, the AUC for the ED scores improved numerically, but this improvement was not statistically significant

  16. Population Mean Scores Predict Child Mental Disorder Rates: Validating SDQ Prevalence Estimators in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: For adult physical and mental health, the population mean predicts the proportion of individuals with "high" scores. This has not previously been investigated for child mental health. It is also unclear how far symptom scores on brief questionnaires provide an unbiased method of comparing children with different individual,…

  17. [Scores and stages in pneumology].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Max

    2013-10-01

    Useful scales and classifications for patients with pulmonary diseases are discussed. The modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scale (mMRC) is a measure of disability in lung patients. The GOLD classifications, the COPD-Assessment Test (CAT) and the BODE Index are important to classify the severity of COPD and to measure the disability of these patients. The Geneva score is a clinical prediction rule used in determining the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a scoring system used to predict 30 day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is intended to measure daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. The Asthma Controll Test (ACT) determines if asthma symptoms are well controlled.

  18. The Southampton Dupuytren's Scoring Scheme.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arvind; Vadher, Jane; Ismail, Hiba; Warwick, David

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and validate a simple patient-related outcome score to quantify the disability caused by Dupuytren's disease (DD), thus enabling prioritisation of treatment, to allow reliable audit of surgical outcome and to support future research. The Southampton Dupuytren's Scoring System (SDSS) was developed in a staged fashion according to the recommendations of The Derby Outcomes Conference. (1) Item generation; (2) Item reduction; (3) Internal consistency; (4) Test-re-test; (5) Field management; (6) Sensitivity to change standardised response mean; and (7) Criterion validity: ability of the SDSS to measure what it is supposed to measure. Internal consistency measured with Cronbach's alpha indicated acceptable reliability. The test-re-test correlation coefficient showed high reliability with SDSS. Field-testing showed SDSS ratings to be higher than the QuickDASH (Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand) ratings evaluated by the patients who answered both questionnaires. Standardised response mean was more sensitive for SDSS compared with QuickDASH showing sensitivity to change. Criterion validity was used to assess if the SDSS was measuring what it is supposed to measure comparing the SDSS with QuickDASH. A highly significant correlation was found between the two scoring systems. SDSS is a disease-specific patient-related outcome measure with a good internal consistency and performs better than QuickDASH in terms of test-re-test reliability and sensitivity to change. SDSS shows better field-testing attributes suggesting that it is a relatively more patient and practitioner friendly scoring system. This study proposes to the SDSS is a useful patient-related outcome measure for DD.

  19. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  20. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each approved test is...

  1. Health.

    PubMed Central

    Hare, R M

    1986-01-01

    Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment is then suggested, and used to shed light on some problems about mental illness and to compare and contrast it with physical illness and with political and other deviancies which are not illnesses. PMID:3806628

  2. Validating MMI Scores: Are We Measuring Multiple Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Tom; Hecker, Kent; Hausdorf, Peter A.; Conlon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The multiple mini-interview (MMI) used in health professional schools' admission processes is reported to assess multiple non-cognitive constructs such as ethical reasoning, oral communication, or problem evaluation. Though validation studies have been performed with total MMI scores, there is a paucity of information regarding how well MMI…

  3. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  4. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  5. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System.

  6. Evaluation of the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses: is the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion a useful framework?

    PubMed

    Roden, Janet; Jarvis, Lynda

    2012-06-01

    Researchers were involved in an evaluative approach to examine the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses from a paediatric tertiary hospital centre (N = 83) and five paediatric non-tertiary hospital centres (N = 48) from Sydney, Australia. The aims of this study were to understand the nature of heath promotion in paediatric nursing practice by examining nurses' attitudes, investigating paediatric nurses' involvement in the five action area of the Ottawa Charter, and identifying barriers to the implementation of health promotion in practice. The researchers developed a health promotion survey based around the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (World Health Organisation, 1986a), and a literature review of nurses' involvement in health promotion. Results showed that tertiary paediatric nurses undertook more varied health promotion activities such as creating supportive environments (CSE), reorienting health services (RHS) and building healthy public policy (BHPP) than did non-tertiary paediatric nurses who were involved in only one action area of the Charter, that of developing personal skills (DPS). This research revealed that within paediatric nursing practice the action areas of the Ottawa Charter of BHPP and CSE were important; and that there is support for the advocacy role of paediatric nurses. There is also evidence that paediatric nurses may have health promotion knowledge deficits associated with the Ottawa Charter, and that the environment of multidisciplinary allied health professionals in a tertiary paediatric centre may positively influence senior paediatric nurses and their capacity to be involved in varied health promotion activities associated with the Ottawa Charter.

  7. Measurement of COPD Severity Using a Survey-Based Score

    PubMed Central

    Omachi, Theodore A.; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Blanc, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive survey-based COPD severity score has usefulness for epidemiologic and health outcomes research. We previously developed and validated the survey-based COPD Severity Score without using lung function or other physiologic measurements. In this study, we aimed to further validate the severity score in a different COPD cohort and using a combination of patient-reported and objective physiologic measurements. Methods: Using data from the Function, Living, Outcomes, and Work cohort study of COPD, we evaluated the concurrent and predictive validity of the COPD Severity Score among 1,202 subjects. The survey instrument is a 35-point score based on symptoms, medication and oxygen use, and prior hospitalization or intubation for COPD. Subjects were systemically assessed using structured telephone survey, spirometry, and 6-min walk testing. Results: We found evidence to support concurrent validity of the score. Higher COPD Severity Score values were associated with poorer FEV1 (r = −0.38), FEV1% predicted (r = −0.40), Body mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise Index (r = 0.57), and distance walked in 6 min (r = −0.43) (P < .0001 in all cases). Greater COPD severity was also related to poorer generic physical health status (r = −0.49) and disease-specific health-related quality of life (r = 0.57) (P < .0001). The score also demonstrated predictive validity. It was also associated with a greater prospective risk of acute exacerbation of COPD defined as ED visits (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.24-1.39), hospitalizations (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.44-1.75), and either measure of hospital-based care for COPD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.41) (P < .0001 in all cases). Conclusion: The COPD Severity Score is a valid survey-based measure of disease-specific severity, both in terms of concurrent and predictive validity. The score is a psychometrically sound instrument for use in epidemiologic and outcomes research in COPD. PMID:20040611

  8. Scores on the eysenck personality questionnaire for a sample of children and adolescents receiving psychological treatment in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Porrata, Jose Luis; Rosa, Abraham; Mendez, Viviana

    2003-08-01

    Personality questionnaire scores obtained by children and adolescents (n = 28) receiving psychological treatment at a health facility in Humacao, Puerto Rico were examined. The scores were compared with those of regular school children of the same age, of Gurabo, Puerto Rico, who were not in treatment (n = 30). The children in treatment obtained higher scores on Psychoticism, lower scores on Extraversion, and similar scores on Neuroticism and Dissimulation by comparison with regular students.

  9. Scoring of precision spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Budinski, K.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.

  10. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers.

  11. Personality scores and smoking behaviour. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, N; Kiernan, K

    1976-01-01

    The personality scores at 16 years of age of 2753 people, all members of the National Survey of Health and Development, were related, in a follow-up study, to cigarette smoking behaviour in their young adult years. Survey members who recorded high neuroticism scores were found to be more likely to smoke than those with low scores and, among the smokers, deep inhalers formed the most neurotic group. Extraverts were more likely to smoke than introverts, the mean extraversion score being greatest for the male smokers with a high daily consumption of cigarettes. The personality scores were found to have some power in predicting changes in smoking behaviour. Neurotics and extraverts who had not started to smoke by the time of completing the personality inventory at 16 were more likely than the stable and introverted to take up the habit subsequently. Among survey members who were regular smokers at the time of completing the personality inventory the proportion giving up smoking by the time they reached the age of 25 years was related to consumption level recorded at 20 years and the personality scores recorded at 16, stable extraverts among the men being most likely to stop smoking. PMID:953376

  12. Prognostic scores for use in African meningococcal epidemics.

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi-Obe, E. K.; Lodi, E.; Alkali, A. S.; Galbati, M.; Rooney, C.; Mannoni, B.; Grim, P.; Nasidi, A.; Mohammed, I.

    1998-01-01

    Current WHO guidelines for the case management of meningococcal infections during epidemics in developing countries often cannot be applied, largely because of the limited health resources in such countries. Several scoring scales based on clinical and laboratory features in numerous combinations have been developed for the management of meningococcal infections in developed countries, and these have facilitated early identification of patients with fulminant disease and thus early intervention and reduction in mortality. Unfortunately such scoring scales are not appropriate for use in developing countries. We identified hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnoea, delay in capillary refill time, coma, absence of neck stiffness and petechiae and/or purpura as simple prognostic factors of meningococcal disease. Two scores were developed: score I, which includes all seven prognostic factors, had a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 94%, respectively. Score II, which excluded hypotension, had a sensitivity and specificity of 73.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Quick and simple scoring scales are therefore not only applicable but useful for the case management of patients in meningococcal epidemics in developing countries. PMID:9648355

  13. Do elderly people score better on cognitive tests at home?

    PubMed Central

    Shievitz, A. L.; Tudiver, F.; Araujo, A.; Sanghe, P.; Boyle, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of elderly family medicine patients are different when the test is administered at home rather than at the clinic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison study. SETTING: University family practice unit in an urban area. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice clinic patients 70 years or older were referred to the study in the sequence seen at the clinic. Of 171 patients approached in person or by telephone, 77 agreed to participate. METHOD: The MMSE was administered at home and at the clinic on the same day for all subjects. Testing site order was randomized across patients. MAIN FINDINGS: Of the 77 patients who agreed to be subjects, only 13 (16.9%) had low MMSE scores (< or = 24). Five (41.7%) of these had normal scores (> 24) at home, but low scores in the clinic. Subjects had significantly higher scores on MMSEs administered at home (P < .01) on the same day. CONCLUSIONS: Previous research has shown patients achieve higher MMSE scores at home; this study demonstrated it in a representative family medicine population. Primary care physicians should be cautious about classifying elderly patients as possibly cognitively impaired based on clinic testing alone. Testing at home could avoid many unnecessary referrals to specialist services for further assessment and diagnostic tests that use up precious health care resources. PMID:9721421

  14. Propensity Score Matching: Retrospective Randomization?

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    Randomized controlled trials are viewed as the optimal study design. In this commentary, we explore the strength of this design and its complexity. We also discuss some situations in which these trials are not possible, or not ethical, or not economical. In such situations, specifically, in retrospective studies, we should make every effort to recapitulate the rigor and strength of the randomized trial. However, we could be faced with an inherent indication bias in such a setting. Thus, we consider the tools available to address that bias. Specifically, we examine matching and introduce and explore a new tool: propensity score matching. This tool allows us to group subjects according to their propensity to be in a particular treatment group and, in so doing, to account for the indication bias.

  15. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  16. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066

  17. What Is the Apgar Score?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3- ... Baby Home The First Day of Life Your Child's Checkup: Newborn Medical Care and ... First-Time Parents Birthmarks Jaundice in Healthy Newborns When Your Baby's ...

  18. Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently?

    PubMed

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Prostate Health Index and 4-Kallikrein Panel Score in Predicting Overall and High-grade Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Regis, Federica; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Privitera, Salvatore; Giardina, Raimondo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2016-12-30

    Markers for prostate cancer (PCa) have progressed over recent years. In particular, the prostate health index (PHI) and the 4-kallikrein (4K) panel have been demonstrated to improve the diagnosis of PCa. We aimed to review the diagnostic accuracy of PHI and the 4K panel for PCa detection. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Academic One File databases until July 2016. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used PHI or 4K panel for the diagnosis of PCa or high-grade PCa. The methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Twenty-eight studies including 16,762 patients have been included for the analysis. The pooled data showed a sensitivity of 0.89 and 0.74 for PHI and 4K panel, respectively, for PCa detection and a pooled specificity of 0.34 and 0.60 for PHI and 4K panel, respectively. The derived area under the curve (AUC) from the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) showed an accuracy of 0.76 and 0.72 for PHI and 4K panel respectively. For high-grade PCa detection, the pooled sensitivity was 0.93 and 0.87 for PHI and 4K panel, respectively, whereas the pooled specificity was 0.34 and 0.61 for PHI and 4K panel, respectively. The derived AUC from the HSROC showed an accuracy of 0.82 and 0.81 for PHI and 4K panel, respectively. Both PHI and the 4K panel provided good diagnostic accuracy in detecting overall and high-grade PCa.

  20. Society News: Astronomy in the garden wins RHS prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    The Spaced Out garden, sponsored by the RAS, won a Gold Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society at the Tatton Park Garden Show in August. It also provided a showcase for a model of the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and an unusual occasion for astronomy outreach.

  1. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  2. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  3. Aptitude Test Score Trends: 1959-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dianne C.

    The decline in standardized test scores during the 1960s and 1970s is well documented and is seen in both aptitude and achievement test scores. This paper describes and analyzes the test score trends over the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s for five aptitude tests: (1) the Scholastic Aptitude Test; (2) the American College Test; (3) the Preliminary…

  4. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  5. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  6. On the Reliability of Categorically Scored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupermintz, Haggai

    2004-01-01

    A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…

  7. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  8. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  9. Risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rohini; Dent, Tom; Meads, Catherine; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2011-01-01

    intervention aimed at reducing actual risk in people were sparse. Conclusion Much work has been done to develop diabetes risk models and scores, but most are rarely used because they require tests not routinely available or they were developed without a specific user or clear use in mind. Encouragingly, recent research has begun to tackle usability and the impact of diabetes risk scores. Two promising areas for further research are interventions that prompt lay people to check their own diabetes risk and use of risk scores on population datasets to identify high risk “hotspots” for targeted public health interventions. PMID:22123912

  10. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  11. Committee Opinion No. 644: The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered to be evidence of or a consequence of asphyxia, does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome, and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during a resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  12. Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to <2.5ppb, the odds ratio=2.32 (95% CI: 1.22-4.40); for those with PBB⩾2.5ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p<0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below-median 5min Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes.

  13. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    PubMed

    Nicewander, W Alan

    2017-04-06

    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Grading criteria for chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease: Comparing the NIH eye score, Japanese dry eye score, and DEWS 2007 score

    PubMed Central

    Tatematsu, Yukako; Ogawa, Yoko; Abe, Takayuki; Kamoi, Mizuka; Uchino, Miki; Saijo-Ban, Yumiko; Yaguchi, Saori; Mukai, Shin; Mori, Takehiko; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here we compared the diagnostic rates of ocular GVHD, including its severity, prognosis and the agreement, obtained using three grading scales: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) eye score, Japanese dry eye score, and dry eye workshop score, by retrospectively reviewing the records of 82 patients who underwent HSCT. Tear dynamics and ocular surface assessments made 6–9 months after HSCT were used to determine ocular GVHD severity with the three scales. By the three scales, ocular GVHD was diagnosed in 56 patients (68.3%), 51 patients (62.2%), and 52 patients (63.4%), respectively. The Kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the agreement between scales for diagnosing ocular GVHD. The severity progression within two years after onset was also assessed by tear dynamics and ocular surface examination. The patients were categorized as no change, improved, or progressive. The three grading scales showed good agreement (Kappa = 0.87 to 0.97) in diagnosing patients with ocular GVHD, and the scores by all three were significantly associated with the patients' prognosis (p < 0.01). We recommend that multi-center research is needed for further validation and investigation. PMID:25338290

  15. Development and evaluation of a genetic risk score for obesity.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; McCarthy, Jeanette; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Multi-locus profiles of genetic risk, so-called "genetic risk scores," can be used to translate discoveries from genome-wide association studies into tools for population health research. We developed a genetic risk score for obesity from results of 16 published genome-wide association studies of obesity phenotypes in European-descent samples. We then evaluated this genetic risk score using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort GWAS sample (N = 10,745, 55% female, 77% white, 23% African American). Our 32-locus GRS was a statistically significant predictor of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among ARIC whites [for BMI, r = 0.13, p<1 × 10(-30); for obesity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.57 (95% CI 0.55-0.58)]. The GRS predicted differences in obesity risk net of demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic information. The GRS performed less well among African Americans. The genetic risk score we derived from GWAS provides a molecular measurement of genetic predisposition to elevated BMI and obesity.[Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Biodemography and Social Biology for the following resource: Supplement to Development & Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score for Obesity.].

  16. Innovations in adolescent reproductive and sexual health education in Santiago de Chile: effects of physician leadership and direct service.

    PubMed

    Grizzard, Tarayn; González, Electra; Sandoval, Jorge; Molina, Ramiro

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive and sexual health (RSH) education is a key component of most family planning programs around the world and is particularly important for adolescents, for whom parenthood is more likely to have difficult or dangerous health outcomes. A lack of comprehensive RSH education targeted at adolescents may augment the poor outcomes associated with early pregnancy by creating barriers to optimal care. This article discusses the creation of the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva y Desarrollo Integral de la Adolescencia clinic, a comprehensive adolescent reproductive health center in Santiago de Chile, and its RSH education programs. In particular, the role of the physician in originating and leading the RSH education efforts, the controversy associated with RSH education in Chile, and the effects of comprehensive RHS education on the local and regional adolescent populations are discussed.

  17. Could There Be a Medical Basis for the Declining SAT Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.

    The scores of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) have been declining since 1963. While this decline has occurred, scores on achievement tests administered to students in grades 3 to 11 have been stable. An alalysis of the medical and epidemiological literature was conducted to determine whether there could be a health factor that might have caused…

  18. Usefulness of HATCH score in the prediction of new-onset atrial fibrillation for Asians

    PubMed Central

    Suenari, Kazuyoshi; Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Kihara, Yasuki; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The HATCH score (hypertension <1 point>, age >75 years <1 point>, stroke or transient ischemic attack <2 points>, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease <1 point>, and heart failure <2 points>) was reported to be useful for predicting the progression of atrial fibrillation (AF) from paroxysmal to persistent or permanent AF for patients who participated in the Euro Heart Survey. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether the HATCH score was a useful scheme in predicting new-onset AF. Furthermore, we aimed to use the HATCH scoring system to estimate the individual risk in developing AF for patients with different comorbidities. We used the “Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.” From January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001, a total of 670,804 patients older than 20 years old and who had no history of cardiac arrhythmias were enrolled. According to the calculation rule of the HATCH score, 599,780 (score 0), 46,661 (score 1), 12,892 (score 2), 7456 (score 3), 2944 (score 4), 802 (score 5), 202 (score 6), and 67 (score 7) patients were studied and followed for the new onset of AF. During a follow-up of 9.0 ± 2.2 years, there were 9174 (1.4%) patients experiencing new-onset AF. The incidence of AF was 1.5 per 1000 patient-years. The incidence increased from 0.8 per 1000 patient-years for patients with a HATCH score of 0 to 57.3 per 1000 patient-years for those with a HATCH score of 7. After an adjustment for the gender and comorbidities, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of each increment of the HATCH score in predicting AF was 2.059 (2.027–2.093; P < 0.001). The HATCH score was useful in risk estimation and stratification of new-onset AF. PMID:28072697

  19. Rehabilitation after lower limb injury: development of a predictive score (RALLI score)

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Dominique M.; Place, Alexandre; Bérubé, Mélanie; Laflamme, Yves G.; Feldman, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the need for inpatient rehabilitation after lower limb injury to develop a predictive scoring tool for early identification of such patients. Methods We followed a prospective cohort of patients admitted to a level 1 trauma centre. Data were collected through chart review and a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographics, patient living environment, pretrauma status, injury and treatment received. We compared patients who were discharged home with those going to rehabilitation after acute care. Analysis consisted of bivariate comparisons and logistic regression. Results Our study included 160 patients with a mean age of 56 years. A total of 40% were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation centre. Factors associated with inpatient rehabilitation were low preinjury physical health status, concomitant injury of the upper limbs, bilateral lower limb injury, the use of a walking aid before injury, head injury and femur or pelvic fractures. We created a predictive score using the top 3 risk factors: upper limb injury, bilateral lower limb injury and presence of femoral or pelvic fractures. The chance of needing inpatient rehabilitation rose from 14% with 0 factors to 47% with 1 factor and 96% with 2 factors. Conclusion Rehabilitation planning should begin for patients exhibiting at least of 3 risk factors at the time of admission to acute care. Prospective validation of the tool is needed, but it has the potential to orient the multidisciplinary team’s decision on rehabilitation needs postdischarge. PMID:26204367

  20. Are the Best Scores the Best Scores for Predicting College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…

  1. Development of Dengue Infection Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Pongpan, Surangrat; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Namwongprom, Sirianong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a simple scoring system to predict dengue infection severity based on patient characteristics and routine clinical profiles. Methods. Retrospective data of children with dengue infection from 3 general hospitals in Thailand were reviewed. Dengue infection was categorized into 3 severity levels: dengue infection (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Coefficients of significant predictors of disease severity under ordinal regression analysis were transformed into item scores. Total scores were used to classify patients into 3 severity levels. Results. Significant clinical predictors of dengue infection severity were age >6 years, hepatomegaly, hematocrit ≥40%, systolic pressure <90 mmHg, white cell count >5000 /μL, and platelet ≤50000 /μL. The derived total scores, which ranged from 0 to 18, classified patients into 3 severity levels: DF (scores <2.5, n = 451, 58.1%), DHF (scores 2.5–11.5, n = 276, 35.5%), and DSS (scores >11.5, n = 50, 6.4%). The derived score correctly classified patients into their original severity levels in 60.7%. An under-estimation of 25.7% and an over-estimation of 13.5% were clinically acceptable. Conclusions. The derived dengue infection severity score classified patients into DF, DHF, or DSS, correctly into their original severity levels. Validation of the score should be reconfirmed before application of routine practice. PMID:24324896

  2. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-08-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  3. The Mystery of the Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Alexander E.; Smith, Tanya A.; Ziganshin, Bulat A.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use. PMID:28097194

  4. Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score Is Superior to the Obstetric-Specific Sepsis in Obstetrics Score in Predicting Mortality in Septic Obstetric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Helen M.; Magee, Laura A.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Fjell, Chris; Walley, Keith R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mortality prediction scores have been used for a long time in ICUs; however, numerous studies have shown that they over-predict mortality in the obstetric population. With sepsis remaining a major cause of obstetric mortality, we aimed to look at five mortality prediction scores (one obstetric-based and four general) in the septic obstetric population and compare them to a nonobstetric septic control group. Subject and Design: Women in the age group of 16–50 years with an admission diagnosis or suspicion of sepsis were included. In a multicenter obstetric population (n = 797), these included all pregnant and postpartum patients up to 6 weeks postpartum. An age- and gender-matched control nonobstetric population was drawn from a single-center general critical care population (n = 2,461). Sepsis in Obstetric Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Scores were all applied to patients meeting inclusion criteria in both cohorts, and their area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves was calculated to find the most accurate predictor. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 146 septic patients were found for the obstetric cohort and 299 patients for the nonobstetric control cohort. The Sepsis in Obstetric Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Scores gave area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves of 0.67, 0.68, 0.72, 0.79, and 0.84 in the obstetric cohort, respectively, and 0.64, 0.72, 0.61, 0.78, and 0.74 in the nonobstetric cohort, respectively. The Sepsis in Obstetric Score performed similarly to all the other scores with the exception of the Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score, which was significantly better (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The Sepsis in Obstetric Score, designed specifically for

  5. FRESCO: flexible alignment with rectangle scoring schemes.

    PubMed

    Dalca, A V; Brudno, M

    2008-01-01

    While the popular DNA sequence alignment tools incorporate powerful heuristics to allow for fast and accurate alignment of DNA, most of them still optimize the classical Needleman Wunsch scoring scheme. The development of novel scoring schemes is often hampered by the difficulty of finding an optimizing algorithm for each non-trivial scheme. In this paper we define the broad class of rectangle scoring schemes, and describe an algorithm and tool that can align two sequences with an arbitrary rectangle scoring scheme in polynomial time. Rectangle scoring schemes encompass some of the popular alignment scoring metrics currently in use, as well as many other functions. We investigate a novel scoring function based on minimizing the expected number of random diagonals observed with the given scores and show that it rivals the LAGAN and Clustal-W aligners, without using any biological or evolutionary parameters. The FRESCO program, freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/fresco, gives bioinformatics researchers the ability to quickly compare the performance of other complex scoring formulas without having to implement new algorithms to optimize them.

  6. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  7. A Risk Score for Predicting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Ruth; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Topping, Joanne; Smith, Paul; Solanky, Bhavana; Schmierer, Klaus; Chard, Declan; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) develops as a result of environmental influences on the genetically susceptible. Siblings of people with MS have an increased risk of both MS and demonstrating asymptomatic changes in keeping with MS. We set out to develop an MS risk score integrating both genetic and environmental risk factors. We used this score to identify siblings at extremes of MS risk and attempted to validate the score using brain MRI. Methods 78 probands with MS, 121 of their unaffected siblings and 103 healthy controls were studied. Personal history was taken, and serological and genetic analysis using the illumina immunochip was performed. Odds ratios for MS associated with each risk factor were derived from existing literature, and the log values of the odds ratios from each of the risk factors were combined in an additive model to provide an overall score. Scores were initially calculated using log odds ratio from the HLA-DRB1*1501 allele only, secondly using data from all MS-associated SNPs identified in the 2011 GWAS. Subjects with extreme risk scores underwent validation studies. MRI was performed on selected individuals. Results There was a significant difference in the both risk scores between people with MS, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls (p<0.0005). Unaffected siblings had a risk score intermediate to people with MS and controls (p<0.0005). The best performing risk score generated an AUC of 0.82 (95%CI 0.75–0.88). Interpretations The risk score demonstrates an AUC on the threshold for clinical utility. Our score enables the identification of a high-risk sibling group to inform pre-symptomatic longitudinal studies. PMID:27802296

  8. Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-02-01

    The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

  9. Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar Scores

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Metrecia L.; Hartnett, Kathleen P.; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5 minutes, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below–median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose–related increase in the odds of a below–median Apgar score at 1 minute and 5 minutes. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion, the odds ratio was 2.32 (95 % CI: 1.22– 4.40); for those with PBB ≥ 2.5 ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p< 0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below–median 5–minute Apgar increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:25203650

  10. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco A; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54), and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47), boiled beef (score = 75) and hamburger (score = 82). The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91) and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%). Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%). Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  11. Polychotomous Responses and the Test Score.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Traditionally, the test score represented by the number of items answered correctly was taken as an indicator of the examinee's ability level. Researchers still tend to think that the number-correct score is a way of ordering individuals with respect to the latent trait. The objective of this study is to depict the benefits of using ability…

  12. Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…

  13. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  14. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  15. Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

    Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

  16. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  17. Using Empirical Data to Set Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.

    Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…

  18. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  19. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  20. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  1. Causal Moderation Analysis Using Propensity Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on previous studies in applying propensity score methods to study multiple treatment variables to examine the causal moderator effect. The propensity score methods will be demonstrated in a case study to examine the causal moderator effect, where the moderators are categorical and continuous variables. Moderation analysis is an…

  2. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.

  3. Model feedback in Bayesian propensity score estimation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin M; Watts, Krista; Yeh, Robert W; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Methods based on the propensity score comprise one set of valuable tools for comparative effectiveness research and for estimating causal effects more generally. These methods typically consist of two distinct stages: (1) a propensity score stage where a model is fit to predict the propensity to receive treatment (the propensity score), and (2) an outcome stage where responses are compared in treated and untreated units having similar values of the estimated propensity score. Traditional techniques conduct estimation in these two stages separately; estimates from the first stage are treated as fixed and known for use in the second stage. Bayesian methods have natural appeal in these settings because separate likelihoods for the two stages can be combined into a single joint likelihood, with estimation of the two stages carried out simultaneously. One key feature of joint estimation in this context is "feedback" between the outcome stage and the propensity score stage, meaning that quantities in a model for the outcome contribute information to posterior distributions of quantities in the model for the propensity score. We provide a rigorous assessment of Bayesian propensity score estimation to show that model feedback can produce poor estimates of causal effects absent strategies that augment propensity score adjustment with adjustment for individual covariates. We illustrate this phenomenon with a simulation study and with a comparative effectiveness investigation of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy among 123,286 Medicare beneficiaries hospitlized for stroke in 2006 and 2007.

  4. Methodological Approaches to Online Scoring of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.

    This report examines the feasibility of scoring essays using computer-based techniques. Essays have been incorporated into many of the standardized testing programs. Issues of validity and reliability must be addressed to deploy automated approaches to scoring fully. Two approaches that have been used to classify documents, surface- and word-based…

  5. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  6. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators: Physical condition, financial condition, management operations, and the Capital Fund program... a single score for the physical condition, financial condition, and management operations indicators.... The score for this indicator is obtained as indicated in subpart B of this part. (2) The...

  7. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  8. Little Jiffy Factor Scores and Domain Validities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Michael, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A formula is derived for ascertaining factor scores for the factor analytic method: Little Jiffy, Mark IV. This formula is then employed to derive a second formula giving an exact determination of the generalized Kuder-Richardson estimate of the reliability of scores on a Little Jiffy factor. (Author/JKS)

  9. Geometric facial gender scoring: objectivity of perception.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores.

  10. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  11. Propensity score matching in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2010-09-01

    Cluster randomization trials with relatively few clusters have been widely used in recent years for evaluation of health-care strategies. On average, randomized treatment assignment achieves balance in both known and unknown confounding factors between treatment groups, however, in practice investigators can only introduce a small amount of stratification and cannot balance on all the important variables simultaneously. The limitation arises especially when there are many confounding variables in small studies. Such is the case in the INSTINCT trial designed to investigate the effectiveness of an education program in enhancing the tPA use in stroke patients. In this article, we introduce a new randomization design, the balance match weighted (BMW) design, which applies the optimal matching with constraints technique to a prospective randomized design and aims to minimize the mean squared error (MSE) of the treatment effect estimator. A simulation study shows that, under various confounding scenarios, the BMW design can yield substantial reductions in the MSE for the treatment effect estimator compared to a completely randomized or matched-pair design. The BMW design is also compared with a model-based approach adjusting for the estimated propensity score and Robins-Mark-Newey E-estimation procedure in terms of efficiency and robustness of the treatment effect estimator. These investigations suggest that the BMW design is more robust and usually, although not always, more efficient than either of the approaches. The design is also seen to be robust against heterogeneous error. We illustrate these methods in proposing a design for the INSTINCT trial.

  12. Propensity score analysis with missing data.

    PubMed

    Cham, Heining; West, Stephen G

    2016-09-01

    Propensity score analysis is a method that equates treatment and control groups on a comprehensive set of measured confounders in observational (nonrandomized) studies. A successful propensity score analysis reduces bias in the estimate of the average treatment effect in a nonrandomized study, making the estimate more comparable with that obtained from a randomized experiment. This article reviews and discusses an important practical issue in propensity analysis, in which the baseline covariates (potential confounders) and the outcome have missing values (incompletely observed). We review the statistical theory of propensity score analysis and estimation methods for propensity scores with incompletely observed covariates. Traditional logistic regression and modern machine learning methods (e.g., random forests, generalized boosted modeling) as estimation methods for incompletely observed covariates are reviewed. Balance diagnostics and equating methods for incompletely observed covariates are briefly described. Using an empirical example, the propensity score estimation methods for incompletely observed covariates are illustrated and compared. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances.

  14. Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Fonseca, Ana Carolina da Costa e; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Methods Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author’s guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. Result The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Conclusion Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal. PMID:25628189

  15. Occupant feedback questionnaire producing a fingerprint and a score

    SciTech Connect

    Levermore, G.J.; Lowe, D.J.; Ure, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    In order to ensure that buildings and HVAC plans are truly for people and actually satisfy the occupants, it is necessary to obtain feedback from the occupants. This can be done by a novel questionnaire that produces a readily understandable fingerprint and score to indicate occupants' liking of their environments. The questionnaire uses a double-Likert section rating the liking and importance of up to 24 environmental, organizational, and human factors. To date it has been used primarily in U.K. offices, including modern deep-plan, naturally ventilated buildings. Comparison is made to previous results from 1,400 occupants in 12 offices that are air conditioned and naturally ventilated, where scores ranged from +17% (greatly liked by the occupants) to {minus}15% (greatly disliked). However, four U.K. offices with 1,300 occupants, which are discussed in detail, produced very low scores, {minus}14% to {minus}39%, the latter for a building with no windows. The fingerprints and scores were supported by an independent consultant's survey of the buildings and plant and also detailed factor analysis. The latter indicated that the 18 factors used in the questionnaire could be reduced to 5 general factors. The most important factors for the occupants for their ideal office were temperature, health, ventilation, and heating control, and the least important were the appearance of the building, distance to a window, humidity, and glare. It is proposed that this questionnaire is a useful management tool and suitable for use as a final commissioning tool.

  16. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas.

    PubMed

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M

    2017-03-08

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0-2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments' representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score(®), a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10-47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172-475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores(®) ranged 0-91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations' correlation coefficients ranged 0.75-1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores(®) (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  17. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  18. Analysis of WAIS-IV index score scatter using significant deviation from the mean index score.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L; Jianjun Zhu

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement the pairwise index score comparisons included in the WAIS-IV manuals, this article describes the use of the mean of the four index scores (the average index score) as a baseline for analyzing index score variability and as a method for identifying strengths and weaknesses within an individual's index score pattern. Davis's formula was used to calculate critical values for the identification of index scores with a statistically significant difference from the average index score. Subsequent analysis of the WAIS-IV normative sample indicates that variability in performance at the index score level is not uncommon in the general population. More than 70% of individuals in the normative sample have at least one index score that differs significantly from their mean index score. This variability in index score performance appears to have little relationship to age or gender, but it is strongly related to the full-scale IQ.

  19. Does Field Reliability for Static-99 Scores Decrease as Scores Increase?

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amanda K.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Harris, Paige B.; Hawes, Samuel W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the field reliability of Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) scores among 21,983 sex offenders and focused on whether rater agreement decreased as scores increased. As expected, agreement was lowest for high-scoring offenders. Initial and most recent Static-99 scores were identical for only about 40% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 6 during their initial evaluations, but for more than 60% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 2 or lower. In addition, the size of the difference between scores increased as scores increased, with pairs of scores differing by 2 or more points for about 30% of offenders scoring in the high-risk range. Because evaluators and systems use high Static-99 scores to identify sexual offenders who may require intensive supervision or even postrelease civil commitment, it is important to recognize that there may be more measurement error for high scores than low scores and to consider adopting procedures for minimizing or accounting for measurement error. PMID:24932647

  20. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  1. A comparison between modified Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anand; Singla, Satpaul; Singh, Mohinder; Singla, Deeksha

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.

  2. Bias associated with using the estimated propensity score as a regression covariate.

    PubMed

    Hade, Erinn M; Lu, Bo

    2014-01-15

    The use of propensity score methods to adjust for selection bias in observational studies has become increasingly popular in public health and medical research. A substantial portion of studies using propensity score adjustment treat the propensity score as a conventional regression predictor. Through a Monte Carlo simulation study, Austin and colleagues. investigated the bias associated with treatment effect estimation when the propensity score is used as a covariate in nonlinear regression models, such as logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. We show that the bias exists even in a linear regression model when the estimated propensity score is used and derive the explicit form of the bias. We also conduct an extensive simulation study to compare the performance of such covariate adjustment with propensity score stratification, propensity score matching, inverse probability of treatment weighted method, and nonparametric functional estimation using splines. The simulation scenarios are designed to reflect real data analysis practice. Instead of specifying a known parametric propensity score model, we generate the data by considering various degrees of overlap of the covariate distributions between treated and control groups. Propensity score matching excels when the treated group is contained within a larger control pool, while the model-based adjustment may have an edge when treated and control groups do not have too much overlap. Overall, adjusting for the propensity score through stratification or matching followed by regression or using splines, appears to be a good practical strategy.

  3. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data

    PubMed Central

    Gauer, Jacqueline L.; Wolff, Josephine M.; Jackson, J. Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011–2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065). Results The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001). The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001) and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001). In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24). Discussion Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student. PMID:27702431

  4. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Jacqueline L; Wolff, Josephine M; Jackson, J Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011-2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065). Results The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001). The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001) and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001). In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24). Discussion Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student.

  5. Variance estimation for stratified propensity score estimators.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E J; Morley, R; Lucas, A; Carpenter, J R

    2012-07-10

    Propensity score methods are increasingly used to estimate the effect of a treatment or exposure on an outcome in non-randomised studies. We focus on one such method, stratification on the propensity score, comparing it with the method of inverse-probability weighting by the propensity score. The propensity score--the conditional probability of receiving the treatment given observed covariates--is usually an unknown probability estimated from the data. Estimators for the variance of treatment effect estimates typically used in practice, however, do not take into account that the propensity score itself has been estimated from the data. By deriving the asymptotic marginal variance of the stratified estimate of treatment effect, correctly taking into account the estimation of the propensity score, we show that routinely used variance estimators are likely to produce confidence intervals that are too conservative when the propensity score model includes variables that predict (cause) the outcome, but only weakly predict the treatment. In contrast, a comparison with the analogous marginal variance for the inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimator shows that routinely used variance estimators for the IPW estimator are likely to produce confidence intervals that are almost always too conservative. Because exact calculation of the asymptotic marginal variance is likely to be complex, particularly for the stratified estimator, we suggest that bootstrap estimates of variance should be used in practice.

  6. On regression adjustment for the propensity score.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, S; Daniel, R M

    2014-10-15

    Propensity scores are widely adopted in observational research because they enable adjustment for high-dimensional confounders without requiring models for their association with the outcome of interest. The results of statistical analyses based on stratification, matching or inverse weighting by the propensity score are therefore less susceptible to model extrapolation than those based solely on outcome regression models. This is attractive because extrapolation in outcome regression models may be alarming, yet difficult to diagnose, when the exposed and unexposed individuals have very different covariate distributions. Standard regression adjustment for the propensity score forms an alternative to the aforementioned propensity score methods, but the benefits of this are less clear because it still involves modelling the outcome in addition to the propensity score. In this article, we develop novel insights into the properties of this adjustment method. We demonstrate that standard tests of the null hypothesis of no exposure effect (based on robust variance estimators), as well as particular standardised effects obtained from such adjusted regression models, are robust against misspecification of the outcome model when a propensity score model is correctly specified; they are thus not vulnerable to the aforementioned problem of extrapolation. We moreover propose efficient estimators for these standardised effects, which retain a useful causal interpretation even when the propensity score model is misspecified, provided the outcome regression model is correctly specified.

  7. Teachers' Use of Rubrics to Score Non-traditional Tasks: Factors Related to Discrepancies in Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.; Cady, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    This study considered middle school mathematics teachers use of rubrics to score non-traditional tasks. A group of eighth-grade teachers attended a two-day workshop where they evaluated assessment tasks and discussed the use of an associated scoring rubric. Scored samples of student work submitted by the teachers indicated that they had difficulty…

  8. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  9. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  10. Decentralized Large Scale Essay Scoring: Methods for Establishing and Evaluating Score Scale Stability and Reading Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auchter, Joan Chikos; Patience, Wayne

    The methods used by the General Educational Development Testing Service (GEDTS) to establish and maintain score stability and reading reliability on its direct assessment of writing are described. Using the 1988 site certification and monitoring results of several scoring sites, the focus is on describing how the score scale was established and…

  11. A Simple Screening Score for Diabetes for the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-ho; Bang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Hee Man; Park, Seok Won; Kim, Dae Jung

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We developed and validated a self-assessment score for diabetes risk in Korean adults and compared it with other established screening models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2001 and 2005 data were used to develop a diabetes screening score. After excluding patients with known diabetes, 9,602 participants aged ≥20 years were selected. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or nonfasting plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL. The SAS Survey Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine predictors of undiagnosed diabetes (n = 341). We validated our model and compared it with other existing methods using the KNHANES 2007–2008 data (n = 8,391). RESULTS Age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, waist circumference, smoking, and alcohol intake were independently associated with undiagnosed diabetes. We calculated a diabetes screening score (range 0–11), and a cut point of ≥5 defined 47% of adults as being at high risk for diabetes and yielded a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 54%, positive predictive value of 6%, and positive likelihood ratio of 1.8 (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73). Comparable results were obtained in validation datasets (sensitivity 80%, specificity 53%, and AUC = 0.73), showing better performance than other non-Asian models from the U.S. or European population. CONCLUSIONS This self-assessment score may be useful for identifying Korean adults at high risk for diabetes. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the utility and feasibility of this score in various settings. PMID:22688547

  12. On the Scoring of Cloze Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausing, Gerhard; Senko, Donna

    1978-01-01

    Cloze testing and language performance is discussed as are two techniques for awarding partial credit: the quick performance measurement and feedback technique and the three-stage scoring hierarchy for partial credit. A figure and tables are included. (EJS)

  13. Multifactor Screener in OPEN: Scoring Procedures & Results

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.

  14. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  16. 7 CFR 52.3764 - Score sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... § 52.3764 Score sheet. Number, size and kind of container Label (including size declaration)...

  17. Dynamic TIMI Risk Score for STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sameer T.; Morrow, David A.; Braunwald, Eugene; Sloan, Sarah; Contant, Charles; Murphy, Sabina; Antman, Elliott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there are multiple methods of risk stratification for ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), this study presents a prospectively validated method for reclassification of patients based on in‐hospital events. A dynamic risk score provides an initial risk stratification and reassessment at discharge. Methods and Results The dynamic TIMI risk score for STEMI was derived in ExTRACT‐TIMI 25 and validated in TRITON‐TIMI 38. Baseline variables were from the original TIMI risk score for STEMI. New variables were major clinical events occurring during the index hospitalization. Each variable was tested individually in a univariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Variables with P<0.05 were incorporated into a full multivariable Cox model to assess the risk of death at 1 year. Each variable was assigned an integer value based on the odds ratio, and the final score was the sum of these values. The dynamic score included the development of in‐hospital MI, arrhythmia, major bleed, stroke, congestive heart failure, recurrent ischemia, and renal failure. The C‐statistic produced by the dynamic score in the derivation database was 0.76, with a net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 0.33 (P<0.0001) from the inclusion of dynamic events to the original TIMI risk score. In the validation database, the C‐statistic was 0.81, with a NRI of 0.35 (P=0.01). Conclusions This score is a prospectively derived, validated means of estimating 1‐year mortality of STEMI at hospital discharge and can serve as a clinically useful tool. By incorporating events during the index hospitalization, it can better define risk and help to guide treatment decisions. PMID:23525425

  18. Comparability of IQ Scores over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…

  19. Sequential effects in Olympic synchronized diving scores

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    When judging performances in a sequence, the current score is often influenced by the preceding score. Where athletes are perceived to be similar, a judgement is assimilated towards the previous one. However, if judges focus on the differences between the two athletes, this will result in a contrasting influence on their scores. Here, I investigate sequential effects during synchronized diving events at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Although previous research found assimilation in scores of gymnasts, the current data showed contrast effects—current scores benefited from following a poor performance but were at a disadvantage if they followed a high-scoring performance. One explanation may be that the processes involved in judging synchronized pairs results in a focus on the differences between athletes, producing a contrast effect across dives. That the specific direction of this sequential bias may depend on the particular sport has implications for how judges might approach their roles in a context-dependent manner, as well as how such biases should be addressed. PMID:28280583

  20. A comprehensive scoring system to measure healthy community design in land use plans and regulations.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Kristin M; Kaplan, Marina; Walling, Lee Ann; Miller, Patricia P; Crist, Gina

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive land use plans and their corresponding regulations play a role in determining the nature of the built environment and community design, which are factors that influence population health and health disparities. To determine the level in which a plan addresses healthy living and active design, there is a need for a systematic, reliable and valid method of analyzing and scoring health-related content in plans and regulations. This paper describes the development and validation of a scoring tool designed to measure the strength and comprehensiveness of health-related content found in land use plans and the corresponding regulations. The measures are scored based on the presence of a specific item and the specificity and action-orientation of language. To establish reliability and validity, 42 land use plans and regulations from across the United States were scored January-April 2016. Results of the psychometric analysis indicate the scorecard is a reliable scoring tool for land use plans and regulations related to healthy living and active design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) scores showed strong inter-rater reliability for total strength and comprehensiveness. ICC scores for total implementation scores showed acceptable consistency among scorers. Cronbach's alpha values for all focus areas were acceptable. Strong content validity was measured through a committee vetting process. The development of this tool has far-reaching implications, bringing standardization of measurement to the field of land use plan assessment, and paving the way for systematic inclusion of health-related design principles, policies, and requirements in land use plans and their corresponding regulations.

  1. Identifying Mendelian disease genes with the Variant Effect Scoring Tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whole exome sequencing studies identify hundreds to thousands of rare protein coding variants of ambiguous significance for human health. Computational tools are needed to accelerate the identification of specific variants and genes that contribute to human disease. Results We have developed the Variant Effect Scoring Tool (VEST), a supervised machine learning-based classifier, to prioritize rare missense variants with likely involvement in human disease. The VEST classifier training set comprised ~ 45,000 disease mutations from the latest Human Gene Mutation Database release and another ~45,000 high frequency (allele frequency >1%) putatively neutral missense variants from the Exome Sequencing Project. VEST outperforms some of the most popular methods for prioritizing missense variants in carefully designed holdout benchmarking experiments (VEST ROC AUC = 0.91, PolyPhen2 ROC AUC = 0.86, SIFT4.0 ROC AUC = 0.84). VEST estimates variant score p-values against a null distribution of VEST scores for neutral variants not included in the VEST training set. These p-values can be aggregated at the gene level across multiple disease exomes to rank genes for probable disease involvement. We tested the ability of an aggregate VEST gene score to identify candidate Mendelian disease genes, based on whole-exome sequencing of a small number of disease cases. We used whole-exome data for two Mendelian disorders for which the causal gene is known. Considering only genes that contained variants in all cases, the VEST gene score ranked dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) number 2 of 2253 genes in four cases of Miller syndrome, and myosin-3 (MYH3) number 2 of 2313 genes in three cases of Freeman Sheldon syndrome. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the potential power gain of aggregating bioinformatics variant scores into gene-level scores and the general utility of bioinformatics in assisting the search for disease genes in large-scale exome sequencing studies. VEST is

  2. Health literacy and health care spending and utilization in a consumer-driven health plan.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Nancy A; Kyanko, Kelly; Busch, Susan; Losasso, Anthony T; Levin, Regina A

    2011-01-01

    We examined health literacy and health care spending and utilization by linking responses of three health literacy questions to 2006 claims data of enrollees new to consumer-driven health plans (n = 4,130). Better health literacy on all four health literacy measures (three item responses and their sum) was associated with lower total health care spending, specifically, lower emergency department and inpatient admission spending (p < .05). Similarly, fewer inpatient admissions and emergency department visits were associated with higher adequate health literacy scores and better self-reports of the ability to read and learn about medical conditions (p-value <.05). Members with lower health literacy scores appear to use services more appropriate for advanced health conditions, although office visit rates were similar across the range of health literacy scores.

  3. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. Conclusions The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here. PMID:25780509

  4. Evaluation of arthroscopy and macroscopic scoring

    PubMed Central

    af Klint, Erik; Catrina, Anca I; Matt, Peter; Neregråd, Petra; Lampa, Jon; Ulfgren, Ann-Kristin; Klareskog, Lars; Lindblad, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique for retrieving synovial biopsies in rheumatology during the past 20 years. Vital for its use is continual evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Important for sampling is the fact of intraarticular variation for synovial markers. For microscopic measurements scoring systems have been developed and validated, but for macroscopic evaluations there is a need for further comprehensive description and validation of equivalent scoring systems. Methods We studied the complication rate and yield of arthroscopies performed at our clinic between 1998 and 2005. We also created and evaluated a macroscopic score set of instructions for synovitis. Results Of 408 procedures, we had two major and one minor complication; two haemarthrosis and one wound infection, respectively. Pain was most often not a problem, but 12 procedures had to be prematurely ended due to pain. Yield of biopsies adequate for histology were 83% over all, 94% for knee joints and 34% for smaller joints. Video printer photographs of synovium taken during arthroscopy were jointly and individually reviewed by seven raters in several settings, and intra and inter rater variation was calculated. A macroscopic synovial scoring system for arthroscopy was created (Macro-score), based upon hypertrophy, vascularity and global synovitis. These written instructions were evaluated by five control-raters, and when evaluated individual parameters were without greater intra or inter rater variability, indicating that the score is reliable and easy to use. Conclusions In our hands rheumatologic arthroscopy is a safe method with very few complications. For knee joints it is a reliable method to retrieve representative tissue in clinical longitudinal studies. We also created an easy to use macroscopic score, that needs to be validated against other methodologies. We hope it will be of value in further developing international standards in this area. PMID:19490631

  5. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; Kora, Guruprasad H.; Hauser, Loren J.; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

    2014-12-08

    More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.

  6. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DOE PAGES

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; ...

    2014-12-08

    More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes hadmore » quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.« less

  7. Controversies about effects of low-kilovoltage MDCT acquisition on Agatston calcium scoring.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Fabrice C; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Ghaye, Benoît; Raaijmakers, Rolf; Coche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Recent articles have advocated the possibility of obtaining Agatston coronary calcium scoring at 100 kVp by using a single adapted elevated calcium threshold. To evaluate the influence of kilovoltage potential protocols on the Agatston score, we acquired successive scans of a calcium scoring phantom at 4 levels of kilovoltage potential (80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp, 55 mAs) and measured semiautomatically the individual and the total Agatston score of 6 inserts (of 5-mm and 3-mm diameter) containing hydroxyapatite at different concentrations (800, 400, 200 mg/cm(3)). Our results showed that Agatston scores obtained at various low-kilovoltage potential protocols can be highly overestimated in some particular cases. At 80 kVp, for example, mean measured Agatston score was multiplied by a factor from 1.06 (5-mm highest density insert) to 2.67 (3-mm lowest density insert) compared with the Agatston scores performed at 120 kVp. Indeed in the one hand, reducing kilovoltage potential in multidetector CT acquisitions increase the CT density of coronary calcifications that can be measured on the reconstructed images. On the other hand, Agatston score is a multi-threshold measurement (with a step weighting function). Consequently low kilovoltage potential can lead to overweight some calcifications scores. For these reasons, Agatston score with low kilovoltage potential acquisition cannot be reliably adapted by a unique recalibration of the standard calcium attenuation threshold of 130 HU and requires a standardized CT acquisition protocol at 120 kVp. Alternatives to performing low-dose coronary artery calcium scans are either using coronary calcium scans with reduced tube current (low mAs) at 120 kVp with the iterative reconstructions or using mass/volume scoring (not influenced by kilovoltage potential variations). Finally, we emphasized that incorrect Agatston score evaluation may have important clinical, financial, and health care implications.

  8. Usefulness of Rajka & Langeland Eczema Severity Score in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Gånemo, Agneta; Svensson, Åke; Svedman, Cecilia; Grönberg, Britt-Marie; Johansson, Ann-Charlotte Öhman; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    Simple, validated eczema severity scores are required for the evaluation of interventions. The Rajka & Langeland (R&L) scale is based on 3 domains (extent, course, and intensity); however, its validity is not yet confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality aspects of the R&L scale in clinical practice. In the first part of the study, experts and consumers judged the content validity of the scale. The second part of the study was performed with 87 children during a 4-month eczema school. Construct validity, internal consistency, sensitivity to change, time consumption and health-related quality of life variables were investigated. The content of the R&L scale was considered valid by 45 panellists. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was very good. Divergent construct validity was adequate, while convergent construct validity and internal consistency were inadequate. The R&L scale was able to define a significant improvement in eczema during the eczema school. The time required for completing the R&L assessment was significantly shorter than for objective Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). The R&L scale is a simple, fast, valid, reliable and sensitive tool for scoring of atopic dermatitis in everyday clinical practice.

  9. Propensity score and proximity matching using random forest.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Su, Xiaogang; Ge, Tingting; Fan, Juanjuan

    2016-03-01

    In order to derive unbiased inference from observational data, matching methods are often applied to produce balanced treatment and control groups in terms of all background variables. Propensity score has been a key component in this research area. However, propensity score based matching methods in the literature have several limitations, such as model mis-specifications, categorical variables with more than two levels, difficulties in handling missing data, and nonlinear relationships. Random forest, averaging outcomes from many decision trees, is nonparametric in nature, straightforward to use, and capable of solving these issues. More importantly, the precision afforded by random forest (Caruana et al., 2008) may provide us with a more accurate and less model dependent estimate of the propensity score. In addition, the proximity matrix, a by-product of the random forest, may naturally serve as a distance measure between observations that can be used in matching. The proposed random forest based matching methods are applied to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Our results show that the proposed methods can produce well balanced treatment and control groups. An illustration is also provided that the methods can effectively deal with missing data in covariates.

  10. Validation of dengue infection severity score

    PubMed Central

    Pongpan, Surangrat; Patumanond, Jayanton; Wisitwong, Apichart; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Namwongprom, Sirianong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate a simple scoring system to classify dengue viral infection severity to patients in different settings. Methods The developed scoring system derived from 777 patients from three tertiary-care hospitals was applied to 400 patients in the validation data obtained from another three tertiary-care hospitals. Percentage of correct classification, underestimation, and overestimation was compared. The score discriminative performance in the two datasets was compared by analysis of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Patients in the validation data were different from those in the development data in some aspects. In the validation data, classifying patients into three severity levels (dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome) yielded 50.8% correct prediction (versus 60.7% in the development data), with clinically acceptable underestimation (18.6% versus 25.7%) and overestimation (30.8% versus 13.5%). Despite the difference in predictive performances between the validation and the development data, the overall prediction of the scoring system is considered high. Conclusion The developed severity score may be applied to classify patients with dengue viral infection into three severity levels with clinically acceptable under- or overestimation. Its impact when used in routine clinical practice should be a topic for further study. PMID:24623999

  11. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    PubMed Central

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  12. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  13. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luis C. L.; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    Background The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles. PMID:25029471

  14. Hirsutism scoring in polycystic ovary syndrome: concordance between clinicians' and patients' self-scoring.

    PubMed

    Espinós, Juan J; Calaf, Joaquim; Estadella, Josep; Checa, Miguel A

    2010-12-01

    In a clinical series of 68 women with polycystic ovary syndrome in which the reason for consultation was hirsutism, the mean (standard error of the mean) hirsutism score of the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method was 15.1 (6.8), compared with 12.0 (4.4) for clinicians' scoring. In the multivariable analysis, clinicians' scoring of hirsutism was the only independent variable significantly associated with increased testosterone free index levels.

  15. An assessment of the test–retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. Objective To assess the test–retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. Design A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of ‘0’ or ‘1’. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test–retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test–retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Results Test–retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54–0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all p<0.001. There were 69% (k=0.52) and 67–88% (k=0.32–0.76) test–retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. Conclusion The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test–retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers. PMID:26268707

  16. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Villarreal, Marcos A

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address.

  17. Algorithm Improvement Program Nuclide Identification Algorithm Scoring Criteria And Scoring Application - DNDO.

    SciTech Connect

    Enghauser, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  18. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Marcos A.

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address. PMID:27171006

  19. ATP system target for performance scoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamerler, Timothy; Dowling, James A.; Dillow, Michael A.; Sebesta, Henry R.

    1997-06-01

    The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory is developing the High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) to investigate acquisition, tracking, and pointing concepts to be employed in engagements against boosting missiles in near-space environments. In its most stressing test, HABE employs the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit to provide inertially stabilized line-of-sights (LOSs) for an illuminator laser, active fine track camera, and the marker scoring. The latter serves to measure and score the payload's laser pointing performance. HABE's LOS stabilization subsystem and marker laser pointing are required to demonstrate jitter and drift which is below 1 (mu) rad RMS, a requirement which stresses testing capabilities. At present, a system does not exist to characterize and score the lasers used on this and other experiments at the target plane. This paper will address a concept to provide accurate characterization of laser systems in the far-field target plane.

  20. Are There Adverse Consequences to Being a Sibling of a Person with a Disability? A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether siblings of children with disabilities have increased mental health problems, behavioral difficulties, or greater mental health service use as compared to siblings of children without disabilities. Data come from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey. Propensity score matching was used to complete the analysis.…

  1. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.25 Physical condition scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the physical condition indicator, a score will be.... (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score...

  2. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  3. Change in the Multidimensional Prognostic Index Score During Hospitalization in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Stefano; Daragjati, Julia; Simonato, Matteo; Fontana, Andrea; Ferrucci, Luigi; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    We investigated and describe change in the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) score between admission and discharge in 960 older patients admitted to 20 geriatric units for an acute disease or a relapse of a chronic disease. The MPI was calculated at admission and at discharge. Subjects were divided into three groups of MPI score, low risk (MPI-1 value ≤0.33), moderate risk (MPI-2 value 0.34-0.66), and severe risk of mortality (MPI-3 value ≥0.67), on the basis of previously established cutoffs. Variation of MPI values over length of hospital stay (LOS) was analyzed with a multivariable longitudinal linear model for repeated measurements. At admission, 23.5% subjects had an MPI-1 score, 33.3% had an MPI-2 score, and 43.0% had an MPI-3 score. Overall, for almost 60% of the patients, MPI score at hospital discharge was different compared with the score at admission, although the difference was not statistically significant (-0.003; p = 0.708). Patients with high and intermediate MPI scores at admission had a decrease of MPI score at discharge (delta-MPI -0.026, p < 0.001, and delta-MPI -0.066, p = 0.569, respectively), whereas patients in the MPI-low group, experienced a significant increase in MPI score (delta-MPI 0.041, p < 0.001). The evolution of MPI score as a function of LOS had a curvilinear shape because it significantly decreased for patients with short hospitalization (1-6 days) and tended to increase for those with longer LOS. The MPI, a well-established prognostic tool, is sensitive to change of patient's health status and might be used to objectively track and monitor the clinical evolution of acutely ill geriatric patients admitted to the hospital.

  4. Short communication: scoring of digital dermatitis during milking as an alternative to scoring in a hoof trimming chute.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, P T; Klaas, I C; Bach, K

    2008-12-01

    Digital dermatitis is a serious problem in dairy production in many countries. In many settings, it is important to evaluate the digital dermatitis status of individual cows or an entire dairy herd. Such an evaluation has traditionally been done in a hoof trimming chute. An evaluation in the milking parlor can take place without disturbing the cows to a large extent, it can be done using less labor compared with an evaluation in a hoof trimming chute, and is cheaper than using a chute. The objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid screening method for digital dermatitis in the milking parlor, without using any specialized tools and taking approximately 15 s/cow. All lactating cows in 3 commercial Danish dairy herds were included. Cows were first scored for the presence of digital dermatitis during milking and the next day all cows were scored during hoof trimming. A 6-point nominal scoring system based on a visual inspection of the digital dermatitis lesions was used. For the analysis, the scores were dichotomized (digital dermatitis positive or digital dermatitis negative). Additionally, lesions were classified as small (diameter 2 cm). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using observations from the hoof trimming chute as the "gold standard" and observations during milking as the diagnostic test. Relatively large variation was found between herds with an overall sensitivity of 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.59 to 0.72) and a specificity of 0.84 (0.81 to 0.87). The sensitivity increased to 0.69 (0.62 to 0.76), when only large lesions were assessed. The method has several advantages compared with evaluation in a chute and may be a useful tool in the daily hoof health management in dairy herds.

  5. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHAS scoring. 902.9 Section 902.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  6. A Rasch Model for Partial Credit Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Geoff N.

    1982-01-01

    An extension of the Rasch model for partial credit scoring of test items is presented. An unconditional maximum likelihood procedure for estimating the model parameters is developed. The relationship of this model to Andrich's Rating Scale model and Samejima's Graded Response model are discussed. (Author/JKS)

  7. Stability of WISC-IV process scores.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Kane, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three students were administered on two occasions approximately 11 months apart the complete Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, including the seven process components of Block Design No Time Bonus, Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), Cancellation Random (CAR), Cancellation Structured (CAS), Longest Digit Span Forward (LDSF), and Longest Digit Span Backward (LDSB). Mean ages at first and second testing were 7.77 years (SD = 1.91) and 8.74 years (SD = 1.93), respectively. Mean Full-Scale IQ at initial testing was 111.63 (SD = 10.71). Process score stability coefficients ranged from .75 on DSF to .32 on CAS. Discrepancy score stabilities ranged from .45 on DSF minus DSB to .05 on CAS minus CAR. Approximately 21% of participants increased their LDSF on retest, and 16.3% showed a gain on LDSB. Caution must be exercised when interpreting process scores, and interpretation of discrepancy scores should probably be avoided.

  8. Incorporating Quality Scores in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Soyeon; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of quality-score weights in meta-analysis. A simulation examines the roles of study characteristics such as population effect size (ES) and its variance on the bias and mean square errors (MSEs) of the estimators for several patterns of relationship between quality and ES, and for specific patterns of systematic…

  9. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  10. Scoring Guides and National Percentages of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This book of scoring guides and national percentages is part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national survey measuring the…

  11. Scoring the All-Day Screener

    Cancer.gov

    For the All-Day screener, scoring involves a series of operations that are shown below and implemented in the All-Day Screener Pyramid Servings SAS Program and the All-Day Screener MyPyramid Cup Equivalents SAS Program.

  12. 7 CFR 52.3764 - Score sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet. 52.3764 Section 52.3764 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... (including size declaration) Container mark or identification Net weight (ounces) Vacuum (inches)...

  13. Dynamic Partnerships to Improve Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Connie; Truett, Carol; Matzen, Nita

    2010-01-01

    Today's media specialist can and should become an integral part of the school's efforts to improve student reading and test scores. A media specialist can have an influence on student reading in many ways. One should always remember that the ultimate goal of media specialists is to develop in their students a love of reading as a pleasurable…

  14. HPXML to Home Energy Score Translator

    SciTech Connect

    Market, Noel

    2014-09-08

    Home Energy Score is a simulation-based rating method for existing homes. Home Performance XML (HPXML) is a data transfer standard for home energy audit and retrofit data used throughout the industry. This software receives an HPXML document and translates the building characteristics into HEScore inputs compliant with their API.

  15. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  16. FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GACH, PENELOPE J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS IS DESCRIBED. THREE PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS WERE DEVELOPED--(1) A METAL FOIL ACTIVATING AN ELECTRICAL PROBE, (2) A METAL FOIL REACTING WITH A MAGNETIC PROBE, AND (3) INVISIBLE FLUORESCENT INK REVEALED BY THE APPLICATION OF LONGWAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. (MS)

  17. The Black-White Test Score Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.

    The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…

  18. A Factorial Analysis of BDI Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ian M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Undertook a factorial analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on a sample of male cardiac outpatients (N=214) to investigate whether the BDI factor structure is dependent on the range of BDI scores selected. Results indicated that, in general, the subgroups' factor structures provided no clear interpretation. (LLL)

  19. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  20. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  1. [Propensity score: A credible alternative to randomization?].

    PubMed

    Filleron, Thomas; Kwiatowski, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    In clinical research, the reference method to evaluate treatment benefit without bias is the randomized trial. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to realize one, as for example in surgery or for particular observational studies. In these cases, Rosenbaum and Rubin introduced in 1983 a new methodology: the calculation of a propensity score. When several treatments are compared, this calculation enables to take into account confusion bias using a score that synthesizes the influence on treatment choice of clinical parameters evaluated before. This article describes how to build this score, to estimate its validity, and how to use it: as a new variable into a multivariate analysis, as a matching criterion, or as a stratification parameter. Examples are given to illustrate each case and point out the limitations of such a methodology. This approach, although innovative and useful, cannot reach the level of evidence of randomized clinical trials: simulations have demonstrated this fact in several situations. On the other hand, it can be compared to standard multivariate analysis which permits in a non-randomized context, to limit evaluation bias of treatments by adjusting on potential confusion factors. Some guidelines are given in the last chapter to help researchers decide whether to use a propensity score or a standard multivariate analysis.

  2. Propensity Score Matching within Prognostic Strata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in nonexperimental studies is identifying comparable individuals to remove selection bias. One common way to address this selection bias is through propensity score (PS) matching. PS methods use a model of the treatment assignment to reduce the dimensionality of the covariate space and identify comparable individuals. parallel to…

  3. Using Propensity Score Matching in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Nowell, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    This methodological brief introduces the readers to the propensity score matching method, which can be used for enhancing the validity of causal inferences in research situations involving nonexperimental design or observational research, or in situations where the benefits of an experimental design are not fully realized because of reasons beyond…

  4. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which eighth-grade…

  5. Indicators of Usefulness of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Current thinking on validity suggests that educational institutions and individuals should evaluate their uses of test scores in the context of their fundamental goals. Regression coefficients and other traditional criterion-related validity statistics provide relevant information, but often do not, by themselves, address the fundamental reasons…

  6. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring applications... of individually-owned household water well systems and ground water. Up to 30 points (2) Degree of... rural residents, the amount of funds requested in relation to the amount of needs demonstrated in...

  7. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  8. Score Matrix for HWBI Forecast Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed based relationship function equations derived from select economic, social and ecosystem final goods and service scores and calculated human well-being index and related domain scores. These data are being used in a secondary capacity. The foundational data and scoring techniques were originally described in: a) U.S. EPA. 2012. Indicators and Methods for Constructing a U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) for Ecosystem Services Research. Report. EPA/600/R-12/023. pp. 121; and b) U.S. EPA. 2014. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning. Report. EPA/600/R-14/184. pp. 174. Mode Smith, L. M., Harwell, L. C., Summers, J. K., Smith, H. M., Wade, C. M., Straub, K. R. and J.L. Case (2014).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Summers , K., L. Harwell , and L. Smith. A Model For Change: An Approach for Forecasting Well-Being From Service-Based Decisions. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 69: 295-309, (2016).

  9. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  10. [Proposed scoring system for biomedical scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, E

    2007-02-01

    There are no bibliometric formulas currently available to measure the intrinsic quality of scientific publications. Nonetheless, publication assessment is an inescapable feature of academic and professional evaluation although it is not always done fairly. This paper proposes a scoring system that combines several of the variables most often used for evaluation: article length, inclusion in biomedical databases, impact factor of the journals publishing the articles, and number of citations received during the 2 years following publication. Articles can be classified in 20 categories and assigned scores depending on how the factors are combined. The scoring system's advantage is that it limits excessive weight given to extreme impact factors and corrects differences due to varying citing behaviors in different Science Citation Index categories. Finally, scores are classified by type of article, number of co-authors, and arthorship order. When applying this system, it would be sufficient to evaluate candidates' 5 best articles in order to establish quantitative differences between them, reducing administrative costs and the workloads of assessment committees.

  11. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  12. Using Stein's Estimator to Predict Universe Scores From Obtained Scores. Research Memorandum 78-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheiser, Frederick H., Jr.; Hirshfeld, Stephen L.

    The scientific implications and practical applications of the Stein estimator approach for estimating true scores from observed scores are of potentially great importance. The conceptual complexity is not much greater than that required for more conventional regression models. The empirical Bayesian aspect allows the examiner to incorporate…

  13. The Relationship between Scoring Procedures and Focus and the Reliability of Direct Writing Assessment Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Kao, Chi-Wen

    This paper reports the results of an analysis of the relationship between scorer behaviors and score variability. Thirty-six essay scorers were interviewed and asked to perform a think-aloud task as they scored 24 essays. Each comment made by a scorer was coded according to its content focus (i.e. appearance, assignment, mechanics, communication,…

  14. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  15. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  16. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  17. Validating Test Score Meaning and Defending Test Score Use: Different Aims, Different Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in validity theory and alacrity in validation practice have suffered because the term "validity" has been used to refer to two incompatible concerns: (1) the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e. intended score meaning) and (2) the degree of support for specified applications (i.e. intended test…

  18. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  19. Test Score Reporting Referenced to Doubly-Moderated Cut Scores Using Splines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…

  20. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  1. Observed Score and True Score Equating Procedures for Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossman, Bradley Grant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted.…

  2. Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

  3. SYNTAX Score in Patients with High Computed Tomography Coronary Calcium Score

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Madhav; Rajendran, Ravindran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the conventional coronary angiogram ( CA) findings in patients with high coronary calcium on multidetector computed tomogram. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with coronary calcium high enough in its extent and location to interfere with the interpretation of a contrast-filled coronary artery for a significant lesion were studied with conventional CA. Framingham risk score (FRS), computed tomography (CT) coronary calcium score (CCS), and SYNTAX score (SS) from the CA were calculated by separate investigators who were blinded to other scores. Effectively, 250 coronary arteries (left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery and posterior descending artery in each subject) with calcium scores were studied for lesions on CA. Results: Thirty-five subjects had high FRS, 10 had intermediate FRS, and 5 had low FRS. Eight subjects of 25 (32%) with CCS between 350 and 1000 had no significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Overall, the CCS and the SS had a strong agreement with each other (r = 0.68, P < 0.01) that persisted in those with very high scores >1000 (r = 0.55, P < 0.01, n = 30), but only a nonsignificant weak correlation with scores between 350 and 1000 (r = 0.1, P = 0.62, n = 20). Individual vessel calcium scores correlated strongly for the presence of any lesion (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) in the same artery but only weakly for a significant lesion (r = 0.29, P = 0.05). Conclusion: High CT CCS in this cohort of intermediate to high (Framingham score) risk patients correlated strongly with the subject's global burden of the CAD as derived by the SS, more so for subjects with very high scores. Similarly, CCS correlated strongly with the presence of any lesion but only weakly for a significant stenosis; also, about one-third of patients with CCS between 350 and 1000 may not have significant disease on conventional CA. PMID:28028450

  4. Agreement Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in Resource-Limited Settings: Evidence from 5 Peruvian Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Quispe, Renato; Peralta, Frank; Poterico, Julio A.; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Burroughs, Melissa; Pillay, Timesh; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Malaga, Germán; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how well currently available risk scores predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in low-income and middle-income countries. We aim to compare the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort risk equations (ACC/AHA model) with 6 other CVD risk tools to assess the concordance of predicted CVD risk in a random sample from 5 geographically diverse Peruvian populations. We used data from 2 Peruvian, age and sex-matched, population-based studies across 5 geographical sites. The ACC/AHA model were compared with 6 other CVD risk prediction tools: laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, non-laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, Reynolds risk score, systematic coronary risk evaluation, World Health Organization risk charts, and the Lancet chronic diseases risk charts. Main outcome was in agreement with predicted CVD risk using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-three subjects, mean age 54.3 (SD ± 5.6) years, were included in the analysis. Overall, we found poor agreement between different scores when compared with ACC/AHA model. When each of the risk scores was used with cut-offs specified in guidelines, ACC/AHA model depicted the highest proportion of people at high CVD risk predicted at 10 years, with a prevalence of 29.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9–31.0%), whereas prevalence with World Health Organization risk charts was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2–8.6%). In conclusion, poor concordance between current CVD risk scores demonstrates the uncertainty of choosing any of them for public health and clinical interventions in Latin American populations. There is a need to improve the evidence base of risk scores for CVD in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26102017

  5. Agreement Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in Resource-Limited Settings: Evidence from 5 Peruvian Sites.

    PubMed

    Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Quispe, Renato; Peralta, Frank; Poterico, Julio A; Valle, Giancarlo A; Burroughs, Melissa; Pillay, Timesh; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Malaga, Germán; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-06-01

    It is unclear how well currently available risk scores predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in low-income and middle-income countries. We aim to compare the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort risk equations (ACC/AHA model) with 6 other CVD risk tools to assess the concordance of predicted CVD risk in a random sample from 5 geographically diverse Peruvian populations. We used data from 2 Peruvian, age and sex-matched, population-based studies across 5 geographical sites. The ACC/AHA model were compared with 6 other CVD risk prediction tools: laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, non-laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, Reynolds risk score, systematic coronary risk evaluation, World Health Organization risk charts, and the Lancet chronic diseases risk charts. Main outcome was in agreement with predicted CVD risk using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-three subjects, mean age 54.3 (SD ± 5.6) years, were included in the analysis. Overall, we found poor agreement between different scores when compared with ACC/AHA model. When each of the risk scores was used with cut-offs specified in guidelines, ACC/AHA model depicted the highest proportion of people at high CVD risk predicted at 10 years, with a prevalence of 29.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9-31.0%), whereas prevalence with World Health Organization risk charts was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-8.6%). In conclusion, poor concordance between current CVD risk scores demonstrates the uncertainty of choosing any of them for public health and clinical interventions in Latin American populations. There is a need to improve the evidence base of risk scores for CVD in low-income and middle-income countries.

  6. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pająk, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  7. Health and Stress in Developmental College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, George H.; White, William G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Examined most common academic and personal stressors, most common health problems, and the relationship between health and stress in 202 developmental college students. Found no significant relationship between personal stressor scores and Health Index Survey categories. As academic stressor scores increased, number of injuries and accidents,…

  8. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130—HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Results Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). Conclusions siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well. PMID:26745635

  9. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  10. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Qi, A; Lin, C; Zhou, A; Du, J; Jia, X; Sun, L; Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  11. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A.; Lin, C.; Zhou, A.; Du, J.; Jia, X.; Sun, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  12. Sleep scoring using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ronzhina, Marina; Janoušek, Oto; Kolářová, Jana; Nováková, Marie; Honzík, Petr; Provazník, Ivo

    2012-06-01

    Rapid development of computer technologies leads to the intensive automation of many different processes traditionally performed by human experts. One of the spheres characterized by the introduction of new high intelligence technologies substituting analysis performed by humans is sleep scoring. This refers to the classification task and can be solved - next to other classification methods - by use of artificial neural networks (ANN). ANNs are parallel adaptive systems suitable for solving of non-linear problems. Using ANN for automatic sleep scoring is especially promising because of new ANN learning algorithms allowing faster classification without decreasing the performance. Both appropriate preparation of training data as well as selection of the ANN model make it possible to perform effective and correct recognizing of relevant sleep stages. Such an approach is highly topical, taking into consideration the fact that there is no automatic scorer utilizing ANN technology available at present.

  13. Rapid conversion of adolescent MMPI raw scores to T scores using the HP-67 programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hembling, D W

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes.

  14. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  15. Formula Scoring, Basic Theory and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    several years, Bruce Williams and I have been presenting applications of a new approach to measurement, which we call formula scoring. Our presentations to...shorter version is being prepared for publication. 0 Tnanks to Bruce Williams and Fritz Drasgow there are many data-based applications1 of formula...item pool is replenished. 2. Drasgow, F., Levine, M.V., Williams , B., McLaughlin, M.E., and Candell, G.L. Modelling incorrect responses with

  16. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge.

  17. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK) doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE). Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ) items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK) medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%). NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also. PMID:27907983

  18. Scoring Rules and the Inevitability of Probability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    quadratic rule used by Do Finetti has f(x,l) - (x - 1)2 and f(x,O) - x2 and is clearly proper. As an example of an improper rule 4 4consider f(x,l) w...unable to see how, or even if it is possible, to extend the notion of a score to an enumerable infinity of statements. 23 REFERENCES DE FINETTI , B. (1974

  19. Missing gene identification using functional coherence scores

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Meghana; Khan, Ishita K.; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing metabolic and signaling pathways is an effective way of interpreting a genome sequence. A challenge in a pathway reconstruction is that often genes in a pathway cannot be easily found, reflecting current imperfect information of the target organism. In this work, we developed a new method for finding missing genes, which integrates multiple features, including gene expression, phylogenetic profile, and function association scores. Particularly, for considering function association between candidate genes and neighboring proteins to the target missing gene in the network, we used Co-occurrence Association Score (CAS) and PubMed Association Score (PAS), which are designed for capturing functional coherence of proteins. We showed that adding CAS and PAS substantially improve the accuracy of identifying missing genes in the yeast enzyme-enzyme network compared to the cases when only the conventional features, gene expression, phylogenetic profile, were used. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the accuracy improves by considering indirect neighbors to the target enzyme position in the network using a proper network-topology-based weighting scheme. PMID:27552989

  20. A score for Bayesian genome screening.

    PubMed

    Daw, E Warwick; Wijsman, Ellen M; Thompson, Elizabeth A

    2003-04-01

    Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) techniques have shown promise in dissecting complex genetic traits. The methods introduced by Heath ([1997], Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61:748-760), and implemented in the program Loki, have been able to localize genes for complex traits in both real and simulated data sets. Loki estimates the posterior probability of quantitative trait loci (QTL) at locations on a chromosome in an iterative MCMC process. Unfortunately, interpretation of the results and assessment of their significance have been difficult. Here, we introduce a score, the log of the posterior placement probability ratio (LOP), for assessing oligogenic QTL detection and localization. The LOP is the log of the posterior probability of linkage to the real chromosome divided by the posterior probability of linkage to an unlinked pseudochromosome, with marker informativeness similar to the marker data on the real chromosome. Since the LOP cannot be calculated exactly, we estimate it in simultaneous MCMC on both real and pseudochromosomes. We investigate empirically the distributional properties of the LOP in the presence and absence of trait genes. The LOP is not subject to trait model misspecification in the way a lod score may be, and we show that the LOP can detect linkage for loci of small effect when the lod score cannot. We show how, in the absence of linkage, an empirical distribution of the LOP may be estimated by simulation and used to provide an assessment of linkage detection significance.

  1. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    PubMed

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  2. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  3. Empirical Bayes Estimates of Domain Scores under Binomial and Hypergeometric Distributions for Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Miao-Hsiang; Hsiung, Chao A.

    1994-01-01

    Two simple empirical approximate Bayes estimators are introduced for estimating domain scores under binomial and hypergeometric distributions respectively. Criteria are established regarding use of these functions over maximum likelihood estimation counterparts. (SLD)

  4. Determining utility values in patients with anterior cruciate ligament tears using clinical scoring systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several instruments and clinical scoring systems have been established to evaluate patients with ligamentous knee injuries. A comparison of individual articles in the literature is challenging, not only because of heterogeneity in methodology, but also due to the variety of the scoring systems used to document clinical outcomes. There is limited information about the correlation between used scores and quality of life with no information being available on the impact of each score on the utility values. The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly used scores for evaluating patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and to establish corresponding utility values. These values will be used for the interpretation and comparison of outcome results in the currently available literature for different treatment options. Methods Four hypothetical vignettes were defined, based on different levels of activities after rupture of the ACL to simulate typical situations seen in daily practice. A questionnaire, including the Health Utility Index (HUI) for utility values, the IKDC subjective score, the Lysholm and the Tegner score, was created and 25 orthopedic surgeons were asked to fill the questionnaire for each hypothetical patient as proxies for all patients they had treated and who would fit in that hypothetical vignette. Results The utility value as an indicator for quality of life increased with the level of activity. Having discomforts already during normal activities of daily living was rated with a mean utility value of 0.37 ± 0.19, half of that of a situation where mild sport activity was possible without discomfort (0.78 ± 0.11). All investigated scores were able to distinguish clearly (p < 0.05) between the hypothetical vignettes. However, the utility values correlated best with the IKDC subjective score (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) followed by the Lysholm score (r = 0.77, p < 0.001) and the Tegner score (r = 0.77, p < 0

  5. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  6. A simple prediction score system for malignant brain edema progression in large hemispheric infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jo, KwangWook; Bajgur, Suhas S.; Kim, Hoon; Choi, Huimahn A.; Huh, Pil-Woo; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    Malignant brain edema (MBE) due to hemispheric infarction can result in brain herniation, poor outcomes, and death; outcome may be improved if certain interventions, such as decompressive craniectomy, are performed early. We sought to generate a prediction score to easily identify those patients at high risk for MBE. 121 patients with large hemispheric infarction (LHI) (2011 to 2014) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: those who developed MBE and those who did not. Independent predictors of MBE were identified by logistic regression and a score was developed. Four factors were independently associated with MBE: baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (p = 0.048), Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) (p = 0.007), collateral score (CS) (p<0.001) and revascularization failure (p = 0.013). Points were assigned for each factor as follows: NIHSS ≤ 8 (= 0), 9–17 (= 1), ≥ 18 (= 2); ASPECTS≤ 7 (= 1), >8 (= 0); CS<2 (= 1), ≥2 (= 0); revascularization failure (= 1),success (= 0). The MBE Score (MBES) represents the sum of these individual points. Of 26 patients with a MBES of 0 to 1, none developed MBE. All patients with a MBES of 6 developed MBE. Both MBE development and functional outcomes were strongly associated with the MBES (p = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively). The MBE score is a simple reliable tool for the prediction of MBE. PMID:28178299

  7. Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

  8. The myelodysplastic syndromes flow cytometric score: a three-parameter prognostic flow cytometric scoring system.

    PubMed

    Alhan, C; Westers, T M; Cremers, E M P; Cali, C; Witte, B I; Ossenkoppele, G J; van de Loosdrecht, A A

    2016-03-01

    The prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is currently estimated by using the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Several studies have shown that further refinement of prognostication for MDS can be achieved by adding flow cytometric parameters. However, widespread implementation of flow cytometry for the prognosis of MDS is hampered by complexity of the analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to construct a robust and practical flow cytometric score that could be implemented as a routine procedure. To achieve this, bone marrow aspirates of 109 MDS patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. A second cohort consisting of 103 MDS patients was used to validate the MDS flow cytometric score (MFS). The parameters forming the MFS were sideward light scatter and CD117 expression of myeloid progenitor cells and CD13 expression on monocytes. Three MFS risk categories were formed. Patients with MDS and intermediate MFS scores had significantly better overall survival (OS) compared with the patients with high MFS scores. The MFS further refined prognostication within the IPSS-R low-risk category, by identifying patients with worse OS in case of high MFS. In conclusion, a practical three parameter flow cytometric prognostic score was constructed enabling further refinement of prognostication of MDS.

  9. Integrating genetics and social science: genetic risk scores.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Israel, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest-hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry.

  10. Integrating Genetics and Social Science: Genetic Risk Scores

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Israel, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public-use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry. PMID:25343363

  11. A propensity score approach to estimating the cost-effectiveness of medical therapies from observational data.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Nandita; Indurkhya, Alka

    2005-08-01

    Health summary measures are commonly used by policy makers to help make decisions on the allocation of societal resources for competing medical treatments. The net monetary benefit is a health summary measure that overcomes the statistical limitations of a popular measure namely, the cost-effectiveness ratio. We introduce a linear model framework to estimate propensity score adjusted net monetary benefit. This method provides less biased estimates in the presence of significant differences in baseline measures and demographic characteristics between treatment groups in quasi-randomized or observational studies. Simulation studies were conducted to better understand the utility of propensity score adjusted estimates of net monetary benefits when important covariates are unobserved. The results indicated that the propensity score adjusted net monetary benefit provides a robust measure of cost-effectiveness in the presence of hidden bias. The methods are illustrated using data from SEER-Medicare for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  12. Partial Credit Scoring of Cloze-Type Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghbar, Ali A.; Tang, Huixing

    A study was undertaken to develop a partial credit scheme for scoring cloze-type questions on an English collocation test, obtain construct validity evidence for the test and the scoring scheme using the Rasch Partial Credit Model, and compare partial credit scoring with the more commonly used dichotomous scoring with the same test instrument.…

  13. Evaluation of temperament scoring methods for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...

  14. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  15. Scoring Direct Writing Assessments: What Are the Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V.S.

    1984-01-01

    Scoring systems for direct writing assessment are described. In holistic scoring, a global quality judgment of the writing sample is made. Primary trait scoring, developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress, is conducted in accordance with specific goals. Analytic scoring identifies characteristics and quality of writing. These…

  16. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  17. Writing Evaluation: Examining Four Teachers' Holistic and Analytic Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt

    1989-01-01

    Examined the concurrent validity of holistic scores by comparing four teachers' holistic scores with their analytic ratings of writing samples from four eighth graders. After training in the evaluation procedures, holistic scores were highly correlated with analytic scores for the same samples. (RJC)

  18. 24 CFR 902.35 - Financial condition scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Financial Condition Indicator § 902.35 Financial condition scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. (1) Under the financial condition indicator, a score will be...-weighted average of project scores. (b) Subindicators of the financial condition indicator....

  19. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. The Management Operations Indicator score...

  20. Applying the WHO recommendations on health-sector response to violence against women to assess the Spanish health system. A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Minvielle, Fauhn; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ohman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This methodological note describes the development and application of a mixed-methods protocol to assess the responsiveness of Spanish health systems to violence against women in Spain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Five areas for exploration were identified based on the WHO recommendations: policy environment, protocols, training, accountability/monitoring, and prevention/promotion. Two data collection instruments were developed to assess the situation of 17 Spanish regional health systems (RHS) with respect to these areas: 1) a set of indicators to guide a systematic review of secondary sources, and 2) an interview guide to be used with 26 key informants at the regional and national levels. We found differences between RHSs in the five areas assessed. The progress of RHSs on the WHO recommendations was notable at the level of policies, moderate in terms of health service delivery, and very limited in terms of preventive actions. Using a mixed-methods approach was useful for triangulation and complementarity during instrument design, data collection and interpretation.

  1. Stability of Scores on the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory in an Outpatient Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys, Jan Bernard

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports a test-retest study of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory for 257 children, ages 7-16, receiving psychological services in a British Columbia public health facility. Findings support the test author's claims over a 30-day period of relative score stability on extraversion and neuroticism. (Author/SJL)

  2. Development of a cardiovascular risk score for use in low- and middle-income countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) condu...

  3. Nonstandard Work Schedules and Developmentally Generative Parenting Practices: An Application of Propensity Score Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Tucker, Jenna; Walls, Jill; Leerkes, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (Phase I) and propensity score techniques were used to determine whether working full time in a nonstandard schedule job during the child's first year predicted parenting practices over 3 years. Results indicated that women who worked full time in a…

  4. [Validation of a diagnostic scoring system (Ohmann score) in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Zielke, A; Sitter, H; Rampp, T A; Schäfer, E; Hasse, C; Lorenz, W; Rothmund, M

    1999-07-01

    A diagnostic scoring system, recently published by Ohmann et al. in this journal, was validated by analyzing the clinicopathological data of a consecutive series of 2,359 patients, admitted for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The results of the scoring system were compared to the results of clinical evaluation by junior (provisional) and senior surgeons (final clinical diagnosis). To assess the diagnostic ability of the score, the accuracy and positive predictive value were defined as the major diagnostic performance parameters; the rate of theoretical negative laparotomies and that of diagnostic errors served as the major procedural performance parameters. Of 2,359 patients admitted for suspected acute appendicitis, 662 were proven to have acute appendicitis by histology, for a prevalence of 28%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the provisional clinical diagnosis were 0.50, 0.94, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.82; 0.93, for the score 0.63, 0.93, 0.77, 0.86 and 0.84, and for the final clinical diagnosis 0.90, 0.94, 0.85, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively. Of the main diagnostic performance parameter, the accuracy of the score was significantly better than that of provisional clinical diagnosis (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The score yielded a rate of negative appendecomies and laparotomies of 14.3 and 12.3%. With respect to the rate of overlooked cases of acute apendicitis, the score demonstrated a superior performance, with only 6 cases missed (0.9%). However, the number of patients with acute appendicitis, including those with perforated disease, who were not identified by the score, was almost four times that of the final clinical diagnosis (245 vs 63). With regard to the main procedural performance parameter, the score resulted in a significantly smaller number of diagnostic errors than the provisional clinical investigator (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The results of this study indicate that the diagnostic scoring

  5. Symposium Scores Misuse of Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Presents examples of misuse of scientific data in the areas of eutrophication, food advertising, and public health. Outlines various ways in which individual scientists can act to ensure the proper use of scientific data. (GS)

  6. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS)-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. Methods This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1–4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). Result There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p<0.001. The ACSSg was associated with need for >1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p<0.001. An ACSSg score>12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7–5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19–2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. Conclusion The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately. PMID:27788183

  7. The Impact of Medical Student Participation in Emergency Medicine Patient Care on Departmental Press Ganey Scores

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Aaron W.; Martin, Daniel R.; Moseley, Mark G.; Kman, Nicholas E.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Carpenter, Daniel; Way, David P.; Caterino, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Press Ganey (PG) scores are used by public entities to gauge the quality of patient care from medical facilities in the United States. Academic health centers (AHCs) are charged with educating the new generation of doctors, but rely heavily on PG scores for their business operation. AHCs need to know what impact medical student involvement has on patient care and their PG scores. Purpose We sought to identify the impact students have on emergency department (ED) PG scores related to overall visit and the treating physician’s performance. Methods This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of discharged ED patients who completed PG satisfaction surveys at one academic, and one community-based ED. Outcomes were responses to questions about the overall visit assessment and doctor’s care, measured on a five-point scale. We compared the distribution of responses for each question through proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by medical student participation. For each question, we constructed a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model including medical student involvement and other independent variables known to affect PG scores. Results We analyzed 2,753 encounters, of which 259 (9.4%) had medical student involvement. For all questions, there were no appreciable differences in patient responses when stratifying by medical student involvement. In regression models, medical student involvement was not associated with PG score for any outcome, including overall rating of care (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% CI [0.90–1.34]) or likelihood of recommending our EDs (OR 1.07, 95% CI [0.86–1.32]). Findings were similar when each ED was analyzed individually. Conclusion We found that medical student involvement in patient care did not adversely impact ED PG scores in discharged patients. Neither overall scores nor physician-specific scores were impacted. Results were similar at both the academic medical center and the community

  8. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  9. Derivation and Validation of Homocysteine Score in U.S. Men and Women123

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Je, Youjin; Giovannucci, Edward L; Rosner, Bernard; Ogino, Shuji; Cho, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: One-carbon metabolism, which is crucial in DNA synthesis and genomic stability, is an interrelated network of biochemical reactions involved in several dietary and lifestyle factors. The development of the homocysteine score using these factors may be useful to reflect the status of one-carbon metabolism in large epidemiologic studies without biologic samples to measure homocysteine directly. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an homocysteine score that reflects one-carbon metabolism better than individual dietary or lifestyle factors. Methods: We divided 2023 participants with measured plasma total homocysteine data in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study into training (n = 1619) and testing (n = 404) subsets. Using multivariable linear regression, we selected lifestyle determinants of plasma homocysteine in the training set and derived the homocysteine score weighted by the β coefficient for each predictor. The validation of the homocysteine score was assessed using the plasma homocysteine in the independent samples of the training set. Results: In the training set, smoking, multivitamin use, and caffeine, alcohol, and dietary and supplemental folate intake were significant independent determinants of plasma homocysteine in multivariable linear regression (P ≤ 0.01) and were included in the derivation of the homocysteine score. The Pearson correlation of the homocysteine score with plasma homocysteine was 0.30 in the testing subset (P < 0.001). The homocysteine score was positively associated with the plasma homocysteine concentration in the testing subset and in an independent population of women; the mean difference of plasma homocysteine concentration between the extreme quintiles of homocysteine score ranged from 0.83 μmol/L to 1.52 μmol/L. Population misclassification either from the lowest quintile of plasma homocysteine into the highest quintile of the homocysteine score or from the highest

  10. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ligia J.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS), which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) longitudinal study. Methods We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points) were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points). Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of T2DM. Results We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25–39 points) vs. low (11–24) category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40–60) vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019). Conclusions The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve

  11. S-score: a scoring system for the identification and prioritization of predicted cancer genes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jorge E S; Fonseca, André F; Valieris, Renan; Carraro, Dirce M; Wang, Jean Y J; Kolodner, Richard D; de Souza, Sandro J

    2014-01-01

    A new method, which allows for the identification and prioritization of predicted cancer genes for future analysis, is presented. This method generates a gene-specific score called the "S-Score" by incorporating data from different types of analysis including mutation screening, methylation status, copy-number variation and expression profiling. The method was applied to the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and allowed the identification of known and potentially new oncogenes and tumor suppressors associated with different clinical features including shortest term of survival in ovarian cancer patients and hormonal subtypes in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, for the first time a genome-wide search for genes that behave as oncogenes and tumor suppressors in different tumor types was performed. We envisage that the S-score can be used as a standard method for the identification and prioritization of cancer genes for follow-up studies.

  12. COPD assessment test score and serum C-reactive protein levels in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Kang; Lee, Hyun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background An eight-item questionnaire of the COPD assessment test (CAT) is widely used to quantify the impact of COPD on the patient’s health status. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with disease severity and adverse health outcomes of patients with COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CAT score and serum CRP levels in stable COPD patients. Methods We evaluated the medical records of 226 patients with CAT and serum CRP measured within a week at Samsung Medical Center between October 2013 and October 2015. Results Serum CRP levels had a significantly positive relationship with CAT score (Spearman’s r=0.20, P=0.003). Patients with elevated serum CRP levels (>0.3 mg/dL) were significantly more likely to have CAT scores of ≥14. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated serum CRP levels in total CAT score was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.09). Among CAT components, cough (adjusted P=0.005), phlegm (adjusted P=0.001), breathlessness going up hills/stairs (adjusted P=0.005), low confidence leaving home (adjusted P=0.002), and feeling low in energy (adjusted P=0.019) were independently associated with elevated serum CRP levels. Conclusion In stable COPD patients, serum CRP levels were independently associated with total CAT score and CAT components related to respiratory symptoms, confidence leaving home, and energy. PMID:27994452

  13. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability.

  14. “Weathering” and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Hicken, Margaret; Keene, Danya; Bound, John

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We considered whether US Blacks experience early health deterioration, as measured across biological indicators of repeated exposure and adaptation to stressors. Methods. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we examined allostatic load scores for adults aged 18–64 years. We estimated probability of a high score by age, race, gender, and poverty status and Blacks’ odds of having a high score relative to Whites’ odds. Results. Blacks had higher scores than did Whites and had a greater probability of a high score at all ages, particularly at 35–64 years. Racial differences were not explained by poverty. Poor and nonpoor Black women had the highest and second highest probability of high allostatic load scores, respectively, and the highest excess scores compared with their male or White counterparts. Conclusions. We found evidence that racial inequalities in health exist across a range of biological systems among adults and are not explained by racial differences in poverty. The weathering effects of living in a race-conscious society may be greatest among those Blacks most likely to engage in high-effort coping. PMID:16380565

  15. Prognostic staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (CLIP score): its value and limitations, and a proposal for a new staging system, the Japan Integrated Staging Score (JIS score).

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Chung, Hobyung; Osaki, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    A clinical staging system for cancer patients provides guidance for patient assessment and making therapeutic decisions. It is useful in deciding whether to treat a patient aggressively, and in avoiding the overtreatment of patients who would not tolerate the treatment or patients whose life expectancy rules out any chance of treatment. Clinical staging is also an essential tool for comparison between groups in therapeutic trials and for comparison between different studies. The current classifications most commonly used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the Okuda stages, the Child-Pugh staging system, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score. Among these, the CLIP score is currently the most commonly used integrated staging score, including both tumor stage and liver disease stage. Although the CLIP score has been well validated by many authors in terms of its prognostic value in HCC patients, this score has some problems and limitations when applied to currently diagnosed HCC patients, who are diagnosed in the early stage of disease. First, the CLIP score can discriminate score 0- to 3-patient populations, but it is not able to discriminate score 4- to 6-patient groups. Second, the definition of tumor morphology in the best prognostic group is too advanced, i.e., uninodular and a tumor extent of less than 50% of the liver. As a result, the prognosis of the CLIP system best prognostic group is not so good. In other words, this system cannot identify the best prognostic group who would benefit from curative and aggressive treatment. Third, nearly 80% of the patient population is classified as having a CLIP score of 0-2, as confirmed by many studies, which shows poor stratification ability. In contrast, a new staging system based on the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ), the Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score is currently proposed in Japan. This staging system combines Child-Pugh grade (grade A

  16. SF-36 summary and subscale scores are reliable outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, J. G.; Urowitz, M. B.; Jackson, D.; Bae, S.C.; Gordon, C.; Wallace, D.J.; Clarke, A.; Bernatsky, S.; Vasudevan, A.; Isenberg, D.; Rahman, A.; Sanchez-Guerrero, J.; Romero-Diaz, J.; Merrill, J. T.; Fortin, P.R.; Gladman, D.D.; Bruce, I. N.; Steinsson, K.; Khamashta, M.; Alarcón, G.S.; Fessler, B.; Petri, M.; Manzi, S.; Nived, O.; Sturfelt, G.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Dooley, M.A.; Aranow, C.; Van Vollenhoven, R.; Ramos-Casals, M.; Zoma, A.; Kalunian, K.; Farewell, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in association with clinical outcomes of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in SLE. Methods An international study evaluated newly diagnosed SLE patients for NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes. Outcome of events was determined by physician-completed 7-point scale and compared to patient-completed SF-36 questionnaires. Statistical analysis used linear mixed-effects regression models with patient specific random effects. Results 274 patients (92% female; 68% Caucasian), from a cohort of 1400, had ≥ 1 NP event where the interval between assessments was 12.3 ± 2 months. The overall difference in change between visits in mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 was significant (p<0.0001) following adjustments for gender, ethnicity, center and previous score. A consistent improvement in NP status (N=295) was associated with an increase in the mean(SD) adjusted MCS score of 3.66(0.89) in SF-36 scores. Between paired visits where NP status consistently deteriorated (N=30), the adjusted MCS score decreased by 4.00(1.96). For the physical component summary (PCS) scores the corresponding changes were +1.73(0.71) and −0.62(1.58) (p<0.05) respectively. Changes in SF-36 subscales were in the same direction (p<0.05; with the exception of role physical). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Adjustment for age, education, medications, SLE disease activity, organ damage, disease duration, attribution and characteristics of NP events did not substantially alter the results. Conclusion Changes in SF-36 summary and subscale scores, in particular those related to mental health, are strongly associated with the clinical outcome of NP events in SLE patients. PMID:21342917

  17. Participatory Medicine: A Home Score for Streptococcal Pharyngitis Enabled by Real-Time Biosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Andrew M.; Nizet, Victor; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines recommend that adults at low risk for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis be neither tested nor treated Objective To help patients decide when to visit a clinician for the evaluation of sore throat. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A national chain of retail health clinics. Patients 71 776 patients aged 15 years or older with pharyngitis who visited a clinic from September 2006 to December 2008. Measurements The authors created a score using information from patient-reported clinical variables plus the incidence of local disease and compared it with the Centor score and other traditional scores that require clinician-elicited signs. Results If patients aged 15 years or older with sore throat did not visit a clinician when the new score estimated the likelihood of GAS pharyngitis to be less than 10% instead of having clinicians manage their symptoms following guidelines that use the Centor score, 230 000 visits would be avoided in the United States each year and 8500 patients with GAS pharyngitis who would have received antibiotics would not be treated with them. Limitation Real-time information about the local incidence of GAS pharyngitis, which is necessary to calculate the new score, is not currently available. Conclusion A patient-driven approach to pharyngitis diagnosis that uses this new score could save hundreds of thousands of visits annually by identifying patients at home who are unlikely to require testing or treatment. Primary Funding Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PMID:24189592

  18. Developing a Conceptually Equivalent Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score for Indian Gujaratis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Naina; Stone, Margaret; Barber, Shaun; Gray, Laura; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To apply and assess the suitability of a model consisting of commonly used cross-cultural translation methods to achieve a conceptually equivalent Gujarati language version of the Leicester self-assessment type 2 diabetes risk score. Methods. Implementation of the model involved multiple stages, including pretesting of the translated risk score by conducting semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of volunteers. Interviews were conducted on an iterative basis to enable findings to inform translation revisions and to elicit volunteers' ability to self-complete and understand the risk score. Results. The pretest stage was an essential component involving recruitment of a diverse sample of 18 Gujarati volunteers, many of whom gave detailed suggestions for improving the instructions for the calculation of the risk score and BMI table. Volunteers found the standard and level of Gujarati accessible and helpful in understanding the concept of risk, although many of the volunteers struggled to calculate their BMI. Conclusions. This is the first time that a multicomponent translation model has been applied to the translation of a type 2 diabetes risk score into another language. This project provides an invaluable opportunity to share learning about the transferability of this model for translation of self-completed risk scores in other health conditions. PMID:27703985

  19. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS.

  20. Propensity score matching: a conceptual review for radiology researchers.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seunghee; Park, Seong Ho; Won, Eugene; Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2015-01-01

    The propensity score is defined as the probability of each individual study subject being assigned to a group of interest for comparison purposes. Propensity score adjustment is a method of ensuring an even distribution of confounders between groups, thereby increasing between group comparability. Propensity score analysis is therefore an increasingly applied statistical method in observational studies. The purpose of this article was to provide a step-by-step nonmathematical conceptual guide to propensity score analysis with particular emphasis on propensity score matching. A software program code used for propensity score matching was also presented.

  1. Modification site localization scoring: strategies and performance.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Robert J; Clauser, Karl R

    2012-05-01

    Using enrichment strategies many research groups are routinely producing large data sets of post-translationally modified peptides for proteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. Although search engines are relatively effective at identifying these peptides with a defined measure of reliability, their localization of site/s of modification is often arbitrary and unreliable. The field continues to be in need of a widely accepted metric for false localization rate that accurately describes the certainty of site localization in published data sets and allows for consistent measurement of differences in performance of emerging scoring algorithms. In this article are discussed the main strategies currently used by software for modification site localization and ways of assessing the performance of these different tools. Methods for representing ambiguity are reviewed and a discussion of how the approaches transfer to different data types and modifications is presented.

  2. Team 393 robot scores in FIRST competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Bee Bots team (393) robot, named Dr. Beevil, scores by gathering balls. The team is composed of students from Morristown Jr. and Sr. high schools in Morristown, Ind., and is co-sponsored by NASA Kennedy Space Center and IPT Inc. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  3. Prognostic Scores for Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Raquel; Moores, Lisa; Jiménez, David

    2017-02-06

    Rapid and accurate risk stratification is critical in determining the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Early identification of patients with normal blood pressure and a favorable prognosis (low-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for outpatient treatment, which is associated with reduced cost and improved patient satisfaction, and has been shown to be effective and safe. Alternatively, identification of normotensive patients deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy. Clinical prognostic scores have been gaining importance in the classification of patients into these categories. They should be derived and validated following strict methodological standards, and their use in clinical practice should be encouraged.

  4. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  5. Nonstandard work schedules and developmentally generative parenting practices: An application of propensity score techniques

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Tucker, Jenna; Walls, Jill; Leerkes, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care (Phase I) and propensity score techniques were used to determine if working fulltime in a nonstandard schedule job during the child’s first year predicted parenting practices over 3 years. Results indicated that women who worked fulltime in a nonstandard schedule job during the first year had poorer maternal sensitivity at 24 and 36 months. Modest differences in HOME scores were also observed at 36 months. The results provide strong evidence that fulltime maternal employment in nonstandard schedule jobs may interfere with the creation and maintenance of developmentally generative parenting practices. PMID:21532922

  6. Relationships of objectively scored Bender variables with MMPI scores in an outpatient psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Alan J; Golden, Charles J

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation system for the Bender Gestalt Test could reasonably predict the results of the most widely used objective measure of personality, the MMPI. Despite the widespread use of both tests, no previous studies could be found which correlated actual Bender scores with MMPI results, arising partly from the lack of a well-accepted, reliable, and objective scoring system for the Bender. The study compared the performance of 279 adult psychological outpatients on both the MMPI and Bender. The 55 Bender scorable points, which are seen most frequently in the outpatient population, were factor analyzed to yield 17 factors which were correlated with the MMPI. Significant multiple correlations were found between the Bender factors and 10 of 12 MMPI scales, with significant correlations ranging from .36 to .47. The Bender overall was able to discriminate moderately high scorers on the MMPI from low scorers. The overall results suggested that the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation scoring system includes measures that reflect general psychopathology and correlate with the MMPI as well as more specific content that is independent of the MMPI scales. The potential of this scoring system and joint use of the MMPI and Bender in personality assessment are discussed. Replication with a larger sample than 279 is encouraged for these 55 Bender and 12 MMPI items.

  7. Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

    Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

  8. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  9. Lifestyle‐Based Prediction Model for the Prevention of CVD: The Healthy Heart Score

    PubMed Central

    Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Cook, Nancy R.; Shay, Christina M.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Albert, Christine M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice focuses on the primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) through the modification and pharmacological treatment of elevated risk factors. Prediction models based on established risk factors are available for use in the primary prevention setting. However, the prevention of risk factor development through healthy lifestyle behaviors, or primordial prevention, is of paramount importance to achieve optimal population‐wide CV health and minimize long‐term CVD risk. Methods and Results We developed a lifestyle‐based CVD prediction model among 61 025 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 34 478 men in the Health Professionals Follow‐up Study, who were free of chronic disease in 1986 and followed for ≤24 years. Lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaires in 1986. In the derivation step, we used the Bayes Information Criterion to create parsimonious 20‐year risk prediction models among a random two thirds of participants in each cohort separately. The scores were validated in the remaining one third of participants in each cohort. Over 24 years, there were 3775 cases of CVD in women and 3506 cases in men. The Healthy Heart Score included age, smoking, body mass index, exercise, alcohol, and a composite diet score. In the validation cohort, the risk score demonstrated good discrimination (Harrell's C‐index, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71, 0.74 [women]; 0.77; 95% CI, 0.76, 0.79 [men]), fit, and calibration, particularly among individuals without baseline hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions The Healthy Heart Score accurately identifies individuals at elevated risk for CVD and may serve as an important clinical and public health screening tool for the primordial prevention of CVD. PMID:25398889

  10. Undesired variance due to examiner stringency/leniency effect in communication skill scores assessed in OSCEs.

    PubMed

    Harasym, Peter H; Woloschuk, Wayne; Cunning, Leslie

    2008-12-01

    Physician-patient communication is a clinical skill that can be learned and has a positive impact on patient satisfaction and health outcomes. A concerted effort at all medical schools is now directed at teaching and evaluating this core skill. Student communication skills are often assessed by an Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE). However, it is unknown what sources of error variance are introduced into examinee communication scores by various OSCE components. This study primarily examined the effect different examiners had on the evaluation of students' communication skills assessed at the end of a family medicine clerkship rotation. The communication performance of clinical clerks from Classes 2005 and 2006 were assessed using six OSCE stations. Performance was rated at each station using the 28-item Calgary-Cambridge guide. Item Response Theory analysis using a Multifaceted Rasch model was used to partition the various sources of error variance and generate a "true" communication score where the effects of examiner, case, and items are removed. Variance and reliability of scores were as follows: communication scores (.20 and .87), examiner stringency/leniency (.86 and .91), case (.03 and .96), and item (.86 and .99), respectively. All facet scores were reliable (.87-.99). Examiner variance (.86) was more than four times the examinee variance (.20). About 11% of the clerks' outcome status shifted using "true" rather than observed/raw scores. There was large variability in examinee scores due to variation in examiner stringency/leniency behaviors that may impact pass-fail decisions. Exploring the benefits of examiner training and employing "true" scores generated using Item Response Theory analyses prior to making pass/fail decisions are recommended.

  11. Performance evaluation of MR-proadrenomedullin and other scoring systems in severe sepsis with pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rollas, Kazım; Alagöz, Ali; Seğmen, Fatih; Sipit, Tuğrul

    2014-01-01

    Background In sepsis, risk assessment is as crucial as early and accurate diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with other scoring systems in severe sepsis and septic shock patients due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Patients were divided into 2 groups as severe sepsis and septic shock due to CAP (group 1, n=31) and only CAP group (group 2, n=26). Serum MR-proADM, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and d-dimer level were analyzed. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) were performed for all patients. Results There was no difference between groups in terms of serum MR-proADM levels (P=0.780). Serum MR-proADM was not found a significant value for the prediction of death within the 4 and 8 weeks in all patients. SOFA score was the most significant to predict mortality in 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.001). The combination of SOFA score and serum MR-proADM was a strong factor to predict death in 4 weeks (specifity 86.8% and sensitivity 66.7%). The combination of MR-proADM, SOFA score, and APACHE II score was found 75.0% sensitive and 71.4% specific to predict mortality within 4 weeks in group 1. Conclusions The MR-proADM does not correlate with mortality or disease severity to predict mortality. The combination of SOFA, APACHE II scores, and MR-proADM was efficient to predict prognosis and mortality rate in severe sepsis or septic shock patients. PMID:25093088

  12. Use of modified Magee equations and histologic criteria to predict the Oncotype DX recurrence score.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bradley M; Skinner, Kristin A; Tang, Ping; Jackson, Mary C; Soukiazian, Nyrie; Shayne, Michelle; Huston, Alissa; Ling, Marilyn; Hicks, David G

    2015-07-01

    Oncotype DX (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA, USA, current list price $4,350.00) is a multigene quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based assay that estimates the risk of distant recurrence and predicts chemotherapy benefit for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. Studies have suggested that standard histologic variables can provide similar information. Klein and Dabbs et al have shown that Oncotype DX recurrence scores can be estimated by incorporating standard histologic variables into equations (Magee equations). Using a simple modification of the Magee equation, we predict the Oncotype DX recurrence score in an independent set of 283 cases. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for the Oncotype DX and average modified Magee recurrence scores was 0.6644 (n=283; P<0.0001). 100% of cases with an average modified Magee recurrence score>30 (n=8) or an average modified Magee recurrence score<9 (with an available Ki-67, n=5) would have been correctly predicted to have a high or low Oncotype DX recurrence score, respectively. 86% (38/44) of cases with an average modified Magee recurrence score≤12, and 89% (34/38) of low grade tumors (NS<6) with an ER and PR≥150, and a Ki-67<10%, would have been correctly predicted to have a low Oncotype DX recurrence score. Using an algorithmic approach to eliminate high and low risk cases, between 5% and 23% of cases would potentially not have been sent by our institution for Oncotype DX testing, creating a potential cost savings between $56,550.00 and $282,750.00. The modified Magee recurrence score along with histologic criteria may be a cost-effective alternative to the Oncotype DX in risk stratifying certain breast cancer patients. The information needed is already generated by many pathology laboratories during the initial assessment of primary breast cancer, and the equations are free.

  13. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael D.; Hébert, James R.; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation; a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with ‘healthier’ scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (i.e., more pro-inflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. Additionally, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (i.e., anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (i.e., became more unhealthy, all p<0.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  14. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease.

  15. Willems II. Non-gender-specific dental maturity scores.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Thevissen, P W; Belmans, A; Liversidge, H M

    2010-09-10

    Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system has been adapted for a Belgian Caucasian population for males and females. The purpose of this study was to adapt Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system from a Belgian Caucasian population to provide non-gender-specific scores. We selected 2116 orthopantomograms of 1029 boys and 1087 girls aged 3-16 years. A weighted ANOVA was performed in order to adapt the scoring system for this Belgian population. A second test sample of 273 orthopantomograms of individuals with immature dentitions aged 3-16 years was used to evaluate the accuracy of the original method, gender-specific scores and non-gender-specific scores of the adapted method. Mean/median difference between dental age and real age was calculated as well as other measures of accuracy. The adapted scoring system resulted in new age scores expressed in years and in a higher accuracy compared to the original method in Belgian Caucasians.

  16. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... solicitation, e.g., other numeric, adjectival, color rating systems, etc. Scoring Plan Value...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1011 - Score sheet for dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dates Score Sheet § 52.1011 Score sheet for dates. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label or brand Net weight Style...

  18. Mortality Probability Model III and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Cason, Brian A.; Lane, Rondall K.; Dean, Mitzi L.; Clay, Ted; Rennie, Deborah J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dudley, R. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Background: To develop and compare ICU length-of-stay (LOS) risk-adjustment models using three commonly used mortality or LOS prediction models. Methods: Between 2001 and 2004, we performed a retrospective, observational study of 11,295 ICU patients from 35 hospitals in the California Intensive Care Outcomes Project. We compared the accuracy of the following three LOS models: a recalibrated acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV-LOS model; and models developed using risk factors in the mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0) and the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II mortality prediction model. We evaluated models by calculating the following: (1) grouped coefficients of determination; (2) differences between observed and predicted LOS across subgroups; and (3) intraclass correlations of observed/expected LOS ratios between models. Results: The grouped coefficients of determination were APACHE IV with coefficients recalibrated to the LOS values of the study cohort (APACHE IVrecal) [R2 = 0.422], mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0 III) [R2 = 0.279], and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) [R2 = 0.008]. For each decile of predicted ICU LOS, the mean predicted LOS vs the observed LOS was significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) for three, two, and six deciles using APACHE IVrecal, MPM0 III, and SAPS II, respectively. Plots of the predicted vs the observed LOS ratios of the hospitals revealed a threefold variation in LOS among hospitals with high model correlations. Conclusions: APACHE IV and MPM0 III were more accurate than SAPS II for the prediction of ICU LOS. APACHE IV is the most accurate and best calibrated model. Although it is less accurate, MPM0 III may be a reasonable option if the data collection burden or the treatment effect bias is a consideration. PMID:19363210

  19. The analytical validation of the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score assay

    PubMed Central

    Baehner, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    In vitro diagnostic multivariate index assays are highly complex molecular assays that can provide clinically actionable information regarding the underlying tumour biology and facilitate personalised treatment. These assays are only useful in clinical practice if all of the following are established: analytical validation (i.e., how accurately/reliably the assay measures the molecular characteristics), clinical validation (i.e., how consistently/accurately the test detects/predicts the outcomes of interest), and clinical utility (i.e., how likely the test is to significantly improve patient outcomes). In considering the use of these assays, clinicians often focus primarily on the clinical validity/utility; however, the analytical validity of an assay (e.g., its accuracy, reproducibility, and standardisation) should also be evaluated and carefully considered. This review focuses on the rigorous analytical validation and performance of the Oncotype DX® Breast Cancer Assay, which is performed at the Central Clinical Reference Laboratory of Genomic Health, Inc. The assay process includes tumour tissue enrichment (if needed), RNA extraction, gene expression quantitation (using a gene panel consisting of 16 cancer genes plus 5 reference genes and quantitative real-time RT-PCR), and an automated computer algorithm to produce a Recurrence Score® result (scale: 0–100). This review presents evidence showing that the Recurrence Score result reported for each patient falls within a tight clinically relevant confidence interval. Specifically, the review discusses how the development of the assay was designed to optimise assay performance, presents data supporting its analytical validity, and describes the quality control and assurance programmes that ensure optimal test performance over time. PMID:27729940

  20. Risk scores-the modern Oracle of Delphi?

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Florian; Schwaiger, Johannes P

    2017-03-01

    Recently, 4 new risk scores for the prediction of mortality and cardiovascular events were especially tailored for hemodialysis patients; these scores performed much better than previous scores. Tripepi et al. found that these risk scores were even more predictive for all-cause and cardiovascular death than the measurement of the left ventricular mass index was. Nevertheless, the investigation of left ventricular mass and function has its own place for other reasons.

  1. Clostridium difficile Associated Risk of Death Score (CARDS): A novel severity score to predict mortality among hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Zain; Fabersunne, Camila Cribb; Smith, Mark B.; Alm, Eric J.; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is public health threat and associated with significant mortality. However, there is a paucity of objectively derived CDI severity scoring systems to predict mortality. Aims To develop a novel CDI risk score to predict mortality entitled: Clostridium difficile Associated Risk of Death Score (CARDS). Methods We obtained data from the United States 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. All CDI-associated hospitalizations were identified using discharge codes (ICD-9-CM, 008.45). Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to identify independent predictors of mortality. CARDS was calculated by assigning a numeric weight to each parameter based on their odds ratio in the final logistic model. Predictive properties of model discrimination were assessed using the c-statistic and validated in an independent sample using the 2010 NIS database. Results We identified 77,776 hospitalizations, yielding an estimate of 374,747 cases with an associated diagnosis of CDI in the United States, 8% of whom died in the hospital. The 8 severity score predictors were identified on multivariate analysis: age, cardiopulmonary disease, malignancy, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, acute renal failure, liver disease and ICU admission, with weights ranging from −1 (for diabetes) to 5 (for ICU admission). The overall risk score in the cohort ranged from 0 to 18. Mortality increased significantly as CARDS increased. CDI-associated mortality was 1.2% with a CARDS of 0 compared to 100% with CARDS of 18. The model performed equally well in our validation cohort. Conclusion CARDS is a promising simple severity score to predict mortality among those hospitalized with CDI. PMID:26849527

  2. A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Shirley A.

    In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…

  3. Demystifying the GMAT: Where Do Scale Scores Comes from?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…

  4. Statistical Assessment of Estimated Transformations in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; González, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Equating methods make use of an appropriate transformation function to map the scores of one test form into the scale of another so that scores are comparable and can be used interchangeably. The equating literature shows that the ways of judging the success of an equating (i.e., the score transformation) might differ depending on the adopted…

  5. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  6. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  7. Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

  8. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a score for each project, as well as for the overall management operations of a PHA, that reflects... PHA's portfolio to derive the overall management operations indicator score. (c) Thresholds. (1) The... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management operations scoring...

  9. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a score for each project, as well as for the overall management operations of a PHA, that reflects... PHA's portfolio to derive the overall management operations indicator score. (c) Thresholds. (1) The... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management operations scoring...

  10. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a score for each project, as well as for the overall management operations of a PHA, that reflects... PHA's portfolio to derive the overall management operations indicator score. (c) Thresholds. (1) The... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Management operations scoring...

  11. Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  12. Automatic Dialogue Scoring for a Second Language Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin-Xia; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic dialogue scoring approach for a Dialogue-Based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) system, which helps users learn language via interactive conversations. The system produces overall feedback according to dialogue scoring to help the learner know which parts should be more focused on. The scoring measures…

  13. Analytic versus Holistic Scoring of Science Performance Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Stecher, Brian M.; Shavelson, Richard J.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Ormseth, Tor; Bell, Robert M.; Comfort, Kathy; Othman, Abdul R.

    1998-01-01

    Two studies involving 368 elementary and high school students and 29 readers were conducted to investigate reader consistency, score reliability, and reader time requirements of three hands-on science performance tasks. Holistic scores were as reliable as analytic scores, and there was a high correlation between them after they were disattenuated…

  14. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  15. The Effects of Using Different Procedures to Score Maze Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Rebecca L.; McMaster, Kristen L.; Deno, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how different scoring procedures affect interpretation of maze curriculum-based measurements. Fall and spring data were collected from 199 students receiving supplemental reading instruction. Maze probes were scored first by counting all correct maze choices, followed by four scoring variations designed to…

  16. Performance of a Generic Approach in Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A generic approach in automated essay scoring produces scores that have the same meaning across all prompts, existing or new, of a writing assessment. This is accomplished by using a single set of linguistic indicators (or features), a consistent way of combining and weighting these features into essay scores, and a focus on features that are not…

  17. Multidimensional Scoring of Abilities: The Ordered Polytomous Response Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that multidimensionally scoring responses from different tests can provide better ability estimates. For educational assessment data, applications of this approach have been limited to binary scores. Of the different variants, the de la Torre and Patz model is considered more general because implementing the scoring procedure…

  18. Choosing Minimum Passing Scores by Stochastic Approximation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    1980-01-01

    A specified minimum performance level can be translated into a minimum passing score for the written test by measuring the performance of students whose written test scores are near the desired cutoff score. Stochastic approximation methods accomplish this purpose. The up-and-down method and the Robbins-Monro process are compared. (Author/RL)

  19. The Test Score Decline: A Review and Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    40. Champagne, D., & Roberts, E., An Exercise in Freedom: A Place Where Test Scores Appear to Be Rising. = 3. Acland , H., If Reading Scores Are...of the nation’s young teachers. Scientific, Engineering, Tech- nical Manpower Comments, November 1979. 3. Acland , Henry, If reading scores are

  20. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  1. Automated Scoring of L2 Spoken English with Random Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…

  2. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  3. Effectiveness of Automated Chinese Sentence Scoring with Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Pai, Kai-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Automated scoring by means of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) has been introduced lately to improve the traditional human scoring system. The purposes of the present study were to develop a LSA-based assessment system to evaluate children's Chinese sentence construction skills and to examine the effectiveness of LSA-based automated scoring function…

  4. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... performance shall be accomplished using the following scoring plan or one specifically developed for...

  5. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scoring plans. 1515.305-70... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... performance shall be accomplished using the following scoring plan or one specifically developed for...

  6. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  7. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Zhu, Min; Mindrila, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and…

  8. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  9. Score Study Practices of Texas High School Choir Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Herring, Michelle; Moore, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Score study combines the task of what music educators do to prepare for class everyday with many of the components that are taught in collegiate theory classes. While non-research articles have cited the practical application of score study techniques, there is a need for research on score study to describe the ways choral educators pragmatically…

  10. Development of a scoring system using a statistical model to predict cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhali, Mehri; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jaffary, Fariba; Baghbaderani, Azadeh Zolfaghari

    2017-01-01

    Background: The present study was performed to develop a scoring system for predicting cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Materials and Methods: This study included 199 patients with CL from Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran). Data were collected as longitudinal in each visit of patients. We applied ordinal logistic generalized estimating equation regression to predict score on this correlated data. To evaluate the fitted model, split sample validation method was applied. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The regression coefficients of the fitted model were used to calculate score for cure status. Based on split-sample validation method, overall correct classification rate was 82%. Conclusion: This study suggested a scoring system predict cure status in CL patients based on clinical characteristics. Using this method, score for a CL patient is easily obtained by physicians or health workers.

  11. Retrospective study of long-term outcome after brain arteriovenous malformation rupture: the RAP score.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Eimad; Debarre, Matthieu; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Di Maria, Federico; Gabrieli, Joseph; Nouet, Aurélien; Chiras, Jacques; Degos, Vincent; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2017-01-20

    OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome. METHODS The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality. RESULTS One hundred thirty-five patients with 139 independent hemorrhagic events related to BAVM rupture were included in this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression followed by stepwise analysis showed that consciousness level according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.1-13.7, p < 10(-3)), hematoma volume (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = 0.005), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.66-21, p < 10(-3)) were independently associated with a poor outcome. A 12-point scale for ruptured BAVM prognostication was constructed combining these 3 factors. The score obtained using this new scale, the ruptured AVM prognostic (RAP) score, was a stronger predictor of a poor long-term outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.87, 95% CI 0.8-0.92, p = 0.009) and inpatient mortality (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, p = 0.006) than the ICH score. For a RAP score ≥ 6, sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome were 76.8% (95% CI 63.6-87) and 90.8% (95% CI 81.9-96.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The authors propose a new admission score, the RAP score, dedicated to stratifying the risk of poor long-term outcome after BAVM rupture. This easy-to-use scoring system may help to improve communication between health care providers and consistency in clinical research. Only external prospective cohorts and population

  12. Quality indicators for pharmaceutical care: a comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided

  13. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  14. Mangled extremity severity score in children.

    PubMed

    Fagelman, Mitchell F; Epps, Howard R; Rang, Mercer

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of the severely traumatized or mangled lower extremity poses significant challenges. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) is a scale that uses objective criteria to assist with acute management decisions. Most research on the MESS has been in adults or combined series with few children. The study was performed to investigate the MESS in children exclusively. The MESS was applied retrospectively to 36 patients with grades IIIB and IIIC open lower extremity fractures collected from two level 1 pediatric trauma centers. Patients were divided into limb salvage and primary amputation groups based on the decision of the treating surgeon. In the salvage group there were 18 grade IIIB fractures and 10 grade IIIC fractures. The MESS prediction was accurate in 93% of the injured limbs. In the amputation group eight limbs met the inclusion criteria; the MESS agreed with the treating surgeon in 63% of cases. These findings suggest the MESS should be considered when managing a child with severe lower extremity trauma.

  15. Triage of OCR results using confidence scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Prateek; Baird, Henry S.; Henderson, John

    2001-12-01

    We describe a technique for modeling the character recognition accuracy of an OCR system -- treated as a black box -- on a particular page of printed text based on an examination only of the output top-choice character classifications and, for each, a confidence score such as is supplied by many commercial OCR systems. Latent conditional independence (LCI) models perform better on this task, in our experience, than naive uniform thresholding methods. Given a sufficiently large and representative dataset of OCR (errorful) output and manually proofed (correct) text, we can automatically infer LCI models that exhibit a useful degree of reliability. A collaboration between a PARC research group and a Xerox legacy conversion service bureau has demonstrated that such models can significantly improve the productivity of human proofing staff by triaging -- that is, selecting to bypass manual inspection -- pages whose estimated OCR accuracy exceeds a threshold chosen to ensure that a customer-specified per-page accuracy target will be met with sufficient confidence. We report experimental results on over 1400 pages. Our triage software tools are running in production and will be applied to more than 5 million pages of multi-lingual text.

  16. Ethnic differences in children's intelligence test scores: role of economic deprivation, home environment, and maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K; Duncan, G J

    1996-04-01

    We examine differences in intelligence test scores of black and white 5-year-olds. The Infant Health and Development Program data set includes 483 low birthweight premature children who were assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. These children had been followed from birth, with data on neighborhood and family poverty, family structure, family resources, maternal characteristics, and home environment collected over the first 5 years of life. Black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children. Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the ethnic differential by 52%. Adjustments for maternal education and whether the head of household was female did not reduce the ethnic difference further. However, differences in home environment reduced the ethnic differential by an additional 28%. Adjustments for economic and social differences in the lives of black and white children all but eliminate differences in the IQ scores between these two groups.

  17. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  18. Understanding and Interpreting Pharmacy College Admission Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    To fairly and accurately interpret candidates’ Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores as listed on their official transcripts, it is important to understand how these scores reflect candidates’ performances on cognitive tasks involving the identification, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of information assumed to have been covered in pre-pharmacy science, math, and general education coursework. This paper attempts to facilitate this understanding by explaining how candidates’ responses to PCAT test items relate to their scaled scores and percentile ranks and how their writing scores reflect their performance. This paper also suggests how differences between candidates’ PCAT subtest scores may reflect different personal experiences, educational backgrounds, and cognitive abilities. PMID:28289307

  19. Development of a Scoring Algorithm To Replace Expert Rating for Scoring a Complex Performance-Based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauser, Brian E.; Ross, Linette P.; Clyman, Stephen G.; Rose, Kathie M.; Margolis, Melissa J.; Nungester, Ronald J.; Piemme, Thomas E.; Chang, Lucy; El-Bayoumi, Gigi; Malakoff, Gary L.; Pincetl, Pierre S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an automated scoring algorithm for a computer-based simulation examination of physicians' patient-management skills. Results with 280 medical students show that scores produced using this algorithm are highly correlated to actual clinician ratings. Scores were also effective in discriminating between case performance judged passing or…

  20. Estimating the Reliability of a Test Battery Composite or a Test Score Based on Weighted Item Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.

    2004-01-01

    In some settings, the validity of a battery composite or a test score is enhanced by weighting some parts or items more heavily than others in the total score. This article describes methods of estimating the total score reliability coefficient when differential weights are used with items or parts.

  1. Calgary score and modified Calgary score in the differential diagnosis between neurally mediated syncope and epilepsy in children.

    PubMed

    Zou, Runmei; Wang, Shuo; Zhu, Liping; Wu, Lijia; Lin, Ping; Li, Fang; Xie, Zhenwu; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the value of Calgary score and modified Calgary score in differential diagnosis between neurally mediated syncope and epilepsy in children. 201 children experienced one or more episodes of loss of consciousness and diagnosed as neurally mediated syncope or epilepsy were enrolled. Calgary score, modified Calgary score and receiver-operating characteristic curve were used to explore the predictive value in differential diagnosis. There were significant differences in median Calgary score between syncope [-4.00 (-6, 1)] and epilepsy [2 (-3, 5)] (z = -11.63, P < 0.01). When Calgary score ≥1, the sensitivity and specificity of differential diagnosis between syncope and epilepsy were 91.46 and 95.80 %, suggesting a diagnosis of epilepsy. There were significant differences in median modified Calgary score between syncope [-4.00 (-6, 1)] and epilepsy [3 (-3, 6)] (z = -11.71, P < 0.01). When modified Calgary score ≥1, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.68 and 96.64 %, suggesting a diagnosis of epilepsy. The sensitivity and specificity of modified Calgary score and Calgary score did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). Calgary score and modified Calgary score could be used to differential diagnosis between syncope and epilepsy in children.

  2. Direct power comparisons between simple LOD scores and NPL scores for linkage analysis in complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P C; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    1999-09-01

    Several methods have been proposed for linkage analysis of complex traits with unknown mode of inheritance. These methods include the LOD score maximized over disease models (MMLS) and the "nonparametric" linkage (NPL) statistic. In previous work, we evaluated the increase of type I error when maximizing over two or more genetic models, and we compared the power of MMLS to detect linkage, in a number of complex modes of inheritance, with analysis assuming the true model. In the present study, we compare MMLS and NPL directly. We simulated 100 data sets with 20 families each, using 26 generating models: (1) 4 intermediate models (penetrance of heterozygote between that of the two homozygotes); (2) 6 two-locus additive models; and (3) 16 two-locus heterogeneity models (admixture alpha = 1.0,.7,.5, and.3; alpha = 1.0 replicates simple Mendelian models). For LOD scores, we assumed dominant and recessive inheritance with 50% penetrance. We took the higher of the two maximum LOD scores and subtracted 0.3 to correct for multiple tests (MMLS-C). We compared expected maximum LOD scores and power, using MMLS-C and NPL as well as the true model. Since NPL uses only the affected family members, we also performed an affecteds-only analysis using MMLS-C. The MMLS-C was both uniformly more powerful than NPL for most cases we examined, except when linkage information was low, and close to the results for the true model under locus heterogeneity. We still found better power for the MMLS-C compared with NPL in affecteds-only analysis. The results show that use of two simple modes of inheritance at a fixed penetrance can have more power than NPL when the trait mode of inheritance is complex and when there is heterogeneity in the data set.

  3. Clinical COPD Questionnaire score (CCQ) and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sundh, Josefin; Janson, Christer; Lisspers, Karin; Montgomery, Scott; Ställberg, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) measures health status and can be used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL). We investigated whether CCQ is also associated with mortality. Methods Some 1111 Swedish primary and secondary care chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were randomly selected. Information from questionnaires and medical record review were obtained in 970 patients. The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare provided mortality data. Cox regression estimated survival, with adjustment for age, sex, heart disease, and lung function (for a subset with spirometry data, n = 530). Age and sex-standardized mortality ratios were calculated. Results Over 5 years, 220 patients (22.7%) died. Mortality risk was higher for mean CCQ ≥ 3 (37.8% died) compared with mean CCQ < 1 (11.4%), producing an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 3.13 (1.98 to 4.95). After further adjustment for 1 second forced expiratory volume (expressed as percent of the European Community for Steel and Coal reference values ), the association remained (HR 2.94 [1.42 to 6.10]). The mortality risk was higher than in the general population, with standardized mortality ratio (and 95% CI) of 1.87 (1.18 to 2.80) with CCQ < 1, increasing to 6.05 (4.94 to 7.44) with CCQ ≥ 3. Conclusion CCQ is predictive of mortality in COPD patients. As HRQL and mortality are both important clinical endpoints, CCQ could be used to target interventions. PMID:23277739

  4. Phoneme and Word Scoring in Speech-in-Noise Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Tina M.; Ellis, Emily M.; Baltzell, Lucas S.; McMillan, Garnett P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding speech in background noise is difficult for many individuals; however, time constraints have limited its inclusion in the clinical audiology assessment battery. Phoneme scoring of words has been suggested as a method of reducing test time and variability. The purposes of this study were to establish a phoneme scoring rubric and use it in testing phoneme and word perception in noise in older individuals and individuals with hearing impairment. Method Words were presented to 3 participant groups at 80 dB in speech-shaped noise at 7 signal-to-noise ratios (−10 to 35 dB). Responses were scored for words and phonemes correct. Results It was not surprising to find that phoneme scores were up to about 30% better than word scores. Word scoring resulted in larger hearing loss effect sizes than phoneme scoring, whereas scoring method did not significantly modify age effect sizes. There were significant effects of hearing loss and some limited effects of age; age effect sizes of about 3 dB and hearing loss effect sizes of more than 10 dB were found. Conclusion Hearing loss is the major factor affecting word and phoneme recognition with a subtle contribution of age. Phoneme scoring may provide several advantages over word scoring. A set of recommended phoneme scoring guidelines is provided. PMID:26989823

  5. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  6. The Score Family Assessment Questionnaire: A Decade of Progress.

    PubMed

    Carr, Alan; Stratton, Peter

    2017-02-15

    This paper reviews a decade of research (2006-2016) on a family assessment instrument called the Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation (SCORE). The SCORE was developed in Europe to monitor progress and outcome in systemic therapy and has been adopted by the European Family Therapy Association as the main instrument for assessing the outcome in systemic family and couple therapy. There are currently six main versions of this instrument: SCORE-40, SCORE-15, SCORE-28, SCORE-29, Child SCORE-15, and Relational SCORE-15. It has also been translated into a number of European languages. Fifteen empirical studies of the SCORE "family of measures" have been conducted. Most have aimed to establish psychometric properties of these instruments in English and other languages. Others have used the SCORE to document the level of family adjustment in clinical samples or evaluate outcome in treatment trials. There is now sufficient evidence for the reliability and validity of the SCORE to justify the use of brief versions of this instrument to monitor progress and outcome in the routine practice of systemic therapy.

  7. Effectiveness of sequential automatic-manual home respiratory polygraphy scoring.

    PubMed

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Pereira, Ricardo; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso-Fernandez, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Vázquez-Polo, Francisco-José; Montserrat, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Automatic home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) scoring functions can potentially confirm the diagnosis of sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) (obviating technician scoring) in a substantial number of patients. The result would have important management and cost implications. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic cost-effectiveness of a sequential HRP scoring protocol (automatic and then manual for residual cases) compared with manual HRP scoring, and with in-hospital polysomnography. We included suspected SAHS patients in a multicentre study and assigned them to home and hospital protocols at random. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for manual and automatic scoring. Diagnostic agreement for several cut-off points was explored and costs for two equally effective alternatives were calculated. Of 366 randomised patients, 348 completed the protocol. Manual scoring produced better ROC curves than automatic scoring. There was no sensitive automatic or subsequent manual HRP apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) cut-off point. The specific cut-off points for automatic and subsequent manual HRP scorings (AHI >25 and >20, respectively) had a specificity of 93% for automatic and 94% for manual scorings. The costs of manual protocol were 9% higher than sequential HRP protocol; these were 69% and 64%, respectively, of the cost of the polysomnography. A sequential HRP scoring protocol is a cost-effective alternative to polysomnography, although with limited cost savings compared to HRP manual scoring.

  8. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  9. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method.

  10. Oocyte Scoring Enhances Embryo-Scoring in Predicting Pregnancy Chances with IVF Where It Counts Most

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaroni-Tealdi, Emanuela; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Yu, Yao; Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Russell, Helena; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Context Our center’s quality improvement optimization process on many occasions anecdotally suggested that oocyte assessments might enhance embryo assessment in predicting pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Objective To prospectively compare a morphologic oocyte grading system to standard day-3 morphologic embryo assessment. Design, Setting, Patients We prospectively investigated in a private academically-affiliated infertility center 94 consecutive IVF cycles based on 6 criteria for oocyte quality: morphology, cytoplasm, perivitelline space (PVS), zona pellucida (ZP), polar body (PB) and oocyte size, each assigned a value of -1 (worst), 0 (average) or +1 (best), so establishing an average total oocyte score (TOS). Embryo assessment utilized grade and cell numbers of each embryo on day-3 after oocyte retrieval. Clinical pregnancy was defined by presence of at least one intrauterine gestational sac. Interventions Standard IVF cycles in infertile women. Main Outcome Measures Predictability of pregnancy based on oocyte and embryo-grading systems. Results Average age for all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 years; mean oocyte yield was 7.97± 5.76; Patient specific total oocyte score (PTOS) was -1.05 ± 2.24. PTOS, adjusted for patient age, was directly related to odds of increased embryo cell numbers (OR 1.12, P = 0.025), embryo grade (OR 1.19, P < 0.001) and clinical pregnancy [OR 1.58 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.02), P < 0.001]. Restricting the analysis to day three embryos of high quality (8-cell/ good grades), TOS was still predictive of clinical pregnancy (OR 2.08 (95%CI 1.26 to 3.44, P = 0.004). Among the 69 patients with embryos of Grade 4 or better available for transfer 23 achieved Clinical Pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to the 69 transfers with good quality embryos (≥ Grade 4) the Oocyte Scoring System (TOS) (AUC±SE 0.863±0.044, oocyte score) provided significantly greater predictive value for clinical pregnancy compared to the embryo grade

  11. Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job): definition of the cut-off score.

    PubMed

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Leonardi, Matilde; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Frangiamore, Rita; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Clerici, Valentina Torri; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Ponzio, Michela; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) mainly affects people of working age. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job) was designed to measure difficulties in work-related tasks. Our aim is to define cut-off score of MSQ-Job to identify potential critical situations that might require specific attention. A sample of patients with MS completed the MSQ-Job, WHODAS 2.0 and MSQOL-54 respectively for work difficulties, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluation. K-means Cluster Analysis was used to divide the sample in three groups on the basis of HRQoL and disability. ANOVA test was performed to compare the response pattern between these groups. The cut-off score was defined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for MSQ-Job total and count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3: a score value corresponding to the maximum of the sensitivity-to-specificity ratio was chosen as the cut-off. Out of 180 patients enrolled, twenty were clustered in the higher severity group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.845 for the MSQ-Job total and 0.859 for the count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3 while the cut-off score was 15.8 for MSQ-Job total and 8 for count of items scored ≥3. We recommend the use of MSQ-Job with this calculation as cut-off for identifying critical situations, e.g. in vocational rehabilitation services, where work-related difficulties have a significant impact in terms of lower quality of life and higher disability.

  12. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  13. Antipsychotics and Mortality: Adjusting for Mortality Risk Scores to Address Confounding by Terminal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoonyoung; Franklin, Jessica M.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Levin, Raisa; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Huybrechts, Krista F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Earlier studies have documented a greater mortality risk associated with conventional compared with atypical antipsychotics. Concern remains that the association is not causal, but due to residual confounding by differences in underlying health. To address this concern, we evaluated whether adjustment for prognostic indices specifically developed fornursing home (NH) populations affected the magnitude of the previously observed associations. DESIGN Cohort study SETTING A merged dataset of Medicaid, Medicare, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system (OSCAR), and the National Death Index in the US for 2001-2005 PARTICIPANTS Dual eligible subjects ≥ 65 years who initiated antipsychotic treatment in a NH (n=75,445). MEASUREMENTS Three mortality risk scores (MRIS, MMRI-R, and ADEPT) were derived for each patient using baseline MDS data, and their performance was assessed using c-statistics and goodness-of-fit tests. The impact of adjusting for these indices in addition to propensity scores (PS) on the antipsychotic-mortality association was evaluated using Cox models with and without adjustment for risk scores. RESULTS Each risk score showed moderate discrimination for 6-month mortality with c-statistics ranging from 0.61 to 0.63. There was no evidence of lack of fit. Imbalances in risk scores between conventional and atypical antipsychotic users in the full cohort, suggesting potential confounding, were greatly reduced within PS deciles. Accounting for each score in the Cox model did not change the relative risk estimates: 2.24 with PS only adjustment vs. 2.20, 2.20, 2.22 after further adjustment for the three risk scores. CONCLUSION Although causality cannot be proven based on non-randomized studies, this study adds to the body of evidence rejecting alternative explanations for the increased mortality risk associated with conventional antipsychotics. PMID:25752911

  14. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  15. First quality score for referral letters in gastroenterology—a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Eskeland, Sigrun Losada; Brunborg, Cathrine; Seip, Birgitte; Wiencke, Kristine; Hovde, Øistein; Owen, Tanja; Skogestad, Erik; Huppertz-Hauss, Gert; Halvorsen, Fred-Arne; Garborg, Kjetil; Aabakken, Lars; de Lange, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To create and validate an objective and reliable score to assess referral quality in gastroenterology. Design An observational multicentre study. Setting and participants 25 gastroenterologists participated in selecting variables for a Thirty Point Score (TPS) for quality assessment of referrals to gastroenterology specialist healthcare for 9 common indications. From May to September 2014, 7 hospitals from the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority participated in collecting and scoring 327 referrals to a gastroenterologist. Main outcome measure Correlation between the TPS and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for referral quality. Results The 327 referrals had an average TPS of 13.2 (range 1–25) and an average VAS of 4.7 (range 0.2–9.5). The reliability of the score was excellent, with an intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 and inter-rater ICC of 0.91. The overall correlation between the TPS and the VAS was moderate (r=0.42), and ranged from fair to substantial for the various indications. Mean agreement was good (ICC=0.47, 95% CI (0.34 to 0.57)), ranging from poor to good. Conclusions The TPS is reliable, objective and shows good agreement with the subjective VAS. The score may be a useful tool for assessing referral quality in gastroenterology, particularly important when evaluating the effect of interventions to improve referral quality. PMID:27855107

  16. Observed Agreement Problems between Sub-Scales and Summary Components of the SF-36 Version 2 - An Alternative Scoring Method Can Correct the Problem

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Graeme; Adams, Robert; Wilson, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A number of previous studies have shown inconsistencies between sub-scale scores and component summary scores using traditional scoring methods of the SF-36 version 1. This study addresses the issue in Version 2 and asks if the previous problems of disagreement between the eight SF-36 Version 1 sub-scale scores and the Physical and Mental Component Summary persist in version 2. A second study objective is to review the recommended scoring methods for the creation of factor scoring weights and the effect on producing summary scale scores Methods The 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey dataset was used for the production of coefficients. There were 3,014 observations with full data for the SF-36. Data were analysed in LISREL V8.71. Confirmatory factor analysis models were fit to the data producing diagonally weighted least squares estimates. Scoring coefficients were validated on an independent dataset, the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Problems of agreement were observed with the recommended orthogonal scoring methods which were corrected using confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions Confirmatory factor analysis is the preferred method to analyse SF-36 data, allowing for the correlation between physical and mental health. PMID:23593428

  17. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  18. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  19. Comparing need between health occupation and health education schools: which students benefit most from the school health education program.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lisa; Lee, Rachel; Nip, Ivy

    2004-09-01

    Comparing need between Health Occupation and Health Education Schools: Which students benefit most from the School Health Education Program? First-year medical students taught general health topics at public high schools. Pre-test and post-tests were given for each presentation. Health Education students had lower pre-test scores but showed greater improvement. With greater need and fewer resources, Health Education students benefit most.

  20. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M; Chapman, Don

    2005-08-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are used to design professional development training for school health educators. Selected response items from the State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards, Health Education Assessment Project were used to develop a 40-item assessment instrument for 6 health education content areas. In West Virginia, 51 counties and 242 schools were recruited (county response rate = 93%; school response rate = 53%); 17,549 students were tested in grades 6, 8, and high school health education classes. Mean total scores by grade were 30.61 (grade 6), 26.55 (grade 8), and 26.53 (high school), indicating a slight decline in scores as grade level increased. Females in each grade level scored higher on total Health Education Assessment Project (HEAP) scores and subtest scores than males. The results suggest notable differences across grade levels. High school students failed to meet the standard on any health education content areas, indicating the need for enhanced knowledge and skill development. During professional development training, HEAP scores were examined in the context of results from the West Virginia Youth Risk Behavior Survey to underscore the importance of providing quality skills-based health education in West Virginia schools.

  1. Assessing scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Philippe; Gohlke, Holger; Price, Daniel J; Klebe, Gerhard; Brooks, Charles L

    2004-06-03

    An assessment of nine scoring functions commonly applied in docking using a set of 189 protein-ligand complexes is presented. The scoring functions include the CHARMm potential, the scoring function DrugScore, the scoring function used in AutoDock, the three scoring functions implemented in DOCK, as well as three scoring functions implemented in the CScore module in SYBYL (PMF, Gold, ChemScore). We evaluated the abilities of these scoring functions to recognize near-native configurations among a set of decoys and to rank binding affinities. Binding site decoys were generated by molecular dynamics with restraints. To investigate whether the scoring functions can also be applied for binding site detection, decoys on the protein surface were generated. The influence of the assignment of protonation states was probed by either assigning "standard" protonation states to binding site residues or adjusting protonation states according to experimental evidence. The role of solvation models in conjunction with CHARMm was explored in detail. These include a distance-dependent dielectric function, a generalized Born model, and the Poisson equation. We evaluated the effect of using a rigid receptor on the outcome of docking by generating all-pairs decoys ("cross-decoys") for six trypsin and seven HIV-1 protease complexes. The scoring functions perform well to discriminate near-native from misdocked conformations, with CHARMm, DOCK-energy, DrugScore, ChemScore, and AutoDock yielding recognition rates of around 80%. Significant degradation in performance is observed in going from decoy to cross-decoy recognition for CHARMm in the case of HIV-1 protease, whereas DrugScore and ChemScore, as well as CHARMm in the case of trypsin, show only small deterioration. In contrast, the prediction of binding affinities remains problematic for all of the scoring functions. ChemScore gives the highest correlation value with R(2) = 0.51 for the set of 189 complexes and R(2) = 0.43 for the set

  2. [Critical examination of scoring systems in therapeutic trials].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Segrestaa, J M; Caulin, C

    1994-01-01

    Scoring systems give a check-list and methodological informations which have to be found in controlled therapeutic trials reports and papers. These systems try to quantify each item to give a global score. The Chalmer's list is the most wellknown. It allows a balance in scoring taking in account the quality of the endpoints. Other lists are more simple. Many check-lists allow the scoring of the methodological design or the statistical analysis. In all systems the major methodological points are: the randomization, the description of the population, the double blind, the estimation of the sample size, the handling of withdrawal and drop out, the major endpoint, the patients follow-up, the statistical analysis and the data presentation. All these scoring systems have several limits: the quantitative evaluation of each item is subjective and the point scoring has never been validated, some scoring systems are old and don't integrate new methodological methods, the scores never included the clinical interest of the trial, some items are questionable, others are forgotten (intention to treat analysis, steering comity...). Scoring systems allow a control of the methodological quality of clinical trials but don't include the clinical or scientific interest of the study. These systems are a useful methodological tool for publication process in medical journals and for new drugs authorization. The evaluation by authors themselves of the quality of their papers using a standardized scoring system could clarify the reviewers decisions.

  3. Use of allele scores as instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G

    2013-01-01

    Background An allele score is a single variable summarizing multiple genetic variants associated with a risk factor. It is calculated as the total number of risk factor-increasing alleles for an individual (unweighted score), or the sum of weights for each allele corresponding to estimated genetic effect sizes (weighted score). An allele score can be used in a Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of the risk factor on an outcome. Methods Data were simulated to investigate the use of allele scores in Mendelian randomization where conventional instrumental variable techniques using multiple genetic variants demonstrate ‘weak instrument’ bias. The robustness of estimates using the allele score to misspecification (for example non-linearity, effect modification) and to violations of the instrumental variable assumptions was assessed. Results Causal estimates using a correctly specified allele score were unbiased with appropriate coverage levels. The estimates were generally robust to misspecification of the allele score, but not to instrumental variable violations, even if the majority of variants in the allele score were valid instruments. Using a weighted rather than an unweighted allele score increased power, but the increase was small when genetic variants had similar effect sizes. Naive use of the data under analysis to choose which variants to include in an allele score, or for deriving weights, resulted in substantial biases. Conclusions Allele scores enable valid causal estimates with large numbers of genetic variants. The stringency of criteria for genetic variants in Mendelian randomization should be maintained for all variants in an allele score. PMID:24062299

  4. Scoring system for prediction of metastatic spine tumor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Uei, Hiroshi; Oshima, Masashi; Ajiro, Yasumitsu

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the prognosis before treatment for metastatic spine tumor is extremely important in therapy selection. Therefore, we review some prognostic scoring systems and their outcomes. Articles with combinations of two keywords among “metastatic spine tumor” and “prognosis”, “score”, “scoring system”, “predicting”, or “life expectancy” were searched for in PubMed. As a result, 236 articles were extracted. Those referring to representative scoring systems about predicting the survival of patients with metastatic spine tumors were used. The significance and limits of these scoring systems, and the future perspectives were described. Tokuhashi score, Tomita score, Baur score, Linden score, Rades score, and Katagiri score were introduced. They are all scoring systems prepared by combining factors that affect prognosis. The primary site of cancer and visceral metastasis were common factors in all of these scoring systems. Other factors selected to influence the prognosis varied. They were useful to roughly predict the survival period, such as, “more than one year or not” or “more than six months or not”. In particular, they were utilized for decision-making about operative indications and avoidance of excessive medical treatment. Because the function depended on the survival period in the patients with metastatic spine tumor, it was also utilized in assessing functional prognosis. However, no scoring system had more than 90% consistency between the predicted and actual survival periods. Future perspectives should adopt more oncological viewpoints with adjustment of the process of treatment for metastatic spine tumor. PMID:25035829

  5. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  6. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Mariam; Kassab, Salah Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS) have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician) for assessment of medical students (n=130) studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX) during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha statistics. The relationships between students’ scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management) and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862). Inter-item correlations between students’ scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01). Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01), while students’ scores in real patient encounters did not predict any of the CCS scores. Conclusion Students’ scores in OSCE are the most important predictors of their scores in clinical reasoning and patient management using CCS. However, real patient

  7. The AFC Score: Validation of a 4-Item Predicting Score of Postoperative Mortality After Colorectal Resection for Cancer or Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Arnaud; Panis, Yves; Mantion, Georges; Slim, Karem; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Vicaut, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present prospective study was to validate externally a 4-item predictive score of mortality after colorectal surgery (the AFC score) by testing its generalizability on a new population. Summary Background Data: We have recently reported, in a French prospective multicenter study, that age older than 70 years, neurologic comorbidity, underweight (body weight loss >10% in <6 months), and emergency surgery significantly increased postoperative mortality after resection for cancer or diverticulitis. Patients and Methods: From June to September 2004, 1049 consecutive patients (548 men and 499 women) with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years, undergoing open or laparoscopic colorectal resection, were prospectively included. The AFC score was validated in this population. We assessed also the predictive value of other scores, such as the “Glasgow” score and the ASA score. To express and compare the predictive value of the different scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Results: Postoperative mortality rate was 4.6%. Variables already identified as predictors of mortality and used in the AFC score were also found to be associated with a high odds ratio in this study: emergency surgery, body weight loss >10%, neurologic comorbidity, and age older than 70 years in a multivariate logistic model. The validity of the AFC score in this population was found very high based both on the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P = 0.37) and on the area under the ROC curve (0.89). We also found that discriminatory capacity was higher than other currently used risk scoring systems such as the Glasgow or ASA score. Conclusion: The present prospective study validated the AFC score as a pertinent predictive score of postoperative mortality after colorectal surgery. Because it is based on only 4 risk factors, the AFC score can be used in daily practice. PMID:17592296

  8. A Comparison of Diarrheal Severity Scores in the MAL-ED Multisite Community-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; Richard, Stephanie A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih R.; Lima, Aldo A.; Bessong, Pascal; Jennifer, Mats Steffi; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nyathi, Emanuel; Lima, Ila F.; Pascal, John; Soofi, Sajid; Ladaporn, Bodhidatta; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is a lack of consensus on how to measure diarrheal severity. Within the context of a multisite, prospective cohort study, we evaluated the performance of a modified Vesikari score (MAL-ED), 2 previously published scores (Clark and CODA [a diarrheal severity score (Community DiarrheA) published by Lee et al]), and a modified definition of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) based on dysentery and health care worker diagnosed dehydration. Methods: Scores were built using maternally reported symptoms or fieldworker-reported clinical signs obtained during the first 7 days of a diarrheal episode. The association between these and the risk of hospitalization were tested using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Severity scores were also related to illness etiology, and the likelihood of the episode subsequently becoming prolonged or persistent. Results: Of 10,159 episodes from 1681 children, 143 (4.0%) resulted in hospitalization. The area under the curve of each score as a predictor of hospitalization was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.87) (Clark), 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) (MAL-ED), and 0.87 (0.84, 0.89) (CODA). Severity was also associated with etiology and episode duration. Although families were more likely to seek care for severe diarrhea, approximately half of severe cases never reached the health system. Conclusions: Community-based diarrheal severity scores are predictive of relevant child health outcomes. Because they require no assumptions about health care access or utilization, they are useful in refining estimates of the burden of diarrheal disease, in estimating the effect of disease control interventions, and in triaging children for referral in low- and middle-income countries in which the rates of morbidity and mortality after diarrhea remain high. PMID:27347723

  9. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  10. Validation of criterion-referenced archery cutting scores.

    PubMed

    Ishee, J H; Titlow, L W

    1993-04-01

    This study investigated an empirical method for setting optimal cutting scores for a criterion-referenced archery test. The classification-outcome probabilities and approaches to validity suggested by Berk were utilized. Pretest scores were obtained on 35 uninstructed college-age women on six ends (six arrows each) from 20 yards (18.3 m) after an unrecorded warm-up end. Posttest scores were after 15 weeks of instruction. Score distributions were the primary determinant for accurately classifying students as true mastery and true nonmastery. Accuracy is a function of the amount of overlap between distributions. Using the point at which the distributions overlapped, classification accuracy was estimated. Probabilities associated with 80 points were p(TM) + p(TN) = .83 and p(FM) + p(FN) = .14. Scores above and below 80 points had lower probabilities of classification accuracy. Reliability estimated using Kappa was .59. Statistical validity of the cutting score (phi) was .68.

  11. Sampling time error in EuroSCORE II.

    PubMed

    Poullis, Michael; Fabri, Brian; Pullan, Mark; Chalmers, John

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal variation in mortality after cardiac surgery exists. EuroSCORE II accrued data over a 12-week period from May to July 2010. We investigated whether the accrual period for EuroSCORE II had a different mortality rate compared with the rest of the year. We found in a study population of 18,706 that the accrual period of EuroSCORE II may introduce bias into the predicted mortality, potentially reducing the accuracy of the new model.

  12. Methamphetamine Users Have Increased Dental Disease: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, V; Harrell, L; Clague, J; Murphy, D A; Dye, B A; Belin, T R

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) users are assumed to have a high burden of tooth decay. Less clear is how the distribution and severity of dental caries in MA users differ from the general population. Using a covariate-balancing propensity score strategy, we investigated the differential effects of MA use on dental caries by comparing the patterns of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in a community sample of 571 MA users with a subset of 2,755 demographically similar control individuals selected from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort. Recruited over a 2-y period with a stratified sampling protocol, the MA users underwent comprehensive dental examinations by 3 trained and calibrated dentists using NHANES protocols. Propensity scores were estimated with logistic regression based on background characteristics, and a subset of closely matched subjects was stratified into quintiles for comparisons. MA users were twice as likely to have untreated caries (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.55 to 2.78) and 4 times more likely to have caries experience (OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 2.24 to 7.34) than the control group of NHANES participants. Additionally, MA users were twice as likely to have 2 more decayed, missing, or filled teeth (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.29 to 2.79) than the NHANES participants. The differential involvement of the teeth surfaces in MA users was quite distinctive, with carious surface involvement being highest for the maxillary central incisors, followed by maxillary posterior premolars and molars. Users injecting MA had significantly higher rates of tooth decay compared with noninjectors (P = 0.04). Although MA users experienced decayed and missing dental surfaces more frequently than NHANES participants, NHANES participants had more restored surfaces, especially on molars. The high rates and distinctive patterns of dental caries observed could be used 1) to alert dentists to covert MA use in their patients and 2) as

  13. Comparing the Scoring of Human Decomposition from Digital Images to Scoring Using On-site Observations.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Bytheway, Joan A; Connor, Melissa

    2017-01-25

    When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test. The average difference between on-site and photographic observations was -0.20 (t = -1.679, df = 928, p = 0.094). Individually, only two observers, both students with <1 year of experience, demonstrated TBS statistically significantly different than the on-site value, suggesting that with experience, observations of human decomposition based on digital images can be substituted for assessments based on observation of the corpse in situ, when necessary.

  14. Risk scoring for percutaneous coronary intervention: let's do it!

    PubMed Central

    Siotia, A

    2006-01-01

    The recent publication of a robust percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) risk scoring system should stimulate every interventional cardiologist to incorporate risk adjustment into their everyday practice PMID:16621880

  15. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed. PMID:26177466

  16. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  17. Kids Born to Older Moms Score Higher on Thinking Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Child Development Pregnancy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Development Pregnancy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support ...

  18. Addiction Severity Index (ASI) summary scores: comparison of the Recent Status Scores of the ASI-6 and the Composite Scores of the ASI-5

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Cécile M.; Cacciola, John S.; Alterman, Arthur I.

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics and the validity of the Recent Status Scores (RSSs), the new summary scores generated by the 6th version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6), are compared to the 5th version of the ASI summary scores, the Composite Scores (CSs). A sample of 82 randomly selected patients from substance abuse treatment programs were interviewed with the ASI-6, the ASI-5 and were administered a validity battery of self-questionnaires that included measures corresponding to each of the ASI domains. Each ASI-6 RSS was significantly correlated with its corresponding ASI-5 CS. The intercorrelations among the RSSs are low and none of these correlations was statistically different from the intercorrelations among CSs. In five of the seven areas, the ASI-6 RSSs were more highly correlated to the corresponding validity measures than were the ASI-5 CSs. The ASI-6 offers more comprehensive content in its scales than do those derived with earlier ASIs. PMID:23886822

  19. Validity of scores from communication skills instruments for patients and their dental student-clinicians.

    PubMed

    Winning, T A; Kinnell, A; Wener, M E; Mazurat, N; J Schönwetter, D

    2013-05-01

    The development of appropriate communication skills by healthcare providers is central to providing quality patient-centred care. Patients can provide valuable feedback to practitioners about their clinical communication. However, in oral health care, their involvement is uncommon and instruments specific for communication in oral health care have not been available. Recently, two complementary instruments have been developed by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba for evaluating student-clinicians' clinical communication: one for patient evaluation and one for student self-evaluation. The aim of the current study was to provide validity evidence for the scores related to the internal structure of the revised 2007 versions of these instruments in two dental clinical/education contexts, namely the Universities of Manitoba, Canada (UM) and Adelaide, Australia (UA). The proposed factor structure and loadings, and their stability across contexts were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, and the adequacy of the internal consistency reliability of the scores was analysed using Cronbach's alpha. The factor structure of the current 2007 versions of the patient and student instruments, derived from the previously developed longer versions of these instruments, was confirmed and was consistent across the two clinical/educational contexts. A model of partial invariance provided the best fit for these data due to variations in the magnitude of the factor loadings between sites. The internal consistency reliability of scores was high with a range of 0.88-0.97. In conclusion, the current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the validity of the scores of the current 2007 instruments, in terms of the internal structure, as measuring the five factors well. Replication of the factor structure of these instrument scores with more participants at both UA and other institutions is required.

  20. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Shadi R; Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.