Science.gov

Sample records for health service reforms

  1. Health services reforms in revolutionary Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Taboada, E

    1984-01-01

    Before the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, access to health services was largely limited to the affluent sectors of the urban population and the minority of workers with social security coverage. Repeated attempts at reform by organized medicine were ineffective. Since the revolution, a tremendous expansion in health services has occurred. The national health system receives approximately one-third of its funds from the social security system. Steadily increasing equity in access is a result of the promotion of primary care, health campaigns involving up to 10 per cent of the general population as volunteers, the use of paramedical aides, and foreign assistance. Private practice nevertheless remains strong. In the coming years, several complex issues must be examined, including: a balance in the number of nurses and doctors trained, the role of private practice, and the relationship of the Ministry of Health to the social security system. Further progress in health reforms may be delayed by the defensive war which Nicaragua is fighting on its northern and southern borders. Despite emergent health problems in the war zones, most of the innovative aspects of the health system remain intact as of this writing. PMID:6476169

  2. The structural reform of mental health services.

    PubMed

    Haver, Eitan; Baruch, Yehuda; Kotler, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    During past decades many countries have initiated extensive mental health care system reforms, and the main goal of these reforms has been the transfer of treatment of the mentally ill from psychiatric hospitals to the community. For example, assessment of the results of these reforms in Italy and Austria demonstrates considerable reduction in the number of psychiatric beds, higher quality and more available community services, and increased total expenditure for mental health services. However, because sufficient data is not yet available, many questions regarding how these reforms impact improvement in patient clinical parameters remain unanswered. Some of the answers to these questions can be gleaned from the results of research carried out in the United States and Canada in the 1980s. This research evaluated transfer of psychiatric treatment from a hospital setting to a community service setting. The results demonstrated that community treatment models were more effective than a hospital treatment model in reducing the number of hospitalizations and shortening length of stay. Patient monitoring also demonstrated good integration into the community. However, alongside the research supporting these reforms, there is some research that demonstrates a number of possible disadvantages: an increase in the number of homeless and in the mortality rate among psychiatric patients, and an increase in rehospitalization rates of chronically ill patients," referred to as the "Revolving Door Syndrome." To avoid the disadvantages that could possibly accompany the reform, particular attention needs to be given to planning and funding, so that development of community services and reduction in psychiatric hospital system correspond. Care must be taken to ensure that the number and the geographic location of these services meets the need of the population at risk, and that staff is available and well trained. A monitoring system should be set in place to monitor the patients

  3. [Proposals for the reform of public health services in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Antó, Josep M; Pané, Olga; de Peray, Josep L

    2006-01-01

    In the year 2004 the government of Catalonia undertook a process to reform its public health services. In this context, it created a working groupinvolving experts from diverse backgrounds to analyse the reforms to be undertaken, the Scientific Committee for the Reform of Public Health in Catalonia. Its members produced eight documents on specific aspects of public health, from which a global report of the Committee was compiled by the end of 2005. This paper makes a synthesis of their production, and includes as an annex their recommendations and proposals. Public health policies should be structured around three main goal: the reduction of health inequalities, the control and removal of social and environmental risks, and effective improvements in quality of life. To reach them, common criteria are defined as main directions. These are based in favouring decentralization of public health services and their administration, linking public health activities with health care services, designing interventions with a population perspective, and reinforcing cross-sectional implications of public health. The work of this Committee is produced in the context of an international debate on the future of public health services and the disproportion between its contribution to health and well being and its resources and visibility. The Committee produced proposals and recommendations which can he grouped in five facets: consolidating a solid and coherent system, developing an organizational reform, defining a port-folio of services, adopting improvements in management, and taking into account cross sectional aspects relating to public health.

  4. From health situation to health education and health service reforms for Thai society.

    PubMed

    Panthongviriyakul, Charnchai; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sutra, Sumitr

    2012-07-01

    Health problems and service utilization patterns among Thai populations have changed significantly over the past three decades. It is imperative to scrutinize the changes so that the health service and human resource development systems can appropriately respond to the changing health needs. To synthesize critical issues for future planning of health service reforms, medical education reforms and health research for Thai society. The authors analyzed data on health service utilization, types of illnesses and hospital deaths among Thais in the fiscal year 2010. Information on the illnesses of in-/out-patients and hospital deaths was extracted from the three main health insurance schemes providing coverage to 96% of the population. The authors then synthesized the key issues for reforming medical education and health services. In summary, Thai patients have better access to health services. The total number of out-patient visits was 326,230,155 times or 5.23 visits per population. The total number of in-patient admissions was 6,880,815 times or 0.11 admissions per population. The most frequent users were between 40-59 years of age. The most common conditions seen at OPD and IPD and the causes of in-hospital mortality varied between age-groups. The key health issues identified were: psychosocial conditions, health behaviour problems, perinatal complications, congenital malformations, teenage pregnancy, injury, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms. Medical education reforms need to be designed in terms of both undergraduate and post-graduate education and/or specialty clinical needs. Health service reforms should be designed in terms of patient care systems, roles of multidisciplinary teams and community involvement. The government and other responsible organizations need to actively respond by designing the health service systems and human resource development systems that are relevant, appropriate and integrated. Different levels of care need to

  5. Progressive segmented health insurance: Colombian health reform and access to health services.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Fernando; Amaya, Liliana; Venegas, Stella

    2007-01-01

    Equal access for poor populations to health services is a comprehensive objective for any health reform. The Colombian health reform addressed this issue through a segmented progressive social health insurance approach. The strategy was to assure universal coverage expanding the population covered through payroll linked insurance, and implementing a subsidized insurance program for the poorest populations, those not affiliated through formal employment. A prospective study was performed to follow-up health service utilization and out-of-pocket expenses using a cohort design. It was representative of four Colombian cities (Cendex Health Services Use and Expenditure Study, 2001). A four part econometric model was applied. The model related medical service utilization and medication with different socioeconomic, geographic, and risk associated variables. Results showed that subsidized health insurance improves health service utilization and reduces the financial burden for the poorest, as compared to those non-insured. Other social health insurance schemes preserved high utilization with variable out-of-pocket expenditures. Family and age conditions have significant effect on medical service utilization. Geographic variables play a significant role in hospital inpatient service utilization. Both, geographic and income variables also have significant impact on out-of-pocket expenses. Projected utilization rates and a simulation favor a dual policy for two-stage income segmented insurance to progress towards the universal insurance goal.

  6. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    PubMed

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  7. The Interface of School, Community, and Health Care Reform: Organizational Directions toward Effective Services for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of reform have been under national scrutiny: school reform, community services reform, and health-care reform. Few have discussed how these three areas interface and can be organized toward more effective services for children and youth. Describes organizational and planning methodology that coordinates these three reform areas into a…

  8. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  9. [Willingness of Warsaw inhabitants to cooperate with health service. I. Opinions on health reforms].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Social participation in undertaking public decisions is one of the main determinants of good governance. Recognizing to what extent people are ready to participate in the process of reforming health care as an active partners seems to be necessary. Therefore, in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Education Department of NIPH-NIH the study aimed at examining citizen's willingness to cooperate with health staff and gathering their opinions on health reform was carried out. The not-addressed questionnaires were conveyed to 1700 households in Warsaw and 402 correct completed were received. Our findings indicate that one of four Warsaw citizens was ready to participate jointly with health workers in health reform. The willingness was higher in women, older people, higher educated and pensioners. From perspective of their own health, respondents perceived the following issues as requiring a change in the time of health reform: easier access to specialist treatment (60,9%), changing the health insurance system (17,3%), reduction in medicines price (14,8%), improving the quality of medical services (14,0%), easier access to diagnostic tests (13,6%) and to primary care physicians (10,7%), improving the health and social security of old people (9,0%), easier access and wider range of preventive examinations (7,4%), facilitate the sanatorium treatment (4,1%) and rehabilitation (3,7%).

  10. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a

  11. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T; Brandt, Lena R; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-01-22

    Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a number of legal, policy and fiscal

  12. Change of government: one more big bang health care reform in England's National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2011-01-01

    Once again the National Health Service (NHS) in England is undergoing major reform, following the election of a new coalition government keen to reduce the role of the state and cut back on big government. The NHS has been undergoing continuous reform since the 1980s. Yet, despite the significant transaction costs incurred, there is no evidence that the claimed benefits have been achieved. Many of the same problems endure. The reforms follow the direction of change laid down by the last Conservative government in the early 1990s, which the recent Labour government did not overturn despite a commitment to do so. Indeed, under Labour, the NHS was subjected to further market-style changes that have paved the way for the latest round of reform. The article considers the appeal of big bang reform, questions its purpose and value, and critically appraises the nature and extent of the proposed changes in this latest round of reform. It warns that the NHS in its current form may not survive the changes, as they open the way to privatization and a weakening of its public service ethos.

  13. Health sector reform and sexual and reproductive health services in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Dodd, Rebecca; Dashdorj, Khurelmaa

    2006-05-01

    Since its transition to democracy, Mongolia has undergone a series of reforms, both at national level and in the health sector. This paper examines the pace and scope of these reforms, the ways in which they have impacted on sexual and reproductive health services and their implications for the health workforce. Formerly pro-natalist, Mongolia has made significant advances in contraceptive use, women's education and reductions in maternal mortality. However, rising adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and persisting high levels of abortion, remain challenges. The implementation of the National Reproductive Health Programme has targeted skills development, outreach and the provision of resources. Innovative adolescent-friendly health services have engaged urban youth, and the development of family group practices has created incentives to provide primary medical care for marginalised communities, including sexual and reproductive health services. The Health Sector Strategic Masterplan offers a platform for coordinated development in health, but is threatened by a lack of consensus in both government and donor communities, competing health priorities and the politicisation of emerging debates on fertility and abortion. With previous gains in sexual and reproductive health vulnerable to political change, these tensions risk the exacerbation of existing disparities and the development by default of a two-tiered health care system.

  14. Financing reforms of public health services in China: lessons for other nations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingzhu; Mills, Anne

    2002-06-01

    Financing reforms of China's public health services are characterised by a reduction in government budgetary support and the introduction of charges. These reforms have changed the financing structure of public health institutions. Before the financing reforms, in 1980, government budgetary support covered the full costs of public health institutions, while after the reforms by the middle of the 1990s, the government's contribution to the institutions' revenue had fallen to 30-50%, barely covering the salaries of health workers, and the share of revenue generated from charges had increased to 50-70%. These market-oriented financing reforms improved the productivity of public health institutions, but several unintended consequences became evident. The economic incentives that were built into the financing system led to over-provision of unnecessary services, and under-provision of socially desirable services. User fees reduced the take-up of preventive services with positive externalities. The lack of government funds resulted in under-provision of services with public goods' characteristics. The Chinese experience has generated important lessons for other nations. Firstly, a decline in the role of government in financing public health services is likely to result in decreased overall efficiency of the health sector. Secondly, levying charges for public health services can reduce demand for these services and increase the risk of disease transmission. Thirdly, market-oriented financing reforms of public health services should not be considered as a policy option. Once this step is made, the unintended consequences may outweigh the intended ones. Chinese experience strongly suggests that the government should take a very active role in financing public health services.

  15. China's Health Reform Update.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  16. Why public health services? Experiences from profit-driven health care reforms in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Market-oriented health care reforms have been implemented in the tax-financed Swedish health care system from 1990 to 2013. The first phase of these reforms was the introduction of new public management systems, where public health centers and public hospitals were to act as private firms in an internal health care market. A second phase saw an increase of tax-financed private for-profit providers. A third phase can now be envisaged with increased private financing of essential health services. The main evidence-based effects of these markets and profit-driven reforms can be summarized as follows: efficiency is typically reduced but rarely increased; profit and tax evasion are a drain on resources for health care; geographical and social inequities are widened while the number of tax-financed providers increases; patients with major multi-health problems are often given lower priority than patients with minor health problems; opportunities to control the quality of care are reduced; tax-financed private for-profit providers facilitate increased private financing; and market forces and commercial interests undermine the power of democratic institutions. Policy options to promote further development of a nonprofit health care system are highlighted.

  17. Health system reform in rural China: voices of healthworkers and service-users.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu Dong; Li, Lu; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-09-01

    Like many other countries China is undergoing major health system reforms, with the aim of providing universal health coverage, and addressing problems of low efficiency and inequity. The first phase of the reforms has focused on strengthening primary care and improving health insurance coverage and benefits. The aim of the study was to explore the impacts of these reforms on healthworkers and service-users at township level, which has been the major target of the first phase of the reforms. From January to March 2013 we interviewed eight health officials, 80 township healthworkers and 80 service-users in eight counties in Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces, representing rich and poor provinces respectively. Thematic analysis identified key themes around the impacts of the health reforms. We found that some elements of the reforms may actually be undermining primary care. While the new health insurance system was popular among service-users, it was criticised for contributing to fast-growing medical costs, and for an imbalance of benefits between outpatient and inpatient services. Salary reform has guaranteed healthworkers' income, but greatly reduced their incentives. The essential drug list removed perverse incentives to overprescribe, but led to falls in income for healthworkers, and loss of autonomy for doctors. Serious problems with drug procurement also emerged. The unintended consequences have included a brain drain of experienced healthworkers from township hospitals, and patients have flowed to county hospitals at greater cost. In conclusion, in the short term resources must be found to ensure rural healthworkers feel appropriately remunerated and have more clinical autonomy, measures for containment of the medical costs must be taken, and drug procurement must show increased transparency and accountability. More importantly the study shows that all countries undergoing health reforms should elicit the views of stakeholders, including service-users, to avoid

  18. Ethical Study on the Reform and Development of Medical and Health Services in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong-Wei; Li, En-Chang

    2015-07-01

    At an early stage of its foundation, new China became clear about the nature of public welfare and quickly developed medical and health services, which was well received by the World Health Organization. The marketization and the reduction of input into medical and health services from the 1980s created severe adverse consequences. After the SARS' outbreak in 2003, China started to give serious consideration to its medical and health system, and to work at developing medical and health services. The new healthcare reform launched in 2009 re-emphasizes fairness and public welfare, and China's achievements have been remarkable. Of course, there are still many problems to be solved in the reform, which also paves the way for increasing the reform in future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Integrating reproductive health services in a reforming health sector: the case of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Oliff, Monique; Mayaud, Philippe; Brugha, Ruairí; Semakafu, Ave Maria

    2003-05-01

    Universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services, integrated into a well-functioning health system, remains an unfulfilled objective in many countries. In 2000-2001, in Tanzania, in-depth interviews were conducted with central level stakeholders and focus group discussions held with health management staff in three regional and nine district health offices, to assess progress in the integration of reproductive health services. Respondents at all levels reported stalled integration and lack of synchronisation in the planning and management of key services. This was attributed to fear of loss of power and resources among national level managers, uncertainty as to continuation of donor support and lack of linkages with the Health Sector Reform Secretariat. Among reproductive health programmes, sexually transmitted infection (STI) control alone retained its vertical planning, management and implementation structures. District-level respondents expressed frustration in their efforts to coordinate STI service delivery with other, more integrated programmes. They reported contradictory directives and poor communication channels with higher levels of the Ministry of Health; lack of technical skills at district level to undertake supervision of integrated services; low morale due to low salaries; and lack of district autonomy in decision-making. Integration requires a coherent policy environment. The uncoordinated and conflicting agendas of donors, on whom Tanzania is too heavily reliant, is a major obstacle.

  20. A critical commentary on management science in relation to reforms after institutional National Health Service failures.

    PubMed

    Regan, Paul; Ball, Elaine

    2017-03-01

    A discussion paper on the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) market reforms. NHS market reforms reliance on management science methods introduced a fundamental shift in measuring care for commissioning. A number of key reports are discussed in relation to NHS market reforms and management science. NHS market reforms were influenced through a close alliance between policy makers, the department of health, free market think tanks and management consultancies. The timing of reforms coincided with reports on NHS failings and the evolution of measurement methods to focus on finance. The balance in favour of measurement practises is of concern. Management science methods are criticised in the Francis Report yet promoted as the solution to some of the key findings; why may be explained by the close alliance. A return to principles of management involving consensus, trust and involvement to promote quality care and use management science methods to this end. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Massachusetts health reform on the use of clinical preventive services.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Catherine A; Dhingra, Satvinder S; Coates, Ralph J; Zack, Matthew; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2014-09-01

    Expansion of health insurance coverage, and hence clinical preventive services (CPS), provides an opportunity for improvements in the health of adults. The degree to which expansion of health insurance coverage affects the use of CPS is unknown. To assess whether Massachusetts health reform was associated with changes in healthcare access and use of CPS. We used a difference-in-differences framework to examine change in healthcare access and use of CPS among working-aged adults pre-reform (2002-2005) and post-reform (2007-2010) in Massachusetts compared with change in other New England states (ONES). Population-based, cross-sectional Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. A total of 208,831 survey participants aged 18 to 64 years. Massachusetts health reform enacted in 2006. Four healthcare access measures outcomes and five CPS. The proportions of adults who had health insurance coverage, a healthcare provider, no cost barrier to healthcare, an annual routine checkup, and a colorectal cancer screening increased significantly more in Massachusetts than those in the ONES. In Massachusetts, the prevalence of cervical cancer screening in pre-reform and post-reform periods was about the same; however, the ONES had a decrease of -1.6 percentage points (95 % confidence interval [CI] -2.5, -0.7; p <0.001). As a result, the prevalence of cervical cancer screening in Massachusetts was increased relative to the ONES (1.7, 95 % CI 0.2, 3.2; p = 0.02). Cholesterol screening, influenza immunization, and breast cancer screening did not improve more in Massachusetts than in the ONES. Data are self-reported. Health reform may increase healthcare access and improve use of CPS. However, the effects of health reform on CPS use may vary by type of service and by state.

  2. [Reform in mental health services--from whence and to where].

    PubMed

    Haver, Eitan; Shani, Mordechai; Kotler, Moshe; Fast, Dov; Elizur, Avner; Baruch, Yehuda

    2005-05-01

    For years the subject of mental health has been neglected in Israel, and reform of mental health services is now of paramount importance. Psychiatric medicine has altered considerably over the years, and emphasis is shifting from treatment in mental health institutions to treatment at the community level. This transition is the result of the awakening of groups in our society advocating civil rights for the mentally ill and their integration into the community. This process is also bolstered by the advent of new anti-psychotic drugs. However, the social and medical infrastructure set up to deal with these issues has been found lacking. Over the past few years the Minister of Health has appointed a number of committees to address this issue, and they have all recommended extensive reform of mental health services in Israel. The recommendations handed down by the committees are for: (1) Restructure of mental health services, with emphasis on community services and gradual reduction of psychiatric beds; (2) Allocation of additional funding specifically ear-marked for the mentally challenged, enabling transfer of stabilized patients out of the hospital setting and often lengthy and unnecessary hospitalization, into community rehabilitation centers; (3) Transfer of responsibility for health insurance for mentally ill people from the State to the Health Funds, enabling integration of psychiatric treatment into the general treatment framework. The reform has already been initiated. This body of work will review the stages, processes and the difficulties that preceded the reform.

  3. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  4. Mental health system in China: history, recent service reform and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIN; MA, HONG; HE, YAN-LING; XIE, BIN; XU, YI-FENG; TANG, HONG-YU; LI, MING; HAO, WEI; WANG, XIANG-DONG; ZHANG, MING-YUAN; NG, CHEE H.; GODING, MARGARET; FRASER, JULIA; HERRMAN, HELEN; CHIU, HELEN F.K.; CHAN, SANDRA S.; CHIU, EDMOND; YU, XIN

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of the development of Chinese mental health system; the current situation in the mental health field that China has to face in its effort to reform the system, including mental health burden, workforce and resources, as well as structural issues; the process of national mental health service reform, including how it was included into the national public health program, how it began as a training program and then became a treatment and intervention program, its unique training and capacity building model, and its outcomes and impacts; the barriers and challenges of the reform process; future suggestions for policy; and Chinese experiences as response to the international advocacy for the development of mental health. PMID:21991281

  5. Integrated specialty service readiness in health reform: connections in haemophilia comprehensive care.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, A M; Page, D

    2008-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified primary healthcare reform as a global priority whereby innovative practice changes are directed at improving health. This transformation to health reform in haemophilia service requires clarification of comprehensive care to reflect the WHO definition of health and key elements of primary healthcare reform. While comprehensive care supports effective healthcare delivery, comprehensive care must also be regarded beyond immediate patient management to reflect the broader system purpose in the care continuum with institutions, community agencies and government. Furthermore, health reform may be facilitated through integrated service delivery (ISD). ISD in specialty haemophilia care has the potential to reduce repetition of assessments, enhance care plan communication between providers and families, provide 24-h access to care, improve information availability regarding care quality and outcomes, consolidate access for multiple healthcare encounters and facilitate family self-efficacy and autonomy [1]. Three core aspects of ISD have been distinguished: clinical integration, information management and technology and vertical integration in local communities [2]. Selected examples taken from Canadian haemophilia comprehensive care illustrate how practice innovations are bridged with a broader system level approach and may support initiatives in other contexts. These innovations are thought to indicate readiness regarding ISD. Reflecting on the existing capacity of haemophilia comprehensive care teams will assist providers to connect and direct their existing strengths towards ISD and health reform.

  6. Twitter and the health reforms in the English National Health Service.

    PubMed

    King, Dominic; Ramirez-Cano, Daniel; Greaves, Felix; Vlaev, Ivo; Beales, Steve; Darzi, Ara

    2013-05-01

    Social media (for example Facebook and YouTube) uses online and mobile technologies to allow individuals to participate in, comment on and create user-generated content. Twitter is a widely used social media platform that lets users post short publicly available text-based messages called tweets that other users can respond to. Alongside traditional media outlets, Twitter has been a focus for discussions about the controversial and radical reforms to the National Health Service (NHS) in England that were recently passed into law by the current coalition Government. Looking at over 120,000 tweets made about the health reforms, we have investigated whether any insights can be obtained about the role of Twitter in informing, debating and influencing opinion in a specific area of health policy. In particular we have looked at how the sentiment of tweets changed with the passage of the Health and Social Care Bill through Parliament, and how this compared to conventional opinion polls taken over the same time period. We examine which users appeared to have the most influence in the 'Twittersphere' and suggest how a widely used metric of academic impact - the H-index - could be applied to measure context-dependent influence on Twitter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of primary health care reforms in Turkey on health service utilization and user satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hone, Thomas; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Millett, Christopher; Başara, Berrak; Akdağ, Recep; Atun, Rifat

    2017-02-01

    Strengthening primary health care (PHC) is considered a priority for efficient and responsive health systems, but empirical evidence from low- and middle-income countries is limited. The stepwise introduction of family medicine across all 81 provinces of Turkey (a middle-income country) between 2005 and 2010, aimed at PHC strengthening, presents a natural experiment for assessing the effect of family medicine on health service utilization and user satisfaction.The effect of health system reforms, that introduced family medicine, on utilization was assessed using longitudinal, province-level data for 12 years and multivariate regression models adjusting for supply-side variables, demographics, socio-economic development and underlying yearly trends. User satisfaction with primary and secondary care services was explored using data from annual Life Satisfaction Surveys. Trends in preferred first point of contact (primary vs secondary, public vs. private), reason for choice and health services issues, were described and stratified by patient characteristics, provider type, and rural/urban settings.Between 2002 and 2013, the average number of PHC consultations increased from 1.75 to 2.83 per person per year. In multivariate models, family medicine introduction was associated with an increase of 0.37 PHC consultations per person (P < 0.001), and slower annual growth in PHC and secondary care consultations. Following family medicine introduction, the growth of PHC and secondary care consultations per person was 0.08 and 0.30, respectively, a year. PHC increased as preferred provider by 9.5% over 7 years with the reasons of proximity and service satisfaction, which increased by 14.9% and 11.8%, respectively. Reporting of poor facility hygiene, difficulty getting an appointment, poor physician behaviour and high costs of health care all declined (P < 0.001) in PHC settings, but remained higher among urban, low-income and working-age populations.

  8. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  9. The National Health Service reforms as an electoral issue in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of National Health Service (NHS) reforms left the Conservative Government with a major electoral problem. As Britain approached the 1992 general election, opinion polls revealed a popular perception that the Conservatives were planning to privatise the NHS. This perception was both fuelled and acted upon by the Labour Opposition which, at its 1991 annual conference, signalled its intention to make the health service a major item on the electoral agenda. In this article several issues associated with popular perceptions of the health reforms are explored including increased levels of copayment, the language of commerce, entrepreneurial activities within the NHS, and 'opting out'. The ways in which the Labour Party sought to place health on the electoral agenda are examined, together with the response of the government. Labour sought to portray the reforms as creeping privatisation while the Conservatives dismissed this as a crude propaganda ploy and have stressed their commitment to a more effective NHS. It is argued that the British experience exemplifies the perennial problems for any government seeking to introduce substantive changes to a national health system in a partisan political environment: the need to explain changes and legitimize them, and the danger that reforms will be politicized by an opposition eager for issues with immediate popular impact.

  10. Prospects for Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  11. [Neoliberal reforms in health services in Latin America: a critical view from two case studies].

    PubMed

    Homedes, Nuria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    Neoliberal reforms have promoted privatization and decentralization as strategies to improve equity, efficiency, and the quality of health services. In this piece the impact of these reforms in Latin America is critically analyzed, and the impacts of privatization in Colombia and of decentralization in Mexico are detailed. These two cases show that after 10 years of privatization in Colombia and 20 years of decentralization in Mexico the reforms have had the opposite of the desired effect: They have not improved equity, have increased health expenditures, have not increased efficiency, and have not shown a positive impact on quality. Public health programs in Colombia have deteriorated, while decentralization in Mexico has had a very high cost, without achieving the proposed objectives. It is officially accepted that decentralization in Mexico has increased inequity, and that new reforms implemented in 2003 promote vertical programs. Health systems based on regulated competition are not the most suitable ones for Latin America. Latin American countries should improve their health systems in line with the principles stated in the Declaration of Alma Ata and according to their own national experiences.

  12. In defiance of the evidence: conservatives threaten to "reform" away England's National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Lister, John

    2012-01-01

    David Cameron's Conservative-led coalition government is pressing ahead with a highly controversial bill to "reform" the National Health Service (NHS), abolishing existing management structures, opening up provider services to private competition from "any qualified provider", and establishing a competitive market system in place of planning. The proposals fragment the structures and run counter to the founding principles of the NHS, which in 1948 transcended the limitations of markets, delivering health care on the basis of maximum risk sharing and universal access to services, free at the point of use. Evidence shows markets are a costly and inadequate mechanism to deliver universal and comprehensive health care, and private providers will only bid for services where profits are guaranteed. Opposition to the proposals is strong among health professionals and informed opinion, and the bill has divided the coalition parties--but time is running out for those who reject the bill to mount a sustained and concerted resistance.

  13. [The impact of social security system reform on health services equity in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cespedes-Londono, Juan Eduardo; Jaramillo-Perez, Iván; Castano-Yepes, Ramón Abel

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on access to, and use of, health services in Colombia's new national health insurance system, the authors compared two cross sections of the population: before (1993) and after (1997), with the approval of Act 100, creating the General System for Social Security in Health (SGSSS). Two equity indicators were assessed: concentration curves (CC) and concentration indices (CI), summarizing the distribution of access to health care and utilization of health care services provided by the SGSSS according to income deciles. Between 1993 and 1997, the CI for access to insurance halved from 0.34 to 0.17; simultaneously, coverage increased from 23% to 57%, especially among the poorest segments of the population, where it increased from 3.7% to 43.7% as a result of subsidies provided by local governments. The CI for utilization of health care services did not vary significantly. Increased disease prevalence and utilization of services among the insured, due to biased selection of risks and moral hazards, were also documented. These findings suggest a positive impact by the Reform on inequalities in access to health care insurance; however, a similar effect on inequities in utilization of health services is not clear.

  14. Privatization of public services: organizational reform efforts in public education and public health.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Jacobson, Peter D

    2006-10-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health.

  15. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  16. Analysing 'big picture' policy reform mechanisms: the Australian health service safety and quality accreditation scheme.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Banks, Margaret; Mumford, Virginia; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Pawsey, Marjorie; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Agencies promoting national health-care accreditation reform to improve the quality of care and safety of patients are largely working without specific blueprints that can increase the likelihood of success. This study investigated the development and implementation of the Australian Health Service Safety and Quality Accreditation Scheme and National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards (the Scheme), their expected benefits, and challenges and facilitators to implementation. A multimethod study was conducted using document analysis, observation and interviews. Data sources were eight government reports, 25 h of observation and 34 interviews with 197 diverse stakeholders. Development of the Scheme was achieved through extensive consultation conducted over a prolonged period, that is, from 2000 onwards. Participants, prior to implementation, believed the Scheme would produce benefits at multiple levels of the health system. The Scheme offered a national framework to promote patient-centred care, allowing organizations to engage and coordinate professionals' quality improvement activities. Significant challenges are apparent, including developing and maintaining stakeholder understanding of the Scheme's requirements. Risks must also be addressed. The standardized application of, and reliable assessment against, the standards must be achieved to maintain credibility with the Scheme. Government employment of effective stakeholder engagement strategies, such as structured consultation processes, was viewed as necessary for successful, sustainable implementation. The Australian experience demonstrates that national accreditation reform can engender widespread stakeholder support, but implementation challenges must be overcome. In particular, the fundamental role of continued stakeholder engagement increases the likelihood that such reforms are taken up and spread across health systems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Can mental health commissions really drive reform? Towards better resourcing, services, accountability and stakeholder engagement.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian; Rosen, Alan

    2012-06-01

    In this second and final part of this series about mental health commissions, we consider the extent to which it is possible to find hard evidence that these new structures really can drive mental health reform. Four key domains of improvement are established for the purposes of this review: do commissions lead to better resources, better services, better accountability and better stakeholder engagement? A review of the evidence from both Australia and overseas is presented. The article also considers how the commissions, federal and state, will organise their relationships productively to avoid duplication and promote synergy. What of those jurisdictions without commissions? Is this genuine national reform or merely more piecemeal activity in mental health? The authors have been informed by the varying structures and functions of mental health commissions internationally and were part of the New South Wales taskforce to establish a mental health commission. They had the opportunity to visit the Western Australian and New Zealand Commissions as part of this process. Addressing mental illness requires a joined up approach to government and services. Commissions offer a new organisational structure designed to deliver this contiguity. There is also evidence that nascent and established commissions are delivering real reforms, including in terms of additional resources and influence. Without concerted efforts to coordinate activity, the intersection between federal and state commissions will be confused and duplications might arise. The paper calls for a new network of commissions to be established across Australia and New Zealand, to share resources and common tasks, clarify roles and build common approaches.

  18. Restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to health services: the public health implications of welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T

    2003-10-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health care-services and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public's health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community's support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status.

  19. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Yan; Collins, Charles D; Tang, Shenglan

    2007-03-03

    In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS) and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS) to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS). This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a) The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b) The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c) Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS) were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d) There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in health insurance coverage, and that limited cross

  20. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Yan; Collins, Charles D; Tang, Shenglan

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS) and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS) to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS). Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a) The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b) The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c) Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS) were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d) There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in health insurance

  1. Lessons from London: the British are reforming their national health service.

    PubMed Central

    Vall-Spinosa, A

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to keep abreast of the changing needs of a more affluent society and to ensure better value for money, the British are reforming their National Health Service. They are promoting competition and entrepreneurship, and directing funding to follow a patient rather than flowing directly to institutions. British physicians are resisting these changes. The United States, in the middle of a health care crisis of its own, can learn a great deal from Britain, especially in the area of controlling expenditures. The low cost of the National Health Service can be attributed to four major factors: (1) It is general practitioner driven and no patient accesses a specialist or hospital directly. (2) Hospitals, which employ all the specialists and supply most of the technology, operate on very tight, cash-limited budgets. (3) Administrative costs are very low. (4) The expense of malpractice is not (yet) a major concern. Changes occurring in both countries foretell a future wherein our health care systems may look very much alike. PMID:1746650

  2. Reforming the Portuguese health services system: key human resources for health issues.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Claudia; Lima, Cláudia; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    In Portugal, for the last thirty years, there have been major developments in the human resources for health (HRH) situation, which are described as part of three waves of reforms. Portugal remains without a formal explicit and comprehensive HRH medium to long-term strategy. Consequently serious problems of scarcity, geographical misdistribution, and imbalances between levels of healthcare provision as well as in the ratios between professional groups and specialties still exist. Professional councils however have recognized the need for performance management and life-long recertification and have acknowledged the importance of an adequate skills mix and of complementarities through team work in the health sector. Professional associations have greatly contributed to the changes observed through a process of non-formal strategizing.

  3. [PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN REFORMING OF UKRAINIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM USING THE EXAMPLE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL SERVICE].

    PubMed

    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2014-01-01

    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  4. Mental health care reforms in Latin America: child and adolescent mental health services in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Vargas Huicochea, Ingrid; Raviola, Giuseppe; Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-05-01

    This column provides an overview of child and adolescent mental health services in Mexico, where prevalence rates of mental disorders among young people are up to twice as high as U.S. and Canadian rates. The mental health care system in Mexico is underdeveloped and underfunded, and for the approximately 40% of the population with no insurance, access to and quality of care are particularly poor. This column offers policy recommendations aimed at better meeting the needs of this vulnerable population.

  5. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  6. Expected Impact of Health Care Reform on the Organization and Service Delivery of Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs' strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities.

  7. [Technical cooperation strategies of the Pan American Health Organization in the new phase of mental health services reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of the new millennium coincided with the start of a new phase in the reform of mental health services in Latin America and the Caribbean. This new phase has imposed new priorities and prompted new technical cooperation strategies at the international level. This piece points out the main characteristics of the first phases in the reform of mental health services in Latin America and the Caribbean, discusses the factors that led to the phase that started in 2001, and describes the strategies and the technical cooperation activities of the Pan American Health Organization to deal with the challenges that have arisen in the current stage of reform. The piece also considers the prospects for international cooperation in this field, as well as the advantages of establishing a program for the reform of mental health services in the Americas that would contribute to the combined efforts of governments and international organizations in an action plan with defined objectives. The piece recommends taking advantage of the celebration of the 15th anniversary of the Declaration of Caracas in order to launch an action plan that gives new impetus to mental health services reform in the Americas.

  8. Managing Medical Costs by Reducing Demand for Services: The Missing Element in Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Edward K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that higher education institutions can play a major role in health care reform by providing campus cultures that foster healthy lifestyle choices and in turn reduce medical costs. Specific issues discussed include elimination of unnecessary tests, focus on special high-risk populations, and use of advance directives. (MSE)

  9. Multi-Source, Multi-Level Articulation in the Era of Health Reform: Articulating the Health Sciences to Health Services Administration Baccalaureate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Carolyn; And Others

    The education and reeducation of health care professionals remain essential, if somewhat neglected, elements in reforming the nation's health care system. The Pew Health Professions Commission (PHPC) has made the reform of health care contingent upon the reform of education, urging educational institutions to design core curricula with…

  10. Dimensions of health system reform.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J

    1994-01-31

    During recent years there has been a growth of worldwide interest in health system reform. Countries at all levels of economic development are engaged in a creative search for better ways of organizing and financing health care, while promoting the goals of equity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Together with economic, political, and ideological reasons, this search has been fueled by the need to find answers to the complexities posed by the epidemiologic transition, whereby many nations are facing the simultaneous burdens of old, unresolved problems and new, emerging challenges. In order to better understand reform attempts, it is necessary to develop a clear conception of the object of reform: the health system. This paper presents the health system as a set of relationships among five major groups of actors: the health care providers, the population, the state as a collective mediator, the organizations that generate resources, and the other sectors that produce services with health effects. The relationships among providers, population, and the state form the basis for a typology of health care modalities. The type and number of modalities present in a country make it possible to characterize its health system. In the last part, the paper proposes that health system reform operates at four policy levels: systemic, which deals with the institutional arrangements for regulation, financing, and delivery of services; programmatic, which specifies the priorities of the system, by defining a universal package of health care interventions; organizational, which is concerned with the actual production of services by focusing on issues of quality assurance and technical efficiency; and instrumental, which generates the institutional intelligence for improving system performance through information, research, technological innovation, and human resource development. The dimensions of reform offer a repertoire of policy options, which need to be enriched by cross

  11. Forensic mental health law reform in Japan: from criminal warehousing to broad-spectrum specialist services?

    PubMed

    Weisstub, David N; Carney, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1980s Japan has undergone a number of mental health law reforms culminating in the 2005 forensic law. This added to its enactments on involuntary commitment, long-term aged care and substitute decision making, bringing Japan into focus as an industrialized state now possessed of a full package of civil and forensic provisions. This article seeks to demonstrate that the new forensic law cannot achieve its own stated goals without seeking to put into place financial and administrative supports aimed to integrate the myriad of patient populations that will be inevitably affected by the new forensic system. In order to avoid the widespread syndrome that has already been experienced internationally of warehousing mentally ill offenders in jails, it is critical that the Japanese government develop effective and culturally sensitive techniques for dealing with low risk populations through a diversionary process. Furthermore, although the legislation addresses serious crimes, it is imperative that policies be put into place to avoid directing young offenders, violent patients from the general hospital system, the developmentally handicapped, already convicted persons found in hospital settings and problematic cases in the correctional system, to the new forensic units established by the legislation. It is only though contemplating unintended outcomes of the legislation that the Japanese government will be able to avoid the ongoing stigmatization and prolonged institutionalization of mentally ill populations. Despite apparent cultural differences internationally vetted human rights requirements must be properly protected, not only in the forensic context, but throughout the mental health system at large. The coordination of services and the development of specialty training are necessary conditions for the realization of improved and humane conditions for mentally ill persons in Japan.

  12. The beginning of a structural reform: reorganising the front line of a mental health service.

    PubMed

    Tobin, M; Yeo, F; Chen, L

    2000-01-01

    National and State priorities for mental health services have directed emphasis towards early intervention and prevention. One of the key priorities is to ensure that entry to mental health services is efficient, effective and accountable. This study describes the process of restructuring the front line of a large and complex mental health service. Adopting the total quality management approach, all stakeholders in the service collaboratively developed a single set of protocols and guidelines to achieve standardisation of documentation, assessment of risks and urgency, and to improve the overall quality of the service.

  13. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the urgency of now: building a recovery-oriented, community mental health service in china.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yueqin; Zhu, Shimin

    2013-07-01

    For the first time in history, China has a mental health legal framework. People in China can now expect a better life and more accessible, better-quality health care services for their loved ones. Development of a community mental health service (CMHS) is at a crossroads. In this new column on mental health reforms in Asia, the authors review the current state of the CMHS in China and propose four strategic directions for future development: building on the strengths of the "686 Project," the 2004 initiative that launched China's mental health reform; improving professional skills of the mental health workforce, especially for a recovery approach; empowering families and caregivers to support individuals with severe mental illness; and using information and communications technology to promote self-help and reduce the stigma associated with psychiatric disorders.

  14. Beyond "health care reform".

    PubMed

    Heyssel, R M

    1993-03-01

    The author discusses the need to make corrections in the U.S. health care system, describes the simplistic and money-oriented definition that many persons have of "health care reform," and discusses the issues he thinks will and will not be dealt with in the coming reforms of the health care system. He maintains that true reform would deal with matters such as restraining expansion of the health care industry, setting reasonable fees, and confronting the harmful social and environmental conditions that result in high "medical" care costs and poor health statistics. The medical profession--including academic medical centers--has a large role to play in true health care reform, which will involve facing the major barriers (which he outlines) that are now impeding important reforms (e.g., increasing the number of generalist physicians; finding better ways to pay for medical students' and residents' education). The profession cannot make progress in true reform without developing a vision of what the U.S. health care system should be and becoming active in moving toward that vision, acting in the interests of both the individual patient and the community as a whole. The author outlines some of the barriers to finding that vision (such as the influence of third-party payers on the doctor-patient relationship and the fragmentation of medicine and medical education by specialties and subspecialties) and proposes the characteristics and values of the kind of medical education and community involvement of academic medical centers that can help create the needed vision, regain the trust of the public, and thereby reform health care in the interests of both the community and the profession.

  15. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  16. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  17. Health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  18. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  19. Ten years of mental health service reform in Australia: are we getting it right?

    PubMed

    Whiteford, Harvey A; Buckingham, William J

    2005-04-18

    We summarise the most recent data available on changes to the public and private mental health sectors from the commencement of the National Mental Health Strategy in 1993 to 2002. There has been substantial service system change in the directions agreed by governments under the Strategy, supported by a 65% growth in government spending on mental health. Despite this there is growing public and professional concern about deficiencies in the mental health service system. We review the current call for change in light of increased community expectations and growth in demand for services. Given broad national and international support for Australia's policy directions, the problems lie with the pace and extent of change and ensuring better outcomes from the increased investment in mental health care.

  20. Health services reform and human resource management in Hong Kong public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D; Snape, E; Stokes, C

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the empirical study of reform in the human resource management function in the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. It describes the prior management of the hospitals based on the civil service administration model before looking at management reform in general. From this research, the creative tensions between the centrifugal and centripetal forces in the pursuit of 'effectiveness', 'efficiency' and 'economy' are explored in terms of decentralization. A survey of line managers, in eleven Hospital Authority hospitals, revealed the progress of decentralization: a majority of respondents felt that, over the previous five years, managers at their level had been given greater responsibility for human resource management issues. In spite of the widespread perception of increased decentralization, however, it was recognized that there are limits to decentralization. It was the routine administration rather than the policy formulation and interpretation which had been decentralized, and hospitals continued to rely on the Hospital Authority Head of Office for guidance on policy interpretation. Several barriers to the effective decentralization of responsibility for human resource management were identified, including a lack of management skill, knowledge and time, the attitudes of some managers and the tight control of budget.

  1. Exploring Massachusetts Health Care Reform Impact on Fee-for-Service Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment Providers

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Dail; Pruett, Jana; Roman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is forecast to increase the demand for and utilization of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Massachusetts implemented health reforms similar to the ACA in 2006 -2007 that included expanding coverage for SUD treatment. This study explored the impact of Massachusetts health reforms from 2007 to 2010 on SUD treatment providers in Massachusetts, who relied on fee-for-service billings for more than 50% of their revenue. The changes across treatment facilities located in Massachusetts were compared to changes in other similar fee-for-service funded SUD treatment providers in Northeast states bordering Massachusetts and in all other states across the US. From 2007-2010, the percentage changes for Massachusetts based providers were significantly different from the changes among providers located in the rest of the US for admissions, outpatient census, average weeks of outpatient treatment, residential/in-patient census, detoxification census, length of average inpatient and outpatient stays, and provision of medication assisted treatment. Contrary to previous studies of publicly funded treatment providers, the results of this exploratory study of providers dependent on fee-for-service revenues were consistent with some predictions for the overall effects of the ACA PMID:26514378

  2. Exploring Massachusetts Health Care Reform Impact on Fee-for-Service-Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment Providers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Pruett, Jana; Roman, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is forecast to increase the demand for and utilization of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Massachusetts implemented health reforms similar to the ACA in 2006-2007 that included expanding coverage for SUD treatment. This study explored the impact of Massachusetts health reforms from 2007 to 2010 on SUD treatment providers in Massachusetts, who relied on fee-for-service billings for more than 50% of their revenue. The changes across treatment facilities located in Massachusetts were compared to changes in other similar fee-for-service-funded SUD treatment providers in Northeast states bordering Massachusetts and in all other states across the US. From 2007-2010, the percentage changes for Massachusetts based providers were significantly different from the changes among providers located in the rest of the US for admissions, outpatient census, average weeks of outpatient treatment, residential/in-patient census, detoxification census, length of average inpatient and outpatient stays, and provision of medication-assisted treatment. Contrary to previous studies of publicly funded treatment providers, the results of this exploratory study of providers dependent on fee-for-service revenues were consistent with some predictions for the overall effects of the ACA.

  3. [Working in mental health services in the context of Brazilian psychiatric reform: a technical, political and ethical challenge].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, José Jackson Coelho; Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Carneiro, Cleide; Garcia Filho, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with mental health taken within the context of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and profiling the transformations in the organization of work processes. This has occurred as a result of the advances with respect to the implementation of the services that replaced the classic psychiatric model and the reconfiguration of the scope of intervention and practices. From this standpoint, the paper seeks to pinpoint the contradictions and problems related to this process and its impact on the organization of work processes on the management of services and on worker health. Lastly, strategies are prepared for the purpose of tackling the problem, chief among which are the following: the redefinition of spaces, practices, and the relationships among the different actors, namely managers, workers, and users; the adoption of co-management mechanisms; and clinical-institutional supervision.

  4. Change management in an environment of ongoing primary health care system reform: A case study of Australian primary health care services.

    PubMed

    Javanparast, Sara; Maddern, Janny; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Lawless, Angela; Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2017-03-22

    Globally, health reforms continue to be high on the health policy agenda to respond to the increasing health care costs and managing the emerging complex health conditions. Many countries have emphasised PHC to prevent high cost of hospital care and improve population health and equity. The existing tension in PHC philosophies and complexity of PHC setting make the implementation and management of these changes more difficult. This paper presents an Australian case study of PHC restructuring and how these changes have been managed from the viewpoint of practitioners and middle managers. As part of a 5-year project, we interviewed PHC practitioners and managers of services in 7 Australian PHC services. Our findings revealed a policy shift away from the principles of comprehensive PHC including health promotion and action on social determinants of health to one-to-one disease management during the course of study. Analysis of the process of change shows that overall, rapid, and top-down radical reforms of policies and directions were the main characteristic of changes with minimal communication with practitioners and service managers. The study showed that services with community-controlled model of governance had more autonomy to use an emergent model of change and to maintain their comprehensive PHC services. Change is an inevitable feature of PHC systems continually trying to respond to health care demand and cost pressures. The implementation of change in complex settings such as PHC requires appropriate change management strategies to ensure that the proposed reforms are understood, accepted, and implemented successfully. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  6. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  7. Canadian health system reforms: lessons for Australia?

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2005-02-01

    This paper analyses recent health reform agenda in Canada. From 1988 until 1997, the first phase of reforms focused on service integration through regionalisation and a rebalancing of services from illness care to prevention and wellness. The second phase, which has been layered onto the ongoing first phase, is concerned with fiscal sustainability from a provincial perspective, and the fundamental nature of the system from a national perspective. Despite numerous commissions and studies, some questions remain concerning the future direction of the public system. The Canadian reform experience is compared with recent Australian health reform initiatives in terms of service integration through regionalisation, primary care reform, Aboriginal health, the public-private debate, intergovernmental relations and the role of the federal government.

  8. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Methods Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. Results The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Conclusion Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider

  9. Chile's health sector reform: lessons from four reform periods.

    PubMed

    de la Jara, J J; Bossert, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the process of health reform in four significant periods in Chilean history: (1) the consolidation of state responsibility for public health in the 1920s, (2) the creation of the state-run National Health Service in the 1950s, (3) the decentralization of primary care and privatization of health insurance in the 1980s, and (4) the strengthening of the mixed public-private market in the 1990s. Building on the authors' separate disciplines, the paper examines the epidemiological, political and economic contexts of these reforms to test simple hypotheses about how these factors shape reform adoption and implementation. The analysis underlines: (1) the importance of epidemiological data as an impetus to public policy; (2) the inhibiting role of economic recession in adoption and implementation of reforms: and (3) the importance of the congruence of reforms with underlying political ideology in civil society. The paper also tests several hypotheses about the reform processes themselves, exploring the role of antecedents, interest groups, and consensus-building in the policy process. It found that incremental processes building on antecedent trends characterize most reform efforts. However, interest group politics and consensus building were found to be complex processes that are not easily captured by the simple hypotheses that were tested. The interdisciplinary approach is found to be a promising form of analysis and suggests further theoretical and empirical issues to be explored.

  10. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically.

  11. Are joint health plans effective for coordination of health services? An analysis based on theory and Danish pre-reform results

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Bernt Nielsen, Mikkel; Krasnik, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 1994 formal health plans have been used for coordination of health care services between the regional and local level in Denmark. From 2007 a substantial reform has changed the administrative boundaries of the system and a new tool for coordination has been introduced. Purpose To assess the use of the pre-reform health plans as a tool for strengthening coordination, quality and preventive efforts between the regional and local level of health care. Methods A survey addressed to: all counties (n=15), all municipalities (n=271) and a randomised selected sample of general practitioners (n=700). Results The stakeholders at the administrative level agree that health plans have not been effective as a tool for coordination. The development of health plans are dominated by the regional level. At the functional level 27 percent of the general practitioners are not familiar with health plans. Among those familiar with health plans 61 percent report that health plans influence their work to only a lesser degree or not at all. Conclusion Joint health planning is needed to achieve coordination of care. Efforts must be made to overcome barriers hampering efficient whole system planning. Active policies emphasising the necessity of health planning, despite involved cost, are warranted to insure delivery of care that benefits the health of the population. PMID:17925882

  12. Health insurance reform legislation.

    PubMed

    DiSimone, R L

    1997-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), enacted on August 21, 1996 (Public Law 104-19), provides for improved access and renewability with respect to employment-related group health plans, to health insurance coverage sold in connection with group plans, and to the individual market (by amending the Public Health Service Act). The Act's provisions include improvements in portability and continuity of health insurance coverage; combatting waste, fraud, and abuse in health insurance and health care delivery; promoting the use of medical savings accounts; improving access to long-term care services and insurance coverage; administrative simplification; and addressing duplication and coordination of Medicare benefits.

  13. Advancing tuberculosis control within reforming health systems.

    PubMed

    Weil, D E

    2000-07-01

    In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.

  14. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  15. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  16. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  17. The changing National Health Service: market-based reform and morality

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    This commentary explores some of the issues raised by Gilbert et al. short communication, Morality and Markets in the NHS. The increasing role of market mechanisms and the changing types of healthcare providers together with the use of choice and competition to drive improvements in quality in the National Health Service (NHS), all have important ethical implications. In order for the NHS to continue providing the level of service quality that out performs many high-income countries, despite spending much less on healthcare, we need a re-think of creeping marketization and privatisation and a consolidation of the NHS as a publically owned resource run for the benefit of patients and the public, not commercial interests. PMID:25844389

  18. Health reform through tax reform: a primer.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Tax incentives for employer-sponsored insurance and other medical spending cost about $200 billion annually and have pervasive effects on coverage and costs. This paper surveys a range of proposals to reform health care, either by adding new tax incentives or by limiting or replacing the existing tax incentives. Replacing the current tax preference for insurance with an income-related, refundable tax credit has the potential to expand coverage and reduce inefficient spending at no net federal cost. But such an approach by itself would entail substantial risks, so complementary reforms to the insurance market are essential to ensure success.

  19. Health Financing And Insurance Reform In Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Kress, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public-and formal private–sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms. PMID:17630444

  20. Health reform: a bipartisan view.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jim; Castle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This optimistic assessment of the prospects for health reform from senior Democratic and Republican congressmen spells out several reasons why reform can be achieved early in the first year of the Obama administration. Political and policy factors suggest that President-elect Barack Obama is in a much better position than his predecessors to achieve comprehensive health reform, including universal coverage. The Obama administration will have to overcome numerous obstacles and resistance to enact reform. Still, after decades of frustration and disappointment, policymakers should set aside their differences and enable the United States to join the ranks of developed nations by making sure every American has health insurance.

  1. Health Insurance Coverage and Use of Family Planning Services among Current and Former Foster Youth: Implications of the Health Care Reform Law

    PubMed Central

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population. PMID:23262773

  2. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    PubMed

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.

  3. Comparison of Current Health Care Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 1994

    1994-01-01

    A chart compares provisions regarding vision-related services of five major federal health reform bills. Comparisons cover general characteristics, vision services, inpatient rehabilitation, outpatient rehabilitation, durable medical equipment, long-term care, consumer information in accessible formats, and other provisions of interest. (DB)

  4. [Health reform in the USA].

    PubMed

    Ganduglia, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America passed early this year the bill enforcing their health reform. this reform aims at achieving universal insurance, cost containment and improving quality of care. The debate around this reform has been long and unable to arrive to an agreement between the parts. Even if the expansion in the medical coverage system does not reduce to zero the current degree of inaccessibility to the health system, these achievements could be considered a very important first step. Nonetheless, chances are that this reform will continue being as polemic as the negotiations previous to its conception.

  5. Physician payments under health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate-the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition.

  6. Academic Health Centers and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Stephen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…

  7. Entering the Era of Third Generation Services: A Comparative Study of Reforms in Social and Health Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Ilpo; Stenvall, Jari

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses what kinds of organisational and change processes take place when shifting to customer-oriented service concept, here called "third generation services". Our interest lies in the learning process that produces the development of services in cities and regions in new ways and how to develop services in practice so…

  8. Entering the Era of Third Generation Services: A Comparative Study of Reforms in Social and Health Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Ilpo; Stenvall, Jari

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses what kinds of organisational and change processes take place when shifting to customer-oriented service concept, here called "third generation services". Our interest lies in the learning process that produces the development of services in cities and regions in new ways and how to develop services in practice so…

  9. Service delivery and pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in the era of health reform: Data from a national sample of treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing literature examining organizational characteristics and medication adoption, little is known about service delivery differences between specialty treatment organizations that have and have not adopted pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study compares adopters and nonadopters across a range of treatment services, including levels of care, availability of tailored services for specific populations, treatment philosophy and counseling orientations, and adoption of comprehensive wraparound services. In-person interviews were conducted with program leaders from a national sample of 372 organizations that deliver AUD treatment services in the United States. About 23.6% of organizations had adopted at least 1 AUD medication. Organizations offering pharmacotherapy were similar to nonadopters across many measures of levels of care, tailored services, treatment philosophy, and social services. The primary area of difference between the 2 groups was for services related to health problems other than AUD. Pharmacotherapy adopters were more likely to offer primary medical care, medications for smoking cessation, and services to address co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Service delivery differences were modest between adopters and nonadopters of AUD pharmacotherapy, with the exception of health-related services. However, the greater adoption of health-related services by organizations offering AUD pharmacotherapy represents greater medicalization of treatment, which may mean these programs are more strongly positioned to respond to opportunities for integration under health reform.

  10. Service delivery and pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in the era of health reform: Data from a national sample of treatment organizations

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Roman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is a growing literature examining organizational characteristics and medication adoption, little is known about service delivery differences between specialty treatment organizations that have and have not adopted pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study compares adopters and non-adopters across a range of treatment services, including levels of care, availability of tailored services for specific populations, treatment philosophy and counseling orientations, and adoption of comprehensive wraparound services. Methods In-person interviews were conducted with program leaders from a national sample of 372 organizations that deliver AUD treatment services in the US. Results About 23.6% of organizations had adopted at least one AUD medication. Organizations offering pharmacotherapy were similar to non-adopters across many measures of levels of care, tailored services, treatment philosophy, and social services. The primary area of difference between the two groups was for services related to health problems other than AUD. Pharmacotherapy adopters were more likely to offer primary medical care, medications for smoking cessation, and services to address co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Conclusions Service delivery differences were modest between adopters and non-adopters of AUD pharmacotherapy, with the exception of health-related services. However, the greater adoption of health-related services by organizations offering AUD pharmacotherapy represents greater medicalization of treatment, which may mean these programs are more strongly positioned to respond to opportunities for integration under health reform. PMID:25893539

  11. Flying beneath the Radar of Health Reform: The Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to address prevailing deficiencies in long-term care (LTC) financing through the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, a national voluntary LTC insurance program administered by the Federal government. The CLASS Act is intended to supplement rather than supplant…

  12. Health Care Reform: Opportunities for Improving Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Charles E., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Health care reform represents a major step toward achieving the goal of improved preventive and primary care services for all Americans, including children and adolescents. Adolescence is a unique developmental age district from both childhood and adulthood with special vulnerabilities, health concerns, and barriers to accessing health care. It is…

  13. Flying beneath the radar of health reform: the community living assistance services and supports (CLASS) act.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan

    2011-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to address prevailing deficiencies in long-term care (LTC) financing through the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, a national voluntary LTC insurance program administered by the Federal government. The CLASS Act is intended to supplement rather than supplant assistance received from other payers. Furthermore, its reliance on a cash benefit allocated by beneficiaries with the assistance of counseling services makes it consistent with the consumer-directed philosophy increasingly favored by the LTC advocacy community. Largely due to inadequate take-up, however, particularly among better than average risks, it is unlikely that implementation of the CLASS Act will fundamentally alter the current public-private partnership for LTC financing. Instead, voluntary enrollment combined with a lack of medical underwriting could lead to disproportionate numbers of high-cost enrollees. This could result in premium increases that further discourage participation on the part of the broader population. Barring making the program mandatory, there are a number of comparatively minor changes policymakers could make to strengthen the risk pool, though doing so will involve a trade-off between attracting better-off risks while eschewing those likely to need the benefit most. Thus, although the CLASS Act may provide a meaningful benefit for those who enroll, its impact on improving the affordability of LTC for most Americans will likely be limited. Most will continue to rely on substantial unpaid care, out-of-pocket payments when formal care is required, and Medicaid when all other money has run out.

  14. Anatomy of health care reform proposals.

    PubMed Central

    Soffel, D; Luft, H S

    1993-01-01

    The current proliferation of proposals for health care reform makes it difficult to sort out the differences among plans and the likely outcome of different approaches to reform. The current health care system has two basic features. The first, enrollment and eligibility functions, includes how people get into the system and gain coverage for health care services. We describe 4 models, ranging from an individual, voluntary approach to a universal, tax-based model. The second, the provision of health care, includes how physician services are organized, how they are paid for, what mechanisms are in place for quality assurance, and the degree of organization and oversight of the health care system. We describe 7 models of the organization component, including the current fee-for-service system with no national health budget, managed care, salaried providers under a budget, and managed competition with and without a national health budget. These 2 components provide the building blocks for health care plans, presented as a matrix. We also evaluate several reform proposals by how they combine these 2 elements. PMID:8273344

  15. Educating for health service reform: clinical learning, governance and capability - a case study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Anne; Gardner, Glenn; Coyer, Fiona; Gosby, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The nurse practitioner is a growing clinical role in Australia and internationally, with an expanded scope of practice including prescribing, referring and diagnosing. However, key gaps exist in nurse practitioner education regarding governance of specialty clinical learning and teaching. Specifically, there is no internationally accepted framework against which to measure the quality of clinical learning and teaching for advanced specialty practice. A case study design will be used to investigate educational governance and capability theory in nurse practitioner education. Nurse practitioner students, their clinical mentors and university academic staff, from an Australian university that offers an accredited nurse practitioner Master's degree, will be invited to participate in the study. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with students and their respective clinical mentors and university academic staff to investigate learning objectives related to educational governance and attributes of capability learning. Limited demographic data on age, gender, specialty, education level and nature of the clinical healthcare learning site will also be collected. Episodes of nurse practitioner student specialty clinical learning will be observed and documentation from the students' healthcare learning sites will be collected. Descriptive statistics will be used to report age groups, areas of specialty and types of facilities where clinical learning and teaching is observed. Qualitative data from interviews, observations and student documents will be coded, aggregated and explored to inform a framework of educational governance, to confirm the existing capability framework and describe any additional characteristics of capability and capability learning. This research has widespread significance and will contribute to ongoing development of the Australian health workforce. Stakeholders from industry and academic bodies will be involved in shaping the framework that

  16. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  17. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  18. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  19. Prevention in Poland: health care system reform.

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, M D

    1995-01-01

    Despite the political and economic reforms that have swept Eastern Europe in the past 5 years, there has been little change in Poland's health care system. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has targeted preventive care as a priority, yet the enactment of legislation to meet this goal has been slow. The process of reform has been hindered by political stagnation, economic crisis, and a lack of delineation of responsibility for implementing the reforms. Despite the delays in reform, recent developments indicate that a realistic, sustainable restructuring of the health care system is possible, with a focus on preventive services. Recent proposals for change have centered on applying national goals to limited geographic areas, with both local and international support. Regional pilot projects to restructure health care delivery at a community level, local health education and disease prevention initiatives, and a national training program for primary care and family physicians and nurses are being planned. Through regionalization, an increase in responsibility for both the physician and the patient, and redefinition of primary health care and the role of family physicians, isolated local movements and pilot projects have shown promise in achieving these goals, even under the current budgetary constraints. PMID:7610217

  20. National Health-Care Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    hospitals and providers, the Board could link costs to outcomes . This link would empower health -care consumers.57 Properly informed consumers would be...government, poor healthcare outcomes , and presidential campaign promises. Standing against reform are influential health -care interest groups, who...begs the question – what is driving health -care cost growth? Drivers of cost growth include the increased use of new and existing medical technology

  1. Immigration and health care reform: shared struggles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2007-01-01

    The connection between health care and immigration share overlaping key areas in policy reform. General concern, anger, and fear about immigration has been spreading nationwide. While illegal immigrants' use of expensive emergency department services does add to the cost for uncompensated care, this expenditure is not a primary cost driver but more a symptom of little or no access to preventative or primary health care. As a result of federal inaction, more state politicians are redefining how America copes with illegal residents including how or whether they have access to health care. The overlap of immigration and health care reform offers an opportunity for us to enter the next round of debate from a more informed vantage point.

  2. Use of quality measures for Medicaid behavioral health services by state agencies: implications for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Julie; Fields, Suzanne; Fullerton, Catherine Anne; Mark, Tami L; Malkani, Sabrina; Walsh, Christine; Ehrlich, Emily; Imshaug, Melina; Tabrizi, Maryam

    2015-06-01

    The structure-process-outcome quality framework espoused by Donabedian provides a conceptual way to examine and prioritize behavioral health quality measures used by states. This report presents an environmental scan of the quality measures and satisfaction surveys that state Medicaid managed care and behavioral health agencies used prior to Medicaid expansion in 2014. Data were collected by reviewing online documents related to Medicaid managed care contracts for behavioral health, quality strategies, quality improvement plans, quality and performance indicators data, annual outcomes reports, performance measure specification manuals, legislative reports, and Medicaid waiver requests for proposals. Information was publicly available for 29 states. Most states relied on process measures, along with some structure and outcome measures. Although all states reported on at least one process measure of behavioral health quality, 52% of states did not use any outcomes measures and 48% of states had no structure measures. A majority of the states (69%) used behavioral health measures from the National Committee for Quality Assurance's Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set, and all but one state in the sample (97%) used consumer experience-of-care surveys. Many states supplemented these data with locally developed behavioral health indicators that rely on administrative and nonadministrative data. State Medicaid agencies are using nationally recognized as well as local measures to assess quality of behavioral health care. Findings indicate a need for additional nationally endorsed measures in the area of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes.

  3. Prisons and health reforms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Hayton, Paul; Boyington, John

    2006-10-01

    Prison health in England and Wales has seen rapid reform and modernization. Previously it was characterized by over-medicalization, difficulties in staff recruitment, and a lack of professional development for staff. The Department of Health assumed responsibility from Her Majesty's Prison Service for health policymaking in 2000, and full budgetary and health care administration control were transferred by April 2006. As a result of this reorganization, funding has improved and services now relate more to assessed health need. There is early but limited evidence that some standards of care and patient outcomes have improved. The reforms address a human rights issue: that prisoners have a right to expect their health needs to be met by services that are broadly equivalent to services available to the community at large. We consider learning points for other countries which may be contemplating prison health reform, particularly those with a universal health care system.

  4. Prisons and Health Reforms in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Hayton, Paul; Boyington, John

    2006-01-01

    Prison health in England and Wales has seen rapid reform and modernization. Previously it was characterized by over-medicalization, difficulties in staff recruitment, and a lack of professional development for staff. The Department of Health assumed responsibility from Her Majesty’s Prison Service for health policymaking in 2000, and full budgetary and health care administration control were transferred by April 2006. As a result of this reorganization, funding has improved and services now relate more to assessed health need. There is early but limited evidence that some standards of care and patient outcomes have improved. The reforms address a human rights issue: that prisoners have a right to expect their health needs to be met by services that are broadly equivalent to services available to the community at large. We consider learning points for other countries which may be contemplating prison health reform, particularly those with a universal health care system. PMID:17008562

  5. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution.

  6. 75 FR 24470 - Health Care Reform Insurance Web Portal Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 159 RIN 0991-AB63 Health Care Reform Insurance Web... that may be available to them in their State. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is...

  7. Health workforce policy and Turkey's health care reform.

    PubMed

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-12-01

    The health care industry is labor intensive and depends on well-trained and appropriately deployed health professionals to deliver services. This article examines the health workforce challenges in the context of Turkey's recent health reform initiative, Health Transformation Program (HTP). Reformers identified shortages, imbalances in the skills-mix, and inequities in the geographical distribution of health professionals as among the major problems. A comprehensive set of policies was implemented within the HTP framework to address these problems. The article argues that these policies addressed some of the health workforce challenges, while on the other hand exacerbating others and hence may have resulted in increasing the burden on the workforce. So far HTP's governance reforms and health human resource policy have not encouraged meaningful participation of other key stakeholders in the governance of the health care system. Without effective participation of health professionals, the next stages of HTP implementation that focus on managerial reforms such as restructuring public hospitals, improving the primary care system and implementing new initiatives on quality improvement could be very difficult. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health care reform: informing difficult choices.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A; Bloor, K

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade, policy makers in a large number of countries have attempted various reforms of their health care systems. Health care reform has been described as a 'global epidemic' (Klein, 1993). All health care reforms consist of very complex policy choices, some of which are examined in this article. After an introductory exploration of ideological issues, the objectives of health care reformers are considered. Three major policy objectives of health care reform are examined: cost containment; efficiency; and, equity. Three types of reform which have been advocated are also considered: public planning; market regulation; and provider-advocated reforms such as a 'basic package' with copayments and alternative means of finance. Finally, appropriate features of efficient health care reform are suggested, addressing explicit policy goals.

  9. Health care reform 2010: a fresh view on tort reform.

    PubMed

    Stimson, C J; Dmochowski, Roger; Penson, David F

    2010-11-01

    We reviewed the state of medical malpractice tort reform in the context of a new political climate and the current debate over comprehensive health care reform. Specifically we asked whether medical malpractice tort reform is necessary, and evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of contemporary reform proposals. The medical, legal and public policy literature related to medical malpractice tort reform was reviewed and synthesized. We include a primer for understanding the current structure of medical malpractice law, identify the goals of the current system and analyze whether these goals are presently being met. Finally, we describe and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the current reform proposals including caps on damages, safe harbors and health care courts. Medical malpractice tort law is designed to improve health care quality and appropriately compensate patients for medical malpractice injuries, but is failing on both fronts. Of the 3 proposed remedies, caps on damages do little to advance the quality and compensatory goals, while safe harbors and health care courts represent important advancements in tort reform. Tort reform should be included in the current health policy debate because the current medical malpractice system is not adequately achieving the basic goals of tort law. While safe harbors and health care courts both represent reasonable remedies, health care courts may be preferred because they do not rely on jury determination in the absence of strong medical evidence. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Perspectives of the Tunisian health system reform].

    PubMed

    Achouri, H

    2001-05-01

    Perspectives of development of the Tunisian health system are presented, in reference to the conceptual framework recommended by the World Health Organization, while a project of health insurance reform of the social security regimes is submitted to a dialogue with the different concerned parts. Recommended orientations articulate around five axes: 1. The promotion of care provision by improving the accessibility to services, notably in zones under served, by introducing new modes of dispensation, organization and management of care provision in the framework of a continuous quality assurance strategy. 2. The financing of health care, with the implementation of the health insurance reform, has to allow an improvement of the financial accessibility of the population to health care, while supervising the evolution of total health expenditures and by developing the system's management capacities. 3. Proposals relative to the mobilization of resources are advanced in areas of medicine, training of health professionals and research on the health system. 4. Adaptation of the health system governance to the new context is necessary and would have to be developed around evolving standards for the health system, on evaluation of its performances and on information and communication with its users. 5. The health system responsiveness, new motion whose contours are again blurred, would have to be analysed and adapted to the specific context of the country.

  11. [Effects of health-service reform in the field of medicinal drugs I. Analysis from the standpoint of a pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Macesková, Bozena; Streitová, Jana

    2011-06-01

    The paper examines the effects of changes in medicinal drug policy valid since 1 January 2008 by comparing the dispensation to patients in a pharmacy supplying a hospital in the years 2007 and 2008. The examination was performed using financial representation (sale price without VAT), the number of original packages and classification according to ATC groups. The data were obtained from the information system of the pharmacy. In the year 2008 the total number of received prescriptions decreased by 29.05% versus the year 2007, the payments from health insurance companies decreased by 12.85%, the total number of dispensed packages decreased by 18.20%, the number of packages dispensed on prescriptions decreased by 21.88%. There was an increase in the prescriptions not covered by health insurance by 33.94%, in the number of packages of medicinal drugs dispensed without prescription by 1.59%, and in the sales of medicinal drugs dispensed without prescription by 11.00%. The total annual cash of the pharmacy in the year 2008 increased by 21.14%, resulting from the complex effects of the individual measures of the reform. An analysis according to the ATC groups shows a decrease in the number of packages dispensed on prescription in all groups; in the dispensation without prescription there was an increase in the groups C05 (vasoprotectives, venopharmaceuticals) and M01 (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs). The results correspond with the statistics for the whole republic. The reform reduced the amount of public funds spent for the treatment of out-patients and at the same time resulted in an increase in the dispensation of medicinal drugs without prescription.

  12. Improvements in health status after Massachusetts health care reform.

    PubMed

    Van Der Wees, Philip J; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-12-01

    Massachusetts enacted health care reform in 2006 to expand insurance coverage and improve access to health care. The objective of our study was to compare trends in health status and the use of ambulatory health services before and after the implementation of health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We used a quasi-experimental design with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2011 to compare trends associated with health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We compared self-reported health and the use of preventive services using multivariate logistic regression with difference-in-differences analysis to account for temporal trends. We estimated predicted probabilities and changes in these probabilities to gauge the differential effects between Massachusetts and other New England states. Finally, we conducted subgroup analysis to assess the differential changes by income and race/ethnicity. The sample included 345,211 adults aged eighteen to sixty-four. In comparing the periods before and after health care reform relative to those in other New England states, we found that Massachusetts residents reported greater improvements in general health (1.7%), physical health (1.3%), and mental health (1.5%). Massachusetts residents also reported significant relative increases in rates of Pap screening (2.3%), colonoscopy (5.5%), and cholesterol testing (1.4%). Adults in Massachusetts households that earned up to 300% of the federal poverty level gained more in health status than did those above that level, with differential changes ranging from 0.2% to 1.3%. Relative gains in health status were comparable among white, black, and Hispanic residents in Massachusetts. Health care reform in Massachusetts was associated with improved health status and the greater use of some preventive services relative to those in other New England states, particularly among low

  13. Improvements in Health Status after Massachusetts Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    van der Wees, Philip J; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-01-01

    Context Massachusetts enacted health care reform in 2006 to expand insurance coverage and improve access to health care. The objective of our study was to compare trends in health status and the use of ambulatory health services before and after the implementation of health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. Methods We used a quasi-experimental design with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2011 to compare trends associated with health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We compared self-reported health and the use of preventive services using multivariate logistic regression with difference-in-differences analysis to account for temporal trends. We estimated predicted probabilities and changes in these probabilities to gauge the differential effects between Massachusetts and other New England states. Finally, we conducted subgroup analysis to assess the differential changes by income and race/ethnicity. Findings The sample included 345,211 adults aged eighteen to sixty-four. In comparing the periods before and after health care reform relative to those in other New England states, we found that Massachusetts residents reported greater improvements in general health (1.7%), physical health (1.3%), and mental health (1.5%). Massachusetts residents also reported significant relative increases in rates of Pap screening (2.3%), colonoscopy (5.5%), and cholesterol testing (1.4%). Adults in Massachusetts households that earned up to 300% of the federal poverty level gained more in health status than did those above that level, with differential changes ranging from 0.2% to 1.3%. Relative gains in health status were comparable among white, black, and Hispanic residents in Massachusetts. Conclusions Health care reform in Massachusetts was associated with improved health status and the greater use of some preventive services relative to those in other New England states

  14. Health Care Reform: A Values Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popko, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the crisis in health care, considering costs, lack of access, and system ineffectiveness. Reviews "Setting Relationships Right," the Catholic Health Association's proposal for health care reform. Advocates educators' awareness of children's health needs and health care reform issues and support for the Every Fifth Child Act of…

  15. Public Opinion and Health Care Reform for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bales, Susan Nall

    1993-01-01

    Recent polling data suggest that there is a growing consensus to pay special attention to children's needs in the health care reform debate. The public generally desires children to have greater access to health care services, even if this would mean higher taxes, but is unsure that government is the best vehicle to provide such services. (MDM)

  16. [Health reform, equity and the right to health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The author develops a long-term perspective to assess advances in equity and the right to health in the Colombian health system reform. In a restricted political system, actors in the field of health in Colombia have chosen individualistic alternatives to legalize inequities in individual purchasing power for services. Despite the complex regulations established in the General System for Social Security in Health, there is a trend towards consolidating traditional inequities and to further restrict opportunities for achieving the right to health with full, equitable, universal guarantees.

  17. Alaska public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2008-04-01

    The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.

  18. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  19. National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

  20. [Effects of health-service reform in the field of medicinal drugs II. Analysis from the standpoint of financial participation of the patient in pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Macesková, Bozena; Koska, Miroslav

    2011-06-01

    Since 1 January 2008, the health service reform established the duty to pay a regulatory fee for the dispensation of one item on the prescription which is at least partially covered by the public health insurance and it also established a protective annual limit of the sum of a patient's financial participation in the provided health care. The study aimed to determine the effects of these measures. The complete medication of 100 patients for the year 2008 was examined. The patients' prescriptions included 2 062 items, out of which 841 items (41 %) were fully covered. The share of the items with non-zero supplementary charge was about 20 %. In the year 2008 the patients paid for medicinal drugs 180,703 CZK as supplementary charges (including the regulatory fees); the health insurance companies paid 2.7 times more than the sum paid by the patients for their treatment. Eight patients in the annual summary paid for their medicinal drugs more than the sum covered by health insurance companies. In the year 2008 no medicinal drug with a supplementary charge was prescribed for 12 patients. No patient exceeded the limit sum of 5,000 CZK as the sum total of paid regulatory fees and supplementary charges. Only one patient would exceed the limit of 5,000 CZK of the sum total of regulatory fee with the theoretically included supplementary charges (according to the valid code list).

  1. From early intervention in psychosis to youth mental health reform: a review of the evolution and transformation of mental health services for young people.

    PubMed

    Malla, Ashok; Iyer, Srividya; McGorry, Patrick; Cannon, Mary; Coughlan, Helen; Singh, Swaran; Jones, Peter; Joober, Ridha

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this review is to report on recent developments in youth mental health incorporating all levels of severity of mental disorders encouraged by progress in the field of early intervention in psychotic disorders, research in deficiencies in the current system and social advocacy. The authors have briefly reviewed the relevant current state of knowledge, challenges and the service and research response across four countries (Australia, Ireland, the UK and Canada) currently active in the youth mental health field. Here we present information on response to principal challenges associated with improving youth mental services in each country. Australia has developed a model comprised of a distinct front-line youth mental health service (Headspace) to be implemented across the country and initially stimulated by success in early intervention in psychosis; in Ireland, Headstrong has been driven primarily through advocacy and philanthropy resulting in front-line services (Jigsaw) which are being implemented across different jurisdictions; in the UK, a limited regional response has addressed mostly problems with transition from child-adolescent to adult mental health services; and in Canada, a national multi-site research initiative involving transformation of youth mental health services has been launched with public and philanthropic funding, with the expectation that results of this study will inform implementation of a transformed model of service across the country including indigenous peoples. There is evidence that several countries are now engaged in transformation of youth mental health services and in evaluation of these initiatives.

  2. Women's health and behavioral health issues in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jean Lau; Yee, Barbara W K; Banks, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    As health care reform promises to change the landscape of health care delivery, its potential impact on women's health looms large. Whereas health and mental health systems have historically been fragmented, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates integrated health care as the strategy for reform. Current systems fragment women's health not only in their primary care, mental health, obstetrical, and gynecological needs, but also in their roles as the primary caregivers for parents, spouses, and children. Changes in reimbursement, and in restructuring financing and care coordination systems through accountable care organizations and medical homes, will potentially improve women's health care.

  3. Community health and reform in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    McDermott, K

    1986-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the health crisis in the underdeveloped world today is not primarily one of shortages of services, but is a result of lack of power and control over economic, political and social institutions by the majority of the population. Hong Kong is presented as a case study in which a plural medical system is dominated by a political economy that shapes patterns of both sickness and health care. As an advanced capitalist colony, a financial center for the Pacific Basin, and a neutral area for China's foreign negotiations, social policies in Hong Kong aim at promoting business growth, often at the expense of the health of the population. Further, government and voluntary agencies attempts at reforming the health system have done little more than further solidify biomedicine and its social relations. Finally an attempt is made to define potential vehicles for change.

  4. An overview of the intentions of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Tuma, Pepin Andrew

    2012-03-01

    If upheld as constitutional, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that passed in 2010 promises to change health care delivery systems in the United States, partly by shifting focus from disease treatment to disease prevention. Registered dietitians (RDs) have already taken an active role in health care areas that stand to be directly affected by provisions in the health care reform bill. However, nutrition's vital role in preventing diseases and conditions potentially could translate to additional opportunities for RDs as a result of this reform. Specific dietetics-related areas targeted by health care reform include medical nutrition therapy for chronic conditions and employee wellness incentive programs. However, dietetics practitioners are not necessarily established in the language of the bill as the essential providers of specific services or as reimbursable practitioners. Thus, although it is possible health care reform could affect demand-and, in turn, supply-of RDs, the actual effect of this legislation is difficult to predict.

  5. Health care reform and federalism.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  6. Where dentistry stands in light of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Collignon, B H

    1994-01-01

    The hot topic from Capitol Hill in Washington to Capitol Hill in Jefferson City is health care reform. President Clinton started the ball rolling during the campaign in 1992 by including health care reform in his platform. He continued the effort after his election by appointing his wife, Hillary, to chair a task force to present an outline for federal legislation. Since the package was presented to Congress, there has been much discussion, lobbying, and rumoring about the implications of health care reform and what it could mean to all of us as dentists. On the home front, Governor Carnahan has introduced legislation in Missouri to reform the health care system. This effort is known as the Missouri Health Assurance Plan (H.B. 1622). Missouri Dental Association members are vitally concerned about the impact of health care reform on their practice, their taxes, their relationship with their patients and employees, and on their ability to seek out health care services since each member is also a consumer of health care. This article represents answers to some of the questions being asked by MDA members in order that they might be more aware of the activities by the MDA, the ADA, and other levels of organized dentistry relating to health care reform.

  7. Can we learn from history? Mental health in health care reform, revisited.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Health reform is again on the national agenda. Serious debate about how mental health might fit into national health policy has not occurred since 1993. The focus of the Clinton reformers was on benefits, integration with the general health system, and a new role for the public sector. A number of issues remain relevant today, such as uncoordinated public and private services, cost-shifting, and poor quality care for people with serious mental illness. This column considers the barriers to full inclusion of mental health in health care reform and proposed solutions that were identified in 1993 and describes how they can inform policy decisions in 2009.

  8. The Social Implications of Health Care Reform: Reducing Access Barriers to Health Care Services for Uninsured Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Mitchell A.; Inguanzo, Marian M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently facing one of its most significant social challenges in decades in terms of its ability to provide access to primary care services to the millions of Americans who have lost their health insurance coverage in the recent economic recession. National statistics compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2009…

  9. The Social Implications of Health Care Reform: Reducing Access Barriers to Health Care Services for Uninsured Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Mitchell A.; Inguanzo, Marian M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently facing one of its most significant social challenges in decades in terms of its ability to provide access to primary care services to the millions of Americans who have lost their health insurance coverage in the recent economic recession. National statistics compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2009…

  10. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  11. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  12. Psychiatric care and health insurance reform.

    PubMed

    Sharfstein, S S; Stoline, A M; Goldman, H H

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about cost, access, and quality of health care in the United States have led to a variety of legislative proposals that would reform our health care system and its financing. Health insurance benefits for mental illness, including substance abuse, are treated differently from medical/surgical benefits, with stricter limits on outpatient visits and hospital days. Medicare, Medicaid, and most private health insurance plans contain this historic disparity of coverage for mental illness compared to general medical illness. Psychiatric services are also distinguishable because of the large public sector reimbursement for mental illness treatment and support. Principles for a more equitable design of mental health benefits include a non-discriminatory approach; payment on the basis of service rather than diagnosis; application of cost containment for care of mental illness on the same basis as care of general medical illness; retention of the public sector as a backup system for high-cost, long-term care; encouragement of lower-cost alternatives to the hospital through the development of a continuum of care; and a recognition of the distinction between psychotherapy and medical management. All current approaches to universal health care fall short of these principles. A research agenda is needed now more than ever in order to articulate the case for complete coverage of mental illness and substance abuse.

  13. The third sector, user involvement and public service reform: a case study in the co-governance of health service provision.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P

    2011-01-01

    The ‘modernization’ of British public services seeks to broaden public sector governance networks, bringing the views of third sector organizations, the public and service users (among others) to the design, management and delivery of welfare. Building on previous analyses of the contradictions generated by these roles, this paper draws on longitudinal qualitative research to enunciate the challenges faced by one third-sector organization in facilitating service user influence in a UK National Health Service (NHS) pilot programme, alongside other roles in tension with this advocacy function. The analysis highlights limits in the extent to which lateral governance networks pluralize stakeholder involvement. The ‘framing’ of governance may mean that traditional concerns outweigh the views of new stakeholders such as the third sector and service users. Rather than prioritizing wider stakeholders' views in the design and delivery of public services, placing third sector organizations at the centre of governance networks may do more to co-opt these organizations in reproducing predominant priorities.

  14. An overview of changing agendas in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Standing, Hilary

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses health sector reforms and what they have meant for sexual and reproductive health advocacy in low-income countries. Beginning in the late 1980s, it outlines the main macro-economic shifts and policy trends which affect countries dependent on external aid and the main health sector reforms taking place. It then considers the implications of successive macro-economic and reform agendas for reproductive and sexual health advocacy. International debate today is focused on the conditions necessary for socio-economic development and the role of governments in these, and how to improve the performance of health sector bureaucracies and delivery systems. A critical challenge is how to re-negotiate the policy and financial space for sexual and reproductive health services within national health systems and at international level. Advocacy for sexual and reproductive health has to tread the line between a vision of reproductive health for all and action on priority conditions, which means articulating an informed view on needs and priorities. In pressing for greater funding for reproductive health, advocates need to find an appropriate balance between concern with health systems strengthening and service delivery and programmes, and create alliances with progressive health sector reformers.

  15. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  16. After Medicare: regionalization and Canadian health care reform.

    PubMed

    Boychuk, Terry

    2009-01-01

    In the immediate postwar era the primary object of health reform among the advanced industrial democracies was to expand, if not universalize, access to a broad spectrum of health services through sustained, high levels of government-mandated spending. The fiscal crises of the 1970s and 1980s ushered in a new generation of policies devoted to balancing the imperatives of guaranteeing access to basic health and social services and to improving the accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care industries. In Canada, the regionalization of health care administration emerged as the most prominent strategy for grappling with the contradictions and paradoxes of contemporary health reform. This essay traces the historical evolution of federal-provincial deliberations that elevated regionalization to the forefront of health policy-making in the new era of fiscal restraint, and further, assesses recent efforts to institutionalize regional health authorities.

  17. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  18. Primary Health Care Reform in Portugal: Portuguese, modern and innovative.

    PubMed

    Biscaia, André Rosa; Heleno, Liliana Correia Valente

    2017-03-01

    The 2005 Portuguese primary health care (CSP) reform was one of the most successful reforms of the country's public services. The most relevant event was the establishment of Family Health Units (USF): voluntary and self-organized multidisciplinary teams that provide customized medical and nursing care to a group of people. Then, the remaining realms of CSP were reorganized with the establishment of Health Center Clusters (ACeS). Clinical governance was implemented aiming at achieving health gains by improving quality and participation and accountability of all. This paper aims to characterize the 2005 reform of Portuguese CSP with an analysis of its systemic and local realms. This is a case study of a CSP reform of a health system with documentary analysis and description of one of its facilities. This reform was Portuguese, modern and innovative. Portuguese by not breaking completely with the past, modern because it has adhered to technology and networking, and innovative because it broke with the traditional hierarchized model. It fulfilled the goal of a reform: it achieved improvements with greater satisfaction of all and health gains.

  19. Evaluation of Health Care System Reform in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  20. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. Evaluating large and complex demonstrations: the CHAMPUS reform initiative experience. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services.

    PubMed Central

    Zwanziger, J; Hart, K D; Kravitz, R L; Sloss, E M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the evaluation process for the CHAMPUS Reform Initiative (CRI) both to highlight issues that evaluators must consider when undertaking such projects and to provide policymakers with tools to better assess demonstration project evaluations. DATA SOURCES: The CRI evaluation. STUDY DESIGN: Case study. DATA COLLECTION: Review of CRI evaluation reports. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although policymakers increasingly rely on the evaluations of demonstration projects to determine whether to extend the scope and funding of many public programs, the results of these evaluations are often difficult to assess. Despite its analytical sophistication, the CRI evaluation was no exception. The somewhat artificial time constraints imposed by policymakers made projection of the CRI's performance beyond the demonstration period particularly difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Much uncertainty generally remains even after well-planned and well-executed evaluations of demonstration projects. PMID:11221817

  2. Massachusetts health care reform: is it working?

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Joshua; Irving, Julian; Deslich, Stacie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Before 2006, Massachusetts had more than 500 000 residents who lacked health insurance. Governor Mitt Romney enacted landmark legislation requiring all residents to obtain health insurance. Also, the legislation established a health insurance exchange for the purpose of broadening the choices of insurance plans made available to individuals in the state. The purpose of this research was to assess the Massachusetts health care reform in terms of access, cost, and sustainability. The methodology used was a literature review from 2006 to 2013; a total of 43 references were used. Health reform resulted in additional overall state spending of $2.42 billion on Medicaid for Massachusetts. Since the 2006 reform, 401 000 additional residents have obtained insurance. The number of Massachusetts residents who had access to health care increased substantially after the health care reform was enacted, to 98.1% of residents. The Massachusetts health care reform has not saved money for the state; its funding has been covered by Federal spending. However, reform has been sustained over time because of the high percentage of state residents who have supported the state mandate to obtain health care coverage.

  3. Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

    2000-01-01

    Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

  4. The recent health reform in Croatia: true reforms or just a fundraising exercise?

    PubMed

    Svaljek, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Croatia's most recent reform of the healthcare system was implemented in 2008. The aim of the reform was to enhance financial stability of the system by introducing additional sources of financing, as well as increase the efficiency of the system by reducing sick pay transfers to households, rationalising spending on pharmaceuticals, restructuring hospitals etc. This paper attempts to assess the success of the 2008 healthcare system reform in reaching financial stability and sustainability, and to evaluate the effects of the reform on equity in funding the system. It takes into account the fact that the reform coincided with a severe economic crisis and decline in the overall living standard of Croatian citizens. The paper shows that the reform ended up being expansionary and thus impaired the necessary fiscal adjustment. Finally, it is argued that in circumstances of declining disposable incomes, increased co-payments aimed at the financial stabilisation of the health system made health services less affordable and could have had detrimental effects on equity in the utilisation of health care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The new architects of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Leonard D

    2007-01-01

    Rising health care costs have been an issue for decades, yet federal-level health care reform hasn't happened. Support for reform, however, has changed. Purchasers fear that health care cost growth is becoming unaffordable. Research on costs and quality is questioning value. International comparisons rank the United States low on important health system performance measures. Yet it is not these factors but the unsustainable costs of Medicare and Medicaid that will narrow the window for health care stakeholders to shape policy. Unless the health care system is effectively reformed, sometime after the 2008 election, budget hawks and national security experts will eventually combine forces to cut health spending, ultimately determining health policy for the nation.

  6. Health care reform and the labor market.

    PubMed

    Durán-Arenas, L; López-Cervantes, M

    1996-09-01

    Reform is probably the most frequently used term when discussing health care systems. The literature is broad and general, with topics ranging from reasons for carrying out reform, through discussion and the meaning of the reform, to discussions of methods for reform in developing countries. Interest has been centered more on the definition of content and less on the processes of implementation. Implications in terms of changes in the requirements of health facilities and human resources have been only superficially addressed. This paper presents a conceptual framework to discuss the main issues involved in reform of the health care systems and the shifts in needs of human resources. Assessment of the ways in which reform affects the medical labor market require the application of a conceptual framework that enables us to focus more on process than content. In the organizational change literature, both in theory and practice, human resources have been found critical for the institutionalization of organizational change. They are also critical for assessing health care reform.

  7. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology.

  8. National mental health reform: less talk, more action.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian; Hickie, Ian B; Mendoza, John

    2009-02-16

    The Council of Australian Governments revitalised national mental health reform in 2006. Unfortunately, evidence-based models of collaborative care have not yet been supported. Previous attempts at national reform have lacked a strategic vision. We continue to rely on arrangements that are fragmented between different levels of government, poorly resourced community services, and an embattled public hospital sector. Our persisting unwillingness to record or publicly report key measures of health, social or economic outcomes undermines community confidence in the mental health system. Six priority areas for urgent national action are proposed and linked to key measures of improved health system performance. In Australia, we recognise special groups (such as war veterans) and organise and fund services to meet their specific health needs. Such systems could be readily adapted to meet the needs of people with psychosis.

  9. Analytical services contract reform alternatives project

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.W.; Fox, M.R.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Minette, M.J.

    1995-03-23

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) was directed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to examine the feasibility of outsourcing all or part of its laboratory and analytical functions as part of a contract reform effort. The analytical services provided by WHC were found to be significantly greater than that of a typical environmental laboratory which provides sample analysis based on a simple sample in-report out model. In addition to high-volume production analysis, the work scope includes special analytical services, technical consulting, sample handling and disposition, and special material preparations. Numerous broad ranging potential contract reform alternatives were identified and categorized into seven main alternatives with associated sub-alternatives. Issues associated with each alternative varied significantly depending on the alternative. Fifteen issues were identified and described including human resources, contract, and procurement areas. Readers of this report will perhaps identify additional alternatives and/or issues. In addressing the issues, it was determined that those issues pertaining to labor relations and procurement require major policy resolutions by WHC/DOE senior management prior to being able to establish meaningful assumptions for cost/benefit analyses of the seven alternatives. Further review was therefore stopped without economic analyses or recommendation for any specific alternative. Accordingly, this report is intended to fulfill the requirements of RL Milestone AS-95-016.

  10. Health Care Reform: Recommendations and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Health care reform needs to assure coverage to all children regardless of income level or illnesses; address benefits, financing, administration, and delivery systems; provide substantial subsidies to low-income families; be equitable for all people; provide better monitoring of child health; protect and strengthen health providers who assist…

  11. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  12. Medicare, health care reform, and older adults.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Ann L

    2010-12-01

    Nurses will play a key role in health care reform, educating and engaging consumers, providing input into and monitoring implementation, and assisting organizations with transition to new policies. As the largest group of professional health care providers, nurses must be key players in the actualization of health care reform. This article addresses how The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 will affect the solvency of Medicare, what older adults will gain, effects on quality and effectiveness of care, cost reduction, changes in taxes, and the key provisions of special interest to nurses. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Reforming the health care system: implications for health care marketers.

    PubMed

    Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.

  14. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health…

  15. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health…

  16. Market incentives and health care reform.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2008-10-01

    It is generally agreed that the current methods of providing health care in the West need to be reformed. Such reforms must operate within the practical limitations to which any future system of health care will be subject. These limitations include an increase in the demand for costly end-of-life health care coupled with a reduction in the proportion of the population who are working taxpayers (and hence a reduction in the proportionate amount of health care funding that can be secured through taxation) and the fact that the imposition of bureaucratic regulations on health care systems is costly. Recognizing these limitations should naturally lead one to consider market-based reforms. Yet despite the practical impetus for such reforms, there is still widespread concern that market-based health care is unethical. The purpose of this paper is to address this concern and, in so doing, to pave the way for the market-based reform of health care to proceed.

  17. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  18. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  19. Health reform: setting the agenda for long term care.

    PubMed

    Hatch, O G; Wofford, H; Willging, P R; Pomeroy, E

    1993-06-01

    The White House Task Force on National Health Care Reform, headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, is expected to release its prescription for health care reform this month. From the outset, Clinton's mandate was clear: to provide universal coverage while reining in costs for delivering quality health care. Before President Clinton was even sworn into office, he had outlined the major principles that would shape the health reform debate. Global budgeting would establish limits on all health care expenditures, thereby containing health costs. Under a system of managed competition, employers would form health alliances for consumers to negotiate for cost-effective health care at the community level. So far, a basic approach to health care reform has emerged. A key element is universal coverage--with an emphasis on acute, preventive, and mental health care. Other likely pieces are employer-employee contributions to health care plans, laws that guarantee continued coverage if an individual changes jobs or becomes ill, and health insurance alliances that would help assure individual access to low-cost health care. What still is not clear is the extent to which long term care will be included in the basic benefits package. A confidential report circulated by the task force last month includes four options for long term care: incremental Medicaid reform; a new federal/state program to replace Medicaid; a social insurance program for home and community-based services; or full social insurance for long term care. Some work group members have identified an additional option: prefunded long term care insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  1. Reforming health care financing in Bulgaria: the population perspective.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2004-02-01

    Health financing reform in Bulgaria has been characterised by lack of political consensus on reform direction, economic shocks, and, since 1998, steps towards social insurance. As in other eastern European countries, the reform has been driven by an imperative to embrace new ideas modelled on systems elsewhere, but with little attention to whether these reflect popular values. This study explores underlying values, such as views on the role of the state and solidarity, attitudes to, and understanding of compulsory and voluntary insurance, and co-payments. The study identifies general principles (equity, transparency) considered important by the population and practical aspects of implementation of reform. Data were obtained from a representative survey (n=1547) and from 58 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups with users and health professionals, conducted in 1997 before the actual reform of the health financing system in Bulgaria. A majority supports significant state involvement in health care financing, ranging from providing safety net for the poor, through co-subsidising or regulating the social insurance system, to providing state-financed universal free care (half of all respondents). Collectivist values in Bulgaria remain strong, with support for free access to services regardless of income, age, or health status and progressive funding. There is strong support (especially among the well off) for a social insurance system based on the principle of solidarity and accountability rather than the former tax-based model. The preferred health insurance fund was autonomous, state regulated, financing only health care, and offering optional membership. Voluntary insurance and, less so, co-payments were acceptable if limited to selected services and better off groups. In conclusion, a health financing system under public control that fits well with values and population preferences is likely to improve compliance and be more sustainable. Universal health insurance

  2. [Health system reform in the United Kingdom].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    How to control the increasing health expenditures is a common problem in the developed countries. The main causes of this increase are ageing of the society and medical innovation. The UK government has introduced a market oriented health reform in order to balance the increasing expenditures and the quality of care. For example, they have introduced the GP Fundholding, Private Financial Initiative (PFI) for construction of public hospital, and personal budget system (a patient owns a budget for buying health services in the deregulated market). However, there is little evidence indicating the effectiveness of these programs. On the other hand, it is important to strengthen the labor policy in order to maintain the social security system. For example, programs for increasing the employment rate and those for increasing productivity work sharing are such policies. From this viewpoint, the EU countries have introduced a series of active employment policies, i.e., job training for unemployed persons and work sharing. Furthermore, as other authors report in other articles of this volume, the government of the UK has introduced the Fit for Work (FFW) program that intends to medically support workers.

  3. Health governance and healthcare reforms in China.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, M; Wu, Xun; He, Alex Jingwei

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the role of health governance in shaping the outcomes of healthcare reforms in China. The analysis shows that the failure of reforms during the 1980s and 1990s was in part due to inadequate attention to key aspects in health governance, such as strategic interactions among government, providers and users, as well as incentive structures shaping their preferences and behaviour. Although more recent reforms seek to correct these flaws, they are insufficiently targeted at the fundamental governance problems that beset the sector. The article suggests that the Chinese government needs to heighten its efforts to enhance health governance and change the ways providers are paid if it is to succeed in achieving its goal of providing health care to all at affordable cost.

  4. Why Is Health Reform So Difficult?

    PubMed Central

    Brady, David W.; Kessler, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities for health care reform in the 111th Congress. It uses a simple model of policy making to analyze the failure of Congress to pass the Clinton health plan in 1993 – 1994. It concludes that the factors that created gridlock in the 103rd Congress are likely to have a similar impact in the present. PMID:20388865

  5. The role of technology in Australian youth mental health reform.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jane M; Birrell, Emma; Bismark, Marie; Pirkis, Jane; Davenport, Tracey A; Hickie, Ian B; Weinberg, Melissa K; Ellis, Louise A

    2016-03-03

    This paper describes the extent and nature of Internet use by young people, with specific reference to psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. It draws on data from an Australian cross-sectional study of 1400 young people aged 16 to 25 years. Nearly all of these young people used the Internet, both as a source of trusted information and as a means of connecting with their peers and discussing problems. A new model of e-mental health care is introduced that is directly informed by these findings. The model creates a system of mental health service delivery spanning the spectrum from general health and wellbeing (including mental health) promotion and prevention to recovery. It is designed to promote health and wellbeing and to complement face-to-face services to enhance clinical care. The model has the potential to improve reach and access to quality mental health care for young people, so that they can receive the right care, at the right time, in the right way.What is known about the topic? One in four young Australians experience mental health disorders, and these often emerge in adolescence and young adulthood. Young people are also prominent users of technology and the Internet. Effective mental health reform must recognise the opportunities that technology affords and leverage this medium to provide services to improve outcomes for young people.What does this paper add? Information regarding the nature of young people's Internet use is deficient. This paper presents the findings of a national survey of 1400 young Australians to support the case for the role of technology in Australian mental health reform.What are the implications for practitioners? The Internet provides a way to engage young people and provide access to mental health services and resources to reduce traditional barriers to help-seeking and care. eMental health reform can be improved by greater attention toward the role of technology and its benefits for mental health outcomes.

  6. Evolution of US Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-03-01

    Major health policy creation or changes, including governmental and private policies affecting health care delivery are based on health care reform(s). Health care reform has been a global issue over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the years. A successful, health care proposal in the United States with involvement of the federal government was the short-lived establishment of the first system of national medical care in the South. In the 20th century, the United States was influenced by progressivism leading to the initiation of efforts to achieve universal coverage, supported by a Republican presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, included a publicly funded health care program while drafting provisions to Social Security legislation, which was eliminated from the final legislation. Subsequently, multiple proposals were introduced, starting in 1949 with President Harry S Truman who proposed universal health care; the proposal by Lyndon B. Johnson with Social Security Act in 1965 which created Medicare and Medicaid; proposals by Ted Kennedy and President Richard Nixon that promoted variations of universal health care. presidential candidate Jimmy Carter also proposed universal health care. This was followed by an effort by President Bill Clinton and headed by first lady Hillary Clinton in 1993, but was not enacted into law. Finally, the election of President Barack Obama and control of both houses of Congress by the Democrats led to the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often referred to as "ObamaCare" was signed into law in March 2010. Since then, the ACA, or Obamacare, has become a centerpiece of political campaigning. The Republicans now control the presidency and both houses of Congress and are attempting to repeal and replace the ACA. Key words: Health care reform, Affordable Care Act (ACA), Obamacare, Medicare, Medicaid, American Health Care Act.

  7. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton’s Apology

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the “cultural paranoia” of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410

  8. The Impact of State Behavioral Health Reform on Native American Individuals, Families, and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Goodkind, Jessica; Lamphere, Louise; Saul, Gwendolyn; Fluder, Shannon; Seanez, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the State of New Mexico undertook a sweeping transformation of all publicly funded behavioral health services. The reform was intended to enhance the cultural responsiveness and appropriateness of these services. To examine achievement of this objective, we conducted a qualitative study of the involvement of Native Americans in reform efforts and the subsequent impacts of reform on services for Native Americans. We found that the reform was relatively unsuccessful at creating mechanisms for genuine community input or improving behavioral health care for this population. These shortcomings were related to limited understandings of administrators concerning how tribal governments and health care systems operate, and the structural limitations of a managed care system that does not allow flexibility for culturally appropriate utilization review, screening, or treatment. However, interaction between the State and tribes increased, and we conclude that aspects of the reform could be strengthened to achieve more meaningful involvement and service improvements. PMID:22427455

  9. Implementation of the Quebec mental health reform (2005-2015).

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Vallée, Catherine; Aubé, Denise; Farand, Lambert; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Cyr, Geneviève

    2016-10-18

    This study evaluates implementation of the Quebec Mental Health (MH) Reform (2005-2015) which aimed to improve accessibility, quality and continuity of care by developing primary care and optimizing integrated service networks. Implementation of MH primary care teams, clinical strategies for consolidating primary care, integration strategies to improve collaboration between primary care and specialized services, and facilitators and barriers related to these measures were examined. Eleven Quebec MH service networks provided the study setting. Networks were identified in consultation with 20 key MH decision makers and selected based on variation in services offered, integration strategies, best practices, and geographic criteria. Data collection included: primary documents, structured questionnaires completed by 25 managers from MH primary care teams and 16 respondent-psychiatrists working in shared-care, and semi-structured interviews with 102 network stakeholders involved in the reform. The study employed a mixed method approach, triangulating the three data sources across networks. While implementation was not fully achieved in most networks, the Quebec reform succeeded in improving primary care services with the creation of adult primary care teams, and one-stop services which increased access to care, mainly for clients with common MH disorders. In terms of clinical strategies implemented, the functions provided by respondent-psychiatrists had a greater impact on the MH primary care teams than on general practitioners (GPs) in medical clinics; whereas the implementation of best practices were indirect outcomes of another reform developed simultaneously by the Quebec substance use disorders program. The main integration strategies used for increasing continuity of care and collaboration between primary care and specialized services were those involving fewer formal procedures such as referrals between teams and organizations. The lack of operational mechanisms

  10. Health care reform: perspectives from large employers.

    PubMed

    Darling, Helen

    2010-06-01

    Recently enacted health reform legislation will have mostly positive effects on large employers, as millions more Americans gain access to affordable insurance and, potentially, primary care. But the law will impose new administrative burdens and financing costs on employers, while raising concerns about provisions that could allow their lower-wage employees to obtain coverage through insurance exchanges. Given the need to restrain the rate of growth of health spending, the private sector, especially large employers, must collaborate with the public sector to drive delivery system reform. And every public program and exchange should appoint a chief value officer who reports quarterly on spending, cost drivers, and potential ways to contain costs.

  11. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness.

  12. Health Care Reform and the Academic Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmey, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the implications of health care reform for academic health centers (a complex of institutions which educate health professionals) looks at problems in the current system, the role of academic health centers in the current system, financial pressures, revenue sources other than patient care, impact on health research, and human…

  13. Health Care Reform and the Academic Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmey, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the implications of health care reform for academic health centers (a complex of institutions which educate health professionals) looks at problems in the current system, the role of academic health centers in the current system, financial pressures, revenue sources other than patient care, impact on health research, and human…

  14. Seeing difference: market health reform in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A

    1998-02-01

    The comparative literature on health care reform has identified a convergence upon market models as nations respond to similar economic, technological, social, and demographic pressures. In this article I first challenge the conventional view by comparing "market" reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Though these nations did indeed converge upon the instrument of the market incentive, there was considerable divergence in the content and aims of their reform strategies. These nations designed their respective markets to make different tradeoffs among competing values. While all three exploited the principle of provider competition, they appointed different actors to judge the contest: the cost-conscious public authority in the United Kingdom, the quality-conscious patient in Sweden, and the optimizing consumer in the Netherlands. I argue that these countries were thus using common market tools to promote different health policy goals. Distinguishing these reforms further is the fact that--particularly in the Netherlands--there was a gap between market plans and the reality of implemented change. I then ask why nations responded so differently to such similar objective pressures. My contention is that this divergence reflects, in part, the different ideological orientations of the ruling party or coalition in each nation. Yet divergence is also the result of differences in both the design of political institutions and the structure of the pre-reform health system in each country.

  15. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Rahman, Syed Azizur; Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mustafa, Ahmed; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    that encourage positive responses among health workers b) the role of context has been underestimated and it is necessary to address broader systemic problems before initiating reform processes, c) reform programs need to incorporate active implementation research systems to learn the contextual dynamics and responses as well as have inbuilt program capacity for corrective measures d) health workers are key stakeholders in any reform process and should participate at all stages and e) some effects of reforms on the health workforce operate indirectly through levels of satisfaction voiced by communities utilising the services. PMID:17270042

  16. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  17. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees.

  18. Estimating Health Services Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    In computer program NOROCA populations statistics from National Center for Health Statistics used with computational procedure to estimate health service utilization rates, physician demands (by specialty) and hospital bed demands (by type of service). Computational procedure applicable to health service area of any size and even used to estimate statewide demands for health services.

  19. Standardizing the home?: Women reformers and domestic service in New Deal New York.

    PubMed

    May, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    In response to the poor working conditions suffered by domestics struggling to survive the Depression, middle-class women's organizations initiated various legislative reforms aimed at tackling the problems they believed plagued the occupation. Throughout these years, organized women debated three key pieces of reform related to domestic service: efforts to suppress street-corner markets, health requirements for prospective domestics, and state-level wage and hour reform. These reforms were united by the rhetoric of privacy, which clubwomen used both to oppose wage and hour reform and to support requirements that domestics have physicals before applying for work. This article examines the fine distinction that middle-class women's organizations drew between public and private in the appropriate application of government power and the resulting conflict between progressive women's gender ideology and their most deeply-held reform ideals. In doing so, it reveals organized women's struggle to reconcile their humane ideals with the reality in their kitchens.

  20. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  1. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Percival, Valerie; Sondorp, Egbert

    2010-04-16

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program.

  2. Welfare reform: a women's health perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, M F

    1996-01-01

    Welfare reform programs currently being considered and implemented by the federal government and the states pose serious risks to poor women's health. Many of the proposed reforms, such as inflexible work requirements and time limits that threaten to reduce or eliminate current benefits, will make it more difficult for women to leave abusive relationships and will exacerbate the risks associated with violence against women. Other proposals target women's reproductive behavior. Programs that, for example, deny welfare benefits to teen mothers or to children born to women on welfare, increase the emotional stress experienced by poor pregnant women and may effectively coerce some women to seek abortions they would not otherwise choose. Benefit cuts also exacerbate the well-documented ill effects of poverty on children and families. The goals of welfare reform-increasing work participation and reducing poverty-can be more effectively achieved by means that do not pose these serious health risks to poor women.

  3. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  4. [Psychiatric reform 25 years after the General Law of Health].

    PubMed

    Desviat, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes the situation of the psychiatric reform 25 years of the General Health Law. The author wonders what has been done and what has been left undone, on the degree of implementation of the Community model that adopts the law and its future sustainability. It highlights, among the strengths, the loss of hegemony of the psychiatric hospital and the great development of alternative resources, and seeks to explain the reason for the inadequacies of care, policy and training, as well as threats: the changes in the management of social and health services, increased privatization of services, the theoretical impoverishment and changing demands of the population.

  5. Health reform in Canada: Enabling perspectives for health leadership.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Graham

    2016-03-01

    Canadian healthcare leaders are experiencing unprecedented change. In Canada and worldwide, efforts are being made to create patient-centred service delivery models. In order to participate fully in that transformation, leaders must embrace the new leadership responsibilities vital to patient-centred change. To fail to do so will marginalize their role or render them irrelevant. This article reviews literature in the past 5 years to outline the change context for leaders and what they can do to enhance their effectiveness. Leaders are encouraged to redouble their efforts to develop their leadership capacity, engage physicians as partners, embrace complexity, engage the patient and public in reform efforts, and embrace appropriate technological trends within the consumer community. To reinvent leadership supportive of patient-centred change, healthcare leaders need to act individually to grow their own capacity and collectively to take control of the leadership needed in order to fulfill their role in change. © 2016 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  6. Bending the curve through health reform implementation.

    PubMed

    Antos, Joseph; Bertko, John; Chernew, Michael; Cutler, David; de Brantes, Francois; Goldman, Dana; Kocher, Bob; McClellan, Mark; McGlynn, Elizabeth; Pauly, Mark; Shortell, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    In September 2009, we released a set of concrete, feasible steps that could achieve the goal of significantly slowing spending growth while improving the quality of care. We stand by these recommendations, but they need to be updated in light of the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Reducing healthcare spending growth remains an urgent and unresolved issue, especially as the ACA expands insurance coverage to 32 million more Americans. Some of our reform recommendations were addressed completely or partially in ACA, and others were not. While more should be done legislatively, the current reform legislation includes important opportunities that will require decisive steps in regulation and execution to fulfill their potential for curbing spending growth. Executing these steps will not be automatic or easy. Yet doing so can achieve a healthcare system based on evidence, meaningful choice, balance between regulation and market forces, and collaboration that will benefit patients and the economy (see Appendix A for a description of these key themes). We focus on three concrete objectives to be reached within the next five years to achieve savings while improving quality across the health system: 1. Speed payment reforms away from traditional volume-based payment systems so that most health payments in this country align better with quality and efficiency. 2. Implement health insurance exchanges and other insurance reforms in ways that assure most Americans are rewarded with substantial savings when they choose plans that offer higher quality care at lower premiums. 3. Reform coverage so that most Americans can save money and obtain other meaningful benefits when they make decisions that improve their health and reduce costs. We believe these are feasible objectives with much progress possible even without further legislation (see Appendix B for a listing of recommendations). However, additional legislation is still needed to support consumers

  7. Health care reform. Gridlock and pork?

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1997-01-01

    Can Americans expect the same gridlock and pork between now and the 21st Century? What are the possible directions that the United States can move in regarding health care reform and the long-term financing of health entitlement programs? Here, the author offers a snapshot of current politics and some predictions for the next four years. And explores the question: Are Americans willing to make the necessary sacrifices for future generations to profit by the significant changes needed by entitlement and health reform, or will it be business as usual? America's centrist perspective was recently reinforced by the 1996 election, suggesting that no major innovations in entitlement or in the health system should be anticipated in the next four years.

  8. Equity in health care access to: assessing the urban health insurance reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Zhao, Zhongyun; Cai, Renhua; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluates changes in access to health care in response to the pilot experiment of urban health insurance reform in China. The pilot reform began in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities in 1994, followed by an expansion to 57 other cities in 1996, and finally to a nationwide campaign in the end of 1998. Specifically, this study examines the pre- and post-reform changes in the likelihood of obtaining various health care services across sub-population groups with different socioeconomic status and health conditions, in an attempt to shed light on the impact of reform on both vertical and horizontal equity measures in health care utilization. Empirical estimates were obtained in an econometric model using data from the annual surveys conducted in Zhenjiang City from 1994 through 1996. The main findings are as follows. Before the insurance reform, the likelihood of obtaining basic care at outpatient setting was much higher for those with higher income, education, and job status at work, indicating a significant measure of horizontal inequity against the lower socioeconomic groups. On the other hand, there was no evidence suggesting vertical inequity against people of chronic disease conditions in access to care at various settings. After the reform, the new insurance plan led to a significant increase in outpatient care utilization by the lower socioeconomic groups, making a great contribution to achieving horizontal equity in access to basic care. The new plan also has maintained the measure of vertical equity in the use of all types of care. Despite reform, people with poor socioeconomic status continue to be disadvantaged in accessing expensive and advanced diagnostic technologies. In conclusion, the reform model has demonstrated promising advantages over pre-reform insurance programs in many aspects, especially in the improvement of equity in access to basic care provided at outpatient settings. It also appears to be more efficient overall in allocating health

  9. Rural health care in Vietnam and China: conflict between market reforms and social need.

    PubMed

    Huong, Dang Boi; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Bales, Sarah; Jiaying, Chen; Lucas, Henry; Segall, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    China and Vietnam have adopted market reforms in the health sector in the context of market economic reforms. Vietnam has developed a large private health sector, while in China commercialization has occurred mainly in the formal public sector, where user fees are now the main source of facility finance. As a result, the integrity of China's planned health service has been disrupted, especially in poor rural areas. In Vietnam the government has been an important financer of public health facilities and the pre-reform health service is largely intact, although user fees finance an increasing share of facility expenditure. Over-servicing of patients to generate revenue occurs in both countries, but more seriously in China. In both countries government health expenditure has declined as a share of total health expenditure and total government expenditure, while out-of-pocket health spending has become the main form of health finance. This has particularly affected the rural poor, deterring them from accessing health care. Assistance for the poor to meet public-sector user fees is more beneficial and widespread in Vietnam than China. China is now criticizing the degree of commercialization of its health system and considers its health reforms "basically unsuccessful." Market reforms that stimulate growth in the economy are not appropriate to reform of social sectors such as health.

  10. Genetic testing: employability, insurability, and health reform.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, M A

    1995-01-01

    Presently, 85%-90% of individuals with private health insurance are covered under group health insurance, with most covered through employment. Under virtually any system of health care reform likely to be enacted in the near future, employers will continue to play a major role in the funding of private health care. As costs of health care are increasing dramatically, employers and insurance carriers are examining alternatives for controlling health care expenditures. Not all consumers of health care are equal in their rates of consumption. Tremendous savings could be realized by parties responsible for paying for health care if the most expensive (or potentially most expensive) health care users could be identified and their costs shifted to another payer. Genetic testing could play a major role in predictive health screening to identify individuals with the potential for developing cancer. This prospect raises three major problems regarding employability and insurability. First, individuals could be subject to discrimination in employment, with the responsibility for their health coverage shifted to the public sector. Second, privacy and confidentiality could be compromised through the compilation, storage, and release of non-job-related, sensitive medical information. Third, the fear of employment discrimination through employer access to medical records generated in the clinical setting might discourage at-risk individuals from undergoing medically indicated genetic testing. This report reviews these issues and emphasizes that these concerns must be addressed in the context of health care reform as well as through the interpretation of existing legal proscriptions on employment discrimination.

  11. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  12. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  13. A conversation with Donald Berwick on implementing national health reform.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Donald

    2012-08-01

    Michael Birnbaum interviews Donald Berwick shortly after his departure from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services about the national health care landscape. Berwick discusses the strategic vision, policy levers, operational challenges, and political significance of federal health care reform. He rejects the notion that the Affordable Care Act represents a government takeover of health care financing or service delivery but says the law's Medicaid expansion and its creation of health benefit exchanges present a "watershed moment for American federalism." Berwick argues that the solution to Medicare's cost-containment challenge lies in quality improvement. He is optimistic that accountable care organizations can deliver savings and suggests that shifting risk downstream to providers throws the health insurance model into question. Finally, looking to the future, Berwick sees a race against time to make American health care more affordable.

  14. Health sector reform in Brazil: a case study of inequity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C; Travassos, C; Porto, S; Labra, M E

    2000-01-01

    Health sector reform in Brazil built the Unified Health System according to a dense body of administrative instruments for organizing decentralized service networks and institutionalizing a complex decision-making arena. This article focuses on the equity in health care services. Equity is defined as a principle governing distributive functions designed to reduce or offset socially unjust inequalities, and it is applied to evaluate the distribution of financial resources and the use of health services. Even though in the Constitution the term "equity" refers to equal opportunity of access for equal needs, the implemented policies have not guaranteed these rights. Underfunding, fiscal stress, and lack of priorities for the sector have contributed to a progressive deterioration of health care services, with continuing regressive tax collection and unequal distribution of financial resources among regions. The data suggest that despite regulatory measures to increase efficiency and reduce inequalities, delivery of health care services remains extremely unequal across the country. People in lower income groups experience more difficulties in getting access to health services. Utilization rates vary greatly by type of service among income groups, positions in the labor market, and levels of education.

  15. Have health insurance reforms in Tunisia attained their intended objectives?

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Khaled; Ventelou, Bruno; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of developing countries are currently promoting health system reforms with the aim of attaining ' universal health coverage' (UHC). In Tunisia, several reforms have been undertaken over the last two decades to attain UHC with the goals of ensuring financial protection in health and enhancing access to healthcare. The first of these goals has recently been addressed in a companion paper by Abu-Zaineh et al. (Int J Health Care Financ Econ 13(1):73-93, 2013). The present paper seeks to assess whether these reforms have in fact enhanced access to healthcare. The average treatment effects of two insurance schemes, formal-mandatory (MHI) and state-subsidized (MAS) insurance, on the utilization of outpatient and inpatient healthcare are estimated using propensity score matching. Results support the hypothesis that both schemes (MHI and MAS) increase the utilization of healthcare. However, significant variations in the average effect of these schemes are observed across services and areas. For all the matching methods used and compared with those the excluded from cover, the increase in outpatient and inpatient services for the MHI enrollees was at least 19 and 26 %, respectively, in urban areas, while for MAS beneficiaries this increase was even more pronounced (28 and 75 % in the urban areas compared with 27 and 46 % in the rural areas for outpatient and inpatient services, respectively). One important conclusion that emerges is that the current health insurance schemes, despite improving accessibility to healthcare services, are nevertheless incapable of achieving effective coverage of the whole population for all services. Attaining the latter goal requires a strategy that targets the "trees" not the "forest".

  16. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Todd; Capoccia, Victor A; Boyle, Michael G; Sherbeck, Carol K

    2012-05-02

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system.To gauge the addiction treatment field's readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback.On a scale of "Needs to Begin," "Early Stages," "On the Way," and "Advanced," the mean scores for respondents (n = 276) ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of < $5 million (n = 193) were less likely than those with budgets > $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology), evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA.The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care.

  17. Massachusetts health reform and Veterans Affairs health system enrollment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Herbert, Paul L; Bryson, Christopher L; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2014-08-01

    Veterans Health Administration (VA) operates the largest integrated health system in the nation. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) does not require any changes to VA, but the individual mandate and expanded health insurance options may change veterans' preferences for coverage. We examined the impact of healthcare reform in Massachusetts, which also included these policy changes, on veterans' enrollment in VA, private insurance, and Medicaid. Massachusetts' healthcare reform in June 2006 served as a natural experiment. Using data from the 2004-2013 Current Population Surveys, we examined enrollment in VA, private insurance, and Medicaid, comparing veterans residing in Massachusetts with veterans residing in neighboring New England states that did not undergo health reform. We estimated the probability of being enrolled in VA, private insurance, and Medicaid before and after healthcare reform, using multivariate probit models while adjusting for individual characteristics. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we compared pre-post changes in enrollment probability among Massachusetts and non-Massachusetts veterans, respectively. Compared with other New England veterans, Massachusetts veterans decreased their enrollment in VA and private insurance by 0.2 (P = .857) and 0.9 (P = .666) percentage points, respectively, following health reform. In contrast, Medicaid enrollment increased by 2.5 percentage points (P = .038). Healthcare reform in Massachusetts was associated with greater Medicaid enrollment, but was not significantly associated with VA and private insurance enrollment. Our results are significant for informing VA fiscal planning in the post ACA era.

  18. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status.

  19. Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Gina; Garabrant, Alice; Adyas, Atikah; Muga, Richard; Otoo, Nathaniel

    2012-09-08

    We analyse nine low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia that have implemented national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage. Using the functions-of-health-systems framework, we describe these countries' approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services. Then, using the coverage-box framework, we assess their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs are covered. We identify some patterns in the structure of these countries' reforms, such as use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations, steps towards broader risk pools, and emphasis on purchasing services through demand-side financing mechanisms. However, none of the reforms purely conform to common health-system archetypes, nor are they identical to each other. We report some trends in these countries' progress towards universal coverage, such as increasing enrolment in government health insurance, a movement towards expanded benefits packages, and decreasing out-of-pocket spending accompanied by increasing government share of spending on health. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed to enable countries undergoing reforms to assess outcomes and make midcourse corrections in policy and implementation.

  20. Toward a framework for health service research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, L D; Wanke, M

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal concerns have provided the impetus for wide-ranging attempts to reform the delivery of health care in Canada. Health reform has in turn stimulated great interest and activity in health service research. For health service research to be of maximum use in addressing current and future challenges to the health care system, closer liaison is needed between researchers and decision makers--the users of research. The purpose of this paper is to promote greater interaction between decision makers and researchers by proposing a framework for health predicated on types of information needed for decision-making rather than on study methodologies. We distinguish between decision makers at the societal, health system, program and service levels. Types of studies are classified by their purpose and by the phase of the management cycle for which they provide information for decision-making.

  1. Health care in China: improvement, challenges, and reform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Rao, Keqin; Wu, Sinan; Liu, Qian

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant progress has been made in improving the health-care system and people's health conditions in China. Following rapid economic growth and social development, China's health-care system is facing new challenges, such as increased health-care demands and expenditure, inefficient use of health-care resources, unsatisfying implementation of disease management guidelines, and inadequate health-care insurance. Facing these challenges, the Chinese government carried out a national health-care reform in 2009. A series of policies were developed and implemented to improve the health-care insurance system, the medical care system, the public health service system, the pharmaceutical supply system, and the health-care institution management system in China. Although these measures have shown promising results, further efforts are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of providing affordable and high-quality care for both urban and rural residents in China. This article not only covers the improvement, challenges, and reform of health care in general in China, but also highlights the status of respiratory medicine-related issues.

  2. Draft Clinton health reform proposal is circulated as alternatives surface.

    PubMed

    1993-09-20

    A brief summary is provided of the Clinton draft health reform proposal (a 240-page draft outline) that predated the presidential address before Congress on September 22, 1993, and the complete health reform plan. Hillary Rodham Clinton will present a statement before the Senate Finance Committee and the Labor and Human Resources Committee on September 28, as the chairperson of the President's Task Force on Health Care Reform. Top policy aide Ira Magaziner believes that a coalition of moderate Republicans, liberal Democrats, and moderate Democrats will be to pass the bill. Observers see the battle as one of the most difficult for the Clinton administration. The outlined plan would require employers to pay about 80% of health insurance coverage for their employees, including part-time workers and their dependents. Families would pay the remaining 20%. All individuals would be covered, and special subsidies would be available for those under a specified income threshold. Regional health alliances would mediate between consumer and health plans. Premiums would be paid to the alliances, which would have a discrete geographic territory. Alliances would negotiate with health insurance companies for the best care at the lowest prices. Preexisting medical conditions would not prevent coverage. A standard benefit package would be provided and there would be comparability across plans. For instance, covered care would include hospital care, physician and health professional services, clinical preventive services, mental health and substance abuse, family planning services, pregnancy-related services, and drugs. Prevention coverage would include prenatal and well-baby care and routine physical examinations, and reproductive health service procedures such as mammogram and pelvic examinations. Family planning and pregnancy-related services were not defined, and although contraceptive pills would be covered as prescriptions, it is unclear whether diaphragms or IUDs would be

  3. Clinton reform proposal faces Congressional test on covered services, cost.

    PubMed

    1994-01-13

    Common to most of the health care reform proposals currently under consideration in the US Congress is an emphasis on preventive services such as well-baby visits. The Clinton plan, formally known as the Health Security Act (HSA), would exempt preventive care from the deductibles and co-payments applicable to other covered health care services. A weakness of the HSA is its failure to regard the reproductive health benefits package as preventive. Although prenatal and postpartum care are classified as such, family planning visits and other services for pregnant women are subject to deductibles and cost-sharing stipulations for recipients with incomes above the poverty level. Also problematic is the HSA's failure to define the scope of services beyond "voluntary family planning services" and medical devices subject to federal approval. This ambiguity leaves the status of abortion unclear, and implies that drugs, such as oral contraceptives, are not covered. Thus, a woman who attends a family planning clinic to obtain a prescription for oral contraceptives could be required to meet deductibles both for medical visits and outpatient prescription drugs. Similarly, the HSA makes no mention of sexually transmitted diseases prevention. Instead, coverage is provided for "fertility related infectious illness"--a stipulation that enables annual screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia but excludes syphilis. Managed care providers who receive a flat fee regardless of the amount of care provided might be inclined to eliminate screening for all sexually transmitted diseases. Also of concern is the threat that low-income women who currently receive free prenatal medical care through Medicaid would be required to pay a share of their premiums to receive HSA coverage for other areas. The extension of Medicaid benefits to pregnant women with incomes up to 185% of the poverty level substantially increased use of prenatal care by the working poor--a trend that would be reversed under the

  4. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Care: Making a Case for Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Edward, Jean

    2014-02-01

    The growth in undocumented immigration in the United States has garnered increasing interest in the arenas of immigration and health care policy reform. Undocumented immigrants are restricted from accessing public health and social service as a result of their immigration status. The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act restricts undocumented immigrants from participating in state exchange insurance market places, further limiting them from accessing equitable health care services. This commentary calls for comprehensive policy reform that expands access to health care for undocumented immigrants based on an analysis of immigrant health policies and their impact on health care expenditures, public health, and the role of health care providers. The intersectional nature of immigration and health care policy emphasizes the need for nurse policymakers to advocate for comprehensive policy reform aimed at improving the health and well-being of immigrants and the nation as a whole. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms.

  6. 45 CFR 147.130 - Coverage of preventive health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of preventive health services. 147.130 Section 147.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS...

  7. Community Participation in New Mexico's Behavioral Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Miria; Willging, Cathleen E.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, New Mexico implemented a unique reform in managed behavioral health services that seeks to ensure delivery of consumer-driven, recovery-oriented care to low-income individuals. Distinguishing features of the reform are the Local Collaboratives (LCs), regionally based community organizations designed by state government to represent behavioral health concerns of New Mexico's diverse cultural populations. We examine community response to the LCs, focusing on two broad sets of themes derived from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. The first set—structure and function—encompasses several issues: predominance of provider versus consumer voice; insufficient resources to support internal operations; imposition of state administrative demands; and perceived lack of state response to LC efforts. The second set—participation and collaboration—reveals how problems of information flow and other logistical factors impact involvement in LCs and how the construction of “community” introduced under this initiative exacerbates tensions across localities with varied histories and populations. PMID:19764315

  8. Health reform: getting the essentials right.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Victor R

    2009-01-01

    As the ninety-year history and failure of health care reform illustrates, it is easy for policymakers to disagree about the details of any new plan. In this Perspective, the author suggests trying a new approach this time: enacting a plan that encompasses four essential principles and then making midcourse adjustments later to get the details right. He defines the essentials as the Four Cs: coverage, cost control, coordinated care, and choice.

  9. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  10. Health reform and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordability Act, H.R. 3509, that was signed into law by President Obama in March 2010 might just as easily have been subtitled the "Attorneys, Accountants, Lobbyists, and Public Relations Personnel Relief Act of 2010." As components of the law unfold over the next decade, thousands of pages of regulations must be written to explain how to implement the various provisions in the 906-page engrossed version of this legislation. Key segments of the health care industry in the form of practitioners, insurance companies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, medical device companies, and academic institutions with programs in the health sciences will be affected in diverse ways. History being a reliable guide, it is safe to posit that these entities will respond in the usual manner by employing armies of lobbyists, public relations specialists, and attorneys to enhance the likelihood that the ensuing regulatory environment will not be too inimical to their respective interests.

  11. Reforming the Israeli health care market.

    PubMed

    Chinitz, D P

    1994-11-01

    Israel's experience in attempting to implement a health system reform based in large measure on managed competition should provide important data to other countries considering reliance on competitive mechanisms for third-party purchase of health care. In this paper, current proposals for reform of the Israeli market for third-party purchase of health care are examined in light of ideal market structures, particularly the theory of managed competition. The relationship between the theory, the notion of a 'purchaser-provider split' and the Israeli case are explored. The current Israeli health care market, which features enrollment of 96% of the population in competing sick funds, is presented. The changes necessary to base third-party purchase of health-care on managed competition are discussed. Special conditions of the Israeli health care system likely to influence implementation of a managed competition strategy are considered. Beyond a 'purchaser-provider' split, the proposals call for other restructurings, such as a split between finance and insurance functions, which the standard theory of managed competition does not take into account. The implications of these proposals for smooth functioning of the health care market must be weighed against political and ethical considerations unique to the Israeli environment.

  12. Health system reform under the Russian health insurance legislation.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Potapchik, E

    1997-01-01

    The Russian (1993 amended) health insurance legislation initiated a far-reaching reform in the financing, organization and management of the Russian health system. However, the implementation of the legislation has been slow and unstructured due to a lack of appropriate administrative and financial mechanisms: these concern entitlement, private-public mix, financial responsibilities of government at all levels, investment instruments, reimbursement and compensation systems, and a well-defined role of government. These issues are discussed in this article in the context of the Russian economy, the state of the health system, and the reform effort in the system.

  13. [Health sector reform in Peru: Law, governance, universal coverage, and responses to health risks].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Aníbal; Suarez, Dalia; Nepo-Linares, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Peru initiated a reform process under the premise of recognizing the nature of health as a right that must be protected by the state. This reform aimed to improve health conditions through the elimination or reduction of restrictions preventing the full exercise of this right, and the consequent approach aimed to protect both individual and public health and rights within a framework characterized by strengthened stewardship and governance, which would allow system conduction and effective responses to risks and emergencies. The reform led to an increase in population health insurance coverage from 64% to 73%, with universalization occurring through the SIS affiliation of every newborn with no other protection mechanism. Health financing increased by 75% from 2011, and the SIS budget tripled from 570 to 1,700 million soles. From 2012 to May 2016, 168 health facilities have become operational, 51 establishments are nearing completion, and 265 new projects are currently under technical file and work continuity with an implemented investment of more than 7 billion soles. Additionally, this reform led to the approval of the Ministry of Health intervention for health emergencies and strengthened the health authority of the ministry to implement responses in case of risks or service discontinuity resulting from a lack of regional or local government compliance with public health functions.

  14. The aftermath of health sector reform in the Republic of Georgia: effects on people's health.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-04-01

    After the collapse of the Former Soviet Union a health reform process was undertaken in Georgia beginning in 1994. This process was intended to encompass all aspects of the health-care sector and to transform the Soviet-style health system into one that was directed towards quality of care, improved access, efficiency, and a strengthened focus on Primary Health Care (PHC). Health sector reform fundamentally changed the ways health care is financed in Georgia. There has been a transition to program-based financing, and payroll-tax-based social insurance schemes have been introduced. Despite these measures, the performance of the health system is still disappointing. All health programs are severely under-funded, and when the majority of the population is unemployed or self-employed, collection of taxes seems impossible. Overall, Georgian consumers are uninformed about the basic principles of health reforms and their entitlements and therefore do not support them. The analysis introduced in this paper of the current situation in Georgia establishes that the rush to insurance-based medicine was more a rush from the previous system than a well-thought-out policy direction. After 70 years of a Soviet rule, the country had no institutional capacity to provide insurance-based health care. To achieve universal coverage, or at least ensure that the majority of the population has access to basic health services, government intervention is essential. In addition, educating the public on reforms would allow the reform initiators to fundamentally change the nature of the reform process from a "top-down" centralized process to one that is demand-driven and collaborative.

  15. What have health care reforms achieved in Turkey? An appraisal of the "Health Transformation Programme".

    PubMed

    Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Çakar, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Poor health status indicators, low quality care, inequity in the access to health services and inefficiency due to fragmented health financing and provision have long been problems in Turkey's health system. To address these problems a radical reform process known as the Health Transformation Programme (HTP) was initiated in 2003. The health sector reforms in Turkey are considered to have been among the most successful of middle-income countries undergoing reform. Numerous articles have been published that review these reforms in terms of, variously, financial sustainability, efficiency, equity and quality. Evidence suggests that Turkey has indeed made significant progress, yet these achievements are uneven among its regions, and their long-term financial sustainability is unresolved due to structural problems in employment. As yet, there is no comprehensive evidence-based analysis of how far the stated reform objectives have been achieved. This article reviews the empirical evidence regarding the outcomes of the HTP during 10 years of its implementation. Strengthening the strategic purchasing function of the Social Security Institution (SSI) should be a priority. Overall performance can be improved by linking resource allocation to provider performance. More emphasis on prevention rather than treatment, with an effective referral chain, can also bring better outcomes, greater efficiency gains and contribute to sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementing Health Financing Reforms in Africa: Perspectives of Health System Stewards.

    PubMed

    Achoki, Tom; Lesego, Abaleng

    A majority of health systems in the sub-Saharan Africa region are faced with multiple competing priorities amid pressing resource constraints. Health financing reforms, characterized by expansion of health insurance coverage, have been proposed as promising in the quest to improve health sustainably. However, in many countries where these measures are being attempted, their broader implications have not been fully appreciated. This study was based on perspectives of 37 health system stewards from Botswana who were interviewed in order to understand opportunities and challenges that would result in the quest to expand health insurance coverage in the country. Thematic synthesis of their perspectives, focusing on the key aspects of the health systems, was done in order to draw informative lessons that could be applicable to a broader set of low- and middle-income countries. Health systems attempting to expand health insurance coverage would be faced with various opportunities and challenges that have implications on performance. By increasing the pool of resources available to spend on health, health insurance would afford health systems the opportunity to increase population access to and use of health services. However, if unchecked, this could also translate to uncontrolled demand for expensive medicines and other health technologies, leading to cost escalation and inefficiencies within the system. Therefore, the success of any health financing reform is dependent on embracing sound policies, regulations, and accountability measures. Health financing reforms have broader implications to health system performance that should be fully appreciated and anticipated before implementation. Therefore, health system leaders who are keen to improve health must view any health financing reforms through the broader framework of the health system framework in order to make progress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health reform interrupted: the unraveling of the Oregon Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Health Plan (OHP) has received national and international attention for rationing medical care based on explicit priorities. However, in recent years OHP has lost substantial enrollment and struggled to live up to its core principles. This paper explores what went wrong in OHP and the implications of Oregon's experience for state-led health reform.

  18. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel.

  19. Health Care Reform: Implications of the President's Plan for Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednash, Geraldine

    This paper discusses factors emerging from the health care reform movement that will shape health care service delivery in general and nursing practice and education in particular. First, cost concerns will increase moves toward managed competition which will, in turn, create changes in service use patterns. These patterns seem overall to tend…

  20. [Problems in reforming health care centers].

    PubMed

    Shemetova, M V; Blokhin, A B; Polzik, E V

    2000-01-01

    Reformation of therapeutic and prophylactic institutions attached to various institutions and ministries is and important problem of public health at the modern stage of its development. A model developed and tried in Magnitogorsk can serve as a perspective trend of such reforms. A medical institution with mixed form of property has been created. The institution was set up by administration of the territory and a plant (Magnitogorsk metallurgical plant). Creation of a new health center as a non-commercial institution promoted its integration in the municipal public health system; the institution possesses all the potentialities of a budget organization and retains close contact with the plant. Such a solution of the problem improved the financial status of the health center and promoted its adaptation to marketing conditions. Attraction of additional finances from industry to municipal public health allowed the administration of the health center start and carry out internal restructuring aimed at priority development of outpatient care, restructuring of the bed fund, technological updating, and, in general, more rational utilization of the available resources.

  1. The mental health recovery movement and family therapy, part I: consumer-led reform of services to persons diagnosed with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gehart, Diane R

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and substance abuse issues. By formally adopting and promoting a recovery orientation to severe mental illness, the United States followed suit with other first-world nations that have also adopted this approach based on two decades of research by the World Health Organization. This movement represents a significant paradigm shift in the treatment of severe mental health, a shift that is more closely aligned with the nonpathologizing and strength-based traditions in marriage and family therapy. Furthermore, the recovery movement is the first consumer-led movement to have a transformational effect on professional practice, thus a watershed moment for the field. Part I of this article introduces family therapists to the concept of mental health recovery, providing an overview of its history, key concepts, and practice implications. Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts.

  2. The Gateway Paper--context and configuration of the proposed health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    As an opening of a dialogue on health reforms in Pakistan, the Gateway Paper presents a viewpoint on its proposed directions making a strong case for systems reforms, which need to scope beyond the healthcare system. Positioning the reform process to strengthen Pakistan's health policy cycle, the paper articulates a roadmap for a paradigm shift to achieve health outcomes in Pakistan with major structural reorganization within the health system. The proposed reform points in the four areas namely, reforms within the health sector, overarching measures, reconfiguration of health within an inter-sectoral scope and generating evidence for reforms. Reforms within the health sector focus on developing new models of service delivery and health financing which can enable the state to leverage the private sector outreach to deliver health-related public goods on the one hand and maximize the outreach of the State's health care delivery mechanisms through mainstreaming the role of the private sector on the other, albeit with safeguards. In addition, these call for strengthening the stewardship role to regulate these arrangements. The second area of reform focuses on overarching measures; these include developing frameworks for public-private partnerships which will enable the bringing together of organizations with the mandate to offer public goods and those that could facilitate this goal through the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach; mainstreaming health into the country's social protection strategy in order to address issues of access and affordability for the poor and introducing civil service and public service reform focused on good governance, accountability, breakdown of institutional corruption which are critical to improving health outcomes. The third area of reform involves broadening health to its inter-sectoral scope, redefinition of objectives and targets within the health sector and garnering support from across the sectors to forester

  3. Health care reform and changes: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Merican, Mohd Ismail; bin Yon, Rohaizat

    2002-01-01

    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population.

  4. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  5. Leadership Dynamics Promoting Systemic Reform for Inclusive Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a multicase study of two systems of schools striving to reform service delivery systems for students with special needs. Considering these systems as institutional actors, the study examines what promotes the understanding and implementation of special education service delivery within a system of schools in a manner that…

  6. Beyond Therapy: Bringing Social Work Back to Human Services Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Wendy B.

    2001-01-01

    Explores current social work practice and human service innovations based on interviews with practitioners in Chicago, New York City, and St. Louis. Offers rationale for reorientation of social workers' helping relationship and how it can contribute to human services reform. Examines strategies and innovations that can help professionals make this…

  7. An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Carstensen, Georgia; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2015-10-24

    Over the past two decades, mental health reform in Australia has received unprecedented government attention. This study explored how five policy levers (organisation, regulation, community education, finance and payment) were used by the Australian Federal Government to implement mental health reforms. Australian Government publications, including the four mental health plans (published in 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008) were analysed according to policy levers used to drive reform across five priority areas: [1] human rights and community attitudes; [2] responding to community need; [3] service structures; [4] service quality and effectiveness; and [5] resources and service access. Policy levers were applied in varying ways; with two or three levers often concurrently used to implement a single initiative or strategy. For example, changes to service structures were achieved using various combinations of all five levers. Attempts to improve service quality and effectiveness were instead made through a single lever-regulation. The use of some levers changed over time, including a move away from prescriptive, legislative use of regulation, towards a greater focus on monitoring service standards and consumer outcomes. Patterns in the application of policy levers across the National Mental Health Strategy, as identified in this analysis, represent a novel way of conceptualising the history of mental health reform in Australia. An improved understanding of the strategic targeting and appropriate utilisation of policy levers may assist in the delivery and evaluation of evidence-based mental health reform in the future.

  8. Analysis & commentary. The foundation that health reform lays for improved payment, care coordination, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Kenneth E; Ogden, Lydia L

    2010-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act represents a major opportunity to achieve several key goals at once: improving disease prevention; reforming care delivery; and bending the cost curve of health spending while also realizing greater value for the dollars spent. Reform-based initiatives could produce major gains in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services should develop an action plan detailing how the programs that the health reform law sets into motion throughout various agencies can work synergistically. It should also detail how best practices in finance and payment, in the organization and delivery of care, and in prevention can be expanded nationally.

  9. [Patient-Proposed Health Services].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The Patient-Proposed Health Services(PPHS)was launched in April 2016. PPHS was proposed by the Council for Regulatory Reform, which was established in January 2013 under the Second Abe Administration. After discussion within the council, PPHS was published in the Japan Revitalization Strategy(2014 revised edition), which was endorsed by the Cabinet on June 24, 2014. PPHS was proposed therein as a new mechanism within the mixed billing system to apply for a combination of treatment not covered by the public health insurance with treatment covered by the insurance. Subsequently, PPHS was submitted for diet deliberations in April and May 2015 and inserted into article 63 of the health insurance act in accordance with "a law for making partial amendments to the National Health Insurance Act, etc., in order to create a sustainable medical insurance system", which was promulgated on May 29, 2015. In this paper I will review the background of the birth of PPHS and discuss its overview.

  10. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  11. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  12. Evaluating the Labour Government's English NHS health system reforms: the 2008 Darzi reforms.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour Government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase patients' choices of the place of elective hospital care and encourage competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. In June 2008, the White Paper, High quality care for all, was published. It represented the government's desire to focus the next phase of health care system reform in England as much on the quality of care as on improving its responsiveness and efficiency. The 2008 White Paper led to the commissioning of a further wave of evaluative research under the auspices of HREP, as follows: an evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of care planning for people with long-term conditions; an evaluation of the personal health budget pilots; an evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) framework; and an evaluation of cultural and behavioural change in the NHS focused on ensuring high quality care for all. This Supplement includes papers from each project. The evaluations present a mixed picture of the impact and success of the 2008 reforms. All the studies identify some limitations of the policies in the White Paper. The introduction of personal health budgets appears to have been the least problematic and, depending on assumptions, likely to be cost-effective for the sorts of patients involved in the pilot. For the rest of the changes, impacts ranged from little or none (CQUIN and care planning for people with chronic conditions) to patchy and highly variable (instilling a culture of quality in acute hospitals) in the three years following the publication of the White Paper. On the other hand, each of the studies identifies important insights relevant to modifying

  13. The German health care system and health care reform.

    PubMed

    Kamke, K

    1998-02-01

    This article presents a structured survey of the German health care and health insurance system, and analyzes major developments of current German health policy. The German statutory health insurance system has been known as a system that provides all citizens with ready access to comprehensive high quality medical care at a cost the country considered socially acceptable. However, an increasing concern for rapidly rising health care expenditure led to a number of cost-containment measures since 1977. The aim was to bring the growth of health care expenditure in line with the growth of wages and salaries of the sickness fund members. The recent health care reforms of 1989 and 1993 yielded only short-term reductions of health care expenditure, with increases in the subsequent years. 'Stability of the contribution rate' is the uppermost political objective of current health care reform initiatives. Options under discussion include reductions in the benefit package and increases of patients' co-payments. The article concludes with the possible consequences of the 1997 health care reform of which the major part became effective 1 July 1997.

  14. Let's Get Real About Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael

    2017-09-01

    In light of the ongoing debate about health care policy in the United States, including efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, it will be critically important for the academic community to engage in the dialogue. Developing a viable approach to health care reform requires an understanding of the interaction and interdependence between choice, cost, and coverage in a competitive and functional market-based system. Some institutions have implemented models that indicate the feasibility of providing high-quality, efficient patient care while working within fixed budgets. The academic community must stay engaged in these conversations because of its moral commitment to equitable access to health care for all. Academic medical centers will also have to define and protect their roles in an evolving health care delivery system in the United States.

  15. Obesity and health system reform: private vs. public responsibility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Nichols, Len M

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a particularly vexing public health challenge, since it not only underlies much disease and health spending but also largely stems from repeated personal behavioral choices. The newly enacted comprehensive health reform law contains a number of provisions to address obesity. For example, insurance companies are required to provide coverage for preventive-health services, which include obesity screening and nutritional counseling. In addition, employers will soon be able to offer premium discounts to workers who participate in wellness programs that emphasize behavioral choices. These policies presume that government intervention to reduce obesity is necessary and justified. Some people, however, argue that individuals have a compelling interest to pursue their own health and happiness as they see fit, and therefore any government intervention in these areas is an unwarranted intrusion into privacy and one's freedom to eat, drink, and exercise as much or as little as one wants. This paper clarifies the overlapping individual, employer, and social interest in each person's health generally to avoid obesity and its myriad costs in particular. The paper also explores recent evidence on the impact of government interventions on obesity through case studies on food labeling and employer-based anti-obesity interventions. Our analysis suggests a positive role for government intervention to reduce and prevent obesity. At the same time, we discuss criteria that can be used to draw lines between government, employer, and individual responsibility for health, and to derive principles that should guide and limit government interventions on obesity as health reform's various elements (e.g., exchanges, insurance market reforms) are implemented in the coming years. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: principles of productivity in food and nutrition services: applications in the 21st century health care reform era.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L

    2015-07-01

    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam

    2015-03-28

    Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage.

  18. Health sector reforms in Argentina and the performance of the health financing system.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora

    2008-10-01

    In Argentina, health sector reforms put particular emphasis on decentralization and self-management of the tax-funded health sector, and the restructuring of the social health insurance during the 1990s. Unlike other countries in the region, there was no comprehensive plan to reform and unify the sector. In order to assess the effects of the reforms on the performance of the health financing system, this study looks at impacts on the three inter-related functions of revenue collection, pooling, and purchasing/provision of health services. Data from various sources are used to illustrate the findings. It was found that the introduction of cost recovery by self-managed hospitals increased their budgets only marginally and competition among social health insurance funds did not reduce fragmentation as expected. Although reforming the Solidarity Redistribution Fund and implementing a single basic package for the insured was an important step towards equity and transparency, the extent of risk pooling is still very limited. This study also provides recommendations regarding strengthening reimbursement mechanisms for public hospitals, and regulating the private sector as approaches to improving the fairness of the health financing system and protecting people from financial hardship as a result of illness.

  19. Effectiveness of the Health Complex Model in Iranian primary health care reform: the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hassanzadeh, Roya; Zakeri, Akram; Abedi, Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background Iranian traditional primary health care (PHC) system, although proven to be successful in some areas in rural populations, suffers major pitfalls in providing PHC services in urban areas especially the slum urban areas. The new government of Iran announced a health reform movement including the health reform in PHC system of Iran. The Health Complex Model (HCM) was chosen as the preferred health reform model for this purpose. Methods This paper aims to report a detailed research protocol for the assessment of the effectiveness of the HCM in Iran. An adaptive controlled design is being used in this research. The study is planned to measure multiple endpoints at the baseline and 2 years after the intervention. The assessments will be done both in a population covered by the HCM, as intervention area, and in control populations covered by the traditional health care system as the control area. Discussion Assessing the effectiveness of the HCM, as the Iranian PHC reform initiative, could help health system policy makers for future decisions on its continuation or modification. PMID:27784996

  20. Health policy reform in China: lessons from Asia.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, M; Wu, Xun

    2009-06-01

    Declining access to health care and rapidly rising health expenditures are a matter of grave public concern in China. After decades of efforts to reduce its involvement, the Chinese government is currently in the process of reforming the sector through increase in public expenditures and expansion of health insurance. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of the reform direction in light of international experiences with similar reforms. It argues--on the basis of examination of reform experiences in Korea, Singapore and Thailand--that financing reforms without parallel measures to improve the provision system, especially how providers are paid, are unlikely to address the problems and may actually aggravate them. If the financing reforms are to succeed, it is vital for China to reform the incentives that guide the providers' behaviour.

  1. School Readiness Goal Begins with Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Currently 59 bills are awaiting Congressional action. Meanwhile, a national coalition of economists and medical specialists (the National Leadership Coalition for Health Care Reform) are circulating a sensible consensus health reform plan proposing national practice guidelines; universal health care access; and efficient cost control, delivery,…

  2. The paradoxes of national health reform during the Wilson era.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, N

    1992-01-01

    The current debate over health care reform may represent yet another opportunity to establish a national health policy. A similar level of activity occurred during the presidency of Woodrow Wilson. In many ways, the failure to enact national health reform (NHR) in the early 20th Century represents a paradigm for subsequent failed attempts to enact NHR.

  3. School Readiness Goal Begins with Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Currently 59 bills are awaiting Congressional action. Meanwhile, a national coalition of economists and medical specialists (the National Leadership Coalition for Health Care Reform) are circulating a sensible consensus health reform plan proposing national practice guidelines; universal health care access; and efficient cost control, delivery,…

  4. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  5. Primary care and reform of health systems: a framework for the analysis of Latin American experiences.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; González-Block, M A

    1992-03-01

    The article first proposes a framework within which to assess the potential of health sector reforms in Latin America for primary health care (PHC). Two dimensions are recognized: the scope of the reforms, content, and the means of participation that are put into play. This framework is then complemented through a critique of the often-sought but little-analyzed PHC reform strategies of decentralization and health sector integration. The analytical framework is next directed to the financing of health services, a chief aspect of any reform aiming toward PHC. Two facets of health service finance are first distinguished: its formal aspect as a means for economic subsistence and growth, and its substantive aspect as a means to promote the rational use of services and thus improvement of health. Once finance is understood in this microeconomic perspective, the focus shifts to the analysis of health care reforms at the macro, health policy level. The article concludes by positing that PHC is in essence a new health care paradigm, oriented by the values of universality, redistribution, integration, plurality, quality, and efficiency.

  6. Quality assurance guides health reform in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, W; Abdulrahman, M

    1996-01-01

    In November 1995, a World Bank mission went to Jordan to conduct a study of the health sector. The study recommended three strategies to reform the health sector: decentralization of Ministry of Health (MOH) management; improvement of clinical practices, quality of care, and consumer satisfaction; and adoption of treatment protocols and standards. The MOH chose quality assurance (QA) methods and quality management (QM) techniques to accomplish these reforms. The Monitoring and QA Directorate oversees QA applications within MOH. It also institutes and develops the capacity of local QA units in the 12 governorates. The QA units implement and monitor day-to-day QA activities. The QM approach encompasses quality principles: establish objectives; use a systematic approach; teach lessons learned and applicable research; use QA training to teach quality care, quality improvement, and patient satisfaction; educate health personnel about QM approaches; use assessment tools and interviews; measure the needs and expectations of local health providers and patients; ensure feedback on QA improvement projects; ensure valid and reliable data; monitor quality improvement efforts; standardize systemic data collection and outcomes; and establish and disseminate QA standards and performance improvement efforts. The Jordan QA Project has helped with the successful institutionalization of a QA system at both the central and local levels. The bylaws of the QA councils and committees require team participation in the decision-making process. Over the last two years, the M&QA Project has adopted 21 standards for nursing, maternal and child health care centers, pharmacies, and medications. The Balqa pilot project has developed 44 such protocols. Quality improvement (COUGH) studies have examined hyper-allergy, analysis of patient flow rate, redistribution of nurses, vaccine waste, and anemic pregnant women. There are a considerable number of on-going clinical and non-clinical COUGH studies

  7. Family planning and sexual health organizations: management lessons for health system reform.

    PubMed

    Ambegaokar, Maia; Lush, Louisiana

    2004-10-01

    Advocates of health system reform are calling for, among other things, decentralized, autonomous managerial and financial control, use of contracting and incentives, and a greater reliance on market mechanisms in the delivery of health services. The family planning and sexual health (FP&SH) sector already has experience of these. In this paper, we set forth three typical means of service provision within the FP&SH sector since the mid-1900s: independent not-for-profit providers, vertical government programmes and social marketing programmes. In each case, we present the context within which the service delivery mechanism evolved, the management techniques that characterize it and the lessons learned in FP&SH that are applicable to the wider debate about improving health sector management. We conclude that the FP&SH sector can provide both positive and negative lessons in the areas of autonomous management, use of incentives to providers and acceptors, balancing of centralization against decentralization, and employing private sector marketing and distribution techniques for delivering health services. This experience has not been adequately acknowledged in the debates about how to improve the quality and quantity of health services for the poor in developing countries. Health sector reform advocates and FP&SH advocates should collaborate within countries and regions to apply these management lessons. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  8. Barriers to contraceptive access after health care reform: experiences of young adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Prager, Joanna; Havard, Julia; Murphy, Danielle J; Agénor, Madina; Foster, Angel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore how Massachusetts' 2006 health insurance reforms affected access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for young adults. We conducted 11 focus group discussions across Massachusetts with 89 women and men aged 18 to 26 in 2009. Most young adults' primary interaction with the health system was for contraceptive and other SRH services, although they knew little about these services. Overall, health insurance literacy was low. Parents were primary decision makers in health insurance choices or assisted their adult children in choosing a plan. Ten percent of our sample was uninsured at the time of the discussion; a lack of knowledge about provisions in Chapter 58 rather than calculated risk analysis characterized periods of uninsurance. The dynamics of being transitionally uninsured, moving between health plans, and moving from a location defined by insurance companies as the coverage area limited consistent access to contraception. Notably, staying on parents' insurance through extended dependency, a provision unique to the post-reform context, had implications for confidentiality and access. Young adults' access to and utilization of contraceptive services in the post-reform period were challenged by unanticipated barriers related to information and privacy. The experience in Massachusetts offers instructive lessons for the implementation of national health care reform. Young adult-targeted efforts should address the challenges of health service utilization unique to this population. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Why neoliberal health reforms have failed in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews Latin American neoliberal health reforms sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank, and analyzes the impact on the region of decentralization and privatization, the two basic components of the reforms. The second part of the paper examines in some detail the Chilean and Colombian reforms, the two countries that have implemented closely the principles of the neoliberal reform. The two case studies confirm that neoliberal reforms do not improve quality of care, equity, and efficiency. In the discussion the authors identify the beneficiaries of the reforms: transnational corporations, consultant firms, and the World Bank's staff. The recognition of the beneficiaries helps to explain some of the reasons behind the Word Bank continuing pressures to implement neoliberal health reforms in spite the growing evidence of their failures.

  10. [Using the concept of universal health coverage to promote the health system reform in China].

    PubMed

    Hu, S L

    2016-11-06

    The paper is systematically explained the definition, contents of universal health coverage (UHC). Universal health coverage calls for all people to have access to quality health services they need without facing undue financial burden. The relationship between five main attributes, i.e., quality, efficiency, equity, accountability and resilience, and their 15 action plans has been explained. The nature of UHC is belonged to the State and government. The core function is commitment with equality. The whole-of-system method is used to promoting the health system reform. In China, the universal health coverage has been reached to the preliminary achievements, which include universal coverage of social medical insurance, basic medical services, basic public health services, and the provision of essential medicines. China has completed millennium development goals (MDG) and is being stepped to the sustainable development goals (SDG).

  11. Women and health reform: how national health care can enhance coverage, affordability, and access for women (examples from massachusetts).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Therese; Cohen, Laura; Hyams, Tracey; Sullivan, Katherine M; Johnson, Paula A

    2014-01-01

    Massachusetts women have the highest rates of health insurance coverage in the nation and women's access to care has improved across all demographic groups. However, important challenges persist. As national health reform implementation moves forward under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), states will likely encounter many of the same women's health challenges experienced in Massachusetts over the past 7 years. A review of the literature and data analyses comparing health care services access, utilization, and cost, and health outcomes from Massachusetts pre- and post-2006 health care reform identified two key challenges in women's continuity of coverage and affordability. These areas are crucial for state and national policymakers to consider in improving women's health as they work to implement health care reform at the state and federal levels. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-11-26

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  13. Health sector reforms in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons of the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gilson, L; Mills, A

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 10 years the poorest countries, especially in Africa, have struggled with worsening economic conditions and reduced public finance for health services. Some governments have responded in a piecemeal fashion, reacting to internal and external pressures. Others have embarked on major reforms of various aspects of their health systems. This paper reviews two specific types of strategy that have been initiated by governments: reform of financing strategies, and reform of public sector organization and procedures. Particular attention is paid to the experience of introducing user fees, community financing and decentralization since these have been some of the most popular strategies. The paper describes the nature, objectives and extent of reforms. It then presents an evaluation framework related to the criteria of efficiency and equity, and evaluates current reform experience using this framework. It concludes that assessment of the potential impact of reforms on efficiency and equity is undermined by the limited duration of many reforms and the limited nature of existing evaluations. It is clear, however, that a policy package is required rather than implementation of isolated reform strategies, and that in order to design an effective policy package, more needs to be known about the implementation and operation of reforms--particularly with respect to the influence of context, actors and processes.

  14. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mandate-Based Health Reform and the Labor Market: Evidence from the Massachusetts Reform*

    PubMed Central

    Kolstad, Jonathan T.; Kowalski, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts “mandate-based” health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of “sufficient statistics.” We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2,812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size. PMID:27037897

  16. Health care reform: prospects and progress.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, J

    1992-03-01

    No longer can the health care community and the politicians work separately as they usually did until just a generation ago. Now, with or without the frustrations involved, both groups need one another and must work together to fulfill their common goal of caring for people. The U.S. economy can no longer sustain the immense and mounting costs of health care: the system must change drastically before the end of the century or there will be revolution or a collapse of the system. For the first time, there is a strong constituency calling for health care reform. The politicians and the health care community must stop ignoring that constituency and instead work together on a health care bill to head off the coming crisis. Such a bill will exact sacrifices and compromises from all sectors, and must control costs and provide universal access to health care. The author outlines proposed bills and other activities that are now being considered, describes a bill that he has helped craft and introduce, and notes that the Bush administration has done an about-face and is now promising a health care bill. He challenges academic medicine to help produce more primary care physicians, gives examples of efforts that are fostering primary care, especially in rural areas, and explains why having more primary care physicians is vital and also a key to cost containment. He ends by again urging the health care community to participate in defining what can be done to avert the coming crisis and establish a workable and equitable health care system.

  17. The Potential Impact of Health Care Reform on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reace, Diana

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 522 colleges and universities investigated the impact of health care reform proposals. Results provide an overview of typical current medical plan design, including coverage for part- and full-time employees, and give insight into attitudes toward the idea of regional health alliances, a potentially useful reform approach. (MSE)

  18. Health care reform: initial implications for continuing education in nursing.

    PubMed

    Camin, L R

    1995-01-01

    Continuing education coordinators and interested others met statewide to consider the educational needs of nurses emerging with health care reform. It was agreed that continuing nursing education must aggressively pursue its mission and activities to lead, promote, and enhance the education of our profession on health care reform.

  19. Reforming American Indian/Alaska Native Health Care Financing: The Role of Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Chronic underfunding of American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health care by the federal government has weakened the capacity of the Indian Health Service, tribal governments, and the urban Indian health delivery system to meet the health care needs of the AIAN population. I describe the current role of Medicaid in financing health care services for American Indians/Alaska Natives and offer 3 suggestions for reforming Medicaid financing of AIAN health care: (1) apply a 100% federal matching rate to the cost of Medicaid services furnished by urban Indian health programs; (2) apply a 100% federal matching rate to the cost of Medicaid services furnished by referral to AIAN patients of hospitals or clinics operated by the Indian Health Service, tribes, tribal organizations, or urban Indian health programs; and (3) exempt AIAN Medicaid beneficiaries who receive services from such hospitals or clinics from state reductions in Medicaid eligibility and benefits. PMID:15855449

  20. Health Education: What Can It Look Like after Health Care Reform? 1993 SOPHE Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    In plans for health care reform, the role of health education in reducing risk behaviors associated with leading causes of death must be recognized. Reform offers new opportunities for prevention programs in schools, worksites, and communities. (SK)

  1. Payment reform and changes in health care in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chen; Xu, Fei; Liu, Gordon G

    2014-06-01

    This paper is intended to assess the primary effects on cost, utilization and quality of care from payment reform of capitation and open enrollment in Changde city, Hunan Province of China. Open enrollment policy was introduced to deal with possible cream skimming associated with capitation. Based on the longitudinal Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) Household Survey, this study analyses the URBMI data through a set of regression models. The original data included over five thousand inpatient admissions during the study period between 2008 and 2010. The study finds the payment reform to reduce its inpatient out-of-pocket cost by 19.7%, out-of-pocket ratio by 9.5%, and length of stay by 17.7%. However, the total inpatient cost, drug cost ratio, treatment effect, and patient satisfaction showed little difference between Fee-For-Service and capitation models. We conclude that the payment reform in Changde did not reduce overall inpatient expenditure, but it decreased the financial risk and length of stay of inpatient patients without compromising quality of care. The findings would contribute to the health care payment literatures from developing countries and open further research tracks on the ability of open enrollment to compensate for capitation drawbacks.

  2. Patients' rights to care under Clinton's Health Security Act: the structure of reform.

    PubMed

    Mariner, W K

    1994-08-01

    Like most reform proposals, President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act offers universal access to care but does not significantly alter the nature of patients' legal rights to services. The act would create a system of delegated federal regulation in which the states would act like federal administrative agencies to carry out reform. To achieve uniform, universal coverage, the act would establish a form of mandatory health insurance, with federal law controlling the minimum services to which everyone would be entitled. Because there is no constitutionally protected right to health care and no independent constitutional standard for judging what insurance benefits are appropriate, the federal government would retain considerable freedom to decide what services would and would not be covered. If specific benefits are necessary for patients, they will have to be stated in the legislation that produces reform.

  3. Patients' rights to care under Clinton's Health Security Act: the structure of reform.

    PubMed Central

    Mariner, W K

    1994-01-01

    Like most reform proposals, President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act offers universal access to care but does not significantly alter the nature of patients' legal rights to services. The act would create a system of delegated federal regulation in which the states would act like federal administrative agencies to carry out reform. To achieve uniform, universal coverage, the act would establish a form of mandatory health insurance, with federal law controlling the minimum services to which everyone would be entitled. Because there is no constitutionally protected right to health care and no independent constitutional standard for judging what insurance benefits are appropriate, the federal government would retain considerable freedom to decide what services would and would not be covered. If specific benefits are necessary for patients, they will have to be stated in the legislation that produces reform. PMID:8059899

  4. Health Reforms as Examples of Multilevel Interventions in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Mary L.; Devers, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation’s health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform. PMID:22623600

  5. Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J

    2012-05-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.

  6. Methodology of the RAND Health Reform Opinion Study.

    PubMed

    Carman, Katherine Grace; Eibner, Christine

    2015-11-30

    The Affordable Care Act has already and will continue to lead to significant changes in health insurance coverage. Understanding insurance transitions is critical to evaluating the success of the reform and to identifying opportunities for improvement. The RAND Health Reform Opinion Study uses the American Life Panel to study transitions in health insurance enrollment from 2013 through 2015. Methodology of the RAND Health Reform Opinion Study provides a description of the methodology the authors use to track health insurance choices between November 2014 and December 2015.

  7. Graduate medical education in the era of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert C; Mainiero, Martha B

    2013-09-01

    Medicare is the primary source of funding for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States. The growing deficit, a sluggish economy, and rising health care costs have focused attention on cutting spending, and GME reimbursement from Medicare is being considered among the entitlement programs for spending reduction. At the same time, health care reform will place new demands on residency training. The authors review the history of GME financing, the potential impact of GME spending cuts and health care reform on radiology training, and the new skills residents will need to practice in the era of health reform. As health care financing evolves, so must resident education.

  8. Experience of the Veterans Health Administration in Massachusetts after state health care reform.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephanie H; Burgess, James F; Clark, Jack A; Mayo-Smith, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    Starting in 2006, Massachusetts enacted a series of health insurance reforms that successfully led to 96.6% of its population being covered by 2011. As the rest of the nation undertakes similar reforms, it is unknown how the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), one of many important Federal health care programs, will be affected. Our state-level study approach assessed the effects of health reform on utilization of VHA services in Massachusetts from 2005 to 2011. Models were adjusted for state-level demographic and economic characteristics, including health insurance rates, unemployment rates, median household income, poverty rates, and percent of population 65 years and older. No statistically significant associative change was observed in Massachusetts relative to other states over this time period. The findings raise important questions about the continuing role of VHA in American health care as health insurance coverage is one of many factors that influence decisions on where to seek health care. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  10. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health care reform: preparing the psychology workforce.

    PubMed

    Rozensky, Ronald H

    2012-03-01

    This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.

  12. Consumer subjectivity and U.S. health care reform.

    PubMed

    West, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Health care consumerism is an important frame in U.S. health care policy, especially in recent media and policy discourse about federal health care reform. This article reports on qualitative fieldwork with health care users to find out how people interpret and make sense of the identity of "health care consumer." It proposes that while the term consumer is normally understood as a descriptive label for users who purchase health care and insurance services, it should actually be understood as a metaphor, carrying with it a host of associations that shape U.S. health care policy debates in particular ways. Based on interviews with 36 people, patient was the dominant term people used to describe themselves, but consumer was the second most popular. Informants interpreted the health care consumer as being informed, proactive, and having choices, but there were also "semiotic traps," or difficult-to-resolve tensions for this identity. The discourse of consumerism functions in part as code for individual responsibility, and therefore as a classed moral discourse, with implications for U.S. health care policy.

  13. Progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the United Arab Emirates: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, Erik; Robben, Paul; Blair, Iain

    2017-09-20

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government aspires to build a world class health system to improve the quality of healthcare and the health outcomes for its population. To achieve this it has implemented extensive health system reforms in the past 10 years. The nature, extent and success of these reforms has not recently been comprehensively reviewed. In this paper we review the progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the UAE. We searched relevant databases and other sources to identify published and unpublished studies and other data available between 01 January 2002 and 31 March 2016. Eligible studies were appraised and data were descriptively and narratively synthesized. Seventeen studies were included covering the following themes: the UAE health system, population health, the burden of disease, healthcare financing, healthcare workforce and the impact of reforms. Few, if any, studies prospectively set out to define and measure outcomes. A central part of the reforms has been the introduction of mandatory private health insurance, the development of the private sector and the separation of planning and regulatory responsibilities from provider functions. The review confirmed the commitment of the UAE to build a world class health system but amongst researchers and commentators opinion is divided on whether the reforms have been successful although patient satisfaction with services appears high and there are some positive indications including increasing coverage of hospital accreditation. The UAE has a rapidly growing population with a unique age and sex distribution, there have been notable successes in improving child and maternal mortality and extending life expectancy but there are high levels of chronic diseases. The relevance of the reforms for public health and their impact on the determinants of chronic diseases have been questioned. From the existing research literature it is not possible to conclude whether UAE health system reforms are

  14. [Marketing in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The gradual emergence of marketing activities in public health demonstrates an increased interest in this discipline, despite the lack of an adequate and universally recognized theoretical model. For a correct approach to marketing techniques, it is opportune to start from the health service, meant as a service rendered. This leads to the need to analyse the salient features of the services. The former is the intangibility, or rather the ex ante difficulty of making the patient understand the true nature of the performance carried out by the health care worker. Another characteristic of all the services is the extreme importance of the regulator, which means who performs the service (in our case, the health care professional). Indeed the operator is of crucial importance in health care: being one of the key issues, he becomes a part of the service itself. Each service is different because the people who deliver it are different, furthermore there are many variables that can affect the performance. Hence it arises the difficulty in measuring the services quality as well as in establishing reference standards.

  15. Primary and managed care. Ingredients for health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Bindman, A B

    1994-01-01

    The use of primary and managed care is likely to increase under proposed federal health care reform. I review the definition of primary care and primary care physicians and show that this delivery model can affect access to medical care, the cost of treatment, and the quality of services. Because the use of primary care is often greater in managed care than in fee-for-service, I compare the two insurance systems to further understand the delivery of primary care. Research suggests that primary care can help meet the goal of providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality care, but that changes in medical education and marketplace incentives will be needed to encourage students and trained physicians to enter this field. PMID:7941522

  16. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies.

  17. Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, P

    1995-01-01

    Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts. PMID:7576850

  18. Primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Curtis, P

    1995-08-01

    Recent reform in the National Health Service has moved general practice towards a more intense market and competition structure. Meanwhile in the United States of America there has been an attempt to modify the free enterprise approach to medical care towards a more socially responsive system. This discussion paper provides a family doctor's perspective of primary care and the maelstrom of health care reform in the USA. The cultural, economic and organizational issues underlying the need for reform are considered in turn, and the current situation with regard to health care provision, medical research, medical education and primary care are outlined. General practitioners in the United Kingdom would do well to pay attention to the effects of market reform occurring in general practice among their American counterparts.

  19. Where does the insurance industry stand on health reform today?

    PubMed

    Bodaken, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    With another national health care debate on the horizon, many assume that health plans will present a major source of opposition to universal coverage and other reforms. But a closer look reveals signs of change. Some plans continue their reflexive opposition to increasing government's role in health care; other plans have stepped forward to advocate meaningful reform. Experience in Massachusetts, California, Minnesota, and elsewhere suggests a clear lesson for policymakers. Sensible proposals and a genuine commitment to cooperation can not only neutralize opposition from a potentially powerful opponent, but can actually bring health plans on board to support coverage mandates, guaranteed issue, and other reforms.

  20. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  1. Health care reform and care at the behavioral health--primary care interface.

    PubMed

    Druss, Benjamin G; Mauer, Barbara J

    2010-11-01

    The historic passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010 offers the potential to address long-standing deficits in quality and integration of services at the interface between behavioral health and primary care. Many of the efforts to reform the care delivery system will come in the form of demonstration projects, which, if successful, will become models for the broader health system. This article reviews two of the programs that might have a particular impact on care on the two sides of that interface: Medicaid and Medicare patient-centered medical home demonstration projects and expansion of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration program that colocates primary care services in community mental health settings. The authors provide an overview of key supporting factors, including new financing mechanisms, quality assessment metrics, information technology infrastructure, and technical support, that will be important for ensuring that initiatives achieve their potential for improving care.

  2. 45 CFR 147.130 - Coverage of preventive health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS... insurance issuer offering group or individual health insurance coverage, must provide coverage for all of... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage of preventive health services....

  3. Massachusetts health care reform and orthopaedic trauma: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mitchel B

    2014-10-01

    Massachusetts was the first state to implement its own version of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), when it passed the Massachusetts Health Care Reform (MHR) in 2006. Similar to the ACA, its explicit purpose was universal access to health care to all residents of Massachusetts. We believe that the influence of MHR on orthopaedic trauma in Massachusetts will have implications on trauma systems across the country, given the similarities between ACA and MHR. Therefore, in this article, we discuss our experiences as Orthopaedic trauma surgeons with regard to MHR. In this regard, we reviewed the effects of the implementation of MHR on the orthopaedic trauma services at 3 of the 4 level one trauma centers in Boston, MA. Our results demonstrate a dramatic reduction in the proportion of uncompensated care at these centers in addition to the number of uninsured patients with orthopaedic trauma injuries.

  4. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2015-09-04

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action.

  5. [The context of health care reforms].

    PubMed

    Vergara, C

    2000-01-01

    In Latin America, health sector reforms have gone hand in hand with social and economic trends during the latter half of the twentieth century and have reflected the particular concept of "development" that has been in vogue at different times. Economic stagnation and increased social spending, both hallmarks of the 1960s, led to the decline of the "import substitution" development model, which had prevailed since the beginning of the century, and slowly gave way in the 1980s to the "globalization" model. From the earlier model, a transition took place toward a restructuring of production and a series of economic adjustment policies that led, ironically, to an increase in poverty in Latin America. Implementation of the new model has occurred in two phases. The first, known as the "social reform" or "first generation" phase, sprang from the notion that poverty is the sum of a number of material shortages that can be corrected through an equitable redistribution of a fixed volume of goods belonging to society. This conceptual framework, which was completely devoid of all historical linkages and separated from economic policy, led to social policies whose entire purpose was to mitigate poverty through subsidies targeting the poorest persons in the society. In the second phase of the globalization model, which arose in the 1990s and became known as the "second generation" or "postadjustment" phase, new economic rules came into play that were based primarily on international competition, efficiency in production, and openness and fairness in the capital markets. And if during the initial stage the conceptual strategy behind all social policy was to fight poverty, in the second stage the strategy became one of achieving equity, which was no longer interpreted as the even distribution of a fixed volume of capital goods, but as the sustained provision of greater and better opportunities for all. Having grown accustomed to the protectionism inherent in the earlier

  6. [Reform of health systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: situation and trends].

    PubMed

    Infante, A; de la Mata, I; López-Acuña, D

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1990s, most Latin American and Caribbean countries were beginning, or planning to begin, health sector reform processes. This paper presents the status and trends of health sector reform at the end of the 1990s. The authors relied on information in 20 health system and services profiles completed by the Pan American Health Organization between August 1998 and October 1999. The analysis, which follows a methodology that had been applied earlier, was organized on two different levels: (1) monitoring the reform processes (dynamics and content) and (2) evaluating their outcomes. In looking at the dynamics of the reform processes, the article examines the context in which they take place and the actors involved in their different phases: inception, design and negotiation, implementation, and evaluation. The description and analysis of the contents of health sector reform initiatives are organized into 12 broad thematic areas. Outcomes evaluation was only possible in the eight countries that provided enough pertinent information, and should be viewed as preliminary. Nevertheless, the article does present detailed information on the outcomes of health sector reform in terms of equity, effectiveness and quality, efficiency, sustainability, and societal participation and control. The article also discusses the potential causes and determining factors for the observed outcomes.

  7. Managing between the agendas: implementing health care reform policy in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Roslyn; Paull, Glenn; Magann, Linda; Davis, JanMaree

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess administrative and clinical manager stances on health system reform. Understanding these stances will help to identify cultural differences and competing agendas between these two key health service stakeholders and contribute to developing strategies to improve organisational performance. A qualitative methodology was used comprising in-depth open-ended interviews conducted in 2007 with 26 administrative and clinical managers who managed clinical units. This paper provides empirical insights into the ways that administrative and clinical mangers conceive of their managerial roles in relation to health care reform and performance improvement in health services. The findings suggest that developing a hybrid clinical manager culture as a means to bridge the gap between administrative and clinical manager stances on reform objectives, while possible, is not yet being realised. The research has relevance for health services that are experiencing organisational transformation. However, its location in one health service limits the generalisability of findings to other sites. Further research is needed to assess the opportunities for a hybrid culture to emerge as well as its effect. While attention is predominantly directed to clinician groups as a key stakeholder in implementing health reform policies, this paper has implications for how administrative managers also structure their roles and responsibilities to create an organisational climate conducive to change. This will include strategies to support clinical managers to make the transition from a predominantly clinical, to a clinical managerial, orientation. This paper addresses a significant problem in health service governance, namely the divide between the value stances of dual hierarchies. This problem is only now gaining prominence as a significant barrier to health reform.

  8. Health policy in the concertación era (1990-2010): Reforms the chilean way.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gutierrez, María Soledad; Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2017-06-01

    The Chilean health system has experienced important transformations in the last decades with a neoliberal turn to privatization of the health insurance and healthcare market since the Pinochet reforms of the 1980s. During 20 years of center-left political coalition governments several reforms were attempted to regulate and reform such markets. This paper analyzes regulatory policies for the private health insurance and health care delivery market, adopted during the 1990-2010 period. A framework of variation in market types developed by Gingrich is adopted as analytical perspective. The set of policies advanced in this period could be expected to shift the responsibility of access to care from individuals to the collective and give control to the State or the consumers vis a vis producers. Nevertheless, the effect of the implemented reforms has been mixed. Regulations on private health insurers were ineffective in terms of shifting power to the consumer or the state. In contrast, the healthcare delivery market showed a trend of increasing payers' and consumers' control and the set of implemented reforms partially steered the market toward collective responsibility of access by creating a submarket of guaranteed services (AUGE) with lower copayments and fully funded services. Emerging unintended consequences of the adopted policies and potential explanations are discussed. In sum, attempts to use regulation to improve the collective dimension of the Chilean health system has enabled some progress, but several challenges had persisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  10. Addiction treatment centers' progress in preparing for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Todd D

    2014-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is expected to significantly alter addiction treatment service delivery. Researchers designed the Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) for addiction treatment organizations to assess their readiness for the PPACA. Four-hundred twenty-seven organizations completed the HRRI throughout a 3-year period, using a four-point scale to rank their readiness on 13 conditions. HRRI results completed during two different time periods (between 10/1/2010-6/30/2011 and 9/1/2011-9/30/2012) were analyzed and compared. Most respondents self-assessed as being in the early stages of preparation for 9 of the 13 conditions. Survey results showed that organizations with annual budgets < $5 million (n=295) were less likely to be prepared for the PPACA than organizations with annual budgets > $5 million (n=132). The HRRI results suggest that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, is not preparing adequately for health care reform; organizations that are making preparations are making only modest gains.

  11. Ten Principles to Guide Health Reform.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Joe K

    2017-03-01

    Americans face inevitable trade-offs between health care affordability, accessibility, and innovation. Although numerous reforms have been proposed, universal principles to guide decision-making are lacking. Solving the challenges that confront us will be difficult, owing to intense partisan divisions and a dysfunctional political process. Nevertheless, we must engage in reasoned debate that respects deeply held differences of opinion regarding our individual and collective obligations to promote healthy living and ensure affordable access to health care. Otherwise, our decisions will be expressed through political processes that reflect the preferences of narrow interests rather than the general public. Our health care system can be made more efficient and equitable by incentivizing consumers and providers to utilize high-value care and avoid low-value care. To accomplish this, we must understand the determinants of consumer and provider behavior and implement policies that encourage, but do not force, optimal decision-making. Although distinguishing between low- and high-value treatments will invariably threaten established interests, we must expand our capacity to make such judgements. Throughout this process, consumers, taxpayers, and policy makers must maintain realistic expectations. Although realigning incentives to promote high-value care will improve efficiency, it is unlikely to control increasing medical expenditures because they are not primarily caused by inefficiency. Rather, rising medical expenditures are driven by medical innovation made possible by increasing incomes and expanding health insurance coverage. Failure to recognize these linkages risks adopting indiscriminate policies that will reduce spending but slow innovation and impair access to needed care.

  12. Health insurance in Mexico: achieving universal coverage through structural reform.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Frenk, Julio

    2005-01-01

    Fairness in finance is an intrinsic and challenging goal of health systems. Mexico recently devised a structural reform that responds to this challenge. Through a new system of social protection in health that will offer public insurance to all citizens, the reform is expected to reduce catastrophic and out-of-pocket spending while promoting efficiency, more equitable resource distribution, and better-quality care. This paper analyzes the reform, focusing on financial features, expected benefits, and future challenges. It also highlights aspects of relevance for other countries that are striving to formulate and implement health policies to promote universal social protection and fair financing.

  13. Health Sector Reform and Social Determinants of Health: building up theoretical and methodological interconnections to approach complex global challenges.

    PubMed

    Junior, Garibaldi Dantas Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    Health Sector Reform and Social Determinants of Health are central issues for the current international policy debate, considering the turbulent scenario and the threat of economic recession in a global scale. Although these themes have been discussed for a long time, three major issues still calls the attention of the scientific community and health policymakers. The first one is the matter of how to approach scientifically the intricate connections between them in order to understand the consequences of policies for healthcare services, once this debate will become much more tensioned in the coming years. The second one is the lack of explanatory frameworks to investigate the policies of reform strategies, simultaneously observed in a variety of countries within distinct health services, which aim to achieve multiple and contradictory goals vis-à-vis the so-called social determinants of health. The third one is the challenge that governments face in developing and sustaining equitable health services, bearing in mind the intense political dispute behind the health sector reform processes. This article discusses an all-embracing theoretical and methodological scheme to address these questions. The aim is to connect macro- and middle-range theories to examine Social Determinants and Health Sector Reform interdependent issues, with view to developing new knowledge and attaining scientific understanding upon the role of universal and equitable healthcare systems, in order to avoid deepening economic crises.

  14. Legislating Civil Service Reform: The Homeland Security Act of 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-22

    the motives behind them. Brian DeWyngaert , Assistant to the President of AFGE, saw the reforms as an attempt by the administration to weaken the...civil service system, to shift from “public administration” to “political administration.”95 DeWyngaert cites a paper, written by two former Republican...95 Brian DeWyngaert , interview by the authors, 19 January 2006. 39 associations representing civil servants.”96 DeWyngaert expresses union

  15. Legislating Civil Service Reform: The Homeland Security Act of 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-22

    DeWyngaert , Assistant to the President of AFGE, saw the reforms as an attempt by the administration to weaken the civil service system, to shift from...public administration” to “political administration.”95 DeWyngaert cites a paper, written by two former Republican personnel management officials, that...94 Senator Fred Thompson, “Congress Goes Back to Work,” Interview, PBS Online News Hour, 12 November 2002. 95 Brian DeWyngaert , interview by

  16. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  17. Effects of Medicare Payment Reform: Evidence from the Home Health Interim and Prospective Payment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj; Escarce, José J; Grabowski, David C; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Medicare continues to implement payment reforms that shift reimbursement from fee-for-service towards episode-based payment, affecting average and marginal payment. We contrast the effects of two reforms for home health agencies. The Home Health Interim Payment System in 1997 lowered both types of payment; our conceptual model predicts a decline in the likelihood of use and costs, both of which we find. The Home Health Prospective Payment System in 2000 raised average but lowered marginal payment with theoretically ambiguous effects; we find a modest increase in use and costs. We find little substantive effect of either policy on readmissions or mortality. PMID:24395018

  18. A comparison of how behavioral health organizations utilize training to prepare for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Victoria; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Barrenger, Stacey; Manuel, Jennifer; Mercado, Micaela; McKay, Mary; Marcus, Steven C

    2017-02-14

    Under the Affordable Care Act, States have obtained Medicaid waivers to overhaul their behavioral health service systems to improve quality and reduce costs. Critical to implementation of broad service delivery reforms has been the preparation of organizations responsible for service delivery. This study focused on one large-scale initiative to overhaul its service system with the goal of improving service quality and reducing costs. The study examined the participation of behavioral health organizations in technical assistance efforts and the extent to which organizational factors related to their participation. This study matched two datasets to examine the organizational characteristics and training participation for 196 behavioral health organizations. Organizational characteristics were drawn from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS). Training variables were drawn from the Clinical Technical Assistance Center's master training database. Chi-square analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the proportion of organizations that participated in training, the organizational characteristics (size, population served, service quality, infrastructure) that predicted participation in training, and for those who participated, the type (clinical or business) and intensity of training (webinar, learning collaborative, in-person) they received. Overall 142 (72. 4%) of the sample participated in training. Organizations who pursued training were more likely to be large in size (p = .02), serve children in addition to adults (p < .01), provide child evidence-based practices (p = .01), and use computerized scheduling (p = .01). Of those trained, 95% participated in webinars, 64% participated in learning collaboratives and 35% participated in in-person trainings. More organizations participated in business trainings than clinical (63.8 vs. 59

  19. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  20. Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Data Source Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994–2001. Study Design Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. Principal Findings PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9–10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. Conclusions This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their

  1. Challenges of leadership in an era of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Chapman, T W

    1993-01-01

    Health care leadership has never been more difficult than in the past decade--and the next ten years promise to be even more demanding. As a new era for health care emerges, organizational leaders will be required to manage increased levels of risk, uncertainty, and rapid change. Successful chief executives will be those who recognize and nurture intangible leadership qualities including knowledge of self, commitment to service, and depth and breadth of vision. With the continued shift away from hospital inpatient care, health care leaders will be called on to develop multipurpose delivery systems that move from a market-based to a community-based focus and deliver high quality services in a cost-effective manner. Several leadership themes will unfold in the midst of health care reform, including: exploiting change for the good of the organization and community; serving as educator, communicator, and comforter to divergent constituencies; and reestablishing a balance between short-term goals and long-term vision.

  2. Health Services and Financing of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Maureen T.; Horgan, Constance M.

    2011-01-01

    Financing, payment, and organization and management of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services are closely intertwined and together determine whether people have access to treatment, how the treatment system is designed, and the quality and cost of treatment services. Since the 1960s, changes in these arrangements have driven changes in the delivery of AOD treatment, and recent developments, including the passage of Federal parity legislation and health reform, as well as increasing use of performance contracting, promise to bring additional changes. This article outlines the current state of the AOD treatment system and highlights implications of these impending changes for access to and quality of AOD treatment services. PMID:23580023

  3. [The Japanese health system: lasting reform is impossible].

    PubMed

    Mossé, Philippe R; Takeuchi, Momoe

    2003-02-01

    This article analyses the main features of the Japanese health care system. It also analyses its recent changes facing the aging of the population, the need to improve quality of care and the necessity to contain cost. As far as the main characteristics are concerned, the accent is first put on the information asymmetry in the physician-patient relationships. Then the so-called "clinics" are described as the symbol of the coexistence of private and public health service provision. Finally, the "fee schedule" is presented as one of the main regulation tools. As for the recent reforms, it is shown that they are implemented in an incremental way. That is to say that the recent changes maintain the core of the health care system. They comfort the main value (such as equity) and the main institutions involved in the regulation process (such as the central administration or the Japanese Medical Association). They also maintain the regulation process (i.e. the continuous negotiation). As examples of such reform strategies, the article deals with the creation of a new insurance for aged people (named long term care insurance), the changes in the health seeking behavior, the division of labor between health care providers and some preparative steps for possible unification of multiple insurance. It is for example shown that the collective management of the "fee schedule" leads to an actual incentive. It pushes forward some medical practices (such as the use of high technology screening) or slow down others (such as selling drugs). But it is also a symbol of the regulation process itself. In effect, as this list is regularly revised, it gives to all the partners the opportunity to meet each other, to build a rather broad consensus and, thus, to enhance the strength of the whole system. As a result it is shown that the market logic that many western countries try to implement, through managed care techniques, do not fit the Japanese system and must be seen as inefficient.

  4. The dynamics of health care reform--learning from a complex adaptive systems theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2010-10-01

    Health services demonstrate key features of complex adaptive systems (CAS), they are dynamic and unfold in unpredictable ways, and unfolding events are often unique. To better understand the complex adaptive nature of health systems around a core attractor we propose the metaphor of the health care vortex. We also suggest that in an ideal health care system the core attractor would be personal health attainment. Health care reforms around the world offer an opportunity to analyse health system change from a complex adaptive perspective. At large health care reforms have been pursued disregarding the complex adaptive nature of the health system. The paper details some recent reforms and outlines how to understand their strategies and outcomes, and what could be learnt for future efforts, utilising CAS principles. Current health systems show the inherent properties of a CAS driven by a core attractor of disease and cost containment. We content that more meaningful health systems reform requires the delicate task of shifting the core attractor from disease and cost containment towards health attainment.

  5. Rethinking the private-public mix in health care: analysis of health reforms in Israel during the last three decades.

    PubMed

    Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2016-10-01

    To analyse the process of health care privatization using the case of Israeli health care reforms during the last three decades. We used mixed methods including quantitative analysis of trends in health expenditures in Israel and qualitative critical analysis of documents describing the main health reforms. Israel epitomizes how boundaries between the private and public sector become blurred when health care services are subject to privatization, both of finance and supply. Additionally, the continuous growth of public-private relationships in health care results in systems that lack both equity and efficiency. More than three decades of experience show that such private-public partnerships increase both inequality and inefficiency. While most discussion surrounding the private-public mix in health care focuses on financing infrastructure, in Israel, the public-private mix has become a central way of financing and delivering services, making its damaging influence more pervasive. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Online Simulation of Health Care Reform: Helping Health Educators Learn and Participate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecklin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Young and healthy undergraduates in health education were not predisposed to learn the complex sprawl of topics in a required course on U.S. Health Care. An online simulation of health care reform was used to encourage student learning about health care and participating in health care reform. Students applied their understanding of high costs,…

  7. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  8. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  9. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  10. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gotsadze, George; Chikovani, Ivdity; Goguadze, Ketevan; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2010-07-27

    Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided.

  11. Reform of health insurance in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Turek, S

    1999-06-01

    After democratic changes in 1990 and the declaration of independence in 1991, Croatia inherited an archaic system of economy, similar to all the other post-communist countries, which had especially negative effects on the health system. Health services were divided into 113 independent offices with their own local rules; they could not truly support the health care system, which gradually stagnated, both organizationally and technologically. Such an administrative system devoured 17.5% of the total funds, and primary care used only 10.3% of this. Despite the costly hospital medicine the entire system was financed with US$300 per citizen. The system was functioning only because of professionalism and enthusiasm of well-educated medical personnel. Such health policy had a negative effect on all levels of the system, with long-term consequences. The new health insurance system instituted a standard of 1,700 insureds per family medicine team, reducing hospital capacities to 3.8 beds per 1,000 citizens for acute illnesses. Computerization of the system makes possible the transparency of accounting income and expenses. In a relatively short period, in spite of the war, and in a complex, socially and ethically delicate area, Croatian Health Insurance Institute has successfully carried out the rationalization and control of spending, without lowering the level of health care or negatively influencing the vital statistics data.

  12. The Americanization of the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1995-01-01

    The core reform of the British National Health Service (NHS) was the establishment of a quasi market with a split between purchasers and providers. Health authorities and general practitioner (GP) fundholders were to be discriminating purchasers seeking more efficient and responsive services. This market orientation was embedded in a larger context of managerial, allocational, public health, and primary care changes. This paper reviews the background and dynamics of these modifications and offers an early assessment. There is evidence that the reforms have unleashed much energy, activity, and thoughtfulness about future health care, but it remains unclear whether the gains justify the increased administrative and other transaction costs and potential threats to equal access.

  13. [Regional initiative on health care reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Crocco, P; Schroeder, P; Villen, M T; Yen, E

    2000-01-01

    Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services.

  14. Health reform in Mexico: the promotion of inequality.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C

    2001-01-01

    The Mexican health reform can be understood only in the context of neoliberal structural adjustment, and it reveals some of the basic characteristics of similar reforms in the Latin American region. The strategy to transform the predominantly public health care system into a market-driven system has been a complex process with a hidden agenda to avoid political resistance. The compulsory social security system is the key sector in opening health care to private insurance companies, health maintenance organizations, and hospital enterprises mainly from abroad. Despite the government's commitment to universal coverage, equity, efficiency, and quality, the empirical data analyzed in this article do not confirm compliance with these objectives. Although an alternative health policy that gradually grants the constitutional right to health would be feasible, the new democratically elected government will continue the previous regressive health reform.

  15. New Zealand's post-2008 health system reforms: toward re-centralization of organizational arrangements.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Robin

    2012-07-01

    The election of a centre-right government in 2008 has spawned a series of ongoing reforms to the structures for governing New Zealand's health system. These mainly involve creation of a series of new national agencies designed to stimulate national coordination and centralization of some planning and service delivery functions along with performance improvements in specific areas, namely quality, information technology, service efficiency, reduction of administrative costs, and comparative-effectiveness research. This brief article provides an overview of the post-2008 reforms. It notes that, while there appears to be agreement within the health system that the reforms are moving in the right direction, the new institutional arrangements are perhaps overly complicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Competitive Health Insurance Reform Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gosar, Paul A. [R-AZ-4

    2013-02-28

    House - 04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Regulatory Reform, Commercial And Antitrust Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  18. Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines) to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme initiated a reform programme

  19. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: switching from social health insurance to NHS and back?

    PubMed

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Brigis, Girts; Quentin, Wilm

    2014-11-01

    In the 1990s, Latvia aimed at introducing Social Health Insurance (SHI) but later changed to a National Health Service (NHS) type system. The NHS is financed from general taxation, provides coverage to the entire population, and pays for a basic service package purchased from independent public and private providers. In November 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers passed a draft Healthcare Financing Law, aiming at increasing public expenditures on health by introducing Compulsory Health Insurance (CHI) and linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax. Opponents of the reform argue that linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax does not have the potential to increase public expenditures on health but that it can contribute to compromising universal coverage and access to health services of certain population groups. In view of strong opposition, it is unlikely that the law will be adopted before parliamentary elections in October 2014. Nevertheless, the discussion around the law is interesting because of three main reasons: (1) it can illustrate why the concept of SHI remains attractive - not only for Latvia but also for other countries, (2) it shows that a change from NHS to SHI does not imply major institutional reforms, and (3) it demonstrates the potential problems of introducing SHI, i.e. of linking entitlement to health services to the payment of contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Health system reform and safe abortion: a case study of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christina; Berry, Nicole S; Choijil, Semjidmaa

    2013-01-01

    Unsafe abortion serves as a marker of global inequity as it is concentrated in the developing world where the poorest and most vulnerable women live. While liberalisation of abortion law is essential to the reduction of unsafe abortion, a number of challenges exist beyond this important step. This paper investigates how popular health system reforms consonant with neoliberal agendas can challenge access to safe abortion. We use Mongolia, a country that has liberalised abortion law, yet, limited access to safe abortion, as a case study. Mongolia embraced market reforms in 1990 and subsequently reformed its health system. We document how common reforms in the areas of finance and regulation can compromise the safety of abortions as they foster challenges that include inconsistencies in service delivery that further foment health inequities, adoption of reproductive health programmes that are incompatible with the local sociocultural context, unregulated growth of the private sector and poor enforcement of standards and technical guidelines for safe abortion. We then discuss how this case study suggests the conversations that reproductive health policy-makers must have with those engineering health sector reform to ensure access to safe abortion in a liberalised environment.

  1. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  2. The Impact of Health Insurance Reform on Insurance Instability

    PubMed Central

    Freund, KM; Isabelle, AP; Hanchate, A; Kalish, RL; Kapoor, A; Bak, S; Mishuris, RG; Shroff, S; Battaglia, TA

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform on insurance coverage and stability among minority and underserved women. We examined 36 months of insurance claims among 1,946 women who had abnormal cancer screening at six Community Health Centers pre-(2004–2005) and post-(2007–2008) insurance reform. We examined frequency of switches in insurance coverage as measures of longitudinal insurance instability. On the date of their abnormal cancer screening test, 36% of subjects were publicly insured and 31% were uninsured. Post-reform, the percent ever uninsured declined from 39% to 29% (p.001) and those consistently uninsured declined from 23% to 16%. To assess if insurance instability changed between the pre- and post-reform periods, we conducted Poisson regression models, adjusted for patient demographics and length of time in care. These revealed no significant differences from the pre- to post-reform period in annual rates of insurance switches, incident rate ratio 0.98 (95%-CI 0.88–1.09). Our analysis is limited by changes in the populations in the pre and post reform period and inability to capture care outside of the health system network. Insurance reform increased stability as measured by decreasing uninsured rates without increasing insurance switches. PMID:24583490

  3. Implementing insurance market reforms under the federal health reform law.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Len M

    2010-06-01

    Lost in the rhetoric about the supposed government takeover of health care is an appreciation of the inherently federalist approach of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This federalist tradition, particularly with regard to health insurance, has a history that dates back at least to the 1940s. The new legislation broadens federal power and oversight considerably, but it also vests considerable new powers and responsibilities in the states. The precedents and examples it follows will guide federal and state policy makers, stakeholders, and ordinary citizens as they breathe life into the new law. The challenges ahead are formidable, and the greatest ones are likely to be political.

  4. Primary care is at the heart of health reform in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Schoenbaum, Mark; Van Cleave, Edward

    2013-02-01

    Both the United States and Minnesota are facing an impending shortage of primary care physicians and other providers just as the population is aging and needing their services more than ever. At the same time, policy makers are heralding primary care as essential to health care reform. This article explains why primary care is the focus of so much attention. It also summarizes the work of the Governor's Health Care Reform Task Force and reports its recommendations for increasing access to primary care in Minnesota.

  5. The reorientation of market-oriented reforms in Swedish health-care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M I; Calltorp, J

    2000-01-01

    Sweden was an important pioneer of market-oriented reform in publicly funded health-care systems. Yet by the mid-1990s the county councils, which fund and manage most health-care, had substantially scaled back reforms based on provider competition while continuing to constrain health budgets. As policy makers faced new issues, they turned increasingly to longer-term and more cooperative contracts to define relations between hospitals and the county councils. Growing regionalization of government and hospital mergers further reconfigured acute care and limited opportunities for competition between hospitals. We seek to explain this reorientation of market-oriented reforms between 1989 and 1996 in terms of shifts in the positions taken by powerful policy actors, and in particular by county council politicians. During this period, elections moved liberal and conservative politicians, who were the most enthusiastic supporters of market-oriented reform, in and out of control of most county governments. Meanwhile many Social Democratic politicians gradually turned from initial support of competitive reform toward opposition. Politicians and county administrators from all parties were particularly concerned about controlling health expenditures during a period of recession. In addition, the public, politicians in the counties and municipalities, and health professionals resisted steps that threatened health sector employment and would have allowed market mechanisms, rather than governments, to determine the prices and distribution of health services. During the years under study Sweden's market-oriented reforms followed a course of development similar to that taken by other management and policy fashions (Abrahamson E. Management fashion, Academy of Management Review 1996;21: 254-85). At first the reforms enjoyed uncritical support by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gradually participants in the reform process recognized inherent tensions among the goals of the reform

  6. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  7. Why health reform will bend the cost curve.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Davis, Karen; Stremikis, Kristoff

    2009-12-01

    The health reform bills passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and under consideration in the Senate introduce a range of payment and delivery system changes designed to achieve a significant slowing of health care cost growth. Most assessments of health reform legislation have focused only on the federal budgetary impact. This study projects the effect of national reform on total national health expenditures and the insurance premiums that American families would likely pay. We estimate that the combination of provisions in the House and Senate bills would save $683 billion or more in national health spending over the 10-year period 2010-2019 and lower premiums by nearly $2,000 per family. Moreover, the annual growth rate in national health expenditures could be slowed from 6.4 percent to 6.0 percent

  8. Successful Integration of Pediatrics Into State Health Care Reform Efforts.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Judith S; Varni, Susan E; Tolmie, Elizabeth Cheng; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Harder, Valerie S

    2017-09-12

    Health care reform in Vermont promotes patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) and multi-disciplinary community health teams to support population health. This qualitative study describes the expansion of Vermont's health care reform efforts, initially focused on adult primary care, to pediatrics through interviews with project managers and facilitators, CHT members, pediatric practitioners and care coordinators, and community-based providers. Analyses used grounded theory, identifying themes confirmed by repeat occurrence across respondents. Respondents believed that PCMH recognition and financial and community supports would improve care for pediatric patients and families. Respondents shared three main challenges with health care reform efforts: achieving PCMH recognition, adapting community health teams for pediatric patients and families, and defining roles for care coordinators. For health care reform efforts to support pediatric patients and be family-centered, states may need additional resources to understand how pediatric and adult primary care differ and how best to support pediatrics during health care reform efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 29 CFR 1425.3 - Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act. 1425.3 Section 1425.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.3 Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform...

  10. Health Care Reform: How Will It Impact You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the impact of health care reform on child-care centers and child-care employees. Topics covered include requirements to provide health insurance for all employees; subsidies for businesses with fewer than 50 employees; subsidies for low income employees; family coverage; health are costs for 2 working parents; and costs to day-care…

  11. Did Massachusetts Health Reform Affect Veterans Affairs Primary Care Use?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Hebert, Paul L; Batten, Adam; Nelson, Karin M; Fihn, Stephan D; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2016-09-20

    Massachusetts Health Reform (MHR), implemented in 2006, introduced new health insurance options that may have prompted some veterans already enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) to reduce their reliance on VA health services. This study examined whether MHR was associated with changes in VA primary care (PC) use. Using VA administrative data, we identified 147,836 veterans residing in Massachusetts and neighboring New England (NE) states from October 2004 to September 2008. We applied difference-in-difference methods to compare pre-post changes in PC use among Massachusetts and other NE veterans. Among veterans not enrolled in Medicare, VA PC use was not significantly different following MHR for Massachusetts veterans relative to other NE veterans. Among VA-Medicare dual enrollees, MHR was associated with an increase of 24.5 PC visits per 1,000 veterans per quarter (p = .048). Despite new non-VA health options through MHR, VA enrollees continued to rely on VA PC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Health Inequity and "Restoring Fairness" Through the Canadian Refugee Health Policy Reforms: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Antonipillai, Valentina; Baumann, Andrea; Hunter, Andrea; Wahoush, Olive; O'Shea, Timothy

    2016-09-02

    Refugees and refugee claimants experience increased health needs upon arrival in Canada. The Federal Government funded the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) since 1957, ensuring comprehensive healthcare insurance for all refugees and refugee claimants seeking protection in Canada. Over the past 4 years, the Canadian government implemented restrictions to essential healthcare services through retrenchments to the IFHP. This paper will review the IFHP, in conjunction with other immigration policies, to explore the issues associated with providing inequitable access to healthcare for refugee populations. It will examine changes made to the IFHP in 2012 and in response to the federal court decision in 2014. Findings of the review indicate that the retrenchments to the 2012 IFHP instigated health outcome disparities, social exclusion and increased costs for vulnerable refugee populations. The 2014 reforms reinstated some services; however the policy continued to produce inequitable healthcare access for some refugees and refugee claimants.

  13. Human services, professionals and the paradox of institutional reform.

    PubMed

    Lenrow, P; Cowden, P

    1980-08-01

    The inadequacies and injustices of human services and their resistance to reform are generally attributed to the vested interests of the professions and bureaucracies that control them. We look beyond these factors to the beliefs that underly them. We argue that the dominance of professionals and bureaucratic organization in human services is perpetuated by the belief that the social problems of mass society can be solved best by science in the form of professional expertise and by "scientific management" in the form of bureaucratic organization of services. This uncritical belief in science perpetuates a system that victimizes both professionals and laypersons. We suggest how this situation can be changed and what social policies would be necessary in order to foster such change.

  14. Universalizing health services in India: the techno-managerial fix.

    PubMed

    Nayar, K R

    2013-01-01

    The non-universal nature of health services in India can also be the result of many reforms and milestones the health services had passed through since independence. The reform era during the post-nineties is replete with many new trends in organizational strategies which could have led to crises in health services. The salient crises need to be dissected from a larger societal crisis and the specific crises in the health services system. It is evident that non-accessibility and non-availability and the sub-optimal functioning of the primary health centers are perennial issues which could not be addressed by indigenous, imposed or cocktail reforms (such as National Rural Health Mission) and by targeting as these only tinker with the health services. Needless to reiterate that there is a need to address the social dimensions which fall outside the technical sphere of health services. This paper based on an analytical review of relevant literature concludes that any efforts to universalize health and health-care can not only focus on technical components but need to address the larger social determinants and especially the societal crisis, which engender ill-health.

  15. Youth services: the need to integrate mental health, physical health and social care: Commentary on Malla et al.: From early intervention in psychosis to youth mental health reform: a review of the evolution and transformation of mental health services for young people.

    PubMed

    Yung, Alison R

    2016-03-01

    Mental distress and mental health disorders are common in young people. Indeed, over 75 % of mental disorders begin before the age of 25 years. Long delays in seeking help for illnesses are common, initial intervention is often ineffective and young people are at risk of disengaging with treatment, particularly when they are expected to move from child and adolescent treating teams to adult services. All of these factors mean that young people are vulnerable to prolonged mental ill-health and its consequences, including educational failure, unemployment, social disengagement and deprivation, and development of further mental health problems including substance misuse. Malla et al. present different service models that attempt to address these issues. Additionally, there needs to be a focus on physical health and social care as these are intertwined with mental health.

  16. Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada.

  17. Final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission: will we get the health care governance reform we need?

    PubMed

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2009-10-05

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges.

  18. Improving Mental Health Service Utilization for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Clarke, Angela T.; Mazzuca, Laurie B.; Krain, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children and adolescents have mental health problems necessitating intervention, but well below 50% of these children receive needed services, and far fewer receive the quality of care required to effectively reduce their impairments. Although system reform is needed to improve service utilization and quality of care for all…

  19. [Assessing the impact of health sector reform in Costa Rica through a quasi-experimental study].

    PubMed

    Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2004-02-01

    that the reform was associated with an overall 8% reduction in deaths among children and with a 2% reduction in deaths among adults, both statistically significant. Also noted were a 14% reduction in deaths from communicable diseases or from conditions brought on by the presence of infectious processes, a 0% reduction in deaths from socially-determined causes, and a 2% reduction in deaths from chronic diseases. An estimated 120 child lives and 350 adult lives were saved by the reform in 2001 alone. Also, the percentage of people without equitable access to primary health services dropped by 15% between 1994 and 2000 in areas where health sector reform was implemented in 1995-1996, whereas areas that had not yet initiated health sector reform in 2000 experienced only a 3% reduction. Health sector reform significantly reduced mortality in Costa Rica and put an end to a decade of stagnation, as shown by certain health indicators, such as life expectancy. Equity in access to primary care improved considerably, perhaps because the first reforms were implemented in less developed areas of the country.

  20. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

  1. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

  2. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  3. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  4. The Implementation of the Full Service School Reform Model and Its Impact on Middle School Climate and Student Achievement: An Investigative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    The Full Service Schools (FSS) reform model is an inter-agency collaboration between the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), Choices, Inc., Insights Education Group and the DC Department of Mental Health. This comprehensive school reform model is based in the Response to Intervention paradigm and is designed to mitigate student academic…

  5. The Implementation of the Full Service School Reform Model and Its Impact on Middle School Climate and Student Achievement: An Investigative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    The Full Service Schools (FSS) reform model is an inter-agency collaboration between the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), Choices, Inc., Insights Education Group and the DC Department of Mental Health. This comprehensive school reform model is based in the Response to Intervention paradigm and is designed to mitigate student academic…

  6. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms.

  7. Health Education Careers in a Post-Health Reform Era.

    PubMed

    Auld, M Elaine

    2017-09-01

    Since enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010, health education specialists (HES) have made important contributions in implementing the law's provisions at the individual, family, and population levels. Using their health education competencies and subcompetencies, HES are improving public understanding of health insurance literacy and enrollment options, conducting community health needs assessments required of nonprofit hospitals, modifying policies or systems to improve access to health screenings and preventive health services, strengthening clinical and community linkages, and working with employee benefit plans. In addition to educating stakeholders about their complementary training and roles with respect to clinical providers, HES must keep abreast of rapid changes catalyzed by the Affordable Care Act in terms of health standards, payment models, government regulations, statistics, and business practices. For continued career growth, HES must continually acquire new knowledge and skills, access and analyze data, and develop interprofessional partnerships that meet the evolving needs of employers as the nation pursues health for all.

  8. Comprehensive reform to improve health system performance in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Lezana, Miguel A; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2006-10-28

    Despite having achieved an average life expectancy of 75 years, much the same as that of more developed countries, Mexico entered the 21st century with a health system marred by its failure to offer financial protection in health to more than half of its citizens; this was both a result and a cause of the social inequalities that have marked the development process in Mexico. Several structural limitations have hampered performance and limited the progress of the health system. Conscious that the lack of financial protection was the major bottleneck, Mexico has embarked on a structural reform to improve health system performance by establishing the System of Social Protection in Health (SSPH), which has introduced new financial rules and incentives. The main innovation of the reform has been the Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance), the insurance-based component of the SSPH, aimed at funding health care for all those families, most of them poor, who had been previously excluded from social health insurance. The reform has allowed for a substantial increase in public investment in health while realigning incentives towards better technical and interpersonal quality. This paper describes the main features and initial results of the Mexican reform effort, and derives lessons for other countries considering health-system transformations under similarly challenging circumstances.

  9. [Comprehensive reform to improve health system performance in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Lezana, Miguel Angel; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2007-01-01

    Despite having achieved an average life expectancy of 75 years, much the same as that of more developed countries, Mexico entered the 21st century with a health system mared by its failure to offer financial protection in health to more than half of its citizens; this was both a result and a cause of the social inequalities that have marked the development process in Mexico. Several structural limitations have hampered performance and limited the progress of the health system. Conscious that the lack of financial protection was the major bottleneck, Mexico has embarked on a structural reform to improve health system performance by establishing the System of Social Protection in Health (SSPH), which has introduced new financial rules and incentives. The main innovation of the reform has been the Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance), the insurance-based component of the SSPH, aimed at funding health care for all those families, most of them poor, who had been previously excluded from social health insurance. The reform has allowed for a substantial increase in public investment in health while realigning incentives towards better technical and interpersonal quality. This paper describes the main features and initial results of the Mexican reform effort, and derives lessons for other countries considering health-system transformations under similarly challenging circumstances.

  10. Population access to hospital emergency departments and the impacts of health reform in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Brabyn, Lars; Beere, Paul

    2006-09-01

    In the current political climate of evidence-based research, GIS has emerged as a powerful research tool as it allows spatial and social health inequality to be explored efficiently. This article explores the impact health reforms had on geographical accessibility to hospital emergency department (ED) services in New Zealand from 1991 to 2001. Travel time was calculated using least-cost path analysis, which identified the shortest travel time from each census enumeration district through a road network to the nearest ED. This research found that the population further than 60 minutes from an ED has increased with some areas being affected more than others. Some of this increase is attributed to increases in population rather than the closing of hospitals. The findings will be discussed within the context of the health policy reform era and changes to health service provision.

  11. Bigger is not always better: what the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission report means for general practice.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Michael R

    2009-10-19

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission report has a focus on building on "the vital role of general practice", to strengthen primary health care as the "cornerstone of our future health system". The report proposes Comprehensive Primary Health Care Centres and Services that will deliver "one-stop" primary health care; but in health care, bigger is not always better. The biggest challenge for the reform process may well be bringing together the different cultures of the largely private primary health care services, funded by the federal government, and the public, primary and community health services, funded by the states and territories. The report pays little real attention to the reforms needed to address the social determinants of health. There is a clear need for action now on the report's most urgent recommendations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, mental health, dental health and services for rural and remote communities. Diversity is a great strength of Australian general practice, and we must not lose it in the rush to reform.

  12. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  13. Implications for health services.

    PubMed Central

    Grimley Evans, J

    1997-01-01

    Health services for older people in the NHS have developed pragmatically, and reflect the nature of disease in later life and the need to agree objectives of care with patients. Although services are likely to be able to cope with the immediate future, the growth of the elderly population anticipated from 2030 calls for long-term planning and research. The issue of funding requires immediate political thought and action. Scientifically the focus needs to be on maximizing the efficiency of services by health services research and reducing the incidence of disability in later life through research on its biological and social determinants. Senescence is a progressive loss of adaptability due to an interaction between intrinsic (genetic) processes with extrinsic factors in environment and lifestyle. There are grounds for postulating that a policy of postponement of the onset of disability, by modifications of lifestyle and environment, could reduce the average duration of disability before death. The new political structures of Europe offer under exploited-unexploited opportunities for the necessary research. PMID:9460074

  14. Health-care reforms in the People's Republic of China--strategies and social implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, V C; Chiu, S W

    1998-01-01

    Analyses the features, strategies and characteristics of health-care reforms in the People's Republic of China. Since the 14th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party held in 1992, an emphasis has been placed on reform strategies such as cost recovery, profit making, diversification of services, and development of alternative financing strategies in respect of health-care services provided in the public sector. Argues that the reform strategies employed have created new problems before solving the old ones. Inflation of medical cost has been elevated very rapidly. The de-linkage of state finance bureau and health service providers has also contributed to the transfer of tension from the state to the enterprises. There is no sign that quasi-public health-care insurance is able to resolve these problems. Finally, cooperative medicine in the rural areas has been largely dismantled, though this direction is going against the will of the state. Argues that a new balance of responsibility has to be developed as a top social priority between the state, enterprises and service users in China in order to meet the health-care needs of the people.

  15. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.

  16. Beyond Incrementalism? SCHIP and the politics of health reform.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan B; Lyons, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    When Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, it was heralded as a model of bipartisan, incremental health policy. However, despite the program's achievements in the ensuing decade, SCHIP's reauthorization triggered political conflict, and efforts to expand the program stalemated in 2007. The 2008 elections broke that stalemate, and in 2009 the new Congress passed, and President Barack Obama signed, legislation reauthorizing SCHIP. Now that attention is turning to comprehensive health reform, what lessons can reformers learn from SCHIP's political adventures?

  17. Early appraisal of China's huge and complex health-care reforms.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie Chi-Man; Hsiao, William C; Chen, Wen; Hu, Shanlian; Ma, Jin; Maynard, Alan

    2012-03-03

    China's 3 year, CN¥850 billion (US$125 billion) reform plan, launched in 2009, marked the first phase towards achieving comprehensive universal health coverage by 2020. The government's undertaking of systemic reform and its affirmation of its role in financing health care together with priorities for prevention, primary care, and redistribution of finance and human resources to poor regions are positive developments. Accomplishing nearly universal insurance coverage in such a short time is commendable. However, transformation of money and insurance coverage into cost-effective services is difficult when delivery of health care is hindered by waste, inefficiencies, poor quality of services, and scarcity and maldistribution of the qualified workforce. China must reform its incentive structures for providers, improve governance of public hospitals, and institute a stronger regulatory system, but these changes have been slowed by opposition from stakeholders and lack of implementation capacity. The pace of reform should be moderated to allow service providers to develop absorptive capacity. Independent, outcome-based monitoring and evaluation by a third-party are essential for mid-course correction of the plans and to make officials and providers accountable.

  18. A DID analysis of the impact of health insurance reform in the city of Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiale

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the 2003 reform of the health insurance system (in particular, the reduction in the co-payment amount) on the consumption of inpatient medical services in the city of Hangzhou using a differences-in-difference (DID) empirical strategy. The results confirm that private-sector employees (PSEs) (who were much more directly affected by the 2003 reform) were much more responsive to the reform than government employees. The growth rate of overall inpatient expenditures of PSEs (including retirees) increased by 26.4 percentage points more than that of government employees, which implies a relatively high (in absolute magnitude) price elasticity of demand for inpatient care of -1.10. Moreover, the growth rate of overall inpatient expenditures of currently employed PSEs increased by 37 percentage points more than that of government employees. Thus, the reform was effective in increasing PSEs' consumption of inpatient medical services, thereby reducing inter-occupational inequities. However, a gap still exists between government employees and PSEs in their consumption of inpatient medical services, and thus further reforms of the system (for example, further reductions in inter-occupational inequities) are needed.

  19. Primary Care Reform and Service Use by People with Serious Mental Illness in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Leah S.; Durbin, Anna; Lin, Elizabeth; Charles Victor, J.; Klein-Geltink, Julie; Glazier, Richard H.; Zagorski, Brandon; Kopp, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine service use by adults with serious mental illness (SMI) rostered in new primary care models: enhanced fee-for-service (FFS), blended-capitation (CAP) and team-based capitation (TBC) models with and without mental health workers (MHW) in Ontario. Methods: This cross-sectional study used administrative health service databases to compare use of mental health and general health services among persons with SMI enrolled in new models (n = 125,233). Results: Relative to persons rostered in enhanced FFS, those in CAP and TBC had fewer mental health primary care visits (adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence limits: CAP: 0.77 [0.74, 0.81]; TBC with MHW: 0.72 [0.68, 0.76]; TBC with no MHW: 0.81 [0.72, 0.93]). Compared to patients in enhanced FFS, those in TBC models also had more mental health hospital admissions (TBC with MHW: 1.12 [1.05, 1.20]; TBC with no MHW: 1.22 [1.05, 1.41]). Patterns of use of general services were similar. Conclusion: Further attention to financial incentives in capitation that influence care of persons with SMI is necessary to determine if they are aligned with aims of primary care reform. PMID:25410694

  20. Promoting Children's Mental Health: Reform through Interdisciplinary and Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Reforms that have been undertaken in the mental health system have significant implications for psychologists working in and with schools. This article introduces the special series in "School Psychology Review" on "Emerging models for promoting children's mental health: Linking systems for prevention and intervention." This article describes…

  1. Observers see Clinton moving quickly on health care reform.

    PubMed

    Hagland, M; Hudson, T; Lumsdon, K

    1992-11-20

    The 1992 presidential election was about a lot of things, from the economy to taxes to education. Health care reform played a major role in the public policy debate, and the different approaches taken by the candidates on that issue helped define them. A look at the result and what it may mean for the health care field.

  2. Benefits for Infants and Toddlers in Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Routine health care can spell the difference between a strong beginning and a fragile start. After much public and Congressional debate, President Obama signed into law landmark health care reform legislation. Although many provisions will not go into effect this year, several important changes could benefit children within a few months. The…

  3. Health Care Reform: Designing the Standard Benefits Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Frank B.

    1994-01-01

    Considerations in designing a standard health care benefits package as a part of national health care reform are discussed. Specific features examined include deductibles, employer contributions, regional variations, cost management techniques such as managed care and higher copayments, annual out-of-pocket maximums, and lifetime benefit maximums.…

  4. Creating an innovative youth mental health service in the United Kingdom: The Norfolk Youth Service.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David

    2017-08-04

    Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  6. Market-oriented, demand-driven health care reforms and equity in health and health care utilization in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2009-01-01

    In international comparisons, the Swedish health care system has been seen to perform well. In recent years, market-oriented, demand-driven health care reforms aimed at free choice of provider by patients and free establishment of doctors are increasingly promoted in Sweden. The stated objective is to improve access and efficiency in health services and to provide more and/or better services for the money. Swedish health policy aims to provide equal access to care, based on equal need. However, the social and economic gradient in disease and ill health does not translate into the same social and economic gradient in demand for health services. A market-oriented, demand-driven health care system runs the risk of defeating the health policy aims and of further increasing gaps between social groups in access and utilization of health care services, to the detriment of those with greater needs, unless it is coupled with need-based allocation of resources and empowerment of these groups.

  7. Stepwise expansion of evidence-based care is needed for mental health reform.

    PubMed

    McGorry, Patrick D; Hamilton, Matthew P

    2016-05-16

    Mortality from mental illnesses is increasing and, because they frequently occur early in the life cycle, they are the largest source of disability and reduced economic productivity of all non-communicable diseases. Successful mental health reform can reduce the mortality, morbidity, growing welfare costs and losses in economic productivity caused by mental illness. The government has largely adopted the recommendations of the National Mental Health Commission focusing on early intervention and stepwise care and will implement a reform plan that involves devolving commissioning of federally funded mental health services to primary health networks, along with a greater emphasis on e-mental health. Stepwise expanded investment in and structural support (data collection, evaluation, model fidelity, workforce training) for evidence-based care that rectifies high levels of undertreatment are essential for these reforms to succeed. However, the reforms are currently constrained by a cost-containment policy framework that envisages no additional funding. The early intervention reform aim requires financing for the next stage of development of Australia's youth mental health system, rather than redirecting funds from existing evidence-based programs. People with complex, enduring mental disorders need more comprehensive care. In the context of the National Disability Insurance Scheme, there is a risk that these already seriously underserved patients may paradoxically receive a reduction in coverage. E-health has a key role to play at all stages of illness but must be integrated in a complementary way, rather than as a barrier to access. Research and evaluation are the keys to cost-effective, sustainable reform.

  8. Economic crisis and counter-reform of universal health care systems: Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Louvison, Marília Cristina Prado

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis that has been affecting Europe in the 21st century has modified social protection systems in the countries that adopted, in the 20th century, universal health care system models, such as Spain. This communication presents some recent transformations, which were caused by changes in Spanish law. Those changes relate to the access to health care services, mainly in regards to the provision of care to foreigners, to financial contribution from users for health care services, and to pharmaceutical assistance. In crisis situations, reforms are observed to follow a trend which restricts rights and deepens social inequalities.

  9. Economic crisis and counter-reform of universal health care systems: Spanish case

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Louvison, Marília Cristina Prado

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis that has been affecting Europe in the 21st century has modified social protection systems in the countries that adopted, in the 20th century, universal health care system models, such as Spain. This communication presents some recent transformations, which were caused by changes in Spanish law. Those changes relate to the access to health care services, mainly in regards to the provision of care to foreigners, to financial contribution from users for health care services, and to pharmaceutical assistance. In crisis situations, reforms are observed to follow a trend which restricts rights and deepens social inequalities. PMID:26083942

  10. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  11. Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card.

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Hector; Murray, Christopher J L

    2006-11-25

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over 7 years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, we used a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affiliates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  12. [Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card].

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Héctor; Murray, Christopher J L

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over seven years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system was used. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affilates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  13. How do we actually put smarter snacks in schools? NOURISH (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student Health) conversations with food-service directors.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay E; Cohen, Juliana Fw; Gorski, Mary T; Lessing, Andrés J; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2017-02-01

    In autumn 2012, Massachusetts schools implemented comprehensive competitive food and beverage standards similar to the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards. We explored major themes raised by food-service directors (FSD) regarding their school-district-wide implementation of the standards. For this qualitative study, part of a larger mixed-methods study, compliance was measured via direct observation of foods and beverages during school site visits in spring 2013 and 2014, calculated to ascertain the percentage of compliant products available to students. Semi-structured interviews with school FSD conducted in each year were analysed for major implementation themes; those raised by more than two-thirds of participating school districts were explored in relationship to compliance. Massachusetts school districts (2013: n 26; 2014: n 21). Data collected from FSD. Seven major themes were raised by more than two-thirds of participating school districts (range 69-100 %): taking measures for successful transition; communicating with vendors/manufacturers; using tools to identify compliant foods and beverages; receiving support from leadership; grappling with issues not covered by the law; anticipating changes in sales of competitive foods and beverages; and anticipating changes in sales of school meals. Each theme was mentioned by the majority of more-compliant school districts (65-81 %), with themes being raised more frequently after the second year of implementation (range increase 4-14 %). FSD in more-compliant districts were more likely to talk about themes than those in less-compliant districts. Identified themes suggest best-practice recommendations likely useful for school districts implementing the final Smart Snacks in School standards, effective July 2016.

  14. Costs and coverage. Pressures toward health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P R; Soffel, D; Luft, H S

    1992-01-01

    Signs of discontent with the health care system are growing. Calls for health care reform are largely motivated by the continued increase in health care costs and the large number of people without adequate health insurance. For the past 20 years, health care spending has risen at rates higher than the gross national product. As many as 35 million people are without health insurance. As proposals for health care reform are developed, it is useful to understand the roots of the cost problem. Causes of spiraling health care costs include "market failure" in the health care market, expansion in technology, excessive administrative costs, unnecessary care and defensive medicine, increased patient complexity, excess capacity within the health care system, and low productivity. Attempts to control costs, by the federal government for the Medicare program and then by the private sector, have to date been mostly unsuccessful. New proposals for health care reform are proliferating, and important changes in the health care system are likely. PMID:1441510

  15. Experiences and Lessons from Urban Health Insurance Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haichang

    2016-08-01

    Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297).

  16. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  17. Strategic service quality management for health care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E A; Zwelling, L A

    1996-01-01

    Quality management has become one of the most important and most debated topics within the service sector. This is especially true for health care, as the controversy rages on how the existing American system should be restructured. Health care reform aimed at reducing costs and ensuring access to all Americans cannot be allowed to jeopardize the quality of care. As such, total quality management (TQM) has become a vital ingredient to strategic planning within the health care domain. At the heart of any such quality improvement effort is the issue of measurement. TQM cannot be effectively utilized as a competitive weapon unless quality can be accurately defined, measured, evaluated, and monitored over time. Through such analysis a hospital can elect how to expend its limited resources toward those quality improvement projects which will impact customer perceptions of service quality the most. Thus, the purpose of this report is to establish a framework by which to approach the issue of quality measurement, delineate the various components of quality that exist in health care, and explore how these elements affect one another. We propose that the issue of quality measurement in health care be approached as an integration of service quality attributes common to other service organizations and technical quality attributes unique to health care. We hope that this research will serve as a first step toward the synthesis of the various quality attributes inherent in the health care domain and encourage other researchers to address the interactions of the various quality attributes.

  18. Diffusion of complex health innovations--implementation of primary health care reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat A; Kyratsis, Ioannis; Jelic, Gordan; Rados-Malicbegovic, Drazenka; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek

    2007-01-01

    H, policies or the innovation are not simply disseminated, but rather assimilated into the health system. The assimilation and implementation of the new PHC model relied on the consensus of a diverse group of adopters; the changes brought by the reforms were aligned with the expectations of the adopters: this created a 'receptive context' for adoption and diffusion of the innovation. The new family-medicine-centred PHC service model had a major impact on professional identity, inter-professional relationships and organizational routines. The post-conflict context was perceived as an opportunity to introduce the new model and implement transformational change, while the complex government structure meant the process of diffusion was as important as the innovation itself. In BiH, a holistic approach-comprising multifaceted and simultaneous interventions at multiple levels of the health system-reduced 'policy resistance' and enhanced the adoption and diffusion of the PHC reforms.

  19. New Zealand's mental health legislation needs reform to avoid discrimination.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; O'Brien, Anthony

    2014-09-26

    New Zealand's Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act (the Act) is now over 20 years old. As has occurred historically our conceptualisation of humane treatment of people with mental illness has altered significantly over the period in which the Act has been in force. The emergence of the philosophy of recovery, and its subsequent policy endorsement, has seen a significant shift in mental health service delivery towards a greater emphasis on autonomy. Human rights developments such as New Zealand's ratification of the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have resulted in compulsory treatment, where it is justified in whole or part by a person's mental illness, now being considered antithetical to best practice, and discriminatory. However the number of people subject to the Act is increasing, especially in community settings, and it is questionable how effective the mechanisms for challenging compulsion are in practice. Moreover, monitoring of the situation at the systemic level lacks critical analysis. Complacency, including no indication that review and reform of this now antiquated legislation is nigh, continues a pattern of old where the situation of people with experience of mental illness is largely ignored and neglected.

  20. Health Occupations Education. Health Services Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four units on health service careers are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are organized into four sections as follow: Section A--Orientation (health careers, career success, Health Occupations Students of America); Section B--Health and First Aid (personal health, community health, and first aid); Section C--Body Structure and…

  1. Health Occupations Education. Health Services Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four units on health service careers are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are organized into four sections as follow: Section A--Orientation (health careers, career success, Health Occupations Students of America); Section B--Health and First Aid (personal health, community health, and first aid); Section C--Body Structure and…

  2. Managerial reforms and specialised psychiatric care: a study of resistive practices performed by mental health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Saario, Sirpa

    2012-07-01

    Throughout Western Europe, psychiatric care has been subjected to 'modernisation' by the implementation of various managerial reforms in order to achieve improved mental health services. This paper examines how practitioners resist specific managerial reforms introduced in Finnish outpatient clinics and a child psychiatry clinic. The empirical study involves documentary research and semi-structured interviews with doctors, psychologists, nurses and social workers. The analysis draws on notions of Foucault's conception of resistance as subtle strategies. Three forms of professional resistance are outlined: dismissive responses to clinical guidelines; a critical stance towards new managerial models; and improvised use of newly introduced information and communications technologies (ICTs). Resistance manifests itself as moderate modifications of practice, since more explicit opposition would challenge the managerial rhetoric of psychiatric care which is promoted in terms of positive connotations of client-centredness, users' rights, and the quality of the care. Therefore, instead of strongly challenging managerial reforms, practitioners keep them 'alive' and ongoing by continuously improvising, criticising and dismissing reforms' non-functional features. In conclusion it is suggested that managerial reforms in psychiatric care can only be implemented successfully if frontline practitioners themselves modify and translate them into clinical practice. The reconciliation between this task and practitioners' therapeutic orientation is proposed for further study. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method Data come from the Women’s Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city in 1997 (N = 541). In order to identify risk factors for CPS involvement among current and former welfare recipients, multinomial logit analyses with 29 independent variables were employed on a trichotomous dependent variable: no CPS involvement, investigation only, and supervision by CPS after investigation. Results The relationship between work and involvement with CPS differs by work experience prior to welfare reform. As the percentage of months working after welfare reform increased, the risk of being investigated by CPS declined among those with prior work experience but the risk increased among those without prior work experience. However, work variables were not significant predictors of supervision by CPS after an initial investigation. Further, race, cohabitation, childhood welfare receipt, having a learning disability, having a large number of children, being newly divorced, living in a high problem neighborhood, and being convicted of a crime were associated with one’s probability of being either investigated or supervised by CPS. Conclusions These findings suggest that employment could have increased the stress levels of current or former welfare recipients without prior work experience to the point where they were prone to minor child rearing mistakes that resulted in a CPS investigation, but were not severe enough to warrant opening the case for supervision. Supports should be provided to welfare mothers who are prone to involvement with CPS; expansions in the childcare subsidy and a reduction or delay in work requirements might also help these families. PMID:17116329

  4. [The basic network of health services: physicians and their representation regarding the service].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S; Campos, G W; Merhy, E E

    1992-02-01

    This article aims to analyse the representations of doctors of public sector in Campinas, SP, Brazil, taking as reference the process of decentralization which the health reform being undertaken in Brazil is undergoing. It is assumed that the success of this reform will depend largely on the attitude that these doctors show towards its various aspects. The following subjects were then focused on: the policies and management of the health services, the health-disease process, the doctor-patient relationship and labour process as it affects the health team.

  5. The fiction of health Services.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, Oscar

    2012-04-01

    What we know today as Health Services is a fiction, perhaps shaped involuntarily, but with deep health repercussions, more negative than positive. About 24 centuries ago, Asclepius, god of medicine, and Hygeia, goddess of hygiene and health, generated a dichotomy between disease and health that remains with us until today. The confusing substitution of Health Services with Medical Services began toward the end of the XIX century. But it was in 1948 when the so called English National Health Service became a landmark in the world with its model being adopted by many countries with resulting distortion of the true meaning of Health Services. The consequences of this fiction have been ominous. It is necessary to call things by their names and not deceive society. To correct the serious imbalance between Medical Services and Health Services, Hygeia and Asclepius must become a brother and sisterhood.

  6. The fiction of health Services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    What we know today as Health Services is a fiction, perhaps shaped involuntarily, but with deep health repercussions, more negative than positive. About 24 centuries ago, Asclepius, god of medicine, and Hygeia, goddess of hygiene and health, generated a dichotomy between disease and health that remains with us until today. The confusing substitution of Health Services with Medical Services began toward the end of the XIX century. But it was in 1948 when the so called English National Health Service became a landmark in the world with its model being adopted by many countries with resulting distortion of the true meaning of Health Services. The consequences of this fiction have been ominous. It is necessary to call things by their names and not deceive society. To correct the serious imbalance between Medical Services and Health Services, Hygeia and Asclepius must become a brother and sisterhood. PMID:24893062

  7. Policy challenges and reforms in small EU member state health systems: a narrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Funk, Tjede; Buttigieg, Sandra C; Grech, Kenneth E; Brand, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    The EU directive on patients' rights and cross-border care is of particular interest to small states as it reinforces the concept of health system cooperation. An analysis of the challenges faced by small states, as well as a deep evaluation of their health system reform characteristics is timely and justified. This paper identifies areas in which EU level cooperation may bring added value to these countries' health systems. Literature search is based primarily on PUBMED and is limited to English-language papers published between January 2000 and September 2014. Results of 76 original research papers appearing in peer-reviewed journals are summarised in a literature map and narrative review. Primary care, health workforce and medicines emerge as the salient themes in the review. Lack of capacity and small market size are found to be the frequently encountered challenges in governance and delivery of services. These constraints appear to also impinge on the ability of small states to effectively implement health system reforms. The EU appears to play a marginal role in supporting small state health systems, albeit the stimulus for reform associated with EU accession. Small states face common health system challenges which could potentially be addressed through enhanced health system cooperation at EU level. The lessons learned from research on small states may be of relevance to health systems organized at regional level in larger European states. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Massachusetts health reform implementation: major progress and future challenges.

    PubMed

    McDonough, John E; Rosman, Brian; Butt, Mehreen; Tucker, Lindsey; Howe, Lisa Kaplan

    2008-01-01

    Since its passage in April 2006, the Massachusetts health reform law (Chapter 58) has expanded affordable insurance coverage to 355,000 people. Major milestones have been achieved, including establishment of new coverage programs, merger of small-group and nongroup insurance markets, creation of an insurance "Connector," determination of affordability and penalty standards for an individual mandate, and launch of employer responsibility requirements. Key challenges remain, including full implementation of the individual mandate, cost control, and securing of long-term financing. Massachusetts health reform is offering valuable and important lessons for the nation.

  9. No theory of justice can ground health care reform.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that no theory or single conception of justice can provide a fundamental grounding for health care reform in the United States. To provide such a grounding, (1) there would need to be widespread support among citizens for a particular conception of justice, (2) citizens would have to apprehend this common conception of justice as providing the strongest available rationale for health care reform, and (3) this rationale would have to overwhelm countervailing values. I argue that neither of the first two conditions is met. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. [Social health insurance in China: principal reforms and inequalities].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fabianna Bacil Lourenço

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the social health insurance system in China, its reforms and the principal social inequalities uncovered. Based in the work of a number of authors of reference, it is possible to observe that rural and urban reforms follow the same pattern: large systems that were gradually reduced and then again expanded relatively quickly. Improvements notwithstanding, some of China's historical problems persist, especially the rural-urban gap and regional disparities. The lack of integration of workers that migrate from the country to the city is reproduced in the current Chinese public health system, constituting one of the primary challenges to be faced at present.

  11. Individual health services

    PubMed Central

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Background The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS), the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments

  12. Indian Health Service: Community Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Releases Reports to Congress Tribal Leader Letters Urban Leader Letters IHS Home Community Health Community Health ... Office of Tribal Self Governance - 08E05 Office of Urban Indian Health Programs - 08E65C Accessibility Budget Contact Information ...

  13. Health insurance reform: security standards. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-02-20

    This final rule adopts standards for the security of electronic protected health information to be implemented by health plans, health care clearinghouses, and certain health care providers. The use of the security standards will improve the Medicare and Medicaid programs, and other Federal health programs and private health programs, and the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care industry in general by establishing a level of protection for certain electronic health information. This final rule implements some of the requirements of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA).

  14. Agents of Change for Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry M.

    2007-01-01

    It is widely recognized throughout the health care industry that the United States leads the world in health care spending per capita. However, the chilling dose of reality for American health care consumers is that for all of their spending, the World Health Organization ranks the country's health care system 37th in overall performance--right…

  15. Agents of Change for Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry M.

    2007-01-01

    It is widely recognized throughout the health care industry that the United States leads the world in health care spending per capita. However, the chilling dose of reality for American health care consumers is that for all of their spending, the World Health Organization ranks the country's health care system 37th in overall performance--right…

  16. Mental health reform not always beneficial.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2007-01-01

    History is instructive even when the lessons learned cannot be easily transposed to a new time and place. The aim of this paper is to describe psychiatric reforms implemented one hundred years ago in Germany and how, contrary to their intention, they resulted, with changes in economics, politics and ideology, in disaster for psychiatric patients. The conclusion for our time is that the new and seemingly expedient need always to be questioned. If nothing else, the paper reviews an important era in the history of our profession.

  17. Development prospects of health and reform of the fiscal system in bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Salihbasic, Sehzada

    2011-01-01

    The functions of the health system, according to the key objectives and relationships within the sub-systems that are available to the policy makers and managers in the Health Care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina - B&H, have been elaborated in detail, with the analytical overview of relevant indicators, thus confirming the limitations of the health promotion in B&H. The ability to overcome the expressed problems is in the startup of process for structural adjustment of the health sector, reform of the health care system and its financing. The reform in health system implies fundamental changes that need to take place, in B&H, as a state in health policy and institutions in the health care system, in order to improve the functioning of health systems with the aim of ensuring better health of the population. Reform implies the existence of documents with clearly formulated health policy objectives, for which the state stands, and for which a consensus was reached on the national level with all key actors in the political structure: public promotion of the basic principles for carrying out the reform, its implementation within a reasonable time frame, the corresponding effects for providers and customer satisfaction, as well as improving health services' efficacy (i.e. micro and macro) and the quality of healthcare. In this article, we elaborated the criteria for the classification of health systems, whereby the scientifically-based and empirical analysis is conducted on the health system in B&H and elaborated the key levers of the system. Leveraged organizational arrangements relating to the economic and political environment, organization and management functions, in connection with the services of finance, funds, customers and service providers, from which it follows the framework of state legislation related to health policy and health institutions at the state level are responsible for finance, planning, the organization, payment, regulation and conduct. If we

  18. [Democracy without equity: analysis of health reform and nineteen years of National Health System in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ivan Batista

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the nineteen years of the National Health System in Brazil, under the prism of equity. It takes into account the current political context in Brazil in the 80s, that the democratization of the country and the health sector could, per se, lead to a more equitable situation regarding the access to health services. Democracy and equity concepts are here discussed; analyzing which situations may facilitate or make it difficult its association in a theoretical plan, applying them to the Brazilian context in a more general form and, to emphasizing practical implications to the National Health System and to groups of activism related to health reforms. It also seeks to show the limits and possibilities of these groups with regards to the reduction of inequality, in relation to the access to health services, which still remain. To conclude, the author points out the need for other movements to be established which seek the reduction of such and other inequalities, such as access to education, housing, etc, drawing special attention to the role played by the State, which is questioned regarding its incapacity of promoting equity, once it presents itself as being powerful when approaching other matters.

  19. Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

  20. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Education, Tax Reform, Crime Control, Welfare Reform, Health Care Reform. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…

  1. Health Care Reform and Its Implications for the Administrative Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolassa, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the discipline of pharmacoeconomics has much to offer the pharmacy field during a period of health care reform but that these specialists must let their colleagues in related fields know how they can assist in facilitating change. (MSE)

  2. Pharmacy Education in an Era of Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, Leslie Z.

    1994-01-01

    The president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy outlines the association's position on national policy concerning health care reform, then looks at some related controversial issues, including changes in the dispensing of prescriptions, pharmacist-managed medication review, adequacy of pharmacy training, and the role of research.…

  3. Revisiting the Issues: Children and National Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Sara

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes principal features of 6 bills on health care reform introduced in the 103rd Congress as they relate to children. Proposals are compared on 11 major issues, highlighting the degree to which each bill would achieve universal coverage, access to care, equity of treatment, and quality of comprehensive care. (SLD)

  4. Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

    1995-01-01

    Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

  5. Pharmacy Education in an Era of Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, Leslie Z.

    1994-01-01

    The president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy outlines the association's position on national policy concerning health care reform, then looks at some related controversial issues, including changes in the dispensing of prescriptions, pharmacist-managed medication review, adequacy of pharmacy training, and the role of research.…

  6. Revisiting the Issues: Children and National Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Sara

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes principal features of 6 bills on health care reform introduced in the 103rd Congress as they relate to children. Proposals are compared on 11 major issues, highlighting the degree to which each bill would achieve universal coverage, access to care, equity of treatment, and quality of comprehensive care. (SLD)

  7. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  8. Health Reform, Medicaid Expansions, and Women's Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Bysshe, Tyler; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Health reform, including Medicaid expansion, is increasing insurance coverage and financial access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income women, although services for low-income uninsured women are still needed. American Community Survey and administrative data about Medicaid and health insurance enrollment are used to estimate the number of low-income women who will be uninsured in 2017, focusing on the age ranges 21 to 64, 40 to 64, and 50 to 64. Assuming that 29 states expand Medicaid (as of June 2015), the national percentage of low-income women 21 to 64 who are uninsured will fall from 32.2% in 2013 to 14.6% by 2017. Among Medicaid-expanding states, the percentage of uninsured will decrease from 28.7% to 8.0%, whereas in non-expanding states, the level will decrease from 36.9% to 23.3%. About 5.7 million women 21 to 64 and 2.6 million women 40 to 64 will remain uninsured in 2017. The size of the uninsured low-income population will remain much larger than the 659,000 women who have previously received Pap tests and 548,000 obtaining mammograms under the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program in 2013. Even before 2014, women living in states that are not expanding Medicaid were less likely to get mammograms and Pap tests than women in expanding states. Affordable Care Act-related insurance expansions will lower financial barriers to screening and should boost overall screening rates. But disparities in insurance coverage and cancer screening across Medicaid-expanding and non-expanding states could widen. Programs to support cancer screening for low-income uninsured women will still be needed. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH)

    PubMed Central

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed. PMID:15560841

  10. Health sector reform in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT): targeting the forest or the trees?

    PubMed Central

    GIACAMAN, RITA; ABDUL-RAHIM, HANAN F; WICK, LAURA

    2006-01-01

    Since the signing of the Oslo Peace Accords and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, reform activities have targeted various spheres, including the health sector. Several international aid and UN organizations have been involved, as well as local and international non-governmental organizations, with considerable financial and technical investments. Although important achievements have been made, it is not evident that the quality of care has improved or that the most pressing health needs have been addressed, even before the second Palestinian Uprising that began in September 2000. The crisis of the Israeli re-invasion of Palestinian-controlled towns and villages since April 2002 and the attendant collapse of state structures and services have raised the problems to critical levels. This paper attempts to analyze some of the obstacles that have faced reform efforts. In our assessment, those include: ongoing conflict, frail Palestinian quasi-state structures and institutions, multiple and at times inappropriate donor policies and practices in the health sector, and a policy vacuum characterized by the absence of internal Palestinian debate on the type and direction of reform the country needs to take. In the face of all these considerations, it is important that reform efforts be flexible and consider realistically the political and economic contexts of the health system, rather than focus on mere narrow technical, managerial and financial solutions imported from the outside. PMID:12582108

  11. [Intercultural aspects of the health system reform in Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Hita, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on how interculturality, understood as the way to improve the health of the Bolivian population and coupled with the concept of living well, is not contributing to improving the quality of life and health of the most vulnerable populations in the country. The discourse is coupled with the intention of saving lives in its broadest sense; however, for this it is necessary to make decisions about environmental health and extractivist policies that are not taken into account in the health issues affecting indigenous communities, a population targeted by the intercultural aspects of the health reform.

  12. [Desperately seeking decentralisation: Mexican health policies in two periods of reform: the 1920s-30s and the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Birn, Anne-Emannuelle

    2005-01-01

    This article compares public health policy reforms in Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s with subsequent reforms initiated in the 1980s. The attempts at decentralization in the 1920s-30s were supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, which was interested in the formation of local cooperative health units. In the 1980s, the aim of the Mexican government and international financial agencies, such as the Inter-American Development Bank, was to reduce public spending (as part of "structural adjustment" policies). One of the hypotheses of this article is that, in the end, the public health reforms were unable to overcome the limitations imposed by Mexico's political centralization and longstanding inequities in public spending. At the same time, one of the unforeseen achievements of these reforms was an increase in local capabilities to demand a better distribution of social services.

  13. US health care policy and reform: implications for cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Turakhia, Mintu P; Ullal, Aditya J

    2013-03-01

    In response to unsustainably rising costs, variable quality and access to health care, and the projected insolvency of vital safety net insurance programs, the federal government has proposed important health policy and regulatory changes in the USA. The US Supreme Court's decision to uphold most of the major provisions of the Affordable Care Act will lead to some of the most sweeping government reforms on entitlements since the creation of Medicare. Furthermore, implementation of new organizational, reimbursement, and health care delivery models will strongly affect the practice of cardiac electrophysiology. In this brief review, we will provide background and context to the problem of rising health care costs and describe salient reforms and their projected impacts on the field and practice of cardiac electrophysiology.

  14. [Health care reform in Chile: 2005 to 2009].

    PubMed

    Valdivieso D, Vicente; Montero L, Joaquín

    2010-08-01

    Five years ago Chile implemented a Health Care Reform to reduce the great inequalities in health care provision that affects the low- income, high-risk segment of its population. A universal care plan ("AUGE") was designed to make medical coverage available to all Chilean citizens suffering from one of a specified, growing list of diseases (66 at present time). The diseases are prioritized by the Ministry of Health and its inclusion in the plan is revised periodically by an Advisory Committee according to four cardinal criteria: burden of disease, effectiveness of treatment, specific capacity of the health system and financial costs. The plan is funded by the state and enforced by law through a set of four specific guarantees: access, opportunity, quality and financial protection. This paper reviews the origin and development of the reform, the benefits and drawbacks of the application of the specific guarantees and the perception of the public regarding its strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Foundation's consumer advocacy health reform initiative strengthened groups' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Strong, Debra; Lipson, Debra; Honeycutt, Todd; Kim, Jung

    2011-09-01

    Private foundations may hesitate to fund consumer advocacy for enacting and implementing health reform because the effects are hard to measure, and because they are concerned that funds will be used for lobbying activities that are prohibited by federal tax rules governing private philanthropy. Mathematica Policy Research evaluated a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative supporting state consumer health advocacy networks. During the three-year grant period, most networks coalesced and improved their ability to advocate effectively. A majority of state policy makers reported that consumers became more involved and effective in shaping health policy, and many wanted consumer advocates to remain involved in public debates on implementing federal health reform. The evaluation shows that targeted investments by foundations to strengthen consumer groups' ability to advocate effectively can help ensure that their voice is heard in critical policy debates.

  16. A primer for nurses on advancing health reform policy.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Nancy; Trautman, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Health care reform is a high priority on the federal policy agenda. The authors present insights from their experiences as Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Fellows working in Speaker Nancy Pelosi's office and on the House Committee on Ways and Means. Nursing has many opportunities at this juncture to engage in policy discussions and advance solutions for issues related to increasing quality and access while dampening the escalating cost of care. Strategies where nursing's voice can inform reform conversations include chronic disease management, prevention and health promotion, community-based care, nurse-managed care, interdisciplinary education, safety and quality, use of health information technology, and testing the comparative effectiveness of interventions and delivery systems.

  17. Effect of Massachusetts health reform on chronic disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stryjewski, Tomasz P; Zhang, Fang; Eliott, Dean; Wharam, J Frank

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether Massachusetts Health Reform improved health outcomes in uninsured patients with hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension. Partners HealthCare Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR). We examined 1,463 patients with hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension who were uninsured in the 3 years before the 2006 Massachusetts Health Reform implementation. We assessed mean quarterly total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, and systolic blood pressure in the respective cohorts for five follow-up years compared with 3,448 propensity score-matched controls who remained insured for the full 8-year study period. We used person-level interrupted time series analysis to estimate changes in outcomes adjusting for sex, age, race, estimated household income, and comorbidity. We also analyzed the subgroups of uninsured patients with poorly controlled disease at baseline, no evidence of established primary care in the baseline period, and those who received insurance in the first follow-up year. In 5 years after Massachusetts Health Reform, patients who were uninsured at baseline did not experience detectable trend changes in total cholesterol (-0.39 mg/dl per quarter, 95 percent confidence interval [-1.11 to 0.33]), glycosylated hemoglobin (-0.02 percent per quarter [-0.06 to 0.03]), or systolic blood pressure (-0.06 mmHg per quarter [-0.29 to 0.18]). Analyses of uninsured patients with poorly controlled disease, no evidence of established primary care in the baseline period, and those who received insurance in the first follow-up year yielded similar findings. Massachusetts Health Reform was not associated with improvements in hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension control after 5 years. Interventions beyond insurance coverage might be needed to improve the health of chronically ill uninsured persons. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Health-care reform's great expectations and physician reality.

    PubMed

    Van Mol, Andre

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will not prove to be the reform for which physicians were long hoping. Private insurance rates will climb sharply, forcing people onto government programs; physician reimbursement will plummet; the physician shortage will worsen; rationing in the form of waiting lists is certain; health care as a whole will worsen; and once fully engaged, nationalization of health care will be irreversible.

  19. Financial and clinical risk in health care reform: a view from below.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pam; Mackintosh, Maureen; Ross, Fiona; Clayton, Julie; Price, Linnie; Christian, Sara; Byng, Richard; Allan, Helen

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines how the interaction between financial and clinical risk at two critical phases of health care reform in England has been experienced by frontline staff caring for vulnerable patients with long term conditions. The paper draws on contracting theory and two interdisciplinary and in-depth qualitative research studies undertaken in 1995 and 2007. Methods common to both studies included documentary analysis and interviews with managers and front line professionals. The 1995 study employed action-based research and included observation of community care; the 2007 study used realistic evaluation and included engagement with service user groups. In both reform processes, financial risk was increasingly devolved to frontline practitioners and smaller organizational units such as GP commissioning groups, with payment by unit of activity, aimed at changing professionals' behaviour. This financing increased perceived clinical risk and fragmented the delivery of health and social care services requiring staff efforts to improve collaboration and integration, and created some perverse incentives and staff demoralisation. Health services reform should only shift financial risk to frontline professionals to the extent that it can be efficiently borne. Where team work is required, contracts should reward collaborative multi-professional activity.

  20. Medical bankruptcy in Massachusetts: has health reform made a difference?

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Thorne, Deborah; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2011-03-01

    Massachusetts' recent health reform has decreased the number of uninsured, but no study has examined medical bankruptcy rates before and after the reform was implemented. In 2009, we surveyed 199 Massachusetts bankruptcy filers regarding medical antecedents of their financial collapse using the same questions as in a 2007 survey of 2314 debtors nationwide, including 44 in Massachusetts. We designated bankruptcies as "medical" based on debtors' stated reasons for filing, income loss due to illness, and the magnitude of their medical debts. In 2009, illness and medical bills contributed to 52.9% of Massachusetts bankruptcies, versus 59.3% of the bankruptcies in the state in 2007 (P=.44) and 62.1% nationally in 2007 (P<.02). Between 2007 and 2009, total bankruptcy filings in Massachusetts increased 51%, an increase that was somewhat less than the national norm. (The Massachusetts increase was lower than in 54 of the 93 other bankruptcy districts.) Overall, the total number of medical bankruptcies in Massachusetts increased by more than one third during that period. In 2009, 89% of debtors and all their dependents had health insurance at the time of filing, whereas one quarter of bankrupt families had experienced a recent lapse in coverage. Massachusetts' health reform has not decreased the number of medical bankruptcies, although the medical bankruptcy rate in the state was lower than the national rate both before and after the reform. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rising to the challenge of health care reform with entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial nursing initiatives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anne; Whitaker, Nancy; Whitford, Deirdre

    2012-05-31

    Health reform worldwide is required due to the largely aging population, increase in chronic diseases, and rising costs. To meet these needs, nurses are being encouraged to practice to the full extent of their skills and take significant leadership roles in health policy, planning, and provision. This can involve entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial roles. Although nurses form the largest group of health professionals, they are frequently restricted in their scope of practice. Nurses can help to improve health services in a cost effective way, but to do so, they must be seen as equal partners in health service provision. This article provides a global perspective on evolving nursing roles for innovation in health care. A historical overview of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship is offered. Included also is discussion of a social entrepreneurship approach for nursing, settings for nurse entre/intrapreneurship, and implications for research and practice.

  2. Four proposals for market-based health care system reform.

    PubMed

    Sumner, W

    1994-08-01

    A perfectly free, competitive medical market would not meet many social goals, such as universal access to health care. Micromanagement of interactions between patients and providers does not guarantee quality care and frequently undermines that relationship, to the frustration of all involved. Furthermore, while some North American health care plans are less expensive than others, none have reduced the medical inflation rate to equal the general inflation rate. Markets have always fixed uneven inflation rates in other domains. The suggested reforms could make elective interactions between patients and providers work more like a free market than did any preceding system. The health and life insurance plan creates cost-sensitive consumers, informed by a corporation with significant research incentives and abilities. The FFEB proposal encourages context-sensitive pricing, established by negotiation processes that weigh labor and benefit. Publication of providers' expected outcomes further enriches the information available to consumers and may reduce defensive medicine incentives. A medical career ladder would ease entry and exit from medical professions. These and complementary reforms do not specifically cap spending yet could have a deflationary impact on elective health care prices, while providing incentives to maintain quality. They accomplish these ends by giving more responsibility, information, incentives, and choice to citizens. We could provide most health care in a marketlike environment. We can incorporate these reforms in any convenient order and allow them to compete with alternative schemes. Our next challenge is to design, implement, and evaluate marketlike health care systems.

  3. Harry and Louise and health care reform: romancing public opinion.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R L; Goldsteen, K; Swan, J H; Clemeña, W

    2001-12-01

    The question whether the "Harry and Louise" campaign ads, sponsored by the Health Insurance Association of America (HIAA) during the 1993-1994 health care reform debate, influenced public opinion has particular relevance today since interest groups are increasingly choosing commercial-style mass media campaigns to sway public opinion about health policy issues. Our study revisits the issue of the Harry and Louise campaign's influence on public opinion, comparing the ad campaign's messages to changes in opinion about health care reform over a twenty-six-month period in Oklahoma. Looking at the overall trends just prior to the introduction of the Harry and Louise campaign, public opinion was going in the "wrong" direction, from the HIAA perspective. Moreover, public opinion continued in the wrong direction until the mid-point of the campaign. However, in either the turning point of the campaign in terms of message content and tone or in the lag period following it, public opinion reversed on each health reform issue and returned to pre-campaign levels. It appears from these findings that the campaign captured public opinion when support for issues that were unfavorable to HIAA members was increasing and turned public opinion back to pre-campaign levels. The campaign may result in many more such marriages of political interest groups and commercial advertisers for the purpose of demobilizing public support for health policy initiatives that are unfavorable to special interests.

  4. Effects of Medicare payment reform: evidence from the home health interim and prospective payment systems.

    PubMed

    Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj; Escarce, José J; Grabowski, David C; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Medicare continues to implement payment reforms that shift reimbursement from fee-for-service toward episode-based payment, affecting average and marginal payment. We contrast the effects of two reforms for home health agencies. The home health interim payment system in 1997 lowered both types of payment; our conceptual model predicts a decline in the likelihood of use and costs, both of which we find. The home health prospective payment system in 2000 raised average but lowered marginal payment with theoretically ambiguous effects; we find a modest increase in use and costs. We find little substantive effect of either policy on readmissions or mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy.

  6. Achieving and Sustaining Universal Health Coverage: Fiscal Reform of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jesse Yu-Chen

    2016-10-25

    The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging.

  7. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China

    PubMed Central

    WU, Fenghong; CHI, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China’s regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  8. School-Based Health Centers in an Era of Health Care Reform: Building on History

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, Victoria; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire D.

    2013-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide a variety of health care services to youth in a convenient and accessible environment. Over the past 40 years, the growth of SBHCs evolved from various public health needs to the development of a specific collaborative model of care that is sensitive to the unique needs of children and youth, as well as to vulnerable populations facing significant barriers to access. The SBHC model of health care comprises of on-school site health care delivery by an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, which can include primary care and mental health clinicians. Research has demonstrated the SBHCs’ impacts on delivering preventive care, such as immunizations; managing chronic illnesses, such as asthma, obesity, and mental health conditions; providing reproductive health services for adolescents; and even improving youths’ academic performance. Although evaluation of the SBHC model of care has been complicated, results have thus far demonstrated increased access to care, improved health and education outcomes, and high levels of satisfaction. Despite their proven success, SBHCs have consistently faced challenges in securing adequate funding for operations and developing effective financial systems for billing and reimbursement. Implementation of health care reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [P.L. 111-148]) will profoundly affect the health care access and outcomes of children and youth, particularly vulnerable populations. The inclusion of funding for SBHCs in this legislation is momentous, as there continues to be increased demand and limited funding for affordable services. To better understand how this model of care has and could further help promote the health of our nation’s youth, a review is presented of the history and growth of SBHCs and the literature demonstrating their impacts. It may not be feasible for SBHCs to be established in every school campus in the country. However, the lessons

  9. School-based health centers in an era of health care reform: building on history.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Victoria; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire D

    2012-07-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide a variety of health care services to youth in a convenient and accessible environment. Over the past 40 years, the growth of SBHCs evolved from various public health needs to the development of a specific collaborative model of care that is sensitive to the unique needs of children and youth, as well as to vulnerable populations facing significant barriers to access. The SBHC model of health care comprises of on-school site health care delivery by an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, which can include primary care and mental health clinicians. Research has demonstrated the SBHCs' impacts on delivering preventive care, such as immunizations; managing chronic illnesses, such as asthma, obesity, and mental health conditions; providing reproductive health services for adolescents; and even improving youths' academic performance. Although evaluation of the SBHC model of care has been complicated, results have thus far demonstrated increased access to care, improved health and education outcomes, and high levels of satisfaction. Despite their proven success, SBHCs have consistently faced challenges in securing adequate funding for operations and developing effective financial systems for billing and reimbursement. Implementation of health care reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [P.L. 111-148]) will profoundly affect the health care access and outcomes of children and youth, particularly vulnerable populations. The inclusion of funding for SBHCs in this legislation is momentous, as there continues to be increased demand and limited funding for affordable services. To better understand how this model of care has and could further help promote the health of our nation's youth, a review is presented of the history and growth of SBHCs and the literature demonstrating their impacts. It may not be feasible for SBHCs to be established in every school campus in the country. However, the lessons learned

  10. Health care costs: market forces and reform.

    PubMed

    Vincenzino, J V

    1995-01-01

    The cost of health care remains an important issue for the U.S. economy. Health care expenditures in 1995 are projected to be over $1 trillion, with the annual growth rate expected to average 8 percent for the 1990-95 period. National health expenditures were equivalent to 13.9 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1993; 1995 estimates place the ratio at 14.3 percent. The medical care Consumer Price Index for 1994 has shown the smallest increase since 1973 (4.8 percent). This result followed a gain of 5.9 percent in 1993. Health care spending varies by region, with New England having the highest per capita spending and the Rocky Mountain states having the lowest. States with the highest proportions of the population over age 65 tend to be those with the highest health care costs, as well as growth rates, in the country.

  11. Service quality in health care.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, J W; Berwick, D M; Shore, M F

    1999-02-17

    Although US health care is described as "the world's largest service industry," the quality of service--that is, the characteristics that shape the experience of care beyond technical competence--is rarely discussed in the medical literature. This article illustrates service quality principles by analyzing a routine encounter in health care from a service quality point of view. This illustration and a review of related literature from both inside and outside health care has led to the following 2 premises: First, if high-quality service had a greater presence in our practices and institutions, it would improve clinical outcomes and patient and physician satisfaction while reducing cost, and it would create competitive advantage for those who are expert in its application. Second, many other industries in the service sector have taken service quality to a high level, their techniques are readily transferable to health care, and physicians caring for patients can learn from them.

  12. The role of independent agents in the success of health insurance market reforms.

    PubMed

    Hall, M A

    2000-01-01

    The impact of reforms on the health insurance markets cannot be understood without more information about the role played by insurance agents and a closer analysis of their contribution. An in-depth, qualitative study of insurance-market reforms in seven illustrative states forms the basis for this report on how agents help to shape the efficiency and fairness of insurance markets. Different types of agents relate to insurers in their own ways and are compensated differently. This study shows agents to be almost uniformly enthusiastic about guaranteed-issue requirements and other components of market reforms. Although insurers devise strategies for manipulating agents in order to avoid undesirable business, these opportunities are limited and do not appear to be seriously undermining the effectiveness of market reforms. Despite the layer of cost that agents add to the system, they play an important role in making market reforms work, and they fill essential information and service functions for which many purchasers have no ready substitute.

  13. The Role of Independent Agents in the Success of Health Insurance Market Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of reforms on the health insurance markets cannot be understood without more information about the role played by insurance agents and a closer analysis of their contribution. An in-depth, qualitative study of insurance-market reforms in seven illustrative states forms the basis for this report on how agents help to shape the efficiency and fairness of insurance markets. Different types of agents relate to insurers in their own ways and are compensated differently. This study shows agents to be almost uniformly enthusiastic about guaranteed-issue requirements and other components of market reforms. Although insurers devise strategies for manipulating agents in order to avoid undesirable business, these opportunities are limited and do not appear to be seriously undermining the effectiveness of market reforms. Despite the layer of cost that agents add to the system, they play an important role in making market reforms work, and they fill essential information and service functions for which many purchasers have no ready substitute. PMID:10834080

  14. A systemic approach to understanding mental health and services.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In the UK mental health and associated NHS services face considerable challenges. This paper aims to form an understanding both of the complexity of context in which services operate and the means by which services have sought to meet these challenges. Systemic principles as have been applied to public service organisations with reference to interpersonal relations, the wider social culture and its manifestation in service provision. The analysis suggests that the wider culture has shaped service demand and the approaches adopted by services resulting in a number of unintended consequences, reinforcing loops, increased workload demands and the limited value of services. The systemic modelling of this situation provides a necessary overview prior to future policy development. The paper concludes that mental health and attendant services requires a systemic understanding and a whole system approach to reform. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health care reform 2009-2010: a neurosurgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Troy M

    2010-12-01

    Organized neurosurgery through its Washington Committee developed a number of principles against which all health care reform legislation was measured, and none of the bills were acceptable. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) worked through multiple venues to modify or reject the legislation. In the author's view, the American Medical Association (AMA) supported the bills because its board of trustees was too focused on eliminating the sustainable growth rate, or SGR. Physicians failed to shape the health care debate. The leadership of many medical organizations was not prepared for the debate. Many had no experience in this arena and thus were too willing to let lobbyists dictate their position. In the future there are 3 things organized neurosurgery must do: be prepared, never give in, and stick with their principles. Organized neurosurgery must be prepared by developing leaders that have experience in the full spectrum of organized medicine. Neurosurgeons must not count on others, and because the specialty is small all must be involved. Neurosurgeons must never give in. Organized neurosurgery started 2009 with little support for its positions but by the end of the debate had convinced many other organizations, representing almost 500,000 physicians, to take their position. From an organizational point of view, neurosurgeons should now do 3 things: 1) reform or reject the AMA; 2) develop a real surgical coalition; and 3) change the current political environment. Neurosurgeons must also follow their principles. In the author's opinion the most important principles are: health care as a responsibility, medical liability reform, and the right to privately contract. In the United Kingdom and Germany, where health care is considered a right rather than a responsibility, bureaucratic entities determine whether you have the right to health care just as the Independent Payment Advisory Board, established under

  16. Health care reform in Portugal: an evaluation of the NHS experience.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mónica Duarte; Pinto, Carlos Gouveia

    2005-09-01

    Since 1979, the Portuguese health care system has been based on a National Health Service structure that is expected to promote equity, efficiency, quality, accountability and the devolution of power. In this article, we analyse the content and impact of policies designed to reform the system between 1979 and 2002. This article differs from previous studies in that it uses a stage-based framework to evaluate the policy-making process and the impact of health care reform throughout different political cycles. We show that the NHS model has never been fully implemented and that many policies have diverted the system from its original objectives. Different governments have endorsed a progressive split between financing and provision and the institution of 'new public management' rules in public providers. We conclude that most policies put forward by Social Democratic governments have aimed at influencing demand, while Socialist governments have targeted the supply side. These policies have led to increases in health expenditure that have been comparatively more cost-shared by the State under Socialist governments. We show some overriding trends, namely as follows: despite huge improvements in health outcomes, the system is nonetheless lasting to meet its goals, particularly in terms of the equity of access and utilisation; accountability problems, inadequacies in the use of operational reforming tools (such as resource allocation mechanisms) and a lack of mechanisms to promote efficient behaviour, are all associated with cost containment problems. Structural reforms have been undertaken since 2002 and these have offered some potential for improving accountability and efficiency. Nonetheless, the success of these reforms calls for certain conditions that do not seem to have been fulfilled.

  17. The demand for policy analysis in health reform: the view from the Romanian partnership.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, E F

    1998-01-01

    Health reform initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) assume the existence of two kinds of infrastructure: 1) health care resources that can be mobilized to provide services in a market context and 2) intellectual resources that can be mobilized to plan, design, analyze, implement and evaluate new policy. Considerable attention has been devoted to the requirements for management in health sector reform in the CEE (JHAE, Fall 1994). Relatively little attention has been paid to the intellectual and workforce requirements for policy analysis and leadership in the health sector as well as related policy areas (Berman 1995). This paper begins with an overview of the broad contours and expectations for health reform in the CEE region. It then asks what analytic and public management capital is necessary to guide these policy changes within countries. A specific example of the need for analytic and management capacity is drawn out of the recent Romanian proposal to create health insurance houses (plans) in the 40 judets (districts) across the country. Finally, the paper examines the obstacles and issues involved in expanding the role and number of policy analysts in the CEE.

  18. Inequality in oral health-related quality of life before and after a major subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Lahti, Satu; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Aromaa, Arpo; Suominen, Anna L

    2015-08-01

    In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. We investigated income-related inequality in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Three cross-sectional postal surveys, focusing on perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2,046), 2004 (n = 1,728), and 2007 (n = 1,560). Five measures, based on the Oral Health Impact Profile-14, were used as indicators of OHRQoL. Income-related inequality and associated factors were analysed using the concentration index and its decomposition. Prevalence, extent, and severity of oral health impacts were slightly lower in 2007 than in 2001. The oral health impacts were concentrated, at all study time points, among individuals with lower income. Most of the inequality was related to self-perceived general health, tooth loss, and income. Contributions of time since the last dental visit and satisfaction with the last treatment period to the inequality decreased from 2001 to 2007. However, the contributions of these factors were already small (10-20%) in 2001. In general, OHRQoL improved slightly; however, no clear or dramatic change in inequality in OHRQoL was seen after the reform.

  19. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  20. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the regional health care strategic plan: the growing impact of mental disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroto; Frank, Richard G; Nakatani, Yukiko; Fukuda, Yusuke

    2013-07-01

    In April 2013 Japan designated mental disorders as the fifth "priority disease" for national medical services, after cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and diabetes. All prefectures will be required to assess local mental health needs and develop necessary service components. This column provides an overview of the Regional Health Care Strategic Plan in the context of mental health and welfare reforms. The goals of the plan are to alter the balance between institutional and community-based care for patients with severe and persistent mental disorders, integrate general medical and mental health care, and support greater independence for people with mental disorders. It is a political challenge for Japan to reallocate resources to rebalance care services while maintaining free access to care.

  1. Competition in the UK National Health Service: mission impossible?

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1993-03-01

    Despite the dominant ideology of the 1980s being libertarian, pragmatism triumphed and, despite several attempts to privatise the UK National Health Service, the Thatcherite reforms maintained public finance and sought to create competition in the supply of health care. Even this partial reform was radical and has led to major changes in structure and process. However, the Government has refused to evaluate both the cost and the outcome of the reforms. Furthermore, with minimal definition of how the 'internal market' was to work, the Government has regulated the competitive processes in an ad hoc manner, often responding to obvious but unforeseen problems (e.g. local monopoly power). Competition is costly to create, requiring large investments in managerial personnel and information technology, and difficult to sustain because of the propensity of capitalists, through self interest, to destroy capitalism. Problems such as quality, equity and the closure of excess capacity were well defined prior to the NHS reforms and have not yet been resolved following the reforms. Whether adversarial rather than collaborative relationships are more efficient in the health care sector is unknown. Indeed there remains little evidence to sustain the claims of political rhetoric that competition 'works' i.e. increases efficiency, enhances equity and contains costs. Despite this reformers seek to create competition and complete mission impossible.

  2. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  3. Excluding Abortion Coverage from Health Reform Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Coburn, Tom [R-OK

    2010-08-05

    Senate - 08/05/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. State-Based Health Care Reform Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feingold, Russell D. [D-WI

    2009-03-25

    Senate - 03/25/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Health care's service fanatics.

    PubMed

    Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth

    2013-05-01

    The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.

  6. National Health and Hospital Reform Commission final report and patient-centred suggestions for reform.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Yen, Laurann; Wells, Robert; Leeder, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The final report of the National Health and Hospital Reform Commission (NHHRC) called for a strengthened consumer voice and empowerment. This has salience for the development of health policy concerning chronic illnesses. This paper compares the recommendations for chronic illness care made in the NHHRC final report with suggestions made by people with chronic illness and family carers of people with chronic illness in a recent Australian study. Sixty-six participants were interviewed in a qualitative research project of the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS). Participants were people with type II diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic heart failure. Family carers were also interviewed. Content analysis was undertaken and participants' recommendations for improving care were compared with those proposed in the NHHRC final report. Many suggestions from the participants of the SCIPPS qualitative research project appeared in the NHHRC final report, including the need to improve care coordination, health literacy and the experience of Indigenous Australians. The research project also identified important issues of family carers, immigrants and people with multiple illnesses, which were not addressed in the NHHRC final report. More specific attention is needed in health reform to improve the experience of family carers, Indigenous peoples, immigrants to Australia and people with multiple illnesses. To align more closely with their needs, health reform must be explicitly informed by the voices of people with chronic illness and their family carers. The NHHRC recommendations must be supplemented with proposals that address the needs of these people for support and the problems associated with poor care coordination.

  7. Health coaching: adding value in healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    May, Coral S; Russell, Craig S

    2013-05-01

    During the last decade, debate about the nation's ailing healthcare system has moved to the forefront. In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law. This groundbreaking piece of legislation impacts every aspect of the health industry, affecting everyone from doctors and health-care facilities to insurers and benefits consultants to business owners and patients. The ultimate goal of PPACA is to decrease the number of uninsured Americans and reduce the overall costs of healthcare.

  8. The Largely Untold Story of Welfare Reform and the Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    2005-01-01

    Welfare reform has placed the lives of clients, the jobs of social workers, and the mission of agencies in jeopardy. Based on interviews with senior staff at 107 nonprofit human services agencies, this article documents the largely untold story of how nonprofit agencies' workers responded to the impact of welfare reform on their clients, their…

  9. The Largely Untold Story of Welfare Reform and the Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    2005-01-01

    Welfare reform has placed the lives of clients, the jobs of social workers, and the mission of agencies in jeopardy. Based on interviews with senior staff at 107 nonprofit human services agencies, this article documents the largely untold story of how nonprofit agencies' workers responded to the impact of welfare reform on their clients, their…

  10. Education and health knowledge: evidence from UK compulsory schooling reform.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A; Suziedelyte, Agne

    2015-02-01

    We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. OLS estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education - such as post-school qualifications - and health knowledge.

  11. Liking Health Reform But Turned Off By Toxic Politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lawrence R; Mettler, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Six years after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) became law, the number of nonelderly Americans with health insurance has expanded by twenty million, and the uninsurance rate has declined nearly 9 percentage points. Nevertheless, public opinion about the law remains deeply divided. We investigated how individuals may be experiencing and responding to health reform implementation by analyzing three waves of a panel study we conducted in 2010, 2012, and 2014. While public opinion about the ACA remains split (45.6 percent unfavorable and 36.2 percent favorable), there have been several detectable shifts. The share of respondents believing that reform had little or no impact on access to health insurance or medical care diminished by 18 percentage points from 2010 to 2014, while those considering reform to have some or a great impact increased by 19 percentage points. Among individuals who held unfavorable views toward the law in 2010, the percentage who supported repeal-while still high, at 72 percent-shrank by 9 percentage points from 2010 to 2014. We found that party affiliation and distrust in government were influential factors in explaining the continuing divide over the law. The ACA has delivered discernible benefits, and some Americans are increasingly recognizing that it is improving access to health insurance and medical care.

  12. Medical Malpractice Reform and Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Premiums

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard (Jack)

    2008-01-01

    Objective Tort reform may affect health insurance premiums both by reducing medical malpractice premiums and by reducing the extent of defensive medicine. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of noneconomic damage caps on the premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance. Data Sources/Study Setting Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys. Damage caps were obtained and dated based on state annotated codes, statutes, and judicial decisions. Study Design Fixed effects regression models were run to estimate the effects of the size of inflation-adjusted damage caps on the weighted average single premiums. Data Collection/Extraction Methods State tort reform laws were identified using Westlaw, LEXIS, and statutory compilations. Legislative repeal and amendment of statutes and court decisions resulting in the overturning or repealing state statutes were also identified using LEXIS. Principal Findings Using a variety of empirical specifications, there was no statistically significant evidence that noneconomic damage caps exerted any meaningful influence on the cost of employer-sponsored health insurance. Conclusions The findings suggest that tort reforms have not translated into insurance savings. PMID:18522666

  13. Medical malpractice reform and employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard Jack

    2008-12-01

    Tort reform may affect health insurance premiums both by reducing medical malpractice premiums and by reducing the extent of defensive medicine. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of noneconomic damage caps on the premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance. Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys. Damage caps were obtained and dated based on state annotated codes, statutes, and judicial decisions. Fixed effects regression models were run to estimate the effects of the size of inflation-adjusted damage caps on the weighted average single premiums. State tort reform laws were identified using Westlaw, LEXIS, and statutory compilations. Legislative repeal and amendment of statutes and court decisions resulting in the overturning or repealing state statutes were also identified using LEXIS. Using a variety of empirical specifications, there was no statistically significant evidence that noneconomic damage caps exerted any meaningful influence on the cost of employer-sponsored health insurance. The findings suggest that tort reforms have not translated into insurance savings.

  14. [Strengthening of the steering role of health++ authorities in health care reforms].

    PubMed

    Marín, J M

    2000-01-01

    Strengthening the ability of health authorities to provide leadership and guidance, now and in the future, is an important issue within the context of health sector reform. It means, among other things, redefining the role of health in light of leading social and economic trends seen in the world at the beginning of the 21st century, increasing participation in health by nongovernmental entities, moving toward participatory democracy in many countries, and modifying concepts of what is considered "public" and "private." Within this scenario, it is necessary to redirect the role of the health sector toward coordinating the mobilization of national resources, on a multisectoral scale, in order to improve equity and social well-being and to channel the limited available resources to the most disadvantaged groups in society. The liberalization of the production and distribution of health-related goods and services, including insurance, challenges the exercise of authority in the area of health. Furthermore, the formation of regional economic blocks and the enormous weight wielded by multinational companies in the areas of pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies and technologies are forcing the health sector to seek ways of harmonizing health legislation and international negotiations. According to many experts, all of these demands surpass the ability of Latin American ministries of health to effectively respond, given most countries' current organizational, legal, and political conditions and technical infrastructure. The countries of the Americas must make it a priority to strengthen their health officials' ability to provide leadership and guidance in order to meet present and future challenges.

  15. The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.

    2003-01-01

    The French health system combines universal coverage with a public–private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government’s role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market. PMID:12511380

  16. National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

  17. Health Care Reform: Impact on Total Joint Replacement.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    The US health care system has been fragmented for more than 40 years; this model created a need for modification. Sociopoliticomedical system-related factors led to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and a restructuring of health care provision/delivery. The ACA increases access to high-quality "affordable care" under cost-effective measures. This article provides a comprehensive review of health reform and the motivating factors that drive policy to empower arthroplasty providers to effectively advocate for the field of orthopedics as a whole, and the patients served.

  18. [Insurance and coverage: two critical topics in health care reforms].

    PubMed

    Madies, C V; Chiarvetti, S; Chorny, M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of health for all in the year 2000, which was established at Alma Ata more than two decades ago, has led countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to adopt health sector reforms aimed at extending health coverage to each and every individual citizen. Whereas much has come about as a result of reform policies in the way of theory and legislation, in practice the goals that were established are far from attained, and many countries show large gaps in theoretical coverage on the one hand, and true coverage on the other. This is largely due to organizational features and other "endogenous" characteristics of the various countries' health systems, as well as to "exogenous" factors in the political, macroeconomic, social, epidemiologic, and cultural spheres. This documents takes a close look at the different types of health systems that are currently operating in countries of the Region and their impact on sources of health insurance and health coverage for individuals living in those countries. The end of the article focuses on the different strategies adopted by the countries in an effort to extend health coverage, which in some cases involve policies targeting the most vulnerable social groups.

  19. [Mental health reform in Israel: how to increase the opportunities and reduce the threats].

    PubMed

    Elisha, David; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2007-04-01

    Since the publication in 1990 of the Netanyahu Commission Report on Health Reform in Israel the issue of Mental Health Reform (MHR) has been discussed extensively. As steps toward the implementation of the MHR progressed, concerns were increasingly voiced that it would adversely affect the accessibility, availability and quality of mental health services. The main source of threat is attributed to the mechanisms of Managed Behavioral Health Care (MBHC) expected to be applied by the Health Funds. The authors review recent evaluation studies of MBHC in the US with a special reference to issues pertaining to ambulatory treatment of those suffering from mental illness and to outpatient psychotherapy. The findings reviewed suggest that the key to the success of MBHC systems is a strategy endeavoring to bring together the professional and the economic management mechanisms of the service system in a mutually supporting effort to bring about a paradigmatic change in the organization, payment methods and evaluation of the services. The authors also refer to recent studies of outpatient psychotherapy that provide information about trends and utilization patterns and provide support for its overall effectiveness. The authors discuss the implications of the findings reviewed to the implementation of the MHR in Israel.

  20. Price and quality transparency: how effective for health care reform?

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Li, Chia-Hsuan W

    2009-07-01

    Many in Minnesota and the United States are promoting price and quality transparency as a means for reforming health care. The assumption is that with such information, consumers and providers would be motivated to change their behavior and this would lead to lower costs and higher-quality care.This article attempts to determine the extent to which publicizing information about the cost and quality of medical care does, in fact, improve quality and lower costs, and thus should be included in any reform strategy. The authors reviewed a number of studies and concluded that there is a general lack of empirical evidence on the effect of price transparency on health care costs and that the evidence on the effectiveness of quality transparency is mixed.

  1. [Family Health Reform in Portugal: analysis of its implementation].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Paulo de Medeiros; de Sá, Armando Brito

    2011-06-01

    Primary healthcare in Portugal is undergoing a major reform, of which family health units (FHU) are one of the more visible results. This study aimed to evaluate the FHU implementation process from 2006 onwards. Methods from a previous study of primary healthcare implementation in Brazil were used. Dimensions studied included comprehensiveness of care, organization of care, and the political-institutional perspective. The main improvements identified included better availability of care, team work, technical quality of care, innovative management practices, sustainability of the model, working conditions and infrastructure improvements. Main challenges remaining include integration with hospital care, political and institutional gray areas, need for better information systems, integration within health centers and workflow organization. These data may be useful for management decision-makers when making adjustments and corrections in the reform process.

  2. [Good governance in the Burundi health sector financial reform].

    PubMed

    Peerenboom, Peter Bob; Basenya, Olivier; Bossuyt, Michel; Ndayishimiye, Juvénal; Ntakarutimana, Léonard; van de Weerd, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Burundi introduced free healthcare for children under five and pregnant women in 2006. In 2010, this was linked to the Performance-Based Financing (PBF) approach. This article is designed to identify factors in these health financing reforms that have contributed to good governance in the health sector. Six criteria of good governance were used as an analytical framework. Results were derived from official reports and the international literature. The main contributions of these reforms to good governance in Burundi were the separation of functions, transparency in management and a meticulous description of administrative procedures. Scrupulous monitoring resulted in several corrective measures. Several unresolved questions remain, concerning the integration of vertical programmes and the sustainability of the system given the considerable costs, since funding is not yet fully ensured by the State and its partners.

  3. Health system reform in former socialist countries of Europe.

    PubMed

    Ensor, T

    1993-01-01

    The health systems of all the former socialist countries of Europe are in the midst of far-reaching reform. The process is still in the early stages but certain patterns of finance and provision are beginning to emerge in a number of countries. All are implementing payroll-based social insurance while some are beginning to restrict entitlement to those contributing. There is a danger the process of restructuring will leave many without adequate insurance cover. Market solutions are being introduced in many countries to improve the efficiency of provision. Assuming the administrative cost is not too great, this may improve choice and quality of personal care. It is, however, unclear how far these solutions will tackle the fundamental public health problems endemic in these countries today. Those countries that have been slower to implement reform may benefit from learning from the successes and failures of the pioneers.

  4. What Is Reform in Health Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Contends that United States has fragmented health care system that was put together like collage and that produces gaps in coverage, prohibitively rising costs, and endless paperwork. Discusses competitive insurance system, physician reimbursement, and hospital competition as three qualities of the collage that are at the heart of the problem. (NB)

  5. The need to evaluate public health reforms: Australian perinatal mental health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    To describe the Australian perinatal mental health reforms and explore ways of improving surveillance of maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in this context. We reviewed the Australian perinatal (defined as conception to one year postpartum) mental health reforms, in association with an appraisal of the population health methods that could be used for their evaluation. Despite the increasing focus of public health reforms on maternal mental health in the perinatal period, there is currently no national data available to evaluate these reforms or to provide an evidence base for improved health outcomes. National data development and linkage of relevant datasets would go a long way towards enabling such an endeavour. Inclusion of key mental health items in the Perinatal National Minimum Dataset and use of data linkage techniques will allow for monitoring of trends in maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in response to the Australian reforms. Once this is implemented, cost-benefit analyses can be undertaken. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Is health care a right or a commodity? Implementing mental health reform in a recession.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Rowe, Michael; Sernyak, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law by President Obama in March 2010, contains elements of two seemingly contradictory positions: health care as a commodity and as a right. The commodity argument posits that the marketplace should govern demand, supply, and costs of care. The law's establishment of state insurance exchanges reflects this position. The argument that health care is a right posits that it is a need, not a choice, and that government should regulate care standards that may be compromised as insurers attempt to minimize costs. The law's requirement for coverage of mental and substance use disorders reflects this position. This Open Forum examines these arguments in light of current state fiscal crises and impending reforms. Despite the federal government's interest in expanding prevention and treatment of mental illness, states may demonstrate varying levels of commitment, based in part on their perception of health care as a right or a commodity. The federal government should outline clear performance standards, with minimum services specified to maximize state commitments to services.

  7. Physician payment disclosure under health care reform: will the sun shine?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing has become a mainstay in U.S. health care delivery and traditionally has been directed toward physicians. In an attempt to address potential undue influence of industry and conflicts of interest that arise, states and the recently upheld health care reform act have passed transparency, or "sunshine," laws requiring disclosure of industry payments to physicians. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services recently announced the final rule for the Sunshine Provisions as part of the reform act. However, the future effectiveness of these provisions are questionable and may be limited given the changing landscape of pharmaceutical marketing away from physician detailing to other forms of promotion. To address this changing paradigm, more proactive policy solutions will be necessary to ensure adequate and ethical regulation of pharmaceutical promotion.

  8. The three types of reinsurance created by federal health reform.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act contains three different forms of reinsurance, covering individual insurers, small-group insurers, and employers that insure early retirees. Each reinsurance program has a distinctive structure that serves a unique purpose. Each also has predecessors in various forms of public reinsurance implemented previously by state and federal governments. This article explains the structure of and purpose for each reinsurance provision and why it should no longer be needed once reinsurance helps launch health reform safely.

  9. Health Care Reform and the Federal Transformation Initiatives: Capitalizing on the Potential of Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Delaney, Kathleen; Merwin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the US federal government proposed a transformation vision of mental health service delivery; patient-centered, evidence-based and recovery oriented treatment models. Health care reform brings additional expectations for innovation in mental/substance use service delivery, particularly the idea of creating systems where physical health, mental health and substance use treatment is fully integrated. Psychiatric nurses, as one of the four core US mental health professions, have the potential to play a significant role in the both the transformation initiative and health care reform vision. However, psychiatric nurses, particularly advanced practice psychiatric nurses, are an untapped resource due in part to significant state regulatory barriers that limit their scope of practice in many states. The purpose of this paper is to document what is currently known about advanced practice psychiatric nurses and discuss policy implications for tapping into the strengths of this workforce. Strategies for facilitating utilization of advanced practice psychiatric nurses discussed. PMID:21233135

  10. Reforms and Challenges of Post-conflict Kosovo Health System.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mybera; Berisha, Merita; Lenjani, Basri

    2014-04-01

    Before its collapse, Kosovo's healthcare system was an integrated part of the Former Yugoslav Republics System (known as relatively well advanced for its time). Standstill had begun in the last decade of the twentieth century as the result of political disintegration of the former state. The enthusiasm of the healthcare professionals and the people of Kosovo that at the end of the conflict healthcare services will consolidate did not prove just right. Although we can claim that reorganization of Kosovo healthcare was a serious push (especially in the first years after the conflict), the intensity of development begun to fall at the latter stages. Although the basic legislation for the operation of the Healthcare System today in Kosovo does exist, the largest cause for the reform stagnation is where the law is not implemented properly and measures are not set as to a meaningful system of accountability. Twelve years have passed by since the 1999 war-conflict and, although, Kosovo has made progress in many other spheres, it has not yet reached to consolidate a health system comparable to those of other European countries. Intending to get out of difficult situation, several healthcare strategic plans have been developed in the past decade in Kosovo, but attempts in this direction have not been particularly fruitful. This script describes the actual Healthcare complexity of a situation in Kosovo 12 years after the end of the 1999 war-conflict. Interconnection and historical background is also looked upon and is described in the flow of events. Finally, the description of transfer competencies from international administrators to the local authorities as well as the flow of strategic planning that took place since 1999 has also been analyzed.

  11. Reforms and Challenges of Post-conflict Kosovo Health System

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Mybera; Berisha, Merita; Lenjani, Basri

    2014-01-01

    Before its collapse, Kosovo's healthcare system was an integrated part of the Former Yugoslav Republics System (known as relatively well advanced for its time). Standstill had begun in the last decade of the twentieth century as the result of political disintegration of the former state. The enthusiasm of the healthcare professionals and the people of Kosovo that at the end of the conflict healthcare services will consolidate did not prove just right. Although we can claim that reorganization of Kosovo healthcare was a serious push (especially in the first years after the conflict), the intensity of development begun to fall at the latter stages. Although the basic legislation for the operation of the Healthcare System today in Kosovo does exist, the largest cause for the reform stagnation is where the law is not implemented properly and measures are not set as to a meaningful system of accountability. Twelve years have passed by since the 1999 war-conflict and, although, Kosovo has made progress in many other spheres, it has not yet reached to consolidate a health system comparable to those of other European countries. Intending to get out of difficult situation, several healthcare strategic plans have been developed in the past decade in Kosovo, but attempts in this direction have not been particularly fruitful. This script describes the actual Healthcare complexity of a situation in Kosovo 12 years after the end of the 1999 war-conflict. Interconnection and historical background is also looked upon and is described in the flow of events. Finally, the description of transfer competencies from international administrators to the local authorities as well as the flow of strategic planning that took place since 1999 has also been analyzed. PMID:24944539

  12. Income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services in Finland after a major subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Aromaa, Arpo; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2015-06-01

    In Finland, a major oral healthcare reform (OHCR), implemented during 2001-2002, opened the public dental services (PDS) and extended subsidies for private dental services to entire adult population. Before the reform, adults born earlier than 1956 were not entitled to use PDS nor did they receive any reimbursements for their private dental costs. We aimed to examine changes in the income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services among the adult Finns after the reform. Representative data from Finnish adults born in 1970 or earlier were gathered from three identical postal surveys concerning the use of dental services and subjective perceptions of oral health. Those surveys were conducted before the OHCR in 2001 (n = 1907) and after the OHCR in 2004 (n = 1629) and 2007 (n = 1509). We used concentration index and its decomposition to analyse income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services and factors associated with them. Results showed that pro-rich inequality and inequity in the overall use of dental services narrowed from 2001 to 2004. However, between 2004 and 2007, pro-rich inequality and inequity widened, so it returned to a rather similar level in 2007 as it had been in 2001. Most of the pro-rich inequality and inequity were related to regular dental visiting habit and income level. While there was pro-poor inequality and inequity in the use of PDS, there was pro-rich inequality and inequity in the use of private dental services throughout the study years. It seems that income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services narrowed only temporarily after the reform. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Health Care Reform: Lessons From Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa Berlin

    2003-01-01

    Although Canadian health care seems to be perennially in crisis, access, quality, and satisfaction in Canada are relatively high, and spending is relatively well controlled. The Canadian model is built on a recognition of the limits of markets in distributing medically necessary care. Current issues in financing and delivering health care in Canada deserve attention. Key dilemmas include intergovernmental disputes between the federal and provincial levels of government and determining how to organize care, what to pay for (comprehensiveness), and what incentive structures to put in place for payment. Lessons for the United States include the importance of universal coverage, the advantages of a single payer, and the fact that systems can be organized on a subnational basis. PMID:12511378

  14. Failure of health care reform in the USA.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1996-01-01

    The failure of health reform in the USA reflects the individualism and lack of community responsibility of the American political culture, the power of interest groups, and the extraordinary process President Clinton followed in developing his highly elaborate plan. Despite considerable initial public support and a strong start, the reform effort was damaged by the cumbersome process, the complexity of the plan itself, and the unfamiliarity of key components such as alliances for pooled buying of health insurance. In addition, the alienation of important interest groups and the loss of presidential initiative in framing the public discussion as a result of international, domestic and personal issues contributed to the failure in developing public consensus. This paper considers an alternative strategy that would have built on the extension of the Medicare program as a way of exploring the possibilities and barriers to achieving health care reform. Such an approach would build on already familiar and popular pre-existing components. The massive losses in the most recent election and large budget cuts planned by the Republican majority makes it unlikely that gaps in insurance or comprehensiveness of coverage will be corrected in the foreseeable future.

  15. Sub-national health care financing reforms in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert; Budiyati, Sri; Yumna, Athia; Warda, Nila; Suryahadi, Asep; Bedi, Arjun S

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia has seen an emergence of local health care financing schemes over the last decade, implemented and operated by district governments. Often motivated by the local political context and characterized by a large degree of heterogeneity in scope and design, the common objective of the district schemes is to address the coverage gaps for the informal sector left by national social health insurance programs. This paper investigates the effect of these local health care financing schemes on access to health care and financial protection. Using data from a unique survey among District Health Offices, combined with data from the annual National Socioeconomic Surveys, the study is based on a fixed effects analysis for a panel of 262 districts over the period 2004-10, exploiting variation in local health financing reforms across districts in terms of type of reform and timing of implementation. Although the schemes had a modest impact on average, they do seem to have provided some contribution to closing the coverage gap, by increasing outpatient utilization for households in the middle quintiles that tend to fall just outside the target population of the national subsidized programs. However, there seems to be little effect on hospitalization or financial protection, indicating the limitations of local health care financing policies. In addition, we see effect heterogeneity across districts due to differences in design features.

  16. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  17. 75 FR 37814 - Center for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships; Office of Health Reform Statement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... and Human Services (HHS), as last amended at 75 FR 20364-5, dated April 19, 2010, and Chapter AA... as follows: I. Under Part A, Chapter AA, Section AA.10 Organization, after ``The Secretary (AA),'' insert the following: ``Office of Health Reform (AAE).'' II. Under Part A, Chapter AA, Section AA.10...

  18. Home Care and Health Reform: Changes in Home Care Utilization in One Canadian Province, 1990-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Margaret J.; Brackley, Moyra E.; Allan, Diane E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines population-based trends in home care service utilization, alone and in conjunction with hospitalizations, during a period of health reform in Canada. It focuses on the extent to which observed trends suggest enhanced community-based care relative to three competing hypotheses: cost-cutting, medicalization, and…

  19. Stability operations and the implications for military health services support.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C M; Hanhart, N

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines the implications of the new military campaign type--Stability Operations--on military health service support. The paper uses the format of the medical estimate process and shows how the health service support planning factors of Mission Analysis; Ground; Enemy forces; Friendly forces; Time and Space; Security; Casualty Estimate; Medical Command, Control, Communication, Computers and Information (C4I); Medical Capabilities; Medical Force Protection; Medical Logistics; and Medical CBRN are affected by this change. The paper also identifies two new roles for military medical services, assistance to security sector reform and assistance to reconstruction and development. These two new roles will be discussed more fully in later papers.

  20. Future directions for public health education reforms in India.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, Sanjay P; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate 'standard' and 'quality' of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.

  1. Therapeutic Communities and Mental Health System Reform

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Barbara; Ware, Norma C.

    2009-01-01

    Topic The contemporary relevance of therapeutic communities as a treatment modality in mental health is described. Methods This paper builds upon on a qualitative study to provide a case illustration of a working therapeutic community for persons with serious mental illness. Sources Used The data are seventeen interviews conducted with staff and residents and observations carried out during four days of field work by the research team. Conclusions Studies are needed to determine whether therapeutic communities strengthen consumer capacity for social integration and thus contribute to empowerment and the larger recovery agenda. PMID:18840564

  2. The Clinton health plan: what does it do for reproductive health services?

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1994-01-01

    Of current concern is whether President Clinton's Health Security Act will provide quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. These services should include preconceptional risk assessment, contraception (including sterilization), infertility services, screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cancers of the reproductive system, prenatal diagnosis, abortion, prenatal care, and maternity care throughout the postpartum period. Clinton's health care reform plan clearly addresses preventive health services, considers the long term, and grants preventive services preferential treatment. Yet, it does not provide specifics on family planning or make it a priority. It does not even address family planning under preventive services. The plan never mentions abortion, despite the president's insistence that abortion care is included. Clinton emphasizes that the national policy is to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The lack of specifics makes it difficult to determine whether the plan will maintain or improve existing reproductive health services. Limited information is available on coverage by private insurance policies. Advantages of the Clinton plan are removal of financial obstacles, permanent eligibility, and uniform coverage of services regardless of income, state, or residence. Unless the plan becomes more specific, disadvantages may include limited or no coverage of family planning services and limited or no access to reproductive health services for low-income women. Managed care programs may not provide sensitive reproductive health services (e.g., abortion) on religious or moral grounds. Many political barriers exist to health care reform. If Congress breaks the policy deadlock, with only cosmetic reform that ignores obvious problems, we will be left with the same, but more exacerbated, issues to be addressed in the future.

  3. Indian Health Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Breast Cancer Awareness Month October is National Health Literacy Month Flu Season October is Domestic Violence Awareness ... Awareness Month 10/10/2017 October is National Health Literacy Month 10/06/2017 Flu Season 10/05/ ...

  4. School Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C., Ed.

    A comprehensive guide for health procedures in small and large school systems, this volume emphasizes the need for coordination of school efforts with those of parents, departments of health, private practitioners of medicine and dentistry, and community health agencies. Particular attention is given to the role of the teacher in school health…

  5. Enhancing School-Based Mental Health Services with a Preventive and Promotive Approach to Universal Screening for Complete Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael; Raines, Tara C.; Bovery, Bibliana; Kauffman, Beth; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dever, Bridget V.; Price, Martin; Murdock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Universal screening for complete mental health is proposed as a key step in service delivery reform to move school-based psychological services from the back of the service delivery system to the front, which will increase emphasis on prevention, early intervention, and promotion. A sample of 2,240 high school students participated in a schoolwide…

  6. Enhancing School-Based Mental Health Services with a Preventive and Promotive Approach to Universal Screening for Complete Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael; Raines, Tara C.; Bovery, Bibliana; Kauffman, Beth; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dever, Bridget V.; Price, Martin; Murdock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Universal screening for complete mental health is proposed as a key step in service delivery reform to move school-based psychological services from the back of the service delivery system to the front, which will increase emphasis on prevention, early intervention, and promotion. A sample of 2,240 high school students participated in a schoolwide…

  7. Guidelines for School Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Sarah; And Others

    This publication was designed to assist chief school administrators, school nurses, school physicians, staff, and other school health personnel in developing, implementing, and evaluating sound school health programs for New Jersey public school students. Section I delineates responsibility for school health services, discussing the role of…

  8. Guidelines for School Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Sarah; And Others

    This publication was designed to assist chief school administrators, school nurses, school physicians, staff, and other school health personnel in developing, implementing, and evaluating sound school health programs for New Jersey public school students. Section I delineates responsibility for school health services, discussing the role of…

  9. Basing care reforms on evidence: The Kenya health sector costing model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Methods Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. Results The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health

  10. Basing care reforms on evidence: the Kenya health sector costing model.

    PubMed

    Flessa, Steffen; Moeller, Michael; Ensor, Tim; Hornetz, Klaus

    2011-05-27

    The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health care costs proportionally. Instead

  11. What happens to the women who fall through the cracks of health care reform? Lessons from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly; Córdova, Denisse; Wahlin, Britt; Clark, Jill; Edlund, Karen; McIntosh, Jennifer; Tsikitas, Lenore

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the impact of Massachusetts health care reform on low-income women's experiences accessing insurance and health services, specifically reproductive health services such as contraception. Our findings suggest that concentrated efforts are needed to make sure that health services are available and accessible to populations who fall through the cracks of health care reform, including immigrants, minors and young adults, and women living outside urban areas. In addition, systems changes are needed to ensure that women going through common life transitions, such as pregnancy, marriage, moving, or graduating from school, have continuous access to insurance, and therefore health services, as their lives change. These groups face barriers enrolling in and maintaining their insurance coverage as well as obtaining timely health care benefits they are eligible for through their insurance benefits or public health programs. Without intervention, many in these groups may delay or avoid seeking health care altogether, which may increase health care disparities in the long term. Family planning providers in Massachusetts have played a critical role in mitigating barriers to insurance and health care. However, recent threats to defund family planning providers call into question the ability of these providers to continue providing much-needed services.

  12. From vision to reality: implementing health reforms in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S

    1997-06-01

    This study describes how members of a health team, from the national health system to the local population, implement reform directives and activities in Lusaka, Zambia. In order to determine the influence of the different actors in the health system on the policy outcomes, the study applied the three-dimensional definition of power by Luke and the concept of veto point of Pressman and Wildavsky. This research showed that the different actors expressed agreement on the nature of the National Strategic Health Plan by the Ministry of Health, which became operational in 1995, but the consensus was nevertheless accompanied with opposing attitudes especially on its strong democratization tone. The information provided by the actors also differs in terms of the rationale and implementation mode of policies. Furthermore, in the Lusaka health system, the Minister, district managers, and in-charges were seen as influential on the implementation processes of the reform, sitting in a critical veto point and exercising three types of powers which were expressed through overt, covert, and latent conflicts.

  13. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  14. The potential for nurse practitioners in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Mandy M; Fraser, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, health care reform is underway to address escalating costs, access and quality of care issues, and existing personnel shortages in various health disciplines. One response of the nursing profession to these stimuli has been the development of the advanced practice nurse, namely, the nurse practitioner (NP). NPs are in an excellent position to address current shortcomings through increasing points of access to the health care system, providing an emphasis on education and disease prevention, and delivering high-quality, cost-effective care in a multitude of practice settings. With an emphasis on the social determinants of health, NPs are in a prime position to provide care to underserved and vulnerable populations across Canada. Despite the potential for NPs to be instrumental in health care reform, there is a lack of support and regulation necessary for their optimal use. Barriers to mobilizing NPs in Canada exist and impede the integration of NPs into the Canadian health care system, which has both quality of care and social justice implications.

  15. Mobile health clinics in the era of reform.

    PubMed

    Hill, Caterina F; Powers, Brian W; Jain, Sachin H; Bennet, Jennifer; Vavasis, Anthony; Oriol, Nancy E

    2014-03-01

    Despite the role of mobile clinics in delivering care to the full spectrum of at-risk populations, the collective impact of mobile clinics has never been assessed. This study characterizes the scope of the mobile clinic sector and its impact on access, costs, and quality. It explores the role of mobile clinics in the era of delivery reform and expanded insurance coverage. A synthesis of observational data collected through Mobile Health Map and published literature related to mobile clinics. Analysis of data from the Mobile Health Map Project, an online platform that aggregates data on mobile health clinics in the United States, supplemented by a comprehensive literature review. Mobile clinics represent an integral component of the healthcare system that serves vulnerable populations and promotes high-quality care at low cost. There are an estimated 1500 mobile clinics receiving 5 million visits nationwide per year. Mobile clinics improve access for vulnerable populations, bolster prevention and chronic disease management, and reduce costs. Expanded coverage and delivery reform increase opportunities for mobile clinics to partner with hospitals, health systems, and insurers to improve care and lower costs. Mobile clinics have a critical role to play in providing high-quality, low-cost care to vulnerable populations. The postreform environment, with increasing accountability for population health management and expanded access among historically underserved populations, should strengthen the ability for mobile clinics to partner with hospitals, health systems, and payers to improve care and lower costs.

  16. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

  17. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-11-03

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms.The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways - reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action.This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them.

  18. Reform of how health care is paid for in China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanlian; Tang, Shenglan; Liu, Yuanli; Zhao, Yuxin; Escobar, Maria-Luisa; de Ferranti, David

    2008-11-22

    China's current strategy to improve how health services are paid for is headed in the right direction, but much more remains to be done. The problems to be resolved, reflecting the setbacks of recent decades, are substantial: high levels of out-of-pocket payments and cost escalation, stalled progress in providing adequate health insurance for all, widespread inefficiencies in health facilities, uneven quality, extensive inequality, and perverse incentives for hospitals and doctors. China's leadership is taking bold steps to accelerate improvement, including increasing government spending on health and committing to reaching 100% insurance coverage by 2010. China's efforts are part of a worldwide transformation in the financing of health care that will dominate global health in the 21st century. The prospects that China will complete this transformation successfully in the next two decades are good, although success is not guaranteed. The real test, as other countries have experienced, will come when tougher reforms have to be introduced.

  19. Health policy thoughtleaders' views of the health workforce in an era of health reform.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Karen; Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Burke, Sheila P

    2010-01-01

    Although registered nurses rank similarly with physicians in the public's esteem, physicians are more visible than nurses in media coverage, public policy, and political spheres. Thus, nursing workforce issues are overshadowed by those of other health priorities, including Medicare and health reform. The purpose of this research was to understand the visibility and salience of the health workforce in general, gain an understanding about the effectiveness of messages concerning the nursing workforce in particular, and to understand why nursing workforce issues do not appear to have gained more traction in national health care policymaking. The National Survey of Thoughtleaders about the Health Workforce was administered via mail, telephone and online to health workforce and policy thoughtleaders from August 2009-October 2009. Of 301 thoughtleaders contacted, 123 completed questionnaires for a response rate of 41%. Thoughtleaders agree that nurses are critical to the quality and safety of our healthcare system, that there are current nursing shortages, and that nursing shortages will be intensified by health reform. Thoughtleaders reported that while they do hear about nursing issues frequently, they do not view most sources of information as proposing effective policy solutions. This study highlights a critical gap in effective policy advocacy and leadership to advance nurse workforce issues higher on the national health agenda.

  20. Manpower Mix for Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Larry J.; Young, John P.; Naddor, Eliezer

    1971-01-01

    A model is formulated to determine the mix of manpower and technology needed to provide health services of acceptable quality at a minimum total cost to the community. Total costs include both the direct costs associated with providing the services and with developing additional manpower and the indirect costs (shortage costs) resulting from not providing needed services. The model is applied to a hypothetical neighborhood health center, and its sensitivity to alternative policies is investigated by cost-benefit analyses. Possible extensions of the model to include dynamic elements in health delivery systems are discussed, as is its adaptation for use in hospital planning, with a changed objective function. PMID:5095652