Nguyen, Binh N.
The Choctaw Tribe is the first and only tribe to develop a health delivery system to take over an existing Indian Health Service inpatient facility. The takeover was accomplished in January 1984 under the Indian Self-Determination Act through a contract with the Indian Health Service. The Choctaw Health Delivery System includes a 35-bed general…
This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464
Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E
Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some developed countries where the periodontal profile is also less than satisfactory. Despite the fact that in several developed countries there are advanced programmes oriented to periodontal disease treatments, the concern is related to the lack of preventive oriented treatments. According to data available on periodontal status of populations from developed countries, despite the number of dentists and trained specialists, dental health professionals do not presently meet adequately the need for prevention, focusing mainly on curative care. The need for strengthening disease prevention and health promotion programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many
Fulop, Tamas; Roemer, Milton I.
This guide is intended to assist countries contemplating a comprehensive, action-oriented review of health labor force development to improve their national health systems. Various aspects of the health system infrastructure are examined (major components, organizational structure, coordinating mechanisms, sources of information, and…
Hinman, Alan R; Saarlas, Kristin N; Ross, David A
In both the medical care and public health arenas, a variety of information systems have been developed to serve providers and program managers. In general, these systems have not been designed to share information with other information systems and provide comprehensive information about a child's health status to the information user. A number of initiatives are underway to develop integrated information systems. In December 2003, All Kids Count hosted an invitational conference "Developing Child Health Information Systems to Meet Medical Care and Public Health Needs." Through a series of plenary presentations and breakout discussion groups, participants developed a series of recommendations about governance, economic issues, information infrastructure, and uses of information from integrated child health information systems (CHIS). Common threads in the recommendations were: (1) development of a national coalition of stakeholders to promote integration of separate child health information systems within the context of ongoing national initiatives such as the National Health Information Infrastructure and the Public Health Information Network, (2) the need to develop the business and policy cases for integrated CHIS, (3) the need to develop agreement on standards for collecting and transferring information, and (4) the need to get the word out about the importance of integrating separate CHIS to improve health and health services.
Watts, Bradley V; Shiner, Brian; Cully, Jeffrey A; Gilman, Stuart C; Benneyan, James C; Eisenhauer, William
Industrial engineering and related disciplines have been used widely in improvement efforts in many industries. These approaches have been less commonly attempted in health care. One factor limiting application is the limited workforce resulting from a lack of specific education and professional development in health systems engineering (HSE). The authors describe the development of an HSE fellowship within the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VA). This fellowship includes a novel curriculum based on specifically established competencies for HSE. A 1-year HSE curriculum was developed and delivered to fellows at several VA engineering resource centers over several years. On graduation, a majority of the fellows accepted positions in the health care field. Challenges faced in developing the fellowship are discussed. Advanced educational opportunities in applied HSE have the potential to develop the workforce capacity needed to improve the quality of health care.
Melcher, Kevin J.; Fulton, Christopher E.; Maul, William A.; Sowers, T. Shane
This paper describes the development and initial demonstration of a Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System that is being developed by researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The PHALT System was conceived as a means of evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT System allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment; to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback; and finally, to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. In this paper, PHALT System development is described through the presentation of a functional architecture, followed by the selection and integration of hardware and software. Also described is an initial real-time hardware-in-the-loop demonstration that used sensor data qualification algorithms to diagnose and isolate simulated sensor failures in a prototype Power Distribution Unit test-bed. Success of the initial demonstration is highlighted by the correct detection of all sensor failures and the absence of any real-time constraint violations.
Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah
In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional.
Nauert, Roger C
The health care industry has undergone enormous evolutionary changes in recent years. Competitive transitions have accelerated the compelling need for aggressive strategic business planning and dynamic system development. Success is driven by organizational commitments to farsighted market analyses, timely action, and effective management.
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181
Krstic, Maja; Grozdanov, Jasmina; Ivanovic, Ivan; Korac, Vesna; Vasic, Milena
A key component of any healthcare reform process is to ensure that the services are delivered by the right numbers of staff with appropriate skills and training. In 2007, public health institutions in Serbia had 2% more employees than before the economic transition. Nevertheless, the trend of the total number of employees in the Serbian health care system still preserved a mild rising trend. The most prominent changes in the structure of human resources were effectuated in the total numbers of physicians, nurses and administrative and technical staff. Development of medical science and practice in Serbia is characterized by more intensive processes of specializations, resulting in increased number of specialists among medical doctors. Health care provided in in-patient institutions still employs most of the doctors. The number of unemployed physicians, dentists and pharmacists has been rising since 2000. Another aspect that explains the rise of unemployed, university educated human resources is the rising number of graduated physicians, dentist and pharmacists. Health care policy makers may recognize the need for more integrated planning of human resources in health care, in particular, making management of human resources responsive to system needs and design, instead of vice versa.
Ever since the collapse of the once successful Rural Cooperative Medical System (RCMS) in the early 1980s, when China transformed its system of collective agricultural production to private production, many rural communities, especially the poorer residents, have faced several major problems. In 1993, insurance coverage for rural residents was already low, at 12.8%. By 1998, only 9.5% of the rural population was insured. User charges have effectively blocked access for many rural residents who lack adequate income to purchase basic health care when needed. Impoverishment due to medical expenses is also a serious problem, which begs the question: why has there been no vigorous development of the rural health insurance system in China despite the country's rapid economic growth? This paper analyzes the major underlying reasons for the lack of rural health insurance in China. We found that lack of demand for the voluntary community financing schemes and inadequate government policies are the two major hindrances. Recently, the Chinese government announced a new rural health financing policy that relies on 'matching-funds' by the central and local governments as well as household contributions. The potential for success of this new model might be inferred from China's past experiences, as well as from the pilot projects that are underway.
Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A
Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed by
Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A
BACKGROUND: Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. METHODS: HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. RESULTS: The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed
Smith, Peter C; Anell, Anders; Busse, Reinhard; Crivelli, Luca; Healy, Judith; Lindahl, Anne Karin; Westert, Gert; Kene, Tobechukwu
This paper explores leadership and governance arrangements in seven developed health systems: Australia, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. It presents a cybernetic model of leadership and governance comprising three fundamental functions: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability arrangements. The paper uses a structured survey to examine critically current arrangements in the seven countries. Approaches to leadership and governance vary substantially, and have to date been developed piecemeal and somewhat arbitrarily. Although there seems to be reasonable consensus on broad goals of the health system there is variation in approaches to setting priorities. Cost-effectiveness analysis is in widespread use as a basis for operational priority setting, but rarely plays a central role. Performance monitoring may be the domain where there is most convergence of thinking, although countries are at different stages of development. The third domain of accountability is where the greatest variation occurs, and where there is greatest uncertainty about the optimal approach. We conclude that a judicious mix of accountability mechanisms is likely to be appropriate in most settings, including market mechanisms, electoral processes, direct financial incentives, and professional oversight and control. The mechanisms should be aligned with the priority setting and monitoring processes.
Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders
Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches.
Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane
The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.
Felland, Laurie E; Katz, Aaron; Liebhaber, Allison; Cohen, Genna R
Since Sept. 11, 2001, communities have responded to the federal call to enhance health care surge capacity--the space, supplies, staffing and management structure to care for many injured or ill people during a terrorist attack, natural disaster or infectious disease pandemic. Communities with varied experience handling emergencies are building broad surge capacity, including transportation, communication, hospital care and handling mass fatalities, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Communities rely on federal funding to help coordinate and plan across agencies and providers, conduct training and drills, recruit volunteers, and purchase equipment and stockpile supplies. The current federal focus on pandemic influenza has helped prepare for all types of emergencies, although at times communities struggle with fragmented and restrictive funding requirements. Despite progress, communities face an inherent tension in developing surge capacity. The need for surge capacity has increased at the same time that daily health care capacity has become strained, largely because of workforce shortages, reimbursement pressures and growing numbers of uninsured people. Payers do not subsidize hospitals to keep beds empty for an emergency, nor is it practical for trained staff to sit idle until a disaster hits. To compensate, communities are trying to develop surge capacity in a manner that supports day-to-day activities and stretches existing resources in an emergency. Many of these efforts--including integrating outpatient providers, expanding staff roles and adapting standards of care during a large-scale emergency--require greater coordination, guidance and policy support. As time passes since 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina, federal funding for surge capacity has waned, and communities are concerned about losing surge capacity they have built.
The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.
This thesis investigates the development of structural health monitoring systems (SHM) for aerospace applications. The work focuses on each aspect of a SHM system covering novel transducer technologies and damage detection techniques to detect and locate damage in metallic and composite structures. Secondly the potential of energy harvesting and power arrangement methodologies to provide a stable power source is assessed. Finally culminating in the realisation of smart SHM structures. 1. Transducer Technology A thorough experimental study of low profile, low weight novel transducers not normally used for acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonics (AU) damage detection was conducted. This included assessment of their performance when exposed to aircraft environments and feasibility of embedding these transducers in composites specimens in order to realise smart structures. 2. Damage Detection An extensive experimental programme into damage detection utilising AE and AU were conducted in both composites and metallic structures. These techniques were used to assess different damage mechanism within these materials. The same transducers were used for novel AE location techniques coupled with AU similarity assessment to successfully detect and locate damage in a variety of structures. 3. Energy Harvesting and Power Management Experimental investigations and numerical simulations were undertaken to assess the power generation levels of piezoelectric and thermoelectric generators for typical vibration and temperature differentials which exist in the aerospace environment. Furthermore a power management system was assessed to demonstrate the ability of the system to take the varying nature of the input power and condition it to a stable power source for a system. 4. Smart Structures The research conducted is brought together into a smart carbon fibre wing showcasing the novel embedded transducers for AE and AU damage detection and location, as well as vibration energy
Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay
The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.
Wildner, M; Weitkunat, R
It is the aim of an epidemiologically sound health reporting to present concisely relevant health data in a manner similar to that of management information systems and to comment and interpret them for rational action. Its goal is to deliver the right information at the right time at the right place and in suitable form. Health reports render facts transparent by information and evaluation in the health care sector, help decision makers to act competently by guiding and orientating them in respect of recognising the underlying problems, and thus contribute to coordination and, to setting priorities. Today's health reporting supplements the usual health statistics by primary data collection focussed on current health problems in a population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews provide an equally good coverage as the traditional methods. All this enables to record behavioural changes nearly as sensitively as a seismograph and also to monitor prevention and corrective action in their effects almost in real-time, and, moreover, for a long time (i.e. longitudinally). This approach could be a model for a scientific modernisation of Public Health Service information services.
Wysham, Nicholas G.; Howie, Lynn; Patel, Krish; Cameron, C. Blake; Samsa, Gregory P.; Roe, Laura; Abernethy, Amy P.; Zaas, Aimee
Context: In the emerging Learning Health System (LHS), the application and generation of medical knowledge are a natural outgrowth of patient care. Achieving this ideal requires a physician workforce adept in information systems, quality improvement methods, and systems-based practice to be able to use existing data to inform future care. These skills are not currently taught in medical school or graduate medical education. Case Description: We initiated a first-ever Learning Health Systems Training Program (LHSTP) for resident physicians. The curriculum builds analytical, informatics and systems engineering skills through an active-learning project utilizing health system data that culminates in a final presentation to health system leadership. Findings: LHSTP has been in place for two years, with 14 participants from multiple medical disciplines. Challenges included scheduling, mentoring, data standardization, and iterative optimization of the curriculum for real-time instruction. Satisfaction surveys and feedback were solicited mid-year in year 2. Most respondents were satisfied with the program, and several participants wished to continue in the program in various capacities after their official completion. Major Themes: We adapted our curriculum to successes and challenges encountered in the first two years. Modifications include a revised approach to teaching statistics, smaller cohorts, and more intensive mentorship. We continue to explore ways for our graduates to remain involved in the LHSTP and to disseminate this program to other institutions. Conclusion: The LHSTP is a novel curriculum that trains physicians to lead towards the LHS. Successful methods have included diverse multidisciplinary educators, just in time instruction, tailored content, and mentored projects with local health system impact. PMID:28154832
Greenley, J R
Fragmented and often uncoordinated public services for the more severely mentally ill are often characteristic of the current U.S. mental health system. The creation of local mental health authorities has been promoted as part of a solution, as has happened in Wisconsin at the county level and is championed in the ongoing Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded innovative service sites for severely mentally ill adults. There are indications that these innovative mental health authorities will fall short of fulfilling their promise. Basic principles from the management and organizations literature are used to identify several organization and management issues that may have been neglected. These include resource management, attention to system goals, monitoring and feedback, and the promotion of desirable interorganizational cultures.
Oldman, Crystal; Brodie, David; Nmatsakanova, Naira
This project aimed to develop an objective method for making equipment loans to home-based patients using a prioritisation system based on clinical need. An action research approach was selected as the most appropriate method because of the collaborative nature of the project. It involved working mainly with community nurses using questionnaires, focus groups, telephone and direct interviews. An important part of the process was a workshop with all stakeholders to involve them in decision-making. The resulting unique clinical referral form was implemented successfully. The research also highlighted existing attitudes and perceptions of the equipment loans service among health professionals. The new clinical referral form has improved service provision, is more equitable and now allows decisions to be made using agreed clinical criteria. The results of the research have been disseminated locally in the process of integration of NHS and social services equipment loans. This is a unique example of collaboration between community nursing practitioners, primary care trust managers and researchers producing a measurable difference to patient care.
Barber, Sarah L; Yao, Lan
Health insurance programs have changed rapidly over time in China. Among rural populations, insurance coverage shifted from nearly universal levels in the 1970s to 7% in 1999; it stands at 94% of counties in 2009. This large increase is the result of a series of health reforms that aim to achieve universal access to healthcare and better risk protection, largely through the rollout of the health insurance programs and the gradual increase in subsidies and benefits over time. In this paper, we present the development of the rural and urban health insurance programs, their modes of financing and operation and the benefits and reimbursement schemes at the end of 2009. We discuss some of the problems with the rural and urban residents' schemes including reliance on local government capacity, reimbursement ceilings and rates, and incentives for unnecessary care and waste in the design of the programs. Recommendations include increasing financial support and deepening the benefits packages. Strategies to control cost and improve quality include developing mixed provider payment mechanisms, implementing essential medicines policies and strengthening the quality of primary-care provision.
From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health…
Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna; Gauld, Robin D. C.; Hill, Philip C.; Barnett, Pauline
Background: Studies evaluating development of health information systems in developing countries are limited. Most of the available studies are based on pilot projects or cross-sectional studies. We took a longitudinal approach to analysing the development of Botswana’s health information systems. Objectives: We aimed to: (i) trace the development of the national health information systems in Botswana (ii) identify pitfalls during development and prospects that could be maximized to strengthen the system; and (iii) draw lessons for Botswana and other countries working on establishing or improving their health information systems. Methods: This article is based on data collected through document analysis and key informant interviews with policy makers, senior managers and staff of the Ministry of Health and senior officers from various stakeholder organizations. Results: Lack of central coordination, weak leadership, weak policy and regulatory frameworks, and inadequate resources limited development of the national health information systems in Botswana. Lack of attention to issues of organizational structure is one of the major pitfalls. Conclusion: The ongoing reorganization of the Ministry of Health provides opportunity to reposition the health information system function. The current efforts including development of the health information management policy and plan could enhance the health information management system. PMID:26392841
[Health promotion effectiveness: developing and testing a system for routine evaluation in health education, workplace health promotion and setting approach supplied by the German statutory health insurance agencies].
Kliche, T; Riemann, K; Bockermann, C; Niederbühl, K; Wanek, V; Koch, U
The aim of the study was to develop and test a routine evaluation system for all health promotion and education activities funded by the German statutory health insurance companies. The system aims at measuring both individual health effects and the complex organisational effects of setting projects. Measurement instruments were developed synoptically and tested in three field tests (2003-2008). In order to assess the impact of individual health training, 212 courses of the health insurance companies were evaluated. To assess the setting approach, 56 schools participating in a health-promotion project were included, and for workplace health-promotion 6 projects of different health insurance companies were included. The research design was an observational study. Instead of control groups, individual data were compared to reference values for gender- and age-matched groups from national health surveys. The studies consisted of baseline and final assessment (T1/T2), complemented by a follow-up (T3), all adapted to the time of intervention (i. e., 3-24 months for T1/T2 and 3-18 months for T2/T3). The evaluation system provides multilevel-measurement based upon validated questionnaires for health-related structures and processes in institutions, and for the participating individual's subjective health, health problems, health-related quality of life, workplace and institutional satisfaction. Controlling for central confounders is also possible (input and dosage, age, gender, educational background). Thus, short but valid measurement instruments of high usability are available to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention, health promotion and education.
Gebbie, K M; Merrill, J
Although it has been of interest to public health leaders, advocates, and policy planners for many years, decades have passed since the last organized count of public health workers. This article reports on methods used by the Columbia University School of Nursing, Center for Health Policy, to enumerate the public health workforce in 57 states and territories based on existing reports, summaries, and surveys. The complexity of public health workforce data is described and the scheme utilized to characterize the workforce using public agency categories is illustrated. The resulting "best current estimate" provokes many questions regarding future policy about a public health workforce database.
Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick
The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.
Stevanovic, Ranko; Pristas, Ivan; Ivicevic Uhernik, Ana; Stanic, Arsen
Croatian Primary Health Care Information System pilot project, conducted between 2001 and 2003, aimed to develop and deploy a health information system based on the latest technologies which would improve the quality of primary health care and rationalise the consumption. 60 primary health care teams (physician and nurse) were equipped with PCs and connected via central server to the main national health insurer, state treasury and public health institute. Developed information system enabled rapid retrieval of documents, replacement of manual data input and a real-time insight into needed information as well as prompt interventions within the system. The project also introduced electronic smart cards for physicians and nurses, so that at each medical check-up the information system verified both the ensuree's and the physician's or nurse's status and rights.Based on the experiences from the pilot project, plan has been made for comprehensive health information system at national level which would connect primary health care teams, hospitals, laboratories, dentistries, health insurance companies, state treasury, public health institutes and electronic health records database. Its major goals are more rapid diagnostics, accuracy in prescribing therapy, standardisation of the good practice as well as better utilisation of capacities, shorter waiting times and shorter stays in hospitals, which would lead to improvement in overall health care quality and better control over the health care consumption. Estimated 5-year investment for installing such system would be 125 million EUR. However, information system could save substantially more and yield a return of investment in only two years.As information system for primary health care should be a strategic component of every health care reform and development plan, we can recommend our model, based on the results of the pilot project, to other transitional countries.
Wilson, Jonathan A; McKenzie, L Kendall; McLeod, W Terry; Darsey, Damon A; Craig, Jim
We review the development of a disaster health care response system in Mississippi aimed at improving disaster response efforts. Large-scale disasters generate many injured and ill patients, which causes a significant utilization of emergency health care services and often requires external support to meet clinical needs. Disaster health care services require a solid infrastructure of coordination and collaboration to be effective. Following Hurricane Katrina, the state of Mississippi implemented best practices from around the nation to establish a disaster health care response system. The State Medical Response System of Mississippi provides an all-hazards system designed to support local response efforts at the time, scope, and scale required to successfully manage the incident. Components of this disaster health care response system can be replicated or adapted to meet the dynamic landscape of health care delivery following disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).
Success in the provision of ambulatory personal health services, i.e. providing individuals with treatment for acute illness and preventive health care on an ambulatory basis, is the most significant contributor to the health care system's performance in most developing countries. Ambulatory personal health care has the potential to contribute the largest immediate gains in health status in populations, especially for the poor. At present, such health care accounts for the largest share of the total health expenditure in most lower income countries. It frequently comprises the largest share of the financial burden on households associated with health care consumption, which is typically regressively distributed. The "organization" of ambulatory personal health services is a critical determinant of the health system's performance which, at present, is poorly understood and insufficiently considered in policies and programmes for reforming health care systems. This article begins with a brief analysis of the importance of ambulatory care in the overall health system performance and this is followed by a summary of the inadequate global data on ambulatory care organization. It then defines the concept of "macro organization of health care" at a system level. Outlined also is a framework for analysing the organization of health care services and the major pathways through which the organization of ambulatory personal health care services can affect system performance. Examples of recent policy interventions to influence primary care organization--both government and nongovernmental providers and market structure--are reviewed. It is argued that the characteristics of health care markets in developing countries and of most primary care goods result in relatively diverse and competitive environments for ambulatory care services, compared with other types of health care. Therefore, governments will be required to use a variety of approaches beyond direct public provision
Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim
The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.
Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej
Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions.
Jia, Guifeng; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Pan; Lin, Chengyu; Cao, Xia; Hu, Hua; Ning, Gangmin
This paper presents a health monitoring system by incorporating the approach of user centered design (UCD) for enhancing system usability for the elderly. The system is designed for monitoring cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related physiological signals including electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse wave (PW) and body weight (BW). Ease of use and non-obtrusiveness are two key requirements for design criteria. Our health monitoring system is designed on three levels: personal medical device layer, mobile application layer and remote central service layer. A chair-based apparatus was built for physiological signal acquisition and a mobile application was developed for data delivery and health management. Finally, usability evaluation was conducted and the system efficiency was quantitatively analyzed by system usability scale (SUS). The results demonstrate that the performance of the system is acceptable for the elderly and the UCD principle is helpful for health system design.
Iranata, Data E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wahyuni, Endah; Murtiadi, Suryawan; Widodo, Amien; Riksakomara, Edwin; Sani, Nisfu Asrul
Many buildings have been damaged due to earthquakes that occurred recently in Indonesia. The main cause of the damage is the large deformation of the building structural component cannot accommodate properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) to measure precisely the deformation of the building structural component in the real time conditions. This paper presents the development of SHMS for reinforced concrete structural system. This monitoring system is based on deformation component such as strain of reinforcement bar, concrete strain, and displacement of reinforced concrete component. Since the deformation component has exceeded the limit value, the warning message can be sent to the building occupies. This warning message has also can be performed as early warning system of the reinforced concrete structural system. The warning message can also be sent via Short Message Service (SMS) through the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network. Hence, the SHMS should be integrated with internet modem to connect with GSM network. Additionally, the SHMS program is verified with experimental study of simply supported reinforced concrete beam. Verification results show that the SHMS has good agreement with experimental results.
Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas
We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services.
Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.
This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.
Power, Thomas J.; Michel, Jeremy; Mayne, Stephanie; Miller, Jeffrey; Blum, Nathan J.; Grundmeier, Robert W.; Guevara, James P.; Fiks, Alexander G.
Perhaps the two principal venues for the delivery of mental health services are schools and primary care practices. Unfortunately, these systems of care are poorly connected, which may result in care that is fragmented and suboptimal. This article describes the development and implementation of an electronic health record portal, known as the ADHD…
Maru, Duncan; Farmer, Paul
The social movements of the last two decades have fostered a rights-based approach to health systems development within the global discourse on national and international health governance. In this piece, we discuss ongoing challenges in the cavernous "implementation gap": translating legislative human rights victories into actual practice and delivery. Using accompaniment as an underlying principle, we focus primarily on constructing effective, equitable, and accountable public sector health systems. Public sector health care delivery is challenged by increasingly exclusive politics and inequitable economic policies that fundamentally limit the participatory power of marginalized citizens. Finally, we discuss the role of implementation science in closing the delivery gap in human rights practice.
Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E
The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in primary care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as primary care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare system initiating widespread implementation of the primary care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare system are discussed.
Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela
What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications.
Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Prappre, Tagoon; Pairot, Pakamas; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Islam, Monir
Surveillance systems are yet to be integrated with health information systems for improving the health of pregnant mothers and their newborns, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to develop a web-based epidemiological surveillance system for maternal and newborn health with integration of action-oriented responses and automatic data analysis with results presentations and to assess the system acceptance by nurses and doctors involved in various hospitals in southern Thailand. Freeware software and scripting languages were used. The system can be run on different platforms, and it is accessible via various electronic devices. Automatic data analysis with results presentations in the forms of graphs, tables and maps was part of the system. A multi-level security system was incorporated into the program. Most doctors and nurses involved in the study felt the system was easy to use and useful. This system can be integrated into country routine reporting system for monitoring maternal and newborn health and survival.
Zhang, Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming
To meet the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act, the environmental agencies in the United States (U.S.) have developed a comprehensive ecological assessment system of watershed health in the last two decades. The system employs a watershed approach, and includes a large set of hydrological, chemical, and biological indices, having become an essential part of the watershed water quality management system in the U.S. and provided strong support for the protection of water environment and the restoration of aquatic system. In this paper, the development and application of the ecological assessment system of watershed health by the U.S. environmental regulators, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were overviewed from the aspects of related laws and regulations, ecosystem function analysis, ecological health indicators, comprehensive assessment system, and monitoring and data management systems, and the health assessment systems for the rivers, lakes, estuaries, coasts, and wetlands adopted by the National$t1-1-1 Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) were introduced. Some suggestions for the future development of the scientific ecological assessment system of watershed health in China were put forward based on the understanding of the protection and remediation practices of our water environment.
Bouchard, Vanessa; Moriello, Carolina; Mayo, Nancy E.
Objective: The global aim of this study was to contribute to the development of the Preference-Based Multiple Sclerosis Index (PBMSI). The specific objective of this foundational work was to qualitatively review the items selected for inclusion in the PBMSI using expert and patient feedback. Methods: Cognitive interviews were conducted with patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in English and French. The verbal probing method was used to conduct the interviews. For each PBMSI item, the interviewer probed for specific information on what types of difficulty participants had with the item and the basis for their response for each item. Furthermore, respondents were asked to provide information on the clarity of the item, the meaning of the item, the appropriateness of the response options, and the recall period. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and were transcribed onto a computer. Results: The mean age of the 22 respondents was 52 years, and 82% were women. Mean time since diagnosis was 12 years, and the highest level of education completed was university or college for 86% of the sample. Modifications were made to each item in terms of recall period, instructions, and phrasing. Conclusions: Patient and expert feedback allowed us to clarify items, simplify language, and make items more uniform in terms of their instructions and response options. This qualitative review process will increase accuracy of reporting and reduce measurement error for the PBMSI. PMID:27134579
Ghorbani, NR; Ahmadi, M; Sadoughi, F; Ghanei, M
Background: This study defines necessary data elements required for the research information system in the domain of health, and its level of accountability to national health research indicators from the experts’ perspective is being explored. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on comparative approach using the focus group method. Data were collected through 6 semi-structured group discussions held at the Undersecretary for Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. For this study, 48 researchers were selected for the group discussions. All interviews and group discussions were recorded and transcribed. The Data analysis was performed simultaneously using Strauss and Corbin method. Results: Based on content analysis, the necessary data elements identified for the National Health Research Information System designed for all databases were the following: organizations, researchers, journals, articles, research projects and dissertations. Also, extracted from the focus group discussion were three main themes regarding data elements of these databases for the National Health Research Information System: 1) essential elements for each database 2) the system’s data elements accountability to the national indicators in the domain of health research and 3) recommendations in the direction of optimizing the data. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study can serve as a valuable source in designing research information system in the domain of health within the country and in the region as well. PMID:23641388
Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb I; Nishtar, Sania; Peters, David H; Sabri, Belgacem; Bile, Khalif M; Jama, Mohamed A
Governance is thought to be a key determinant of economic growth, social advancement and overall development, as well as for the attainment of the MDGs in low- and middle-income countries. Governance of the health system is the least well-understood aspect of health systems. A framework for assessing health system governance (HSG) at national and sub-national levels is presented, which has been applied in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean. In developing the HSG framework key issues considered included the role of the state vs. the market; role of the ministries of health vs. other state ministries; role of actors in governance; static vs. dynamic health systems; and health reform vs. human rights-based approach to health. Four existing frameworks were considered: World Health Organization's (WHO) domains of stewardship; Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) essential public health functions; World Bank's six basic aspects of governance; and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) principles of good governance. The proposed HSG assessment framework includes the following 10 principles-strategic vision, participation and consensus orientation, rule of law, transparency, responsiveness, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, accountability, intelligence and information, and ethics. The framework permits 'diagnoses of the ills' in HSG at the policy and operational levels and points to interventions for its improvement. In the case of Pakistan, where the framework was applied, a positive aspect was the growing participation and consensus orientation among stakeholders, while weaknesses were identified in relation to strategic vision, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and efficiency and rule of law. In using the HSG framework it needs to be recognized that the principles are value driven and not normative and are to be seen in the social and political context; and the framework relies on a qualitative approach and does not follow a
Compared with other industrialized countries, the suicide rate in Japan is high. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the mental health care offered at a newspaper facing organizational restructuring and with an aging work force. The Health and Safety Committee played a central role in the creation and application of a new mental health care system. This plan, developed to meet the on-site dynamics of the company, was based on the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's "Guide for Workers' Mental Health Promotion in the Workplace" Executive officers' roles were defined at the directors' meetings, and the Health and Safety Committee held Listening Skills Seminars for executive personnel. As a result, the mental health care system functioned effectively and fostered the care of two presenting employees (i.e., one with slight depression with chronic lumbago and the other with alcohol dependency). In addition, the number of workers who took 4 or more days of sick leave decreased from 31 of 190 in 1996 to 5 of 108 in 2004, with no psychologically related absences. Moreover, the number of industrial injuries declined from 8 cases in 1996 to 0 cases in 2004, and no occupational deaths or early retirements occurred between the fiscal years of 1996 and 2004. As a result of this research at the company, a worksite where repeated large-scale organizational restructuring has occurred, the mental health care system functioned effectively and contributed to a decrease in the rate of sick leave taken by workers.
Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim M; Antinori, Nicole
Background The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use. Such a tool would enable a novel view of what is currently available and support identifying and effectively capturing the consumer’s vision for the future. Objective The objective of this study was to develop the VA HIT Systems Matrix, a novel tool designed to describe the existing VA HIT system and identify consumers’ vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Methods This study utilized an expert panel and veteran informant focus groups with self-administered surveys. The study employed participatory research methods to define the current system and understand how stakeholders and veterans envision the future of VA HIT and interface design (eg, look, feel, and function). Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group data. Results The HIT Systems Matrix was developed with input from 47 veterans, an informal caregiver, and an expert panel to provide a descriptive inventory of existing and emerging VA HIT in four worksheets: (1) access and function, (2) benefits and barriers, (3) system preferences, and (4) tasks. Within each worksheet is a two-axis inventory. The VA’s existing and emerging HIT platforms (eg, My HealtheVet, Mobile Health, VetLink Kiosks, Telehealth), My HealtheVet features (eg, Blue Button, secure messaging, appointment reminders, prescription refill, vet library, spotlight, vitals tracker), and non-VA platforms (eg, phone/mobile phone, texting, non-VA mobile apps, non-VA mobile electronic devices, non
Alzoebie, A; Belhani, M; Eshghi, P; Kupesiz, A O; Ozelo, M; Pompa, M T; Potgieter, J; Smith, M
Over recent decades tremendous progress has been made in diagnosing and treating haemophilia and, in resource-rich countries, life expectancy of people with haemophilia (PWH) is now close to that of a healthy person. However, an estimated 70% of PWH are not diagnosed or are undertreated; the majority of whom live in countries with developing health care systems. In these countries, designated registries for people with haemophilia are often limited and comprehensive information on the natural history of the disease and treatment outcomes is lacking. Taken together, this means that planning efforts for future treatment and care of affected individuals is constrained in countries where it is most needed. Establishment of standardized national registries in these countries would be a step towards obtaining reliable sociodemographic and clinical data for an entire country. A series of consensus meetings with experts from widely differing countries with different health care systems took place to discuss concerns specific to countries with developing health care systems. As a result of these discussions, recommendations are made on parameters to include when establishing and harmonizing national registries. Such recommendations should enable countries with developing health care systems to establish standardized national haemophilia registries. Although not a primary objective, the recommendations should also help standardized data collation on an international level, enabling treatment and health care trends to be monitored across groups of countries and providing data for advocacy purposes. Greater standardization of data collation should have implications for optimizing resources for haemophilia care both nationally and internationally.
Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon
South Africa's cervical screening policy recommends three free Pap smears at ten-year intervals for all women over 30 years of age, aiming to achieve 70% coverage by 2010 by targeting the age group most at risk of developing pre-cancerous cervical lesions. Attaining wide coverage requires an adequate supply of motivated and supported public sector health workers with appropriate training and skills, working in a functional health system. Given the dearth of doctors in South Africa, professional nurses were tasked with performing the bulk of Pap smears at primary care level. Coverage remains sub-optimal and a significant proportion of women with precursor lesions do not receive treatment. Further, health system strengthening - essential for cytology-based screening - has not happened. Research to evaluate alternative screening technologies has proliferated in recent years, but regrettably, strengthening of the health system required to make the new technology work has not received similar attention. Using the South African experience, this article argues that technological interventions and innovations alone are not sufficient to improve cervical screening programmes. Task-shifting is limited unless other human resource concerns (e.g. training, increasing demands on personnel, attrition, and skills mix) are concurrently addressed within a comprehensive workforce development strategy, alongside work to make the health care delivery system functional.
This analysis of the Armenian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2006. Armenia inherited a Semashko style health system on independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Initial severe economic and sociopolitical difficulties during the 1990s affected the population health, though strong economic growth from 2000 benefited the populations health. Nevertheless, the Armenian health system remains unduly tilted towards inpatient care concentrated in the capital city despite overall reductions in hospital beds and concerted efforts to reform primary care provision. Changes in health system financing since independence have been more profound, as out-of-pocket (OOP) payments now account for over half of total health expenditure. This reduces access to essential services for the poorest households - particularly for inpatient care and pharmaceuticals - and many households face catastrophic health expenditure. Improving health system performance and financial equity are therefore the key challenges for health system reform. The scaling up of some successful recent programmes for maternal and child health may offer solutions, but require sustained financial resources that will be challenging in the context of financial austerity and the low base of public financing.
Hatem, M M
When the government of Djibouti established its national health development plan for 1991-95, it took into account traditional medicine, services founded in the colonial era, and the need for primary care. Djibouti needs more physicians. As such, students should be encouraged to pursue medical studies. Efforts to train paramedical staff, the need to integrate the traditional sector into the health system, disease prevention programs, the need to modernize the General Peltier Hospital, maternal and child health, measures being taken to increase the level of community participation in health care, and the adverse effect upon service quality of providing free medical care are discussed. Drug supplies have dwindled as population size has grown. In general, the country's health facilities are overburdened and their equipment is breaking down. In this context, the community must assume part of the financial responsibility for health care.
Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas
Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.
There has been much discussion of the role that recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could play in improving health systems in developing countries, but limited independent analysis of existing applications. Combining a case study approach with a general discussion of the issues, this paper attempts to assess the potential benefits of a diverse range of ICT innovations and some of the constraints they will need to overcome. Four broad areas are considered: improvements in traditional health information systems; computer-aided diagnosis and treatment monitoring; a range of applications generically labelled 'telemedicine'; and the use of ICT to inform general populations on health and healthcare. The final section speculates on the possible medium-term impacts of ICT in terms of improving the performance of existing systems, allowing scope for radical innovations, or even changing basic assumptions about the provider-patient relationship.
Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C
In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology.
Carabantes C, Jorge; Guerra U, Manuel; Guillou, Michèle
This paper reports the gradual development and results achieved in the distance education program set up in the Public Health System in Chile in 2004. Up to date, more than 22,000 students from 29 different health divisions have been trained. This strategy was designed to provide more flexibility and diversity to the training programs of the Health System within the framework of a deep and complex organizational change promoted by Health Reform. The main results show that the integration of organizational, teaching, logistic and budgetary aspects has turned out to be a key element in its success, validating the relevance of the provided solutions. The access to training by means of e-learning or blended learning (electronic education that includes traditional and distance learning activities) allowed employees to choose more independently what, where and when to study. This fact accounts for the high demand for this program. Through this initiative, the National Health System, introduced a wider scope of responses to training needs, which will mean a better adaptation to the challenges associated to health care.
McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Staal, S J
Livestock kept or produced in smallholder farming systems are an important component of the agricultural economy in the developing world. The role of livestock on smallholder farms varies widely, providing draught power for crop production or as a production activity for subsistence needs or market sale under systems ranging from extensive pastoralist to intensive, peri-urban feeder and dairy systems. A set of unique conditions and features characterise smallholder systems, and these need to be appreciated when assessing the strategies that have evolved for managing animal health in smallholder systems, and evaluating opportunities for improving disease control strategies. To provide a framework for discussing animal health issues and analytical methodogies, a typology of smallholder livestock and crop/livestock systems is developed. The typology considers livestock systems both in terms of the degree of intensification, as measured by market orientation and intensity of factor use, and in terms of importance within the household economy, as measured by contribution to household income. A number of characteristics are identified that distinguish smallholder systems from the commercialised systems of developed countries, including the multiple functions livestock serve, the integrated nature of livestock activities, multiple objectives of producers and lower capacity to bear risk at the household level, as well as poor infrastructure, markets, and access to information at the community level. Three representative smallholder livestock systems from Africa are described in detail, highlighting the relevant characteristics and the implications for analysing disease control strategies. Smallholder dairy systems in Kenya demonstrate the role of individual producer decision-making for animal health management in intensive, market-oriented systems, placing emphasis on farm-level risk and production management aspects of disease control. In extensive pastoralist systems
Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Wibulpholprasert, Suwit; Nitayaramphong, Sanguan
Over the past two decades the government in Thailand has adopted an incremental approach to extending health-care coverage to the population. It first offered coverage to government employees and their dependents, and then introduced a scheme under which low-income people were exempt from charges for health care. This scheme was later extended to include elderly people, children younger than 12 years of age and disabled people. A voluntary public insurance scheme was implemented to cover those who could afford to pay for their own care. Private sector employees were covered by the Social Health Insurance scheme, which was implemented in 1991. Despite these efforts, 30% of the population remained uninsured in 2001. In October of that year, the new government decided to embark on a programme to provide universal health-care coverage. This paper describes how research into health systems and health policy contributed to the move towards universal coverage. Data on health systems financing and functioning had been gathered before and after the founding of the Health Systems Research Institute in early 1990. In 1991, a contract capitation model had been used to launch the Social Health Insurance scheme. The advantages of using a capitation model are that it contains costs and provides an acceptable quality of service as opposed to the cost escalation and inefficiency that occur under fee-for-service reimbursement models, such as the one used to provide medical benefits to civil servants. An analysis of the implementation of universal coverage found that politics moved universal coverage onto the policy agenda during the general election campaign in January 2001. The capacity for research on health systems and policy to generate evidence guided the development of the policy and the design of the system at a later stage. Because the reformists who sought to bring about universal coverage (who were mostly civil servants in the Ministry of Public Health and members of
Simba, Daudi O; Mwangu, Mughwira
Information Communication Technology (ICT) revolution brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to strengthen the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). In the wake of globalisation, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges. The last decades saw developing countries taking action to strengthen and modernise their HMIS using the existing ICT. Due to poor economic and communication infrastructure, the process has been limited to national and provincial/region levels leaving behind majority of health workers living in remote/rural areas. Even those with access do not get maximum benefit from ICT advancements due to inadequacies in data quality and lack of data utilisation. Therefore, developing countries need to make deliberate efforts to address constraints threatening to increase technology gap between urban minority and rural majority by setting up favourable policies and appropriate strategies. Concurrently, strategies to improve data quality and utilisation should be instituted to ensure that HMIS has positive impact on people's health. Potential strength from private sector and opportunities for sharing experiences among developing countries should be utilised. Short of this, advancement in ICT will continue to marginalise health workers in developing countries especially those living in remote areas.
Khodjamurodov, Ghafur; Rechel, Bernd
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Tajikistan is undergoing a complex transition from a health system inherited from the Soviet period to new forms of management, financing and health care provision. Following independence and the consequences of the civil war, health funding collapsed and informal out-of-pocket payments became the main source of revenue, with particularly severe consequences for the poor. With the aim of ensuring equitable access to health care and formalizing out-of-pocket payments, the Ministry of Health developed a programme that encompassed a basic benefit package (also known as the guaranteed benefit package) for people in need and formal co-payments for other groups of the population. One of the main challenges for the future will be to reorient the health system towards primary care and public health rather than hospital-based secondary and tertiary care. Pilots of primary care reform, introducing per capita financing, are under way in three of the country's oblasts. There are marked geographical imbalances in health care resources and financing, favouring the capital and regional centres over rural areas. There are also significant inequities in health care expenditures across regions. The quality of care is another major concern, owing to the lack of investment in health facilities and technologies, an insufficient supply of pharmaceuticals, poorly trained health care workers, and a lack of medical protocols and systems for quality improvement.
Hyma, B.; Ramesh, A.; Subhadra, N.L.
Based on the principles of primary health care as outlined by WHO at the Alma Ata Conference in 1978, many voluntary organizations in India have been formulating, organizing and experimenting with the comprehensive rural community health Schemes. The goal is to indentify the felt needs at both individual and community levels and facilitate direct participation in decision making, develop suitable alternative, ecologically Sound indigenous models for socioeconomic well-being. In this context the Indian system of medicine has a useful and complementary role to play in the preventive and curative aspects of primary health care programmes. With the above objectives in mind the investigators undertook a brief survey of a “comprehensive rural health” project. The primary aim of this project is to develop a community health care model using innovative alternative methods using Indian indigenous system of medicine and participatory research techniques to improve rural health services of the surrounding under privileged villages. Many gaps exist in the assessment, however, a birds eye-view is presented here. PMID:22557645
Marshall, Steven A; Brokopp, Charles D; Size, Tim
In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation established the national Laboratory Response Network (LRN) for bioterrorism readiness. A more broad application of the LRN is the National Laboratory System (NLS), an effort to promote the 10 Essential Public Health Services and the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories (hereafter, Core Functions). State public health laboratories (PHLs) are responsible for leading the development of both the LRN and the NLS in their jurisdictions. Based on the experience of creating a laboratory network in Wisconsin, leadership principles are provided for developing and strengthening statewide laboratory networks of PHLs and clinical laboratories, which can also include point-of-care testing sites. Each state PHL, in the context of these Core Functions and leadership principles, sets its priorities, budgets, and strategic plans. For a limited investment of personnel and funds that will yield a large benefit to public health, a robust state laboratory system can be established.
Nelson, Heidi D.; Weerasinghe, Roshanthi; Martel, Maritza; Bifulco, Carlo; Assur, Ted; Elmore, Joann G.; Weaver, Donald L.
Background: Health care systems rely on electronic patient data, yet access to breast tissue pathology results continues to depend on interpreting dictated free-text reports. Objective: The objective was to develop a method to electronically search and categorize pathologic diagnoses of patients’ breast tissue specimens from dictated free-text pathology reports in a large health system for multiple users including clinicians. Design: A database integrating existing patient-level administrative and clinical information for breast cancer screening and diagnostic services and a web-based application for comprehensive searching of pathology reports were developed by a health system team led by pathologists. The Breast Pathology Assessment Tool and Hierarchy for Diagnosis (BPATH-Dx) provided search terms and guided electronic transcription of diagnoses from text fields on breast pathology clinical reports to standardized categories. Approach: Breast pathology encounters in the pathology database were matched with administrative data for 7332 women with breast tissue specimens obtained from an initial procedure in the health system from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011. Sequential queries of the pathology text based on BPATH-Dx categorized biopsies according to their worst pathological diagnosis, as is standard practice. Diagnoses ranged from invasive breast cancer (23.3%), carcinoma in situ (7.8%), atypical lesions (6.39%), proliferative lesions without atypia (27.9%), and nonproliferative lesions (34.7%), and were further classified into subcategories. A random sample of 5% of reports that were manually reviewed indicated 97.5% agreement. Conclusions: Sequential queries of free-text pathology reports guided by a standardized assessment tool in conjunction with a web-based search application provide an efficient and reproducible approach to accessing nonmalignant breast pathology diagnoses. This method advances the use of pathology data and electronic health
Brown, A D
This paper examines the attempt by a District Health Authority (DHA) to create structures (called Purchasing Strategy Groups or PSGs) to facilitate the effective development of its purchasing strategy. The paper is based on a case study design conducted using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The research contribution the paper makes is twofold. First, it analyses some of the fundamental management-related difficulties that a DHA can experience when attempting to come to terms with its role and responsibilities in the 1990s. Second, it provides a discussion and evaluation of the utility of SSM for qualitative research in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK.
Astles, J Rex; White, Vanessa A; Williams, Laurina O
Although not recognized as such, a National Laboratory System (NLS) has existed since the inception of public health laboratory (PHL) testing more than a century ago. The NLS has always relied upon the participation of clinical laboratories, both to report test results that represent public health threats and to submit specimens and isolates to PHLs for additional or confirmatory testing. Historically, a number of factors have hindered the strengthening of the relationships between clinical laboratories and PHLs, but the reality of bioterrorism and subsequent focus on strengthening public-private relationships has stimulated the development of a more robust NLS. Since 2002, there has been substantial strengthening of the NLS through the sharing of lessons learned from several demonstration projects. There is a growing emphasis on defining critical elements of the NLS, including the State Public Health Laboratory System (SPH Laboratory System) and the functions of the Laboratory Program Advisor, a position that every state should have at the center of its laboratory system's capacity-building. Additional strengthening of the NLS is occurring through (1) national biennial measurement of state PHLs' abilities to meet the Core Functions and Capabilities of State PHLs, (2) the new Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) for the SPH Laboratory System, and (3) sharing ideas to integrate and improve the SPH Laboratory System (e.g., using the L-SIP Online Resource Center). Public health emergencies, such as the recent H1N1 epidemic, illustrate and reinforce the need for a strong NLS within which federal, public health, and clinical (i.e., hospital and private reference) laboratories function in close collaboration.
Health services are increasingly under pressure to develop information systems that are responsive to changing health needs and appropriate to service objectives. Developing an essential data set provides managers with a clearly defined set of indicators for monitoring and evaluating services. This article describes a process that resulted in the creation of an essential data set at district level. This had a significant impact on neighbouring districts and resulted in the development of a regional essential data set, which in turn helped to influence the creation of a provincial and then national essential data set. Four key lessons may be drawn from the process. The development of an essential data set both requires and can contribute to a process that allows the reporting requirements to be adjusted over time in response to changing circumstances. In addition, it contributes to (and requires) the integration of programme reporting requirements into a coherent information system. While the case study describes a bottom-up approach, a top-down consultative process is advocated because it establishes a framework within which information needs can be reviewed. Lastly, the use of surveys can aid efforts to keep the essential elements to a minimum. In conclusion, the development of an essential data set contributes to strengthening health services because it necessitates dialogue between programme managers and defines indicators to be monitored by them. PMID:16184283
Pettett, Lyndall M; McKinnon, Allan J; Wilson, Gary J; Carrick, Frank N; Sly, Lindsay I; Bird, Philip S
The koala is one of Australia's most highly specialized folivores with a diet exclusively of eucalyptus leaves to provide all nutritive needs and therefore requires to be free of oral disease as they are dependent on good dentition for optimal health and quality of life. We developed an oral examination methodology based on protocols for companion animals and human dentistry to chart the oral health of koalas. Thirty free-ranging koalas from South-East Queensland, Australia were examined for general body and oral health. Inspection of the oral cavity was conducted for the presence or absence of the indicators oforal disease such as caries or periodontal disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the examination data and a prototype oral health chart developed. The prototype was then trialled and the methodology validated by the Kappa statistic using ten additional koalas examined by four multidisciplinary personnel involved in koala care. Trauma associated fractures, tooth displacement, abnormal occlusion and tooth wear compacted vegetation, extrinsic stain deposits, periodontal bone loss, gingivitis, tooth mobility, and calculus were present in the oral cavities of the examined koalas. A system of scoring between 0 and 3 was constructed in accordance with current koala general health charting formats. Validation of the charting method using Kappa coefficients of agreement statistics indicated that there was a good agreement among observers on recorded results except for inflammation and calculus scoring. Modifications were made and visual aids and index scales produced to further assist observers. Oral health surveillance has been proven in other species to be significant in diagnosing physiological disturbances derived from environmental genetic, and developmental causes. Veterinarians, dental researchers, and koala husbandry personnel will benefit in using this charting method and reporting the oral health of koala populations in their
Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica
This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system.
The attainment of the fifth Millennium Development Goal requires adequate national reserves of skilled birth attendants. Nurses, midwives, and their equivalents form the frontline of the formal health system are a critical element of global efforts to reduce ill-health and poverty in the poorest areas of the world. Planning and policies supporting these cadres of workers must be placed high on the development agenda and championed by key international and national players. This article first sets forth an argument for the equity and efficiency of nurses, midwives, and their equivalents as the cadre largely responsible for maternal health. Second, it traces the root causes of neglect of this critical cadre, including a vacuum in political will in the context of poverty, lack of protections for frontline workers, the historical political position of the field of midwifery, lack of a pipeline of secondary school graduates, and gender inequity. Investment in the largely female cadre that cares for the majority of the world’s poorer women has simply not been a high enough priority. Key policy recommendations include harnessing political will and adequate metrics, protection of frontline workers’ safety and livelihoods, ensuring an adequate pipeline with a focus on girls’ education and donor support for training and professional organizations. The fifth and final policy recommendation is a call for unified international support of rapid scale-up of cadres of delivery care workers. PMID:18581610
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne has developed a real-time engine/vehicle system integrated health management laboratory, or testbed, for developing and testing health management system concepts. This laboratory simulates components of an integrated system such as the rocket engine, rocket engine controller, vehicle or test controller, as well as a health management computer on separate general purpose computers. These general purpose computers can be replaced with more realistic components such as actual electronic controllers and valve actuators for hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various engine configurations and propellant combinations are available. Fault or failure insertion capability on-the-fly using direct memory insertion from a user console is used to test system detection and response. The laboratory is currently capable of simulating the flow-path of a single rocket engine but work is underway to include structural and multiengine simulation capability as well as a dedicated data acquisition system. The ultimate goal is to simulate as accurately and realistically as possible the environment in which the health management system will operate including noise, dynamic response of the engine/engine controller, sensor time delays, and asynchronous operation of the various components. The rationale for the laboratory is also discussed including limited alternatives for demonstrating the effectiveness and safety of a flight system.
The development of the public health system between an increasing market orientation (commercialisation) and social responsibility is critically reflected by examining the medical care of those who are deprived. Poverty in Germany is dramatically increasing. There are confirmed findings on the correlation of being poor and being ill. Poverty leads to an increased number of cases of illness and a higher mortality rate. And vice versa, chronic illnesses very often cause impoverishment. This correlation has largely been ignored not only by the public but also by experts, especially when public health-care issues are on the political agenda. With reference to the current discussion about public health-care and the widespread disregard of the living conditions of the poor, the categories of "reasonable behaviour" (Kant) and "communicative behaviour" (Habermas) are reflected on in a philosophical excursion. Further interest groups affecting the political sphere, such as the pharmaceutical industry, the medical profession, patients and scientists are also examined with regard to public health-care. What are the premises of a health-care discussion that is controlled by economic considerations, particularly when keeping in mind the humanistic and Christian ethics of our society? And what does this mean for our responsibility for those who are handicapped and are in need of our help? Do decision makers and participants of the health-care discussion satisfy these ethical challenges? And what are the effects of the so-called "social peace" on social cooperation and economic power of a country? The increasing market orientation (commercialisation) of the public health sector can only be accepted on the basis of practiced humanity and social responsibility. In the light of a human public health-care, deprived people are in need of our solidarity.
The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to East Asia's developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists.
... fetus grows and develops. There are specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems ...
Abstract In general, there is agreement that robust integrated information systems are the foundation for building successful regional health care delivery systems. Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) institutions that, over the years, have developed strategies for creating cohesive institutional information systems and services are finding that IAIMS strategies work well in the even more complex regional environment. The key elements of IAIMS planning are described and lessons learned are discussed in the context of regional health information systems developed. The challenges of aligning the various information agencies and agendas in support of a regional health information system are complex ; however, the potential rewards for health care in quality, efficacy, and cost savings are enormous. PMID:9067887
López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd; Gonzalez, Carolina
Requirement analysis, design, implementation, evaluation, use, and maintenance of semantically interoperable Health Information Systems (HIS) have to be based on eHealth standards. HIS-DF is a comprehensive approach for HIS architectural development based on standard information models and vocabulary. The empirical validity of HIS-DF has not been demonstrated so far. Through an empirical experiment, the paper demonstrates that using HIS-DF and HL7 information models, semantic quality of HIS architecture can be improved, compared to architectures developed using traditional RUP process. Semantic quality of the architecture has been measured in terms of model's completeness and validity metrics. The experimental results demonstrated an increased completeness of 14.38% and an increased validity of 16.63% when using the HIS-DF and HL7 information models in a sample HIS development project. Quality assurance of the system architecture in earlier stages of HIS development presumes an increased quality of final HIS systems, which supposes an indirect impact on patient care.
Therrien, Marie-Christine; Normandin, Julie-Maude; Denis, Jean-Louis
Purpose Health systems are periodically confronted by crises - think of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, H1N1, and Ebola - during which they are called upon to manage exceptional situations without interrupting essential services to the population. The ability to accomplish this dual mandate is at the heart of resilience strategies, which in healthcare systems involve developing surge capacity to manage a sudden influx of patients. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper relates insights from resilience research to the four "S" of surge capacity (staff, stuff, structures and systems) and proposes a framework based on complexity theory to better understand and assess resilience factors that enable the development of surge capacity in complex health systems. Findings Detailed and dynamic complexities manifest in different challenges during a crisis. Resilience factors are classified according to these types of complexity and along their temporal dimensions: proactive factors that improve preparedness to confront both usual and exceptional requirements, and passive factors that enable response to unexpected demands as they arise during a crisis. The framework is completed by further categorizing resilience factors according to their stabilizing or destabilizing impact, drawing on feedback processes described in complexity theory. Favorable order resilience factors create consistency and act as stabilizing forces in systems, while favorable disorder factors such as diversity and complementarity act as destabilizing forces. Originality/value The framework suggests a balanced and innovative process to integrate these factors in a pragmatic approach built around the fours "S" of surge capacity to increase health system resilience.
Gerkens, Sophie; Merkur, Sherry
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Belgian population continues to enjoy good health and long life expectancy. This is partly due to good access to health services of high quality. Financing is based mostly on proportional social security contributions and progressive direct taxation. The compulsory health insurance is combined with a mostly private system of health care delivery, based on independent medical practice, free choice of physician and predominantly fee-for-service payment. This Belgian HiT profile (2010) presents the evolution of the health system since 2007, including detailed information on new policies. While no drastic reforms were undertaken during this period, policy-makers have pursued the goals of improving access to good quality of care while making the system sustainable. Reforms to increase the accessibility of the health system include measures to reduce the out-of-pocket payments of more vulnerable populations (low-income families and individuals as well as the chronically ill). Quality of care related reforms have included incentives to better integrate different levels of care and the establishment of information systems, among others. Additionally, several measures on pharmaceutical products have aimed to reduce costs for both the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (NIHDI) and patients, while maintaining the quality of care.
Hansen, E H; Launsø, L
The article presents various perspectives of drug technology and health care policy in Denmark. Drugs dominate as the most widely used treatment technology in the health care system and the use of drugs is steadily increasing. The pharmaceutical industry's development of drugs is based on an economic estimate of developments, expenditures, marketing costs and the anticipated share of the market. Controlled clinical trials have become the main form of documentation required by the health authorities. This method is insufficient to evaluate the (side) effects of the drugs when in actual use. Drugs fit perfectly the technical perception of disease, a perception which prevails in the pharmaceutical industry, medical science and in the treatment of disease. This perception believes that a disease is due to an attack or dysfunction in the biological-mechanical conditions of the individual. Drugs offer a standard solution to health problems independent of the individuals' social life. Thus drugs become a tool which function in agreement with the disintegrated and achievement-orientated approach to disease as it is organized today. In general the statements in this article are not limited to special Danish circumstances but are valid for other countries as well [1, 2]. (Norris R. Pills, Pesticides & Profits. North River Press, 1982; Braithwaite J. Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1984) The empirical data in this article derive from Denmark, however.
Monti, Kristina; Rosner, Arielle
Beginning in 2011, The Mount Sinai Hospital participated in the New York State Department of Health Medicaid Health Home (HH) program, evolving into what is now the Mount Sinai Health Home (MSHH). The lead HH designation required social work leadership to develop and implement this initiative within a large health system, consisting of five New York City area hospitals. Additionally, strategic partnerships with sub-contracted, community based organizations and Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were essential to the HH's success, and were facilitated by inter- and intra-organization collaboration. This article provides an overview of the HH model and discusses the process by which MSHH was formed, the integral role of social work in its development and success, challenges and lessons learned, and recommendations for the development of the profession's future workforce. The authors intend to leave the reader with a model of social work leadership within the current environment of health care reform, and to exemplify social work care coordination and engagement of a hard to reach patient population.
Schaumann, Leif; And Others
Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this seventh of ten manuals in the Interational Health Planning Methods Series deals with pharmaceutical supply systems planning in developing countries. Following an…
Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech
Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261
Bae, Jeongyee; Wolpin, Seth; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Sowoo; Yoon, Sookhee; An, Kyungeh
A user-centered, Web-based depressive symptoms management system might be particularly useful in Korea, where those who seek mental health care face stigmatizing and where personal computers and the Internet have reached saturation levels. The purpose of this article is to describe the development process of a Web-based system for depressive symptom management through user-centered design principles. Our design process included four distinct phases: a needs assessment, analysis, design/development/testing, and the application release. The final revised website was released with the URL address, "http://www.baejy.com/smiles/". In the 3 years since the site was made available publicly, it is notable that 161,604 Koreans have accessed this website, either for educational purposes or for managing their depressive symptoms. A Web-based depressive symptom management system with a high degree of usability was developed. This website can be used to assess depressive symptoms and to serve as an intervention strategy to improve mental health.
Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina
This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined with the significant burden of chronic diseases, this has underscored the need for prevention and integration of services, although these have not historically been strengths of the French system. Although the French health care system is a social insurance system, it has historically had a stronger role for the state than other Bismarckian social insurance systems. Public financing of health care expenditure is among the highest in Europe and out-of-pocket spending among the lowest. Public insurance is compulsory and covers the resident population; it is financed by employee and employer contributions as well as increasingly through taxation. Complementary insurance plays a significant role in ensuring equity in access. Provision is mixed; providers of outpatient care are largely private, and hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. Despite health outcomes being among the best in the European Union, social and geographical health inequities remain. Inequality in the distribution of health care professionals is a considerable barrier to equity. The rising cost of health care and the increasing demand for long-term care are also of concern. Reforms are ongoing to address these issues, while striving for equity in financial access; a long-term care reform including public coverage of long-term care is still pending.
The functions of the health system, according to the key objectives and relationships within the sub-systems that are available to the policy makers and managers in the Health Care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina - B&H, have been elaborated in detail, with the analytical overview of relevant indicators, thus confirming the limitations of the health promotion in B&H. The ability to overcome the expressed problems is in the startup of process for structural adjustment of the health sector, reform of the health care system and its financing. The reform in health system implies fundamental changes that need to take place, in B&H, as a state in health policy and institutions in the health care system, in order to improve the functioning of health systems with the aim of ensuring better health of the population. Reform implies the existence of documents with clearly formulated health policy objectives, for which the state stands, and for which a consensus was reached on the national level with all key actors in the political structure: public promotion of the basic principles for carrying out the reform, its implementation within a reasonable time frame, the corresponding effects for providers and customer satisfaction, as well as improving health services' efficacy (i.e. micro and macro) and the quality of healthcare. In this article, we elaborated the criteria for the classification of health systems, whereby the scientifically-based and empirical analysis is conducted on the health system in B&H and elaborated the key levers of the system. Leveraged organizational arrangements relating to the economic and political environment, organization and management functions, in connection with the services of finance, funds, customers and service providers, from which it follows the framework of state legislation related to health policy and health institutions at the state level are responsible for finance, planning, the organization, payment, regulation and conduct. If we
Psychiatric diagnosis and classification reflect the social and political context of an era and are embedded in it. In the last few decades, culture-bound syndromes reported in non-Western societies constituted the major focus of contention over the validity and universality of psychiatric diagnosis. In contemporary times, social, economic, and political factors, such as the hegemony of the DSM discourse, the managed care culture, pharmaceutical forces, and the global burden of disease study, have virtually made culture-bound syndromes 'disappear'. Once widely believed to be rare outside of the developed West, depression has rapidly become the master narrative of mental health worldwide. In the context of global mental health, the field of psychiatric classification must go beyond routine debates over categories. In order to address the growing discrepancy between needs and services, international cultural psychiatry must engage key social forces, such as psychiatric epidemiology, primary care psychiatry, integration of diagnostic systems, stigma, and advocacy.
Azzopardi Muscat, Natasha; Calleja, Neville; Calleja, Antoinette; Cylus, Jonathan
This analysis of the Maltese health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health system in Malta consists of a public sector, which is free at the point of service and provides a comprehensive basket of health services for all its citizens, and a private sector, which accounts for a third of total health expenditure and provides the majority of primary care. Maltese citizens enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in Europe. Nevertheless, non-communicable diseases pose a major concern with obesity being increasingly prevalent among both adults and children. The health system faces important challenges including a steadily ageing population, which impacts the sustainability of public finances. Other supply constraints stem from financial and infrastructural limitations. Nonetheless, there exists a strong political commitment to ensure the provision of a healthcare system that is accessible, of high quality, safe and also sustainable. This calls for strategic investments to underpin a revision of existing processes whilst shifting the focus of care away from hospital into the community.
National Health Insurance has been implemented since 1st January 2014. A number of new policies have been established including multilevel referral system. The multilevel referral system classified health care center into three levels, it determined that the flow of patient treatment should be started from first level health care center. There are 144 kind of diseases that must be treat in the first level which mainly consists of general physicians. Unfortunately, competence of the physician in the first level may not fulfil the standard competence yet. To improved the physisians knowledge, government has created many events to accelerate knowledge sharing. However, it still needs times and many resources to give significan results. Expert system is kind of software that provide consulting services to non-expert users in accordance with the area of its expertise. It can improved effectivity and efficiency of knowledge sharing and learning. This research was developed a model of TB diagnose expert system which comply with the standard procedure of TB diagnosis and regulation. The proposed expert system has characteristics as follows provide facility to manage multimedia clinical data, supporting the complexity of TB diagnosis (combine rule-based and case-based expert system), interactive interface, good usability, multi-platform, evolutionary.
Sun, Xiaoyi; Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Knight, Travis; Lam, Poh-Sang; Yu, Lingyu
Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. In total, there are over 1482 dry cask storage system (DCSS) in use at US plants, storing 57,807 fuel assemblies. Nondestructive material condition monitoring is in urgent need and must be integrated into the fuel cycle to quantify the "state of health", and more importantly, to guarantee the safe operation of radioactive waste storage systems (RWSS) during their extended usage period. A state-of-the-art nuclear structural health monitoring (N-SHM) system based on in-situ sensing technologies that monitor material degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures is being developed. The N-SHM technology uses permanently installed low-profile piezoelectric wafer sensors to perform long-term health monitoring by strategically using a combined impedance (EMIS), acoustic emission (AE), and guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) approach, called "multimode sensing", which is conducted by the same network of installed sensors activated in a variety of ways. The system will detect AE events resulting from crack (case for study in this project) and evaluate the damage evolution; when significant AE is detected, the sensor network will switch to the GUW mode to perform damage localization, and quantification as well as probe "hot spots" that are prone to damage for material degradation evaluation using EMIS approach. The N-SHM is expected to eventually provide a systematic methodology for assessing and monitoring nuclear waste storage systems without incurring human radiation exposure.
Tuomainen, Mika; Mykkänen, Juha; Luostarinen, Heli; Pöyhölä, Assi; Paakkanen, Esa
Modeling is used increasingly in healthcare to increase shared knowledge, to improve the processes, and to document the requirements of the solutions related to health information systems (HIS). There are numerous modeling approaches which aim to support these aims, but a careful assessment of their strengths, weaknesses and deficiencies is needed. In this paper, we compare three model-centric approaches in the context of HIS development: the Model-Driven Architecture, Business Process Modeling with BPMN and BPEL and the HL7 Development Framework. The comparison reveals that all these approaches are viable candidates for the development of HIS. However, they have distinct strengths and abstraction levels, they require local and project-specific adaptation and offer varying levels of automation. In addition, illustration of the solutions to the end users must be improved.
Arsenault, Tyler J.; Achuthan, Ajit; Marzocca, Pier; Grappasonni, Chiara; Coppotelli, Giuliano
The development of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based distributed strain sensor system for real time structural health monitoring of a wind turbine rotor and its validation under a laboratory scale test setup is discussed in this paper. A 1 kW, 1.6 m diameter rotor, horizontal axis wind turbine with three instrumented blades is used in this study. The sensor system consists of strain sensors, surface mounted at various locations on the blade. At first the sensors are calibrated under static loading conditions to validate the FBG mounting and the proposed data collection techniques. Then, the capability of the sensor system coupled with the operational modal analysis (OMA) methods to capture natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in terms of distributed strains are validated under various non-rotating dynamic loading conditions. Finally, the sensor system is tested under rotating conditions using the wind flow from an open-jet wind tunnel, for both a baseline wind turbine and a wind turbine with a structurally modified blade. The blade was modified by attaching a lumped mass at the blade tip simulating structural damage or ice accretion. The dynamic characteristics of the baseline (healthy) blade and modified (altered) blade are compared to validate the sensor system’s ability for real time structural health monitoring of the rotor.
Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard
, particularly in areas such as pharmaceuticals, are highly regressive. The health status of the Polish population has improved substantially, with average life expectancy at birth reaching 80.2 years for women and 71.6 years for men in 2009. However, there is still a vast gap in life expectancy between Poland and the western European Union (EU) countries and between life expectancy overall and the expected number of years without illness or disability. Given its modest financial, human and material health care resources and the corresponding outcomes, the overall financial efficiency of the Polish system is satisfactory. Both allocative and technical efficiency leave room for improvement. Several measures, such as prioritizing primary care and adopting new payment mechanisms such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), have been introduced in recent years but need to be expanded to other areas and intensified. Additionally, numerous initiatives to enhance quality control and build the required expertise and evidence base for the system are also in place. These could improve general satisfaction with the system, which is not particularly high. Limited resources, a general aversion to cost-sharing stemming from a long experience with broad public coverage and shortages in health workforce need to be addressed before better outcomes can be achieved by the system. Increased cooperation between various bodies within the health and social care sectors would also contribute in this direction. The HiT profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; they describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis.
Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout
This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system.
Ellsworth, Leanna; O'Keeffe, Annmaree
methodology and timing of the available data collection. Conclusions Despite the variations in the health systems as well as national, political and economic approaches, none is adequately addressing Inuit health needs. All Inuit populations still have significant gaps between their health status and those of broader national populations. Meaningful measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of the respective health systems is severely hindered by the lack of relevant, Inuit-specific health data. The inadequacy, and in a number of cases absence of relevant data, hinders the design and development of a better and potentially more effective approach to delivering health services to Inuit. PMID:23984305
Figueroa, Fernando; Holland, Randy; Coote, David
Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex System (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, prognosis of future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK)-not just data-to control systems for safe and effective operation. This capability is currently done by large teams of people, primarily from ground, but needs to be embedded on-board systems to a higher degree to enable NASA's new Exploration Mission (long term travel and stay in space), while increasing safety and decreasing life cycle costs of spacecraft (vehicles; platforms; bases or outposts; and ground test, launch, and processing operations). The topics related to this capability include: 1) ISHM Related News Articles; 2) ISHM Vision For Exploration; 3) Layers Representing How ISHM is Currently Performed; 4) ISHM Testbeds & Prototypes at NASA SSC; 5) ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL); 6) ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) and Technology Readiness Level (TRL); 7) Core Elements: Capabilities Needed; 8) Core Elements; 9) Open Systems Architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM); 10) Core Elements: Architecture, taxonomy, and ontology (ATO) for DIaK management; 11) Core Elements: ATO for DIaK Management; 12) ISHM Architecture Physical Implementation; 13) Core Elements: Standards; 14) Systematic Implementation; 15) Sketch of Work Phasing; 16) Interrelationship Between Traditional Avionics Systems, Time Critical ISHM and Advanced ISHM; 17) Testbeds and On-Board ISHM; 18) Testbed Requirements: RETS AND ISS; 19) Sustainable Development and Validation Process; 20) Development of on-board ISHM; 21) Taxonomy/Ontology of Object Oriented Implementation; 22) ISHM Capability on the E1 Test Stand Hydraulic System; 23) Define Relationships to Embed Intelligence; 24) Intelligent Elements Physical and Virtual; 25) ISHM Testbeds and Prototypes at SSC Current Implementations; 26) Trailer
De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm
This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to
Nsanzimana, Sabin; Prabhu, Krishna; McDermott, Haley; Karita, Etienne; Forrest, Jamie I; Drobac, Peter; Farmer, Paul; Mills, Edward J; Binagwaho, Agnes
The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi destroyed the health system in Rwanda. It is impressive that a small country like Rwanda has advanced its health system to the point of now offering near universal health insurance coverage. Through a series of strategic structural changes to its health system, catalyzed through international assistance, Rwanda has demonstrated a commitment towards improving patient and population health indicators. In particular, the rapid scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a great success story for Rwanda. The country achieved universal coverage of ART at a CD4 cell count of 200 cells/mm(3) in 2007 and increased the threshold for initiation of ART to ≤350 cells/mm(3) in 2008. Further, 2013 guidelines raised the threshold for initiation to ≤500 cells/mm(3) and suggest immediate therapy for key affected populations. In 2015, guidelines recommend offering immediate treatment to all patients. By reviewing the history of HIV and the scale-up of treatment delivery in Rwanda since the genocide, this paper highlights some of the key innovations of the Government of Rwanda and demonstrates the ways in which the national response to the HIV epidemic has catalyzed the implementation of interventions that have helped strengthen the overall health system.
Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout
In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health
Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei
This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success.
London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B
Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of
During their brief flight, the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) experience a severe environment. This environment in most cases is unknown. When the design engineers believe they understand the environments, something new occurs. For example, at water impact several SRBs have sustained noticeable structural damage. The severity of the damage is usually dependent upon the waves that the SRB encounter at splashdown. The space shuttle is presently scheduled to fly until 2030. To support the shuttle flight schedule, the avionics on the SRB's will need to be upgraded. The environments on the different sections of the SRB will need to be defined more completely to properly qualify the avionics for multiple flights. The combination of new avionics systems and unknown flight environments led Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) SRB Project Office to request the Science and Engineering (S&E) Directorate to develop a stand-alone data acquisition system that could collect data from any area of the booster. The Enhanced Data Acquisition System (EDAS) was developed to meet this request. However, the EDAS has some technical drawbacks that needed resolved. To answer the EDAS problems, the SRB Project Office has funded MSFC's Avionics Department to begin investigating a new vehicle health monitoring (VHM) system. The major requirements are the system shall have 64 channels, have programmable sample rates up to 10,000 samples per second, have sufficient memory for a twenty minute flight and not interfere with existing operational flight avionics hardware. This paper will describe the effort to develop a VHM system that can meet the SRB requirements.
Vladescu, Cristian; Scintee, Silvia Gabriela; Olsavszky, Victor; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina; Sagan, Anna
This analysis of the Romanian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Romanian health care system is a social health insurance system that has remained highly centralized despite recent efforts to decentralize some regulatory functions. It provides a comprehensive benefits package to the 85% of the population that is covered, with the remaining population having access to a minimum package of benefits. While every insured person has access to the same health care benefits regardless of their socioeconomic situation, there are inequities in access to health care across many dimensions, such as rural versus urban, and health outcomes also differ across these dimensions. The Romanian population has seen increasing life expectancy and declining mortality rates but both remain among the worst in the European Union. Some unfavourable trends have been observed, including increasing numbers of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses and falling immunization rates. Public sources account for over 80% of total health financing. However, that leaves considerable out-of-pocket payments covering almost a fifth of total expenditure. The share of informal payments also seems to be substantial, but precise figures are unknown. In 2014, Romania had the lowest health expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) among the EU Member States. In line with the government's objective of strengthening the role of primary care, the total number of hospital beds has been decreasing. However, health care provision remains characterized by underprovision of primary and community care and inappropriate use of inpatient and specialized outpatient care, including care in hospital emergency departments. The numbers of physicians and nurses are relatively low in Romania compared to EU averages. This has mainly been attributed to the high rates of workers emigrating abroad over the
Woodard, Stanley E.; Coffey, Neil C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Brett, Rube R.; Woodman, Keith L.; Weathered, Brenton W.; Rollins, Courtney H.
Development and testing of an adaptable vehicle health-monitoring architecture is presented. The architecture is being developed for a fleet of vehicles. It has three operational levels: one or more remote data acquisition units located throughout the vehicle; a command and control unit located within the vehicle; and, a terminal collection unit to collect analysis results from all vehicles. Each level is capable of performing autonomous analysis with a trained expert system. Communication between all levels is done with wireless radio frequency interfaces. The remote data acquisition unit has an eight channel programmable digital interface that allows the user discretion for choosing type of sensors; number of sensors, sensor sampling rate and sampling duration for each sensor. The architecture provides framework for a tributary analysis. All measurements at the lowest operational level are reduced to provide analysis results necessary to gauge changes from established baselines. These are then collected at the next level to identify any global trends or common features from the prior level. This process is repeated until the results are reduced at the highest operational level. In the framework, only analysis results are forwarded to the next level to reduce telemetry congestion. The system's remote data acquisition hardware and non-analysis software have been flight tested on the NASA Langley B757's main landing gear. The flight tests were performed to validate the following: the wireless radio frequency communication capabilities of the system, the hardware design, command and control; software operation; and, data acquisition, storage and retrieval.
Bailey, Susan; Doreleijers, Theo; Tarbuck, Paul
Developments within health care services for young offenders have traditionally lagged behind those for general child and adolescent populations. Screening and diagnostic assessment instruments commonly used in general child and adolescent mental health care do not meet the special requirements of forensic populations. This article describes some general aspects of screening and assessment in this population, followed by a description of four specific instruments.
Chevreul, Karine; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Bahrami, Stéphane Bahrami; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Mladovsky, Philipa
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The French health care system is a mix of public and private providers and insurers. Public insurance, financed by both employees and employer contributions and earmarked taxes, is compulsory and covers almost the whole population, while private insurance is of a complementary type and voluntary. Providers of outpatient care are largely private. Hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. The French population enjoys good health and a high level of choice of providers. It is relatively satisfied with the health care system. However, as in many other countries, the rising cost of health care is of concern with regards to the objectives of the health care system. Many measures were or are being implemented in order to contain costs and increase efficiency. These include, for example, developing pay-for-performance for both hospitals and self-employed providers and increasing quality of professional practice; refining patient pathways; raising additional revenue for statutory health insurance (SHI); and increasing the role of voluntary health insurance (VHI). Meanwhile, socioeconomic disparities and geographic inequality in the density of health care professionals remain considerable challenges to providing a good level of equity in access to health care. Organizational changes at the regional level are important in attempting to tackle both equity and efficiency-related challenges. While the organizational structure of the system
Gaal, Peter; Szigeti, Szabolcs; Csere, Marton; Gaskins, Matthew; Panteli, Dimitra
diversified over the past 15 years, but the current mix has yet to be tested for sustainability. The fit between existing capacities and the health care needs of the population remains less than ideal, but improvements have been made over the past 15 years. In general, the average length of stay and hospital admission rates have decreased since 1990, as have bed occupancy rates. However, capacity for long-term nursing care in both the inpatient and outpatient setting is still considered insufficient. Hungary is currently also facing a health workforce crisis, explained by the fact that it is a net donor country with regard to health care worker migration, and health care professionals on the whole are ageing. Although the overall technical efficiency of the system has increased considerably, mainly due to the introduction of output-based payment systems, allocative efficiency remains a problem. Considerable variations exist in service delivery both geographically and by specialization, and equity of access is far from being realized, a fact which is mirrored in differing health outcomes for different population groups. A key problem is the continuing lack of an overarching, evidence-based strategy for mobilizing resources for health, which leaves the health system vulnerable to broader economic policy objectives and makes good governance hard to achieve. On the other hand, Hungary is a target country for cross-border health care, mainly for dental care but also for rehabilitative services, such as medical spa treatment. The health industry can thus be a potential strategic area for economic development and growth.
Muiser, Jorine; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Bermúdez, Juan Luis
This paper describes the health conditions in Nicaragua and discusses the characteristics of its national health system including its structure and coverage, its financial sources its physical, material and human resources the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the system and the level of satisfaction of health care users. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the decentralization of the regulation of health facilities and the design and implementation of a new health care model known as Family and Community Health Model.
Liu, Changjiang; Zhang, Junyue; Chen, Guoyuan; Yang, Kedi
Public health education is becoming an increasing priority among educators of medicine. In China, little attention has been paid to public health education reform. A new public health training system was introduced in China in 2007. We conducted this study during 2006-2012 to evaluate the graduate core competencies under the new system. Data were collected from 231 graduates and 49 public health agencies. The 144 graduates who enrolled in 2006 and were trained under the old system constituted the control group; the 87 graduates who enrolled in 2007 and were trained under the new system constituted the experimental group. Surveys of graduate core competencies found analyzing and solving problems in the laboratory, conducting on-site practice and learning new technologies were the top three abilities most expected by public health agencies. After 5-year practical ability training, the graduates in the experimental group had better performance; on-site practical ability and laboratory practical ability increased significantly by 24.5% and 20.0%, respectively. Three other important competencies also improved: designing epidemiologic surveys, collecting information from the literature and doing statistical analyses. However, preventing and controlling common diseases and dealing with emergencies remained weak. These results show the new training system should be continued, but revisions are needed to improve this training system, especially in the areas of preventing and controlling common diseases and dealing with emergencies.
García-Armesto, Sandra; Begoña Abadía-Taira, María; Durán, Antonio; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. This edition of the Spanish HiT focuses on the consequences of the totally devolved status, consolidated in 2002, and the implementation of the road map established by the 2003 SNS Cohesion and Quality Act. Many of the steps already taken underline the improvement path chosen: the SNS Inter-territorial Council (CISNS) comprising the national and regional health ministries was upgraded to the highest SNS authority, paving the way for a brand new consensus-based policy-making process grounded in knowledge management; its effects are progressively starting to be evident. It led the way to the SNS common benefits basket or the SNS human resources policy framework, laying the cornerstones for coordination and the enactment of the SNS Quality Plan. The Plan includes the work in progress to implement the national health information system, the development of a single electronic clinical record (eCR) containing relevant clinical information guaranteeing to patients continuity of care outside their Autonomous Community (AC) of residence or a single patient ID to be used across the country, thus creating the basis for the SNS functional single insurer. It has also become one of the main drivers for the design, implementation and monitoring of quality standards across the SNS, developing national health strategies to tackle both most prevalent chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes) and rare diseases, as well as the National Strategy on
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (EU) countries. The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. Access to services is based on citizenship as well as on occupational status.The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments.The largest share of health expenditure constitutes private expenditure, mainly in the form of out of pocket payments which is also the element contributing most to the overall increase in health expenditure. The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. The presence of private providers is more obvious in primary care,especially in diagnostic technologies, private physicians' practices and pharmaceuticals. Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. It suffers from the absence of cost-containment measures and defined criteria for funding, resulting in sickness funds experiencing economic constraints and budget deficits. The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair
Payne, T.; Kanvik, S.; Seward, R.; Beeman, D.; Salazar, A.; Miller, Z.; Immanuel, V.; Thompson, R. S.
We have successfully developed a mainframe system for tracking all immunizations administered to enrollees in a large HMO. This system will provide comprehensive immunization records on a population of over 350,000 patients. Data required by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 are locally entered into terminals, and records of immunization are stored in a database. Preliminary results show that data entry times are practical, but that improvement in data quality is needed. This immunization tracking system will be used for research, and as the foundation of an immunization reminder system under development. PMID:1807572
solved with a more evidence based approach and dialogue based on a clear vision and costed strategic plan articulated by the ministry of health. Improving health in Africa is a driver for long-term economic growth and development and this is the reason why the ministries of health and finance will need to find common ground on how to create policy coherence and how to articulate their respective objectives. PMID:23137065
Poon, Brenda T; Hertzman, Clyde
Young children who are deaf or hard of hearing typically participate in health and early intervention service structures involving multiple agencies and service providers, all of whom may be responsive to a child's and family's needs, but remain mutually distinct with minimal interdependence. Lack of coordination may result in fragmented service delivery and may be counterproductive to the provision of family centred services. Increasingly, advancements in technology, such as the development of integrated child health information systems, have facilitated greater coordination and integration of service delivery in multidisciplinary and multisite program contexts. In the present article, the process of developing an integrated child health information system for a new provincial early hearing detection and intervention program in British Columbia is described. Key considerations for system development included the following: the nature of the preprogram structure for information management and sharing; the need for modifications of the structure; and ways that the structure could be improved.
The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.
White, M R
A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).
Yamamoto, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Tada, Harue; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Teramukai, Satoshi; Takemura, Tadamasa; Fukushima, Masanori
In conventional clinical studies, the costs of data management for quality control tend to be high and collecting paper-based case report forms (CRFs) tends to be burdensome, because paper-based CRFs must be developed and filled out for each clinical study protocol. Use of electronic health records for this purpose could result in reductions in cost and improvements in data quality in clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to develop a data capture system for observational cancer clinical studies (i.e. outcomes studies) that would integrate with an electronic health records system, to enable evaluation of patient prognosis, prognostic factors, outcomes and drug safety. At the Outpatient Oncology Unit of Kyoto University Hospital, we developed a data capture system that includes a cancer clinical database system and a data warehouse for outcomes studies. We expect that our new system will reduce the costs of data management and analysis and improve the quality of data in clinical studies.
Fukuma, Shingo; Ahmed, Shahira; Goto, Rei; Inui, Thomas S; Atun, Rifat; Fukuhara, Shunichi
Background On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear–reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this ‘triple disaster’ on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population–level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re–designing Fukushima’s health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks. Methods We used country–level (Japan–average) or prefecture–level data (2005–2014) available from the portal site of Official Statistics of Japan for Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate, the prefectures that were most affected by the disaster, to compare trends before (2005–2010) and after (2011–2014) the ‘disaster’. We made time–trend line plots to describe changes over time in age–adjusted cause–specific mortality rates in each prefecture. Findings All three prefectures, and in particular Fukushima, had lower socio–economic indicators, an older population, lower productivity and gross domestic product per capita, and less higher–level industry than the Japan average. All three prefectures were ‘medically underserved’, with fewer physicians, nurses, ambulance calls and clinics per 100 000 residents than the Japan average. Even before the disaster, age–adjusted all–cause mortality in Fukushima was in general higher than the national rates. After the triple disaster we found that the mortality rate due to myocardial infarction increased substantially in Fukushima while it decreased nationwide. Compared to Japan average, spikes in mortality due to lung disease (all three prefectures), stroke (Iwate and Miyagi), and all–cause mortality (Miyagi and Fukushima) were also observed post–disaster. The cause–specific mortality rate from cancer followed similar trends in
Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas; Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas
Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New
Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.
Leonard, J. I.; Furukawa, S.; Vannordstrand, P. C.
The use of automated, analytical techniques to aid medical support teams is suggested. Recommendations are presented for characterizing crew health in terms of: (1) wholebody function including physiological, psychological and performance factors; (2) a combination of critical performance indexes which consist of multiple factors of measurable parameters; (3) specific responses to low noise level stress tests; and (4) probabilities of future performance based on present and periodic examination of past performance. A concept is proposed for a computerized real time biomedical monitoring and health care system that would have the capability to integrate monitored data, detect off-nominal conditions based on current knowledge of spaceflight responses, predict future health status, and assist in diagnosis and alternative therapies. Mathematical models could play an important role in this approach, especially when operating in a real time mode. Recommendations are presented to update the present health monitoring systems in terms of recent advances in computer technology and biomedical monitoring systems.
Uneke, Chigozie J; Ezeoha, Abel E; Ndukwe, Chinwendu D; Oyibo, Patrick G; Onwe, Fri Day
The lack of effective leadership and governance in the health sector has remained a major challenge in Nigeria and contributes to the failure of health systems and poor development of human resources. In this cross-sectional intervention study, leadership and governance competencies of policy makers were enhanced through a training workshop, and an assessment was conducted of organizational activities designed to promote evidence-informed leadership and governance to improve human resources for health (HRH). The training workshop increased the understanding of policy makers with regard to leadership and governance factors that ensure the functionality of health systems and improve human resources development, including policy guidance, intelligence and oversight, collaboration and coalition building, regulation, system design and accountability. Findings indicated that systems for human resources development exist in all participants' organizations, but the functionality of these systems was suboptimal. More systematic and standardized processes are required to improve competencies of leadership and governance for better human resources development in low-income settings.
This paper summarises some of the research that Ken Eason and colleagues at Loughborough University have carried out in the last few years on the introduction of Health Information Technologies (HIT) within the UK National Health Service (NHS). In particular, the paper focuses on three examples which illustrate aspects of the introduction of HIT within the NHS and the role played by the UK National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT). The studies focus on stages of planning and preparation, implementation and use, adaptation and evolution of HIT (e.g., electronic patient records, virtual wards) within primary, secondary and community care settings. Our findings point to a number of common themes which characterise the use of these systems. These include tensions between national and local strategies for implementing HIT and poor fit between healthcare work systems and the design of HIT. The findings are discussed in the light of other large-scale, national attempts to introduce similar technologies, as well as drawing out a set of wider lessons learnt from the NPfIT programme based on Ken Eason's earlier work and other research on the implementation of large-scale HIT.
Background To operate effectively the public health system requires infrastructure and the capacity to act. Public health's ability to attract funding for infrastructure and capacity development would be enhanced if it was able to demonstrate what level of capacity was required to ensure a high performing system. Australia's public health activities are undertaken within a complex organizational framework that involves three levels of government and a diverse range of other organizations. The question of appropriate levels of infrastructure and capacity is critical at each level. Comparatively little is known about infrastructure and capacity at the local level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers in two Australian states with different frameworks for health administration. They were asked to reflect on the critical components of infrastructure and capacity required at the local level. The interviews were analyzed to identify the major themes. Workshops with public health experts explored this data further. The information generated was used to develop a tool, designed to be used by groups of organizations within discrete geographical locations to assess local public health capacity. Results Local actors in these two different systems pointed to similar areas for inclusion for the development of an instrument to map public health capacity at the local level. The tool asks respondents to consider resources, programs and the cultural environment within their organization. It also asks about the policy environment - recognizing that the broader environment within which organizations operate impacts on their capacity to act. Pilot testing of the tool pointed to some of the challenges involved in such an exercise, particularly if the tool were to be adopted as policy. Conclusion This research indicates that it is possible to develop a tool for the systematic assessment of public health capacity at the local level. Piloting the tool revealed
Sahar, Liora; Faler, Guy; Hristov, Emil; Hughes, Susan; Lee, Leslie; Westnedge, Caroline; Erickson, Benjamin; Nichols, Barbara
Objective To bridge gaps identified during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic by developing a system that provides public health departments improved capability to manage and track medical countermeasures at the state and local levels and to report their inventory levels to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Materials and Methods The CDC Countermeasure Tracking Systems (CTS) program designed and implemented the Inventory Management and Tracking System (IMATS) to manage, track, and report medical countermeasure inventories at the state and local levels. IMATS was designed by CDC in collaboration with state and local public health departments to ensure a “user-centered design approach.” A survey was completed to assess functionality and user satisfaction. Results IMATS was deployed in September 2011 and is provided at no cost to public health departments. Many state and local public health departments nationwide have adopted IMATS and use it to track countermeasure inventories during public health emergencies and daily operations. Discussion A successful response to public health emergencies requires efficient, accurate reporting of countermeasure inventory levels. IMATS is designed to support both emergency operations and everyday activities. Future improvements to the system include integrating barcoding technology and streamlining user access. To maintain system readiness, we continue to collect user feedback, improve technology, and enhance its functionality. Conclusion IMATS satisfies the need for a system for monitoring and reporting health departments’ countermeasure quantities so that decision makers are better informed. The “user-centered design approach” was successful, as evident by the many public health departments that adopted IMATS. PMID:26392843
Vimarlund, V; Eriksson, H; Timpka, T
Within public health, there is a tradition of co-operation between researchers and communities in planning and implementation of health promotion programs. As a consequence, public-health organizations are characterized by having complex multidisciplinary structure and dynamic organizational goals. In this paper, we discuss the economic impacts from the use of Participatory Design for development of public-health information systems. Creation of systems that have both utility and usability is suggested to be highlighted as the central goal. The identified pre-requisites for a positive impact are that the new system should be of high quality, appropriate to the nature of the health promotion tasks, and to how activities are coordinated and integrated both between and within the stakeholder groups involved. We argue further that a method that minimizes the information asymmetry in the development process is necessary for avoiding market failures 1. The conclusion is that participatory design will diminish transaction costs, will help to avoid sunk costs, and will contribute to rich efficient use of human and economic resources in public-health organizations.
Iverson, David L.
The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.
Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo
This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.
Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Lazo-González, Oswaldo; Nigenda, Gustavo
This paper describes the health conditions in Peru and, with greater detail, the Peruvian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the activities developed in the information and research areas, as well as the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The article concludes with a discussion of the most recent innovations, including the Comprehensive Health Insurance, the Health Care Enterprises system, the decentralization process and the Local Committees for Health Administration. The main challenge confronted by the Peruvian health system is the extension of coverage to more than I0% of the population presently lacking access to basic health care.
Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke
In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.
International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks. PMID:25905481
Rainham, Daniel; Krewski, Daniel; McDowell, Ian; Sawada, Mike; Liekens, Brian
Background An increasing number of studies suggest that characteristics of context, or the attributes of the places within which we live, work and socialize, are associated with variations in health-related behaviours and outcomes. The challenge for health research is to ensure that these places are accurately represented spatially, and to identify those aspects of context that are related to variations in health and amenable to modification. This study focuses on the design of a wearable global positioning system (GPS) data logger for the purpose of objectively measuring the temporal and spatial features of human activities. Person-specific GPS data provides a useful source of information to operationalize the concept of place. Results We designed and tested a lightweight, wearable GPS receiver, capable of logging location information for up to 70 hours continuously before recharging. The device is accurate to within 7 m in typical urban environments and performs well across a range of static and dynamic conditions. Discussion Rather than rely on static areal units as proxies for places, wearable GPS devices can be used to derive a more complete picture of the different places that influence an individual's wellbeing. The measures are objective and are less subject to biases associated with recall of location or misclassification of contextual attributes. This is important for two reasons. First, it brings a dynamic perspective to place and health research. The influence of place on health is dynamic in that certain places are more or less relevant to wellbeing as determined by the length of time in any location and by the frequency of activity in the location. Second, GPS data can be used to assess whether the characteristics of places at specific times are useful to explaining variations in health and wellbeing. PMID:19032783
Lee, Yong Yi; Meurk, Carla S; Harris, Meredith G; Diminic, Sandra; Scheurer, Roman W; Whiteford, Harvey A
Ensuring that a mental health system provides 'value for money' requires policy makers to allocate resources to the most cost-effective interventions. Organizing cost-effective interventions into a service delivery framework will require a concept that can guide the mapping of evidence regarding disorder-level interventions to aggregations of services that are meaningful for policy makers. The 'service platform' is an emerging concept that could be used to this end, however no explicit definition currently exists in the literature. The aim of this study was to develop a service platform definition that is consistent with how policy makers conceptualize the major elements of the mental health service system and to test the validity and utility of this definition through consultation with mental health policy makers. We derived a provisional definition informed by existing literature and consultation with experienced mental health researchers. Using a modified Delphi method, we obtained feedback from nine Australian policy makers. Respondents provided written answers to a questionnaire eliciting their views on the acceptability, comprehensibility and usefulness of a service platform definition which was subject to qualitative analysis. Overall, respondents understood the definition and found it both acceptable and useful, subject to certain conditions. They also provided suggestions for its improvement. Our findings suggest that the service platform concept could be a useful way of aggregating mental health services as a means for presenting priority setting evidence to policy makers in mental health. However, further development and testing of the concept is required.
Kim, Hwa Sun; Cho, Hune
Objectives We design and develop an electronic claim system based on an integrated electronic health record (EHR) platform. This system is designed to be used for ambulatory care by office-based physicians in the United States. This is achieved by integrating various medical standard technologies for interoperability between heterogeneous information systems. Methods The developed system serves as a simple clinical data repository, it automatically fills out the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-1500 form based on information regarding the patients and physicians' clinical activities. It supports electronic insurance claims by creating reimbursement charges. It also contains an HL7 interface engine to exchange clinical messages between heterogeneous devices. Results The system partially prevents physician malpractice by suggesting proper treatments according to patient diagnoses and supports physicians by easily preparing documents for reimbursement and submitting claim documents to insurance organizations electronically, without additional effort by the user. To show the usability of the developed system, we performed an experiment that compares the time spent filling out the CMS-1500 form directly and time required create electronic claim data using the developed system. From the experimental results, we conclude that the system could save considerable time for physicians in making claim documents. Conclusions The developed system might be particularly useful for those who need a reimbursement-specialized EHR system, even though the proposed system does not completely satisfy all criteria requested by the CMS and Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). This is because the criteria are not sufficient but necessary condition for the implementation of EHR systems. The system will be upgraded continuously to implement the criteria and to offer more stable and transparent transmission of electronic claim data. PMID
Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.
Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.
Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina
of the MHI scheme are broad, patients must pay towards the costs of many goods and services, and the right to free health care services has been systematically reduced since 2003, although with exemptions for vulnerable population groups. Configuration of capital and human resources in the health care sector could be improved: for example, homes for the elderly and infirm persons operate close to maximum capacity; psychiatric care in the community is not well developed; and there are shortages of certain categories of medical professionals, including geographical imbalances. Little research is available on the policy process of health care reforms in Croatia. However, it seems that reforms often lack strategic foundations and or projections that could be analysed and scrutinized by the public, and evaluation of reform outcomes is lacking. The overall performance of the health care system seems to be good, given the amount of resources available. However, there is a lack of data to assess it properly.
Chokshi, M; Patil, B; Khanna, R; Neogi, S B; Sharma, J; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S
Health systems and polices have a critical role in determining the manner in which health services are delivered, utilized and affect health outcomes. ‘Health' being a state subject, despite the issuance of the guidelines by the central government, the final prerogative on implementation of the initiatives on newborn care lies with the states. This article briefly describes the public health structure in the country and traces the evolution of the major health programs and initiatives with a particular focus on newborn health. PMID:27924110
Cylus, Jonathan; Richardson, Erica; Findley, Lisa; Longley, Marcus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Steel, David
This analysis of the United Kingdom health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. It provides an overview of how the national health services operate in the four nations that make up the United Kingdom, as responsibility for organizing health financing and services was devolved from 1997. With devolution, the health systems in the United Kingdom have diverged in the details of how services are organized and paid for, but all have maintained national health services which provide universal access to a comprehensive package of services that are mostly free at the point of use. These health services are predominantly financed from general taxation and 83.5% of total health expenditure in the United Kingdom came from public sources in 2013. Life expectancy has increased steadily across the United Kingdom, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement, and the gap between the most deprived and the most privileged continues to widen, rather than close. The United Kingdom faces challenges going forward, including how to cope with the needs of an ageing population, how to manage populations with poor health behaviours and associated chronic conditions, how to meet patient expectations of access to the latest available medicines and technologies, and how to adapt a system that has limited resources to expand its workforce and infrastructural capacity so it can rise to these challenges.
Mitchell, Roger E; Florin, Paul; Stevenson, John F
As research evidence for the effectiveness of community-based prevention has mounted, so has recognition of the gap between research and community practice. As a result, state and local governments are taking a more active role in building the capacity of community-based organizations to deliver evidence-based prevention interventions. Innovations are taking place in the establishment of technical assistance or support systems to influence the prevention and health education activities of community-based organizations. Several challenges for technical assistance systems are described: (1) setting prevention priorities and allocating limited technical assistance resources, (2) balancing capacity-building versus program dissemination efforts, (3) collaborating across categorical problem areas, (4) designing technical assistance initiatives with enough "dose strength" to have an effect, (5) balancing fidelity versus adaptation in program implementation, (6) building organizational cultures that support innovation, and (7) building local evaluative capacity versus generalizable evaluation findings.
Zhang, Dongming; Roderer, Nancy K; Huang, Guang; Zhao, Xin
One of the important procedures during the operation of an Institutional Repository System (IRS) is to categorize and index the submitted digital objects. Based on current practice, human catalogers are frequently involved in this process to make accurate categorization. Funded by NLM development grant, we are developing an UMLS-based indexing tool. The tool will be integrated or plug-in into most IRS, and categorize and assign MeSH headings and keywords to text-based digital objects automatically.
Bader, Michael D M; Mooney, Stephen J; Lee, Yeon Jin; Sheehan, Daniel; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G; Teitler, Julien O
Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies.
Bader, Michael D. M.; Mooney, Stephen J.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Sheehan, Daniel; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Teitler, Julien O.
Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies. PMID:25545769
In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.
Finnell, Deborah S; Osborne, Frederick H; Gerard, Vivian K
The aim of this qualitative descriptive study was to develop, with and for Veterans on long-term mental health medication regimens, a resource to promote self-management behavior. Focus groups were conducted with 19 outpatient Veterans who were self-administering their medications. Five themes emerged that informed the structure and content of the Recovery Resource System. Additional focus groups with 15 outpatient Veterans were conducted to evaluate the Recovery Resource System. Veterans assessed it to be flexible, dynamic, adaptable, and user-friendly. The goal of this patient-driven, patient-centered Recovery Resource System is to improve health outcomes and quality of life among those with chronic mental disorders.
Scott, D. A.; Price, D. C.; Edwards, G. C.; Batten, A. B.; Kolmeder, J.; Muster, T. H.; Corrigan, P.; Cole, I. S.
A Rayleigh-wave-based sensor has been developed to measure corrosion damage in aircraft. This sensor forms an important part of a corrosion monitoring system being developed for a major aircraft manufacturer. This system measures the corrosion rate at the location of its sensors, and through a model predicts the corrosion rates in nearby places on an aircraft into which no sensors can be placed. In order to calibrate this model, which yields corrosion rates rather than the accumulated effect, an absolute measure of the damage is required. In this paper the development of a surface wave sensor capable of measuring accumulated damage will be described in detail. This sensor allows the system to measure material loss due to corrosion regardless of the possible loss of historical corrosion rate data, and can provide, at any stage, a benchmark for the predictive model that would allow a good estimate of the accumulated corrosion damage in similar locations on an aircraft. This system may obviate the need for costly inspection of difficult-to-access places in aircraft, where presently the only way to check for corrosion is by periodic dismantling and reassembly.
Espallargues, Mireia; Serra-Sutton, Vicky; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Torrente, Elena; Moharra, Montse; Benítez, Dolors; Robles, Noemí; Domíngo, Laia; Escarrabill Sanglas, Joan
The aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the assessment of new healthcare initiatives on chronic diseases within the Spanish National Health System. A comprehensive literature review between 2002 and 2013, including systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and reports with evaluation frameworks and/or assessment of initiatives was carried out; integrated care initiatives established in Catalonia were studied and described; and semistructured interviews with key stakeholders were performed. The scope and conceptual framework were defined by using the brainstorming approach.Of 910 abstracts identified, a total of 116 studies were included. They referred to several conceptual frameworks and/or assessment indicators at a national and international level. An overall of 24 established chronic care initiatives were identified (9 integrated care initiatives); 10 in-depth interviews were carried out. The proposed conceptual framework envisages: 1)the target population according to complexity levels; 2)an evaluation approach of the structure, processes, and outcomes considering the health status achieved, the recovery process and the maintenance of health; and 3)the dimensions or attributes to be assessed. The proposed conceptual framework will be helpful has been useful to develop indicators and implement them with a community-based and result-oriented approach and a territorial or population-based perspective within the Spanish Health System. This will be essential to know which are the most effective strategies, what are the key elements that determine greater success and what are the groups of patients who can most benefit.
Alexa, Jan; Recka, Lukas; Votapkova, Jana; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich
This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example). On the other hand, mortality rates for diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms are well above the EU average, as are a range of health-care utilization rates, such as outpatient contacts and average length of stay in acute care hospitals. In short, there is substantial potential in the Czech Republic for efficiency gains and to improve health outcomes. Furthermore, the need for reform in order to financially sustain the system became evident again after the global financial crisis, but there is as yet no consensus about how to achieve this.
Banwell, Nicola; Montoya, Jaime; Opeña, Merlita; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Law, Ronald; Balboa, Gloria J; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Murray, Virginia
The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRR related events recognised the significant disaster risks faced in the Philippines. They also illustrated the Philippine strengths and experience in DRR. Key innovations in science and technology showcased at the conference include the web-base hazard mapping applications 'Project NOAH' and 'FaultFinder'. Other notable innovations include 'Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters' (SPEED) which monitors potential outbreaks through a syndromic reporting system. Three areas noted for further development in DRR science and technology included: integrated national hazard assessment, strengthened collaboration, and improved documentation. Finally, the event saw the proposal to develop the Philippines into a global hub for DRR. The combination of the risk profile of the Philippines, established national structures and experience in DRR, as well as scientific and technological innovation in this field are potential factors that could position the Philippines as a future global leader in DRR. The purpose of this article is to formally document the key messages of the DRR-related events of the PNHRS Week Celebration.
Banwell, Nicola; Montoya, Jaime; Opeña, Merlita; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Law, Ronald; Balboa, Gloria J.; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Murray, Virginia
The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRR related events recognised the significant disaster risks faced in the Philippines. They also illustrated the Philippine strengths and experience in DRR. Key innovations in science and technology showcased at the conference include the web-base hazard mapping applications ‘Project NOAH’ and ‘FaultFinder’. Other notable innovations include ‘Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters’ (SPEED) which monitors potential outbreaks through a syndromic reporting system. Three areas noted for further development in DRR science and technology included: integrated national hazard assessment, strengthened collaboration, and improved documentation. Finally, the event saw the proposal to develop the Philippines into a global hub for DRR. The combination of the risk profile of the Philippines, established national structures and experience in DRR, as well as scientific and technological innovation in this field are potential factors that could position the Philippines as a future global leader in DRR. The purpose of this article is to formally document the key messages of the DRR-related events of the PNHRS Week Celebration. PMID:27867737
This article addresses several issues pertinent to health systems governance for health equity. It argues the importance of health systems using measures of positive health (well-being), discriminating in favour of historically less advantaged groups and weighing the costs of health care against investments in the social determinants of health. It cautions that the concept of governance could weaken the role of government, with disequalizing effects, while emphasizing the importance of two elements of good governance (transparency and participation) in health systems decision-making. It distinguishes between participation as volunteer labour and participation as exercising political rights, and questions the assumption that decentralization in health systems is necessarily empowering. It then identifies five health system roles to address issues of equity (educator/watchdog, resource broker, community developer, partnership developer and advocate/catalyst) and the implications of these roles for practice. Drawing on preliminary findings of a global research project on comprehensive primary health care, it discusses political aspects of progressive health system reform and the implications of equity-focused health system governance on health workers' roles, noting the importance of health workers claiming their identity as citizens. The article concludes with a commentary on the inherently political nature of health reforms based on equity; the necessary confrontation with power relations politics involves; and the health systems governance challenge of managing competing health discourses of efficiency and results-based financing, on the one hand, and equity and citizen empowerment, on the other.
Adult height is determined by genetic potential and by net nutrition, the balance between food intake and the demands on it, including the demands of disease, most importantly during early childhood. Historians have made effective use of recorded heights to indicate living standards, in both health and income, for periods where there are few other data. Understanding the determinants of height is also important for understanding health; taller people earn more on average, do better on cognitive tests, and live longer. This paper investigates the environmental determinants of height across 43 developing countries. Unlike in rich countries, where adult height is well predicted by mortality in infancy, there is no consistent relationship across and within countries between adult height on the one hand and childhood mortality or living conditions on the other. In particular, adult African women are taller than is warranted by their low incomes and high childhood mortality, not to mention their mothers' educational level and reported nutrition. High childhood mortality in Africa is associated with taller adults, which suggests that mortality selection dominates scarring, the opposite of what is found in the rest of the world. The relationship between population heights and income is inconsistent and unreliable, as is the relationship between income and health more generally. PMID:17686991
Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces) to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation. PMID:23347433
Nguyen, Theanh; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Thambiratnam, David P.; King, Les
In the structural health monitoring (SHM) field, long-term continuous vibration-based monitoring is becoming increasingly popular as this could keep track of the health status of structures during their service lives. However, implementing such a system is not always feasible due to on-going conflicts between budget constraints and the need of sophisticated systems to monitor real-world structures under their demanding in-service conditions. To address this problem, this paper presents a comprehensive development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous SHM of a newly constructed institutional complex with a special focus on the main building. First, selections of sensor type and sensor positions are scrutinized to overcome adversities such as low-frequency and low-level vibration measurements. In order to economically tackle the sparse measurement problem, a cost-optimized Ethernet-based peripheral DAQ model is first adopted to form the system skeleton. A combination of a high-resolution timing coordination method based on the TCP/IP command communication medium and a periodic system resynchronization strategy is then proposed to synchronize data from multiple distributed DAQ units. The results of both experimental evaluations and experimental-numerical verifications show that the proposed DAQ system in general and the data synchronization solution in particular work well and they can provide a promising cost-effective and flexible alternative for use in real-world SHM projects. Finally, the paper demonstrates simple but effective ways to make use of the developed monitoring system for long-term continuous structural health evaluation as well as to use the instrumented building herein as a multi-purpose benchmark structure for studying not only practical SHM problems but also synchronization related issues.
should receive primary attention. In the collective opinion of the delegates to the Alma -Ata Con- ference in 1978, sponsored by the World Health...diagnostic challenge of tropical diseases as seen by an epidemiologist. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 28:171, 1979. 3. WHO (Ed): Alma -Ata 1978. Primary Health Care...World Health Organization, Geneva. p2. 4. Waddy BB: African epidemic cerebro -spinal, meningitis. J Trop Med Hyg 60:179, 19. 5. Sanborn WR: A portable
Human Health Impacts of New Energetic Compounds. • Models – QSARs • In vitro toxicology • In vivo toxicology • Aligned with RDT&E level of...D.A.B.T. Health Effects Research Program Directorate of Toxicology Army Institute of Public Health UNCLASSIFIED Report Documentation Page Form...program. Early in the research stage models are primarily relied upon (e.g. QSAR approaches) and as the technology progresses, a greater reliance is
Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia
BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the
Johns, Timothy; Powell, Bronwen; Maundu, Patrick; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B
Traditional food systems offer a key link between the social and economic resilience of smallholder farmers and pastoralists and the sustainable food and nutrition security of global populations. This paper addresses issues related to socio-cultural diversity and the continuing complex engagement of traditional and modern communities with the plants and animals that sustain them. In light of some of the unhealthful consequences of the 'nutrition transition' to globalized modern diets, the authors define and propose a process for a more successful food system transition that balances agro-biodiversity and processed commodities to support diet diversity, health and social equity alongside sustainable economic growth. We review empirical research in support of practice and policy changes in agriculture, economic development and health domains as well as cross-sectoral and community-based innovation. High-value food crops within domestic and global value chains can be an entry point for smallholders' participation as contributors and beneficiaries of development, while sustainable small farms, as purveyors of environmental and public health services, diversify global options for long-term adaptation in the face of environmental uncertainty.
Dewitt, Jocelyn G; Hampton, Philip M
In 1998, the University of Michigan Health System embarked upon the design, development, and implementation of an enterprise-wide data warehouse, intending to use prioritized business questions to drive its design and implementation. Because of the decentralized nature of the academic health system and the development team's inability to identify and prioritize those institutional business questions, however, a bottom-up approach was used to develop the enterprise-wide data warehouse. Specific important data sets were identified for inclusion, and the technical team designed the system with an enterprise view and architecture rather than as a series of data marts. Using this incremental approach of adding data sets, institutional leaders were able to experience and then further define successful use of the integrated data made available to them. Even as requests for the use and expansion of the data warehouse outstrip the resources assigned for support, the data warehouse has become an integral component of the institution's information management strategy. The authors discuss the approach, process, current status, and successes and failures of the data warehouse.
Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan
Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.
Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; López-Dávila, Luis
This paper describes the health conditions in Guatemala and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Guatemalan health system, including its structure en coverage, its financial sources, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health, as well as the generation of health information and the development of research activities. It also discusses the recent efforts to extend coverage of essential health services, mostly to poor rural areas.The most recent innovations also discussed in this paper include the Program for the Expansion of Coverage of Essential Services, the Program to Expand Access to Essential Drugs and the agreements between the Ministry of Health and several non-governmental organizations to provide essential services in rural settings.
Higgins, C W; Philips, B U; Bruhn, J G; Aker, L T
Public Law 93-641 provides health systems agencies (HSAs) with a broad planning preview which has enabled a number of agencies to address environmental health issues in their health systems plans. Opponents of HSA involvement in environmental health planning charge that these activities overextend agency resources, duplicate efforts of other government agencies and involve HSAs in "issues of public policy." Closer examination of these charges finds them lacking in validity. The planning activities of health systems agencies are cooperative in nature, drawing upon the planning efforts of other institutions and agencies. It is illogical to exclude environmental concerns from general health planning in light of the impact of the environment upon health. Charges that issues of public policy are inappropriate topics for health planning are seen as attempts to avoid scrutiny of inconsistant legislative policies. Cooperative planning between health systems agencies and environmental health agencies is considered both desirable and essential for the development of effective health planning. PMID:7428743
Barry, Tom; Cunningham, Harry
Viewgraphs and discussion of onboard system health assessment are presented. Success of the space station program will be measured by how well it addresses the basic requirements for (1) maintaining the orbiting Space Station Freedom fully operational for its projected life of thirty years, and (2) the cost-effective execution of the overall space station program. Onboard system health assessment must provide complete and thorough testing capabilities along with effective associated redundancy/fault management.
The economic and social crises affecting Latin America have had a profound social and political effect on its structures. This paper analyzes this impact from 2 perspectives: 1) the impact on the apparatus of the state, in particular on its health infra-structures; and 2) the direction of the democratic process in the continent and the participatory processes of civil societies. The institutionalization of the Local Health Systems (SILOS) is an effort to analyze the problem from within the health sector and propose solutions. This paper discusses the issues of human resource development in health systems; training in human resource development and human resource development in local health care systems. There are 3 strategies used to change health systems: 1) The judicial-political system: The state's apparatus 2) The political-administrative system: the national health care system; and 3) the political-operative system: local health care systems. To assure implementation of SILOS there are 4 steps to be followed: 1) create political conditions that allow the transformation and development of local health systems; 2) development of high-level institutional and political initiatives to develop health care networks; 3) offer key players institutional space and social action to develop the SILOS process; 4) rapidly develop SILOS in regions to assure its integration with other development efforts. The labor force in the health sector and organized communities play critical roles in proposing and institutionalizing health programs.
Ledo, Carmen; Soria, René
This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.
Background Governance and leadership in health development are critically important for the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other national health goals. Those two factors might explain why many countries in Africa are not on track to attain the health MDGs by 2015. This paper debates the meaning of 'governance in health development', reviews briefly existing governance frameworks, proposes a modified framework on health development governance (HDG), and develops a HDG index. Discussion We argue that unlike 'leadership in health development', 'governance in health development' is the sole prerogative of the Government through the Ministry of Health, which can choose to delegate (but not abrogate) some of the governance tasks. The general governance domains of the UNDP and the World Bank are very pertinent but not sufficient for assessment of health development governance. The WHO six domains of governance do not include effective external partnerships for health, equity in health development, efficiency in resource allocation and use, ethical practises in health research and service provision, and macroeconomic and political stability. The framework for assessing health systems governance developed by Siddiqi et al also does not include macroeconomic and political stability as a separate principle. The Siddiqi et al framework does not propose a way of scoring the various governance domains to facilitate aggregation, inter-country comparisons and health development governance tracking over time. This paper argues for a broader health development governance framework because other sectors that assure human rights to education, employment, food, housing, political participation, and security combined have greater impact on health development than the health systems. It also suggests some amendments to Siddigi et al's framework to make it more relevant to the broader concept of 'governance in health development' and to the WHO African
Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Lobato, Marcos Antônio de Oliveira; Lermen, José Inácio; Fagundes, Sandra; Ferla, Alcindo Antonio; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho
The article outlines the development and initial validation of a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) including five social determinants of risk to health and demonstrates its application in the financing of primary care by the Unified Health System (SUS) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Municipal indicators of vulnerability relating to poverty and population dispersion were obtained from the 2010 population census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the five items can constitute a reliable and acceptable measurement scale. The SVI-5 was then generated based on the first main component, measuring municipal inequalities in social vulnerability relating to poverty and population in the territory in Z-scores. The external validity of SVI-5 was examined in relation to health outcomes using DATASUS 2007-2011 data, revealing that infant mortality and hospitalizations for conditions treatable by primary care are greater in more vulnerable municipalities The results suggest that the SVI-5 is a valid measure of inequalities in social vulnerability between municipalities, applicable to socially equitable policies in health.
Quiroga, R C; Pirra, L; Podestá, C; Leiguarda, R C; Rabinowicz, A L
An attempt was made to identify guidelines to help establish epilepsy monitoring units in developing countries. We assessed the time distribution of seizures during video-EEG monitoring and we also estimated the minimum time required for such a procedure and the impact of these variables upon the health insurance system. Mean time for recording five stereotyped clinical events was 72 hours, with a significant number of events recorded between midnight and 0600 hours (P < 0.05). This pilot study may help to establish local policies that will warrant an adequate work-up for our patients.
Motoi, K; Kubota, S; Ikarashi, A; Nogawa, M; Tanaka, S; Nemoto, T; Yamakoshi, K
Daily monitoring of health condition at home is very important not only as an effective scheme for early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases, but also for prevention and control of such diseases. From this point of view, we have developed a prototype room for fully automated monitoring of various vital signs. From the results of preliminary experiments using this room, it was confirmed that (1) ECG and respiration during bathing, (2) excretion weight and blood pressure, and (3) respiration and cardiac beat during sleep could be monitored with reasonable accuracy by the sensor system installed in bathtub, toilet and bed, respectively.
Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems
Batten, Adam; Edwards, Graeme; Gerasimov, Vadim; Hoschke, Nigel; Isaacs, Peter; Lewis, Chris; Moore, Richard; Oppolzer, Florien; Price, Don; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Scott, Andrew; Wang, Peter
This report describes a significant advance in the capability of the CSIRO/NASA structural health monitoring Concept Demonstrator (CD). The main thrust of the work has been the development of a mobile robotic agent, and the hardware and software modifications and developments required to enable the demonstrator to operate as a single, self-organizing, multi-agent system. This single-robot system is seen as the forerunner of a system in which larger numbers of small robots perform inspection and repair tasks cooperatively, by self-organization. While the goal of demonstrating self-organized damage diagnosis was not fully achieved in the time available, much of the work required for the final element that enables the robot to point the video camera and transmit an image has been completed. A demonstration video of the CD and robotic systems operating will be made and forwarded to NASA.
The curriculum guide presents a suggested outline for teaching health occupations in secondary schools in Vermont. It consists of a student/teacher curriculum outline for each of the 20 units. It includes a concept statement, the behavioral objective, suggested learning activities, suggested teacher resource needs, and suggested evaluation…
left its existing structure in place, approving instead a shared - services directorate to consolidate common MHS functions (e.g., shared information...has seven main goals: (1) consolidate functions ( shared services ) common to DoD, (2) deliver more-integrated health care in areas with more than one
services, including health care. Throughout Iraq, hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical stores, laboratories, and administrative offices were looted and...improvements in security which accompanied the surge of U.S. forces and the political reconciliation with large segments of the Sunni leadership...forces, the effective adoption of counterinsurgency tactics, and political reconciliation with the Sons of Iraq, there was a gradual and sustained
Sujansky, Walter V; Overhage, J Marc; Chang, Sophia; Frohlich, Jonah; Faus, Samuel A
Electronic laboratory interfaces can significantly increase the value of ambulatory electronic health record (EHR) systems by providing laboratory result data automatically and in a computable form. However, many ambulatory EHRs cannot implement electronic laboratory interfaces despite the existence of messaging standards, such as Health Level 7, version 2 (HL7). Among several barriers to implementing laboratory interfaces is the extensive optionality within the HL7 message standard. This paper describes the rationale for and development of an HL7 implementation guide that seeks to eliminate most of the optionality inherent in HL7, but retain the information content required for reporting outpatient laboratory results. A work group of heterogeneous stakeholders developed the implementation guide based on a set of design principles that emphasized parsimony, practical requirements, and near-term adoption. The resulting implementation guide contains 93% fewer optional data elements than HL7. This guide was successfully implemented by 15 organizations during an initial testing phase and has been approved by the HL7 standards body as an implementation guide for outpatient laboratory reporting. Further testing is required to determine whether widespread adoption of the implementation guide by laboratories and EHR systems can facilitate the implementation of electronic laboratory interfaces.
Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin
The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.
Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.
A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.
Ringard, Ånen; Sagan, Anna; Sperre Saunes, Ingrid; Lindahl, Anne Karin
Norways five million inhabitants are spread over nearly four hundred thousand square kilometres, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. It has enjoyed several decades of high growth, following the start of oil production in early 1970s, and is now one of the richest countries per head in the world. Overall, Norways population enjoys good health status; life expectancy of 81.53 years is above the EU average of 80.14, and the gap between overall life expectancy and healthy life years is around half the of EU average. The health care system is semi decentralized. The responsibility for specialist care lies with the state (administered by four Regional Health Authorities) and the municipalities are responsible for primary care. Although health care expenditure is only 9.4% of Norways GDP (placing it on the 16th place in the WHO European region), given Norways very high value of GDP per capita, its health expenditure per head is higher than in most countries. Public sources account for over 85% of total health expenditure; the majority of private health financing comes from households out-of-pocket payments.The number of practitioners in most health personnel groups, including physicians and nurses, has been increasing in the last few decades and the number of health care personnel per 100 000 inhabitants is high compared to other EU countries. However, long waiting times for elective care continue to be a problem and are cause of dissatisfaction among the patients. The focus of health care reforms has seen shifts over the past four decades. During the 1970s the focus was on equality and increasing geographical access to health care services; during the 1980s reforms aimed at achieving cost containment and decentralizing health care services; during the 1990s the focus was on efficiency. Since the beginning of the millennium the emphasis has been given to structural changes in the delivery and organization of health care and to policies
Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence
Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102
Istepanian, Robert; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Pattichis, Constantinos S.
M-health can be defined as the "emerging mobile communications and network technologies for healthcare systems.' This book paves the path toward understanding the future of m-health technologies and services and also introducing the impact of mobility on existing e-health and commercial telemedical systems. M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems presents a new and forward-looking source of information that explores the present and future trends in the applications of current and emerging wireless communication and network technologies for different healthcare scenaria.
Wisniewski, Janna M; Yeager, Valerie A; Diana, Mark L; Hotchkiss, David R
The number of health systems strengthening (HSS) programs has increased in the last decade. However, a limited number of studies providing robust evidence for the value and impact of these programs are available. This study aims to identify knowledge gaps and challenges that impede rigorous monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of HSS, and to ascertain the extent to which these efforts are informed by existing technical guidance. Interviews were conducted with HSS advisors at United States Agency for International Development-funded missions as well as senior M&E advisors at implementing partner and multilateral organizations. Findings showed that mission staff do not use existing technical resources, either because they do not know about them or do not find them useful. Barriers to rigorous M&E included a lack suitable of indicators, data limitations, difficulty in demonstrating an impact on health, and insufficient funding and resources. Consensus and collaboration between international health partners and local governments may mitigate these challenges. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ban, Yunho; Choi, Samjin; Jiang, Zhongwei; Park, Chanwon
Some reports show that the physiological information measured in hospital is not enough without the one measured in home. The physiological information monitored in home, therefore, is strongly required recently. The goal of this research is to develop a wearable and tractable sensor system for detecting biomedical signals such as cardiac rhythm, respiration, body movement, and percentage of body fat (%BF) and for home health care. A belt type sensor for this purpose is developed, which consists of sensing materials of PVDF film and conductive fabrics. Also several data processing techniques, such as the discrete wavelet transform, cross correlation and adaptive filtering method, were introduced to eliminate noises and base wandering and to extract the specified components. The ECG and respiration signals obtained by the proposed belt type sensor system gave good agreements with commercial medical system. Furthermore, the body fat (%BF) measurement based on the four-electrode BIA was also built in the belt sensor. The body fat was calculated by measuring the body impedance from the belt type sensor and compared with the predicted %BF measured by the commercial adipometer (TBF-607). The results validated also the efficiency of the belt type sensor system.
Huang, Chong; Zhu, Yan-bo; Liu, Zhuo-jun
From the point of view of systems science, human body can be considered as a complex system, and the human health system is a subsystem of it. Systems science conducts investigation in a holistic manner. As a theoretical method, it deals with the operation and evolution of systems from the macroscopic perspective, so this theory is similar to phenomenological theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in methodology. Naturally, numerous theories of systems science can be used in research of the human health systems of TCM. In this paper, the authors introduced synergetic, a theory of modern systems science, and its slaving principle, and in particular, analyzed the concept of order parameters related to the slaving principle and the relationship between body constitutions of TCM and order parameters. The body constitution of TCM can be treated as a slow variable in the human health systems. By using synergetic, the authors established a model of the human health system based on body constitutions of TCM. As an application of the model, the authors illustrated the argumentation in the theory of constitution being separable, the theory of a relationship between constitution and disease, and the theory of a recuperable constitution. To some extent, this work has made links between the TCM theory of body constitution and modern systems science, and it will offer a new thought for modeling the human health system.
Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Labrique, Alain B.; Salahuddin, Ahmad; Rashid, Mahbubur; Klemm, Rolf D.W.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.
In the last decade, geographic information systems (GIS) have become accessible to researchers in developing countries, yet guidance remains sparse for developing a GIS. Drawing on experience in developing a GIS for a large community trial in rural Bangladesh, six stages for constructing, maintaining, and using a GIS for health research purposes were outlined. The system contains 0.25 million landmarks, including 150,000 houses, in an area of 435 sq km with over 650,000 people. Assuming access to reasonably accurate paper boundary maps of the intended working area and the absence of pre-existing digital local-area maps, the six stages are: to (a) digitize and update existing paper maps, (b) join the digitized maps into a large-area map, (c) reference this large-area map to a geographic coordinate system, (d) insert location landmarks of interest, (e) maintain the GIS, and (f) link it to other research databases. These basic steps can produce a household-level, updated, scaleable GIS that can both enhance field efficiency and support epidemiologic analyses of demographic patterns, diseases, and health outcomes. PMID:18402187
Harper, Ellen M
Nurses represent the largest proportion of direct healthcare providers. Overstaffed or understaffed units will have implications for the quality, cost, patient, and nurse satisfaction. It is vital that nurses are armed with appropriate instruments and data to help them plan and implement efficient and effective nursing teams. A compelling case is made for the association between nursing care and clinical, quality, and financial outcomes. Even though there is a great body of work on the correlation, there is little agreement on the best approach to determine the correct balance between the patient-to-nurse ratios. The sheer number of variables depicted in the literature suggests why precise evidenced based formulas are difficult to achieve. This paper will describe a practice based knowledge generation mixed methods study using detailed observation and electronic health record abstraction to generate a structural equation for use in predicting staffing needs.
Rathe, Magdalena; Moliné, Alejandro
This paper describes the health conditions in Dominican Republic and the characteristics of the Dominican health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health and the generation of health information. The participation of health care users in the operation and evaluation of the system and the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the new Social Security Law and the Decennial Health Plan are also discussed.
Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per
Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas.
Gossen, R.G.; Mann, G.J.
The international oil and gas exploration and production industry faces a vast array of environmental issues that are global in nature but play an increasingly prominent role in individual project decision making. When placed against a backdrop of socio-political and cultural challenges presented in developing countries, project planners require an enlightened approach to ensure the environmental, economic and social components are appropriately balanced to ensure sustainable business success. Although a relatively new player in the international E & P industry, Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. has developed such an approach to EMS management for projects in developing countries. Drawing from recent experience with a major project in Yemen, and others in the planning stages in several other developing countries, this paper presents a number of positive strategies and actions which are being applied in the many countries in which the company is active. Lessons learned and opportunities for improvement are presented for consideration by responsible operators working internationally toward the goal of environmentally sustainable energy development.
Saint Joseph HealthCare in Lexington, KY, is a three-hospital health system comprised of more than 650 beds serving the state's central and eastern regions. As a leading provider in cardiology, orthopedics, and stroke, it was recognized in 2006 as a top hospital in the nation by U.S. News and World Report.
Acosta, Mónica; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bermúdez, Juan Luis
This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.
Shah, A.; Penswick, L.; Dodson, C.; Roberts, T.
High performance sensors are playing an increasingly important role in all aspects of all critical DoD missions. There is a family of sensors that operate with improved sensitivities if cooled to very low (cryogenic) temperatures. For these sensors, a healthy and reliable mechanical refrigeration system (cryocooler) is required. The ability to accurately predict the "health" or remaining useful life of the cryocooler has significant benefits from the viewpoint of ensuring that mission critical functions can be carried out with a high probability of success. The paper provides an overview and approaches used for the development of a Cryocooler Prognostic Health Management System (CPHMS) capable of assessing the cryocooler "health" from the viewpoint of the level of performance degradation and/or the potential for near term failure. Additionally, it quantifies the reliable remaining useful life of the cryocooler. While the proposed system is focused on the specific application to linear drive cryocoolers, especially for DoD, many of the attributes of the system can be applied to other specialized system hardware in both commercial and U.S. Government agency for situations where it is critical that all aspects of the hardware "health" and "remaining useful life" be fully understood. Several benefits of the health monitoring system are also described in the paper.
Helmicki, Arthur J.
As NASA continues to develop various advanced propulsion technologies for space exploration, two factors are becoming increasingly dominant in design specifications: increase operational reliability and decrease operational cost. One approach that has been proposed to meet these challenges is to incorporate into current and future rocket propulsion systems some sort of diagnostic/monitoring capability in the form of a Health Monitoring System (HMS). HMS technology offers the promise of increased operational reliability through its ability to assess system performance, detect and isolate degradations and/or failures, and modify system operation so as to minimize negative effects on performance. The purpose of this research is to study, from a systems engineering perspective, the particular issues of analysis and synthesis for generic HMS's.
assembly, and for giving invaluable feedback on design approaches and options. 1 1. Introduction As the U.S. Army continues towards a...needs to be replaced by a more robust and complete commercial driver, which is very likely to be part of a selected RTOS. Efl -dosfs This directory...effectively gives the user real-time feedback on the state of the desired PDSM boards. Further development should look more carefully at how information is
Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.
This report summarizes the initial modeling of the global response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris(MMOD) impacts using a structural, nonlinear, transient dynamic, finite element code. These models complement the on-orbit deployment of the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) to support structural health monitoring studies. Two global models were developed. The first focused exclusively on impacts on the soft-goods (fabric-envelop) portion of BEAM. The second incorporates the bulkhead to support understanding of bulkhead impacts. These models were exercised for random impact locations and responses monitored at the on-orbit sensor locations. The report concludes with areas for future study.
For reasons of equity most OECD countries have chosen to base their funding of health care mainly on public sources. There is an almost universal problem of affordability in the health systems of these countries, arising from the tension between the willingness of populations to pay taxes and the eagerness of patients to use health services where these are free or heavily subsidized at the point of use. These tensions are likely to be exacerbated by a surge of new medical technologies adding to demands for health care. Some observers have predicted the breakdown of publicly funded systems of health care under new spending pressures. However, governments can deploy a range of policies for handling new demands. They can also take comfort from the fact that many of them have already coped with successive waves of technological change in health care without abandoning their core commitment to the public funding of health systems. Furthermore, if standards of living continue to rise, public and private insurers should find it easier to obtain the revenues needed to pay for the improved health care expected by consumers. PMID:10916912
Mavrikakis, I; Mantas, J; Diomidous, M
This paper is based on the research on the possible structure of an information system for the purposes of occupational health and safety management. We initiated a questionnaire in order to find the possible interest on the part of potential users in the subject of occupational health and safety. The depiction of the potential interest is vital both for the software analysis cycle and development according to previous models. The evaluation of the results tends to create pilot applications among different enterprises. Documentation and process improvements ascertained quality of services, operational support, occupational health and safety advice are the basics of the above applications. Communication and codified information among intersted parts is the other target of the survey regarding health issues. Computer networks can offer such services. The network will consist of certain nodes responsible to inform executives on Occupational Health and Safety. A web database has been installed for inserting and searching documents. The submission of files to a server and the answers to questionnaires through the web help the experts to perform their activities. Based on the requirements of enterprises we have constructed a web file server. We submit files so that users can retrieve the files which they need. The access is limited to authorized users. Digital watermarks authenticate and protect digital objects.
Food preference surveys (taste tests) were performed for 95 food items (which were selected from an original list of 150 items), and 21 menus were developed from the survey results. Each menu contains an entree, two side dishes, dessert, and a beverage. Food manufacturing specifications for freeze dried foods, frozen foods, and beverages are examined, and product labeling and packaging requirements are discussed. The nutritional value of the various foods is listed in tabular form, and sample product labels are shown. Cost estimates per serving are also included.
Aran, Daniel; Laca, Hernán
This paper describes the Uruguayan health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the level and distribution of its health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, its stewardship functions, the institutions in charge of information and research, and the level and type of citizen's participation in the operation and evaluation of the system. The most recent policy innovations are also discussed, including the creation of the National Comprehensive Health System, the National Health Insurance, the National Health Fund and the Comprehensive Health Care Program. Finally, the impact of these innovations in health expenditure, fairness of health financing, coverage levels and main health indicators is analyzed.
Van Way, Craig B.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Zeigler, Michael L.; Alper, James M.
Significant progress in fulfilling the current joint Air Force/Navy `Smart Metallic Structures (SMS)' program primary objective, to demonstrate a viable structural health monitoring system (SHMS) for a large structural aircraft component, is presented. Structural health monitoring and its relation to current Force Management (FM) and Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) procedures are first reviewed together with a brief status overview of the relevant sensor technologies (e.g. AE, fiber-optic, corrosion, etc.). Key features of the SHMS architecture are described for the selected F/A-18 bulkhead and T-38 wing spar structural demonstration articles, highlighting sensors, processors, data busses, hardware, and software. Results from acoustic monitoring of the program sub-element structural tests are presented in some detail along with a status review of the SHMS multiplex bus component hardware and software. Finally, structural requirements for an SHMS meeting minimum ASIP guidelines for damage detection are discussed along with foals for future testing and development of the SHMS under the SMS program.
Urbina-Fuentes, M; Narro-Robles, J; Wolpert-Barraza, E; Meljem-Moctezuma, J
The paper discusses the close link between marginality, regional development and health. In order to do so, reference is made to some health indicators like nutrition, causes of death and health infrastructure within the low as well as the high marginality areas. The paper also presents the strategies that the Ministry of Health has established to assist the population living in the high marginality areas. It specifies the related activities that are being carried out through the national institutes of health and the sanitary regulation offices.
Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.
An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.
Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William
Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405
Granberg, I.; Golitsyn, G.; Istoshin, N.; Efimenko, N.; Alekhin, A.; Rogoza, A.; Povolotskaya, N.; Artamonova, M.; Pogarski, F.
High people sensitivity to weather and space factors, particularly encumbered by various illnesses, was from time immemorial. Now, in terms of global climate change, accompanied by frequent and severe restructuring of atmospheric processes, thermal anomalies, droughts, environmental change through meteorological and heliogeophysical factors affect the human body particularly intense, causing adverse effects to health. There are currently beginning to develop methods for evaluating multifactor of the external environment and prevention of their negative influence on people. For those sensitive to such influences, with adverse weather in response to sudden changes in weather factors pathological of meteopathic reactions may arise. In doing so, even among healthy individuals it is up to 35-45% of meteosensitive. Meteopathic reactions lead to the appearance and progression of pathological disorders, and the associated increase in chronic diseases. In this connection the tasks solution related to assessing the impact of meteorological and climatic variations of different space-time scale on the health of the population of Russia becomes extremely important, especially for the people with cardiovascular disease. This is confirmed by as clinical observations, and the state of vital systems of meteosensitive people. Based on the results of comprehensive research of Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Curortology (PSRIC), the A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP), and Hydrometeocenter of Russia in the region of Caucasian Mineral Waters (CMW) by scientists of IAP and PSRIC there was established a system of Operational Medical Weather Forecast (OMWF), which aims to have possibility on time to host events for the prevention of meteopathic reactions of people with high meteodependence. Also, we have introduced improved definition of Weather Pathogenicity Index (WPI) for medical weather forecast. As a basis of medical weather
Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R
This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care.
Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R
This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care.
Khan, M Mahmud; Hotchkiss, David R; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Zunaid Ahsan, Karar
This paper illustrates the importance of collecting facility-based data through regular surveys to supplement the administrative data, especially for developing countries of the world. In Bangladesh, measures based on facility survey indicate that only 70% of very basic medical instruments and 35% of essential drugs were available in health facilities. Less than 2% of officially designated obstetric care facilities actually had required drugs, injections and personnel on-site. Majority of (80%) referral hospitals at the district level were not ready to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Even though the Management Information System reports availability of diagnostic machines in all district-level and sub-district-level facilities, it fails to indicate that 50% of these machines are not functional. In terms of human resources, both physicians and nurses are in short supply at all levels of the healthcare system. The physician-nurse ratio also remains lower than the desirable level of 3.0. Overall job satisfaction index was less than 50 for physicians and 66 for nurses. Patient satisfaction score, however, was high (86) despite the fact that process indicators of service quality were poor. Facility surveys can help strengthen not only the management decision-making process but also the quality of administrative data.
Potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS) are discussed. A detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation is provided followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system.
This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).
Bettini, Paolo; Guerreschi, Erika; Sala, Giuseppe
The interest of the aerospace industries in structural health and usage monitoring systems is continuously increasing. Among the techniques available in literature those based on Fibre Bragg Grating sensors are much promising thanks to their peculiarities. Different Chirped Bragg Grating sensor configurations have been investigated in this paper. Starting from a numerical model capable of simulating the spectral response of a grating subjected to a generic strain profile (direct problem), a new code has been developed, allowing strain reconstruction from the experimental validation of the program, carried out through different loading cases applied on a chirped grating. The wavelength of the reflection spectrum for a chirped FBG has a one-to-one correspondence to the position along the gauge section, thus allowing strain reconstruction over the entire sensor length. Tests conducted on chirped FBGs also evidenced their potential for SHM applications, if coupled with appropriate numerical strain reconstructions tools. Finally, a new class of sensors-Draw Tower Grating arrays-has been studied. These sensors are applicable to distributed sensing and load reconstruction over large structures, thanks to their greater length. Three configurations have been evaluated, having different spatial and spectral characteristics, in order to explore possible applications of such sensors to SHM systems.
Bettini, Paolo; Guerreschi, Erika; Sala, Giuseppe
The interest of the aerospace industries in structural health and usage monitoring systems is continuously increasing. Among the techniques available in literature those based on Fibre Bragg Grating sensors are much promising thanks to their peculiarities. Different Chirped Bragg Grating sensor configurations have been investigated in this paper. Starting from a numerical model capable of simulating the spectral response of a grating subjected to a generic strain profile (direct problem), a new code has been developed, allowing strain reconstruction from the experimental validation of the program, carried out through different loading cases applied on a chirped grating. The wavelength of the reflection spectrum for a chirped FBG has a one-to-one correspondence to the position along the gauge section, thus allowing strain reconstruction over the entire sensor length. Tests conducted on chirped FBGs also evidenced their potential for SHM applications, if coupled with appropriate numerical strain reconstructions tools. Finally, a new class of sensors—Draw Tower Grating arrays—has been studied. These sensors are applicable to distributed sensing and load reconstruction over large structures, thanks to their greater length. Three configurations have been evaluated, having different spatial and spectral characteristics, in order to explore possible applications of such sensors to SHM systems. PMID:25587979
Homoeopathy is a therapy which involves many components and three main agents: the patient, with his or her condition and personal characteristics; the medication used, with its composition and manufacturing procedure; and the physician, with his or her approach to treatment and concepts of health. The development of research and evaluation structures, combined with a critical education in the discipline, would help to improve practices and define homoeopathy's potential role in relation to the other therapies, both conventional and unconventional, used in Western health systems. PMID:10083716
Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana
This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.
Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Feblowitz, Joshua; Meltzer, Seth; McMullen, Carmit; Guappone, Ken; Carpenter, Jim; Richardson, Joshua; Simonaitis, Linas; Evans, R Scott; Nichol, W Paul; Middleton, Blackford
Background Clinical decision support (CDS) is a valuable tool for improving healthcare quality and lowering costs. However, there is no comprehensive taxonomy of types of CDS and there has been limited research on the availability of various CDS tools across current electronic health record (EHR) systems. Objective To develop and validate a taxonomy of front-end CDS tools and to assess support for these tools in major commercial and internally developed EHRs. Study design and methods We used a modified Delphi approach with a panel of 11 decision support experts to develop a taxonomy of 53 front-end CDS tools. Based on this taxonomy, a survey on CDS tools was sent to a purposive sample of commercial EHR vendors (n=9) and leading healthcare institutions with internally developed state-of-the-art EHRs (n=4). Results Responses were received from all healthcare institutions and 7 of 9 EHR vendors (response rate: 85%). All 53 types of CDS tools identified in the taxonomy were found in at least one surveyed EHR system, but only 8 functions were present in all EHRs. Medication dosing support and order facilitators were the most commonly available classes of decision support, while expert systems (eg, diagnostic decision support, ventilator management suggestions) were the least common. Conclusion We developed and validated a comprehensive taxonomy of front-end CDS tools. A subsequent survey of commercial EHR vendors and leading healthcare institutions revealed a small core set of common CDS tools, but identified significant variability in the remainder of clinical decision support content. PMID:21415065
Background Evidence-based solutions for changing health behaviors exist but problems with feasibility, sustainability, and dissemination limit their impact on population-based behavior change and maintenance. Objective Our goal was to overcome the limitations of an established behavior change program by using the inherent capabilities of smartphones and wireless sensors to develop a next generation mobile health (mHealth) intervention that has the potential to be more feasible. Methods In response to the clinical need and the growing capabilities of smartphones, our study team decided to develop a behavioral hypertension reduction mHealth system inspired by Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), a lifestyle modification program. We outline the key design and development decisions that molded the project including decisions about behavior change best practices, coaching features, platform, multimedia content, wireless devices, data security, integration of systems, rapid prototyping, usability, funding mechanisms, and how all of these issues intersect with clinical research and behavioral trials. Results Over the 12 months, our study team faced many challenges to developing our prototype intervention. We describe 10 lessons learned that will ultimately stimulate more effective and sustainable approaches. Conclusions The experiences presented in this case study can be used as a reference for others developing mHealth behavioral intervention development projects by highlighting the benefits and challenges facing mHealth research. PMID:25340979
Perspectives of development of the Tunisian health system are presented, in reference to the conceptual framework recommended by the World Health Organization, while a project of health insurance reform of the social security regimes is submitted to a dialogue with the different concerned parts. Recommended orientations articulate around five axes: 1. The promotion of care provision by improving the accessibility to services, notably in zones under served, by introducing new modes of dispensation, organization and management of care provision in the framework of a continuous quality assurance strategy. 2. The financing of health care, with the implementation of the health insurance reform, has to allow an improvement of the financial accessibility of the population to health care, while supervising the evolution of total health expenditures and by developing the system's management capacities. 3. Proposals relative to the mobilization of resources are advanced in areas of medicine, training of health professionals and research on the health system. 4. Adaptation of the health system governance to the new context is necessary and would have to be developed around evolving standards for the health system, on evaluation of its performances and on information and communication with its users. 5. The health system responsiveness, new motion whose contours are again blurred, would have to be analysed and adapted to the specific context of the country.
Learmonth, Alyson; Pedler, Mike
Health policy traditionally has tended to focus on health care policy. The World Health Organisation Investment for Health approach aims to influence policy development by locating health as both the outcome of, and an asset for, sustainable economic and social development. The policy context in England offers a range of drivers and opportunities to operationalise the Investment for Health approach through action to improve health and reduce inequalities, nationally and as importantly at a regional and local level. This paper traces developments in the North East of England April 2002-November 2002, from the perspective of an advocate for developing a systemic and systematic approach using an Investment for Health approach. The tool used to track change is based in action learning [M. Pedler, Action Learning for Managers, Lemos and Crane, London, 1996]. The Action Learning Problem Brief identifies why the goal is important, who to, how progress might be identified, difficulties and benefits. Generally, this acts as a starting point for problem solving within an Action Learning Set. This piece of work uses the framework for reflection and tracking, with input from a mentor, at four to eight weekly intervals, 'Auto Action Learning'. The authors pull out key learning points from the process, using a framework 'Towards a model for systematic learning from doing in the North East of England'.
Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed. PMID:15868019
Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda
Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.
Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin
The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.
Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W
Derived from overlapping concepts in consumer health, a consumer health information system refers to any of the broad range of applications, tools, and educational resources developed to empower consumers with knowledge, techniques, and strategies, to manage their own health. As consumer health information systems become increasingly popular, it is important to explore the factors that impact their adoption and success. Accumulating evidence indicates a relationship between usability and consumers' eHealth Literacy skills and the demands consumer HISs place on their skills. Here, we present a new model called the Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model, which depicts both consumer eHealth literacy skills and system demands on eHealth literacy as moderators with the potential to affect the strength of relationship between usefulness and usability (predictors of usage) and adoption, value, and successful use (actual usage outcomes). Strategies for aligning these two moderating factors are described.
Asahina, Yasuko; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi
Herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) are widely used, and health professionals are in an ideal position to educate patients about them. However, it is sometimes difficult to evaluate their risks and benefits with limited information and what is worse, many health professionals in Japan are unconcerned with HDS. Therefore, we aimed to develop an internet-based educational system to periodically provide information about HDS to medical doctors and pharmacists in order to increase their awareness. Monographs about selected HDS, accompanied with educational quizzes, were prepared to meet pharmacists' needs. Examples of clinical Q&A cases about drug interactions involving HDS were prepared. The material was distributed weekly to registered health professionals by e-mail and via WWW pages. Two hundred and forty-four health professionals evaluated the system by questionnaire. The questionnaire results revealed that 1) more than 75% of responders evaluated the system as useful, 2) compilation of information into educational quizzes and cases encouraged health professionals to learn about HDS with less difficulty, and 3) e-mails led them to learn periodically and to be more concerned about the safety of HDS. In conclusion, the developed information system for HDS was proved to be useful and should serve to improve the understanding of health professionals about this issue.
Nøhr, C.; Sørensen, E. M.; Gudes, O.; Geraghty, E. M.; Shaw, N. T.; Bivona-Tellez, C.
Summary Objectives The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. This study reviews the literature and builds a framework to provide a conceptual overview of the domain, and to promote strategic planning for further research of GIS in health. Method The framework is based on literature from the library databases Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were identified based on keywords and initially selected for further study based on titles and abstracts. A grounded theory-inspired method was applied to categorize the selected articles in main focus areas. Subsequent frequency analysis was performed on the identified articles in areas of infectious and non-infectious diseases and continent of origin. Results A total of 865 articles were included. Four conceptual domains within GIS in health sciences comprise the framework: spatial analysis of disease, spatial analysis of health service planning, public health, health technologies and tools. Frequency analysis by disease status and location show that malaria and schistosomiasis are the most commonly analyzed infectious diseases where cancer and asthma are the most frequently analyzed non-infectious diseases. Across categories, articles from North America predominate, and in the category of spatial analysis of diseases an equal number of studies concern Asia. Conclusion Spatial analysis of diseases and health service planning are well-established research areas. The development of future technologies and new application areas for GIS and data-gathering technologies such as GPS, smartphones, remote sensing etc. will be nudging the research in GIS and health. PMID:25123730
Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y
Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.
Sekretaryova, Alina N; Eriksson, Mats; Turner, Anthony P F
We present a brief overview of bioelectrocatalytic devices for in vitro health applications, including food safety and environmental analysis, focusing on microelectrode- and microfluidic-based biosensors, paper-based point-of-care devices and wearable biosensors. The main hurdles and future perspectives are discussed. We then consider the role of electron transfer between a biocatalyst and an electrode in biosensor design. Brief descriptions of indirect, direct and mediated mechanisms are given. The principal strategies, as well as recent developments for modulation of electron transfer in biocatalytic systems are summarised. In conclusion, we highlight some of the challenges associated with improving these redox systems.
Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.
It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy
The relationship between the health of a population and the state of development of a society is complex and varies over time. Throughout history, improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. This benefit results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability. This second factor is increasingly important compared to simple economic growth. Reciprocally, health could be expected to have a favorable effect on development, although this effect is more difficult to detect. Nevertheless, health can be considered part of a society's capital stock, as long as the essential differences between this type of capital and physical capital are recognized. These differences, in turn, provide an insight into the health services market and, in particular, into the tendency to spend more and more resources on health. It is necessary to respect the intrinsic value of human capital, rather than focusing strictly on the economic productivity that may be derived from it, in order to prevent discrimination against children, the elderly, the poor, or the disabled.
AbouZahr, Carla; Boerma, Ties
Public health decision-making is critically dependent on the timely availability of sound data. The role of health information systems is to generate, analyse and disseminate such data. In practice, health information systems rarely function systematically. The products of historical, social and economic forces, they are complex, fragmented and unresponsive to needs. International donors in health are largely responsible for the problem, having prioritized urgent needs for data over longer-term country capacity-building. The result is painfully apparent in the inability of most countries to generate the data needed to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Solutions to the problem must be comprehensive; money alone is likely to be insufficient unless accompanied by sustained support to country systems development coupled with greater donor accountability and allocation of responsibilities. The Health Metrics Network, a global collaboration in the making, is intended to help bring such solutions to the countries most in need. PMID:16184276
McOwen, Katherine S; Bellini, Lisa M; Morrison, Gail; Shea, Judy A
Academic health centers (AHCs) use education evaluation data for multiple purposes, and they also use multiple methods to collect data in an effort to evaluate the quality of student and faculty performance. Collecting evaluation data in a standardized manner enabling collation and subsequent assessment and interpretation is critically important if the information is to be maximally useful. A case study is presented of PENN Medicine's education evaluation program and the complicated mission of developing a multiprogram, multipurpose evaluation system, developed and implemented from 2003 to 2007. The proposed solution is generalizable to other comparable AHCs. The article begins with a structured analysis of needs, continues with a description of the conceptual evaluation model guiding the system, and offers a summary of the amounts and types of data collected in the years leading to full implementation. The article concludes with a brief list of needs that emerged during implementation and suggestions for future growth. The resulting system is described as supporting the evaluation of clinical teaching of more than 1,200 clinical faculty, students, residents, and fellows across 18 clinical departments with a common set of items. For the 2006-2007 academic year, more than 30,000 faculty evaluations were collected, combined, and then presented in a Web-based teaching dossier. A by-product of this effort was the creation of an ever-expanding data set that supports medical education research.
Pérez-Lu, José E; Iguiñiz Romero, Ruth; Bayer, Angela M; García, Patricia J
In developing countries, there are no high quality data to support decision-making and governance due to inadequate information collection and transmission processes. Our project WawaRed-Peru: "Reducing health inequities and improving maternal health by improving health information systems" aims to improve maternal health processes and indicators through the implementation of interoperability standards for maternal health information systems in order for decision makers to have timely, high quality information. Through this project, we hope to support the development of better health policies and to also contribute to reducing problems of health equity among Peruvian women and potentially women in other developing countries. The aim of this article is to present the current state of information systems for maternal health in Peru.
Guerrero, Ramiro; Gallego, Ana Isabel; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Vásquez, Johanna
This document briefly describes the health conditions of the Colombian population and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Colombian health system. The description of the system includes its structure and coverage; financing sources; expenditure in health; physical material and human resources available; monitoring and evaluation procedures; and mechanisms through which the population participates in the evaluation of the system. Salient among the most recent innovations implemented in the Colombian health system are the modification of the Compulsory Health Plan and the capitation payment unit, the vertical integration of the health promotion enterprises and the institutions in charge of the provision of services and the mobilization of additional resources to meet the objectives of universal coverage and the homologation of health benefits among health regimes.
Abstract International collaborative health research is justifiably expected to help reduce global health inequities. Investment in health policy and systems research in developing countries is essential to this process but, currently, funding for international research is mainly channelled towards the development of new medical interventions. This imbalance is largely due to research legislation and policies used in high-income countries. These policies have increasingly led these countries to invest in health research aimed at boosting national economic competitiveness rather than reducing health inequities. In the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the regulation of research has encouraged a model that: leads to products that can be commercialized; targets health needs that can be met by profitable, high-technology products; has the licensing of new products as its endpoint; and does not entail significant research capacity strengthening in other countries. Accordingly, investment in international research is directed towards pharmaceutical trials and product development public–private partnerships for neglected diseases. This diverts funding away from research that is needed to implement existing interventions and to strengthen health systems, i.e. health policy and systems research. Governments must restructure their research laws and policies to increase this essential research in developing countries. PMID:22271965
How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.
Gómez Dantés, Octavio; Sesma, Sergio; Becerril, Victor M; Knaul, Felicia M; Arreola, Héctor; Frenk, Julio
This paper describes the Mexican health system. In part one, the health conditions of the Mexican population are discussed, with emphasis in those emerging diseases that are now the main causes of death, both in men and women: diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. Part two is devoted to the description of the basic structure of the system: its main institutions, the population coverage, the health benefits of those affiliated to the different heath institutions, its financial sources, the levels of financial protection in health, the availability of physical, material and human resources for health, and the stewardship functions displayed by the Ministry of Health and other actors. This part also discusses the role of citizens in the monitorization and evaluation of the health system, as well as the levels of satisfaction with the rendered health services. In part three the most recent innovations and its impact on the performance of the health system are discussed. Salient among them are the System of Social Protection in Health and the Popular Health Insurance. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of the short- and middle-term challenges faced by the Mexican health system.
Brinkerhoff, Derick W; Bossert, Thomas J
Governance is increasingly recognized as an important factor in health system performance, yet conceptually and practically it remains poorly understood and subject to often vague and competing notions of both what its role is and how to address its weaknesses. This overview article for the symposium on health governance presents a model of health governance that focuses on the multiplicity of societal actors in health systems, the distribution of roles and responsibilities among them and their ability and willingness to fulfil these roles and responsibilities. This focus highlights the principal-agent linkages among actors and the resulting incentives for good governance and health system performance. The discussion identifies three disconnects that constitute challenges for health system strengthening interventions that target improving governance: (1) the gap between the good governance agenda and existing capacities, (2) the discrepancy between formal and informal governance and (3) the inattention to sociopolitical power dynamics. The article summarizes the three country cases in the symposium and highlights their governance findings: health sector reform in China, financial management of health resources in Brazilian municipalities and budget reform in hospitals in Lesotho. The concluding sections clarify how the three cases apply the model's principal-agent linkages and highlight the importance of filling the gaps remaining between problem diagnosis and the development of practical guidance that supports 'best fit' solutions and accommodates political realities in health systems strengthening.
Perry, Lora; Malkin, Robert
It is often said that most of the medical equipment in the developing world is broken with estimates ranging up to 96% out of service. But there is little documented evidence to support these statements. We wanted to quantify the amount of medical equipment that was out of service in resource poor health settings and identify possible causes. Inventory reports were analyzed from 1986 to 2010, from hospitals in sixteen countries across four continents. The UN Human Development Index was used to determine which countries should be considered developing nations. Non-medical hospital equipment was excluded. This study examined 112,040 pieces of equipment. An average of 38.3% (42,925, range across countries: 0.83-47%) in developing countries was out of service. The three main causes were lack of training, health technology management, and infrastructure. We hope that the findings will help biomedical engineers with their efforts toward effective designs for the developing world and NGO's with efforts to design effective healthcare interventions.
Sun, Yuelian; Gregersen, Hans; Yuan, Wei
China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide potentially huge research opportunities in the future. However, constructing a complete register system at a nationwide level is challenging. In the future, China will demand increased capacity of researchers and data managers, in particular within clinical epidemiology, to explore the rich resources. PMID:28356772
Sun, Yuelian; Gregersen, Hans; Yuan, Wei
China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide potentially huge research opportunities in the future. However, constructing a complete register system at a nationwide level is challenging. In the future, China will demand increased capacity of researchers and data managers, in particular within clinical epidemiology, to explore the rich resources.
Yip, C H; Taib, N A
Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.
This article presents a structured survey of the German health care and health insurance system, and analyzes major developments of current German health policy. The German statutory health insurance system has been known as a system that provides all citizens with ready access to comprehensive high quality medical care at a cost the country considered socially acceptable. However, an increasing concern for rapidly rising health care expenditure led to a number of cost-containment measures since 1977. The aim was to bring the growth of health care expenditure in line with the growth of wages and salaries of the sickness fund members. The recent health care reforms of 1989 and 1993 yielded only short-term reductions of health care expenditure, with increases in the subsequent years. 'Stability of the contribution rate' is the uppermost political objective of current health care reform initiatives. Options under discussion include reductions in the benefit package and increases of patients' co-payments. The article concludes with the possible consequences of the 1997 health care reform of which the major part became effective 1 July 1997.
Gower, Stephanie; Hicks, John; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; McColl, Stephen
In Canada, the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) is currently engaged in a process to determine how best to reduce air emissions from oil refineries. The National Framework for Petroleum Refineries Emissions Reduction (NFPRER) is being developed with the input of stakeholders, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), industry, and regulatory jurisdictions. One component of this framework is the development of a tool to prioritize emissions for reduction based on estimated health impacts. HEIDI II (Health Effects Indicators Decision Index II) is a spreadsheet-based model that prioritizes a series of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic air toxicicants and criteria air contaminants commonly emitted from Canadian oil refineries. A generic meteorological dispersion model was applied to reported annual emissions data for each of Canada's 20 refineries. Photodegradation rates and ambient levels of each substance were accounted for, and air concentrations were calculated for 20 geographic zones around each refinery. These were coupled to toxicity data derived mainly from Health Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and applied to target populations of children, adults and seniors. HEIDI II predicts incidence of relevant disease endpoints from each substance emitted, except for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which were treated as chemical mixtures. Rankings were based on predicted case incidence or the application of a common health impact metric, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), to the predicted incidence. Using the DALY approach, priority rankings can be made within each of the chemical classes, or across all three classes together. HEIDI II incorporates several switches that allow the user to investigate alternate scenarios based on stack height, average daily sunlight hours (for calculating photodegradation), and the possibility of emissions below
El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ataya, Nour; El-Ghali, Hana Addam; Hammoud, Rawan
Public policymaking is complex and suffers from limited uptake of research evidence, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). In-depth case studies examining health policymaking in the EMR are lacking. This retrospective policy analysis aims at generating insights about how policies are being made, identifying factors influencing policymaking and assessing to what extent evidence is used in this process by using the Lebanese Voluntary Health Insurance policy as a case study. The study examined the policymaking process through a policy tracing technique that covered a period of 12 years. The study employed a qualitative research design using a case study approach and was conducted in two phases over the course of two years. Data was collected using multiple sources including: 1) a comprehensive and chronological media review; 2) twenty-two key informant interviews with policymakers, stakeholders, and journalists; and 3) a document review of legislations, minutes of meetings, actuarial studies, and official documents. Data was analyzed and validated using thematic analysis. Findings showed that the voluntary health insurance policy was a political decision taken by the government to tackle an urgent political problem. Evidence was not used to guide policy development and implementation and policy implementers and other stakeholders were not involved in policy development. Factors influencing policymaking were political interests, sectarianism, urgency, and values of policymakers. Barriers to the use of evidence were lack of policy-relevant research evidence, political context, personal interests, and resource constraints. Findings suggest that policymakers should be made more aware of the important role of evidence in informing public policymaking and the need for building capacity to develop, implement and evaluate policies. Study findings are likely to matter in light of the changes that are unfolding in some Arab countries and the looming
Schneider, H; Lehmann, U
One of the consequences of massive investment in antiretroviral access and other AIDS programmes has been the rapid emergence of large numbers of lay workers in the health systems of developing countries. In South Africa, government estimates are 65,000, mostly HIV/TB care-related lay workers contribute their labour in the public health sector, outnumbering the main front-line primary health care providers and professional nurses. The phenomenon has grown organically and incrementally, playing a wide variety of care-giving, support and advocacy roles. Using South Africa as a case, this paper discusses the different forms, traditions and contradictory orientations taken by lay health work and the system-wide effects of a large lay worker presence. As pressures to regularise and formalize the status of lay health workers grow, important questions are raised as to their place in health systems, and more broadly what they represent as a new intermediary layer between state and citizen. It argues for a research agenda that seeks to better characterise types of lay involvement in the health system, particularly in an era of antiretroviral therapy, and which takes a wider perspective on the meanings of this recent re-emergence of an old concept in health systems heavily affected by HIV/AIDS.
Hanney, Stephen R; González Block, Miguel A
Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS) provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics related to the above
González Pier, Eduardo
Health conditions in Mexico have evolved along with socioeconomic conditions. As a result, today's health system faces several problems characterized by four overlapping transitions: demand, expectations, funding and health resources. These transitions engender significant pressures on the system itself. Additionally, fragmentation of the health system creates disparities in access to services and generates problems in terms of efficiency and use of available resources. To address these complications and to improve equity in access and efficiency, thorough analysis is required in how the right to access health care should be established at a constitutional level without differentiating across population groups. This should be followed by careful discussion about what rules of health care financing should exist, which set of interventions ought to be covered and how services must be organized to meet the health needs of the population.
How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187
The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…
Kofman, Laura; Seprish, Mary Beth; Summar, Marshall
Children's National Health System (CNHS) is a not-for-profit pediatric hospital that employs around twenty genetic counselors in a range of specialties, including clinical pediatric, neurology, fetal medicine, research, and laboratory. CNHS lacked a structured system of advancement for their genetic counselors; therefore, a formal career ladder was proposed by the genetic counselors based on years of experience, responsibility, and job performance. This career ladder utilized monetary, academic, and seniority incentives to encourage advancement and continue employment at CNHS. The creation and ultimate approval of the career ladder required direct input from genetic counselors, Department Chairs, and Human Resource personnel. The establishment of a genetic counselor career ladder at CNHS will hopefully benefit the profession of genetic counselors as a whole and allow other facilities to create and maintain their own career ladder to meet the needs of the growing, competitive, field of genetic counseling.
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Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is
Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public health The landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector. PMID:27190977
Health informatics has a major role to play in optimising the management and use of data, information and knowledge in health systems. As health systems undergo digital transformation, it is important to consider informatics approaches not only to curriculum content but also to the design of learning environments and learning activities for health professional learning and development. An example of such an informatics approach is the use of large-scale, integrated public health platforms on the Internet as part of health professional learning and development. This article describes selected examples of such platforms, with a focus on how they may influence the direction of health professional learning and development. Significance for public healthThe landscape of healthcare systems, public health systems, health research systems and professional education systems is fragmented, with many gaps and silos. More sophistication in the management of health data, information, and knowledge, based on public health informatics expertise, is needed to tackle key issues of prevention, promotion and policy-making. Platform technologies represent an emerging large-scale, highly integrated informatics approach to public health, combining the technologies of Internet, the web, the cloud, social technologies, remote sensing and/or mobile apps into an online infrastructure that can allow more synergies in work within and across these systems. Health professional curricula need updating so that the health workforce has a deep and critical understanding of the way that platform technologies are becoming the foundation of the health sector.
Coddington, D C; Moore, K D; Fischer, E A
Cooperation among the traditionally adversarial factions of physicians and hospitals has arisen in the early 1990s to develop the integrated health care system. Authors Dean C. Coddington, Keith D. Moore and Elizabeth A. Fischer explain how these two groups have been joined in the integration by an unlikely participant: health plans.
Health Information Science and Systems is an exciting, new, multidisciplinary journal that aims to use technologies in computer science to assist in disease diagnoses, treatment, prediction and monitoring through the modeling, design, development, visualization, integration and management of health related information. These computer-science technologies include such as information systems, web technologies, data mining, image processing, user interaction and interface, sensors and wireless networking and are applicable to a wide range of health related information including medical data, biomedical data, bioinformatics data, public health data.
Il'chenko, I N; Bialkov, A I; Syrtsova, L E; Liapunov, S M; Okina, O I
At the moment, the making a diagnosis of an environment-induced disease in Russia is not routine and this is not relied on a rather evidence basis. Nevertheless, the choice of exposure methods from educational and preventive to therapeutic depends on the intensity and pattern of exposure to ecotoxicants and on the magnitude of appropriate specific changes. Epidemiological surveys of 5-7-year-old children from 3 towns of Russia have revealed that 8.3-24.5% of the children have moderate excesses of the allowable levels of lead in blood; 4.6-12.8% have excess hair magnesium levels, and 5.9-33.8% have excess hair copper levels. The real damage to the children's neuropsychic health manifests as a significant reduction in the memory and academic achievement indices, the parameters of fine and gross motor coordination, speech expressiveness, and in the rate of minor successive movements. The prevalence of environment-dependent neuropsychic malformations is 3-7%, as calculated with reference to all the children examined. The children aged 5-7 years are shown not to be in need of therapeutic measures in all the towns compared. At the same time, 61.1-83.2% of the children need neuropsychic health-promoting measures. For this, it is expedient to use informational and educational technologies. About 4.3-17.8 and 11.5 - 21.1% need primary and secondary preventive measures against environment-dependent neuropsychic changes. The authors present approaches to developing measures to promote neuropsychic health and to prevent neuropsychic malformations. There is evidence that primary prevention is more effective for the pediatric population. There is no question that multivariate analysis of the problems associated with childhood neuropsychic development, including environmental, behavioral, sociomedical components, is of importance. These approaches may be realized at the municipal level and taken as the basis for preparing national guidelines for the promotion of health and for
Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207
Diplomatic and operational adaptations to global health programmes in post-conflict settings: contributions of monitoring and evaluation systems to health sector development and 'nation-building' in South Sudan.
Kevany, Sebastian; Hatfield, Amanda; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Durrani, Bilal Aurang Zeb; Bekele, Yonas; Khan, Usma; White, Karen; Myrick, Roger
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems are an essential element of functioning and accountable global health programmes. In post-conflict settings, the role of M&E systems is also critical to ensure that health services are being delivered to those populations and regions most in need. Given the inherent challenges of health service delivery in such environments, a range of both diplomatic and operational adaptations to M&E procedures are necessary. Using the '12 components' of a functioning M&E system as a conceptual and analytical framework, we observed and reviewed the key challenges to M&E systems in South Sudan as part of a broader review of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) activities supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Based on additional interview-based reviews and analyses of M&E activities, a list of adaptations to standardized M&E procedures in response to post-conflict environmental challenges was developed. The study concludes that development and implementation of M&E systems in post-conflict environments requires extensive adaptations to conventional procedures. Flexible and adaptable as well as 'diplomatically sensitized' M&E systems are considered to be essential to the successful completion of M&E-related activities, and may also contribute to broader international relations, 'nation-building', and peace-keeping goals.
Ellner, Andrew L; Stout, Somava; Sullivan, Erin E; Griffiths, Elizabeth P; Mountjoy, Ashlin; Phillips, Russell S
Challenged by demands to reduce costs and improve service delivery, the U.S. health care system requires transformational change. Health systems innovation is defined broadly as novel ideas, products, services, and processes-including new ways to promote healthy behaviors and better integrate health services with public health and other social services-which achieve better health outcomes and/or patient experience at equal or lower cost. Academic health centers (AHCs) have an opportunity to focus their considerable influence and expertise on health systems innovation to create new approaches to service delivery and to nurture leaders of transformation. AHCs have traditionally used their promotions criteria to signal their values; creating a health systems innovator promotion track could be a critical step towards creating opportunities for innovators in academic medicine. In this Perspective, the authors review publicly available promotions materials at top-ranked medical schools and find that while criteria for advancement increasingly recognize systems innovation, there is a lack of specificity on metrics beyond the traditional yardstick of peer-reviewed publications. In addition to new promotions pathways and alternative evidence for the impact of scholarship, other approaches to fostering health systems innovation at AHCs include more robust funding for career development in health systems innovation, new curricula to enable trainees to develop skills in health systems innovation, and new ways for innovators to disseminate their work. AHCs that foster health systems innovation could meet a critical need to contribute both to the sustainability of our health care system and to AHCs' continued leadership role within it.
Vellar, Lucia; Mastroianni, Fiorina; Lambert, Kelly
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe how one regional health service the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District embedded health literacy principles into health systems over a 3-year period.Methods Using a case study approach, this article describes the development of key programs and the manner in which clinical incidents were used to create a health environment that allows consumers the right to equitably access quality health services and to participate in their own health care.Results The key outcomes demonstrating successful embedding of health literacy into health systems in this regional health service include the creation of a governance structure and web-based platform for developing and testing plain English consumer health information, a clearly defined process to engage with consumers, development of the health literacy ambassador training program and integrating health literacy into clinical quality improvement processes via a formal program with consumers to guide processes such as improvements to access and navigation around hospital sites.Conclusions The Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District has developed an evidence-based health literacy framework, guided by the core principles of universal precaution and organisational responsibility. Health literacy was also viewed as both an outcome and a process. The approach taken by the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District to address poor health literacy in a coordinated way has been recognised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care as an exemplar of a coordinated approach to embed health literacy into health systems.What is known about the topic? Poor health literacy is a significant national concern in Australia. The leadership, governance and consumer partnership culture of a health organisation can have considerable effects on an individual's ability to access, understand and apply the health-related information and services available to them
Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina
Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279
Wartenberg, Daniel; Thompson, W Douglas; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gross, Hillary J; Condon, Suzanne K; Kim, Nancy; Goun, Barbara D; Opiekun, Richard E
Environmental exposures cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. A major goal of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Environmental Public Health Tracking program is the development of a national network of health and environmental data with analytic tools for rapid evaluation of specific national or regional environmental health concerns. A six-state collaborative project in the northeast United States was established to assess the feasibility of such a system, assessing the possible association between ambient air quality and adverse birth outcomes. For this regional surveillance project, issues were discussed surrounding the design of a mutually acceptable protocol, obtaining human subjects' protection approvals, obtaining and organizing both the exposure and outcome data, analyzing the data both locally and regionally, and planning subsequent interventions to address identified public health concerns.
Tang, S. S.; Riccardella, P. C.; Andrews, R. J.; Grady, J. E.; Mucciaradi, A. N.
An automated system was developed to monitor the health status of composites. It uses the vibration characteristics of composites to identify a component's damage condition. The vibration responses are characterized by a set of signal features defined in the time, frequency and spatial domains. The identification of these changes in the vibration characteristics corresponding to different health conditions was performed using pattern recognition principles. This allows efficient data reduction and interpretation of vast amounts of information. Test components were manufactured from isogrid panels to evaluate performance of the monitoring system. The components were damaged by impact to simulate different health conditions. Free vibration response was induced by a tap test on the test components. The monitoring system was trained using these free vibration responses to identify three different health conditions. They are undamaged vs. damaged, damage location and damage zone size. High reliability in identifying the correct component health condition was achieved by the monitoring system.
Introduction The residents of many Australian rural and remote communities do not have the essential infrastructure and services required to support healthy living conditions and community members choosing healthy lifestyle options. Improving these social determinants of health is seen to offer real opportunities to improve health among such disadvantaged populations. In this paper, we describe the development and trialling of a tool to measure, monitor and evaluate key social determinants of health at community level. Methods The tool was developed and piloted through a multi-phase and iterative process that involved a series of consultations with community members and key stakeholders and trialling the tool in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Results The indicators were found to be robust, and by testing the tool on a number of different levels, face validity was confirmed. The scoring system was well understood and easily followed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous study participants. A facilitated small group process was found to reduce bias in scoring of indicators. Conclusion The Healthy Community Assessment Tool offers a useful vehicle and process to help those involved in planning, service provision and more generally promoting improvements in community social determinants of health. The tool offers many potential uses and benefits for those seeking to address inequities in the social determinants of health in remote communities. Maximum benefits in using the tool are likely to be gained with cross-sector involvement and when assessments are part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:23442804
Durán-Arenas, Luis; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Granados-García, Víctor; Martínez-Valverde, Silvia
Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.
Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Walker, Mark; Wilkins, Kim
A framework of software components has been implemented to facilitate the development of ISHM systems according to a methodology based on Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). This framework is collectively referred to as the Toolkit and was developed using General Atomics' Health MAP (TM) technology. The toolkit is intended to provide assistance to software developers of mission-critical system health monitoring applications in the specification, implementation, configuration, and deployment of such applications. In addition to software tools designed to facilitate these objectives, the toolkit also provides direction to software developers in accordance with an ISHM specification and development methodology. The development tools are based on an RCM approach for the development of ISHM systems. This approach focuses on defining, detecting, and predicting the likelihood of system functional failures and their undesirable consequences.
Domínguez-Alonso, Emma; Zacea, Eduardo
This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro) and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas).
Designed for policy makers and health education professionals, this paper presents a rationale and strategies for adapting health education to meet the needs of developing nations. Emphasis is placed on the need for health promotion rather than prescriptive health education. Section A, the first of two main sections, discusses perceptions of…
Périat, Michel; Bailly, Antoine
Health care services and regional development, a medicometric approach. If regional development is defined in terms of job creation and increased quality of life, health services can be seen as an investment contributing to employment and local structural changes. Spendings to increase health services, especially in peripherical regions, increase the level of economic development. Through case studies in Switzerland we open four perspectives for the future and propose a global view of health care systems in a regional context.
Many calls have been made for a systems approach to public health. My response is to offer a methodology for systemic intervention that (1) emphasizes the need to explore stakeholder values and boundaries for analysis, (2) challenges marginalization, and (3) draws upon a wide range of methods (from the systems literature and beyond) to create a flexible and responsive systems practice. I present and discuss several well-tested methods with a view to identifying their potential for supporting systemic intervention for public health. PMID:16449577
Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen, Angela; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza
This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS) and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS). The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999 Constitution which calls for the establishment of a national public health system. The reform process is now headed by the Barrio Adentro program.
Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Goranitis, Ilias
The economic crisis brought an unprecedented attention to the issue of health system sustainability in the developed world. The discussion, however, has been mainly limited to "traditional" issues of cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and, lately, patient involvement. Not enough attention has yet been paid to the issue of who pays and, more importantly, to the sustainability of financing. This fundamental concept in the economics of health policy needs to be reconsidered carefully. In a globalized economy, as the share of labor decreases relative to that of capital, wage income is increasingly insufficient to cover the rising cost of care. At the same time, as the cost of Social Health Insurance through employment contributions rises with medical costs, it imperils the competitiveness of the economy. These reasons explain why spreading health care cost to all factors of production through comprehensive National Health Insurance financed by progressive taxation of income from all sources, instead of employer-employee contributions, protects health system objectives, especially during economic recessions, and ensures health system sustainability.
Thinking shift on health systems: from blueprint health programmes towards resilience of health systems Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks.
Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana
Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of JPL, and its affilation with CalTech and NASA. It continues by examining some of the sensors, and systems to ensure structural health that JPL has developed. It also reviews some of the habitat designs that are being developed for the lunar base. With these crew habitats, there is a requirement to have embedded systems health monitoring, to alert the crew in time about adverse structural conditions. The use of sensing technologies and smart materials are being developed to assure mechanical flexibility, minimumally invasive, autonomous, and enhanced reliability.
A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.
The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project: Development and Testing of Electronic Decision Support System and Formative Research to Understand Perceptions about Mental Health in Rural India
Maulik, Pallab K; Tewari, Abha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Patel, Anushka
Introduction Common mental disorders (CMD) such as depression, suicidal risk and emotional/medically unexplained complaints affect a large number of people in India, but few receive appropriate care. Key reasons for this include few trained mental health professionals and stigma associated with mental health. A potential approach to address poor access to care is by training village healthcare workers in providing basic mental health care, and harnessing India’s vast mobile network to support such workers using mobile-based applications. We propose an intervention to implement such an approach that incorporates the use of mobile-based electronic decision support systems (EDSS) to provide mental health services for CMD, combined with a community-based anti-stigma campaign. This will be implemented and evaluated across 42 villages in Andhra Pradesh, a south Indian state. This paper discusses the development and testing of the EDSS, and the formative research that informed the anti-stigma campaign. Materials and Methods The development of the EDSS used an iterative process that was validated against clinical diagnosis. A mixed methods approach tested the user acceptability of the EDSS. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews provided community-level perceptions about mental health. This study involved 3 villages and one primary health centre. Results The EDSS application was found to be acceptable, but some modifications were needed. The community lacked adequate knowledge about CMD and its treatment and there was stigma associated with mental illness. Faith and traditional healers were considered to be important mental health service providers. Discussion A number of barriers and facilitators were identified in implementing the intervention analysed in a framework using Andersen’s behavioural model of health services use. Conclusion The findings assisted with refining the intervention prior to large-scale implementation and evaluation. PMID:27732652
Bermúdez-Madriz, Juan Luis; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Muiser, Jorine; Acosta, Mónica
This paper describes the health system of Honduras, including its challenges, structure coverage, sources of financing, resources and stewardship activities. This system counts with a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Health (MH) and the Honduran Social Security Institute (HSSI). The private sector is dominated by a set of providers offering services payed mostly out-of-pocket. The National Health Plan 2010-2014 includes a set of reforms oriented towards the creation of an integrated and plural system headed by the MH in its stewardship role. It also anticipates the creation of a public health insurance for the poor population and the transformation of the HSSI into a public insurance agency which contracts services for its affiliates with public and private providers under a family medicine model.
Ogden, Jessica; Morrison, Ken; Hardee, Karen
This article recounts the development of a model for social capital building developed over the course of interventions focused on HIV-related stigma and discrimination, safe motherhood and reproductive health. Through further engagement with relevant literature, it explores the nature of social capital and suggests why undertaking such a process can enhance health policy and programmes, advocacy and governance for improved health systems strengthening (HSS) outcomes. The social capital process proposed facilitates the systematic and effective inclusion of community voices in the health policy process-strengthening programme effectiveness as well as health system accountability and governance. Because social capital building facilitates communication and the uptake of new ideas, norms and standards within and between professional communities of practice, it can provide an important mechanism for integration both within and between sectors-a process long considered a 'wicked problem' for health policy-makers. The article argues that the systematic application of social capital building, from bonding through bridging into linking social capital, can greatly enhance the ability of governments and their partners to achieve their HSS goals.
Jacobson, Peter D.; Palmer, Jennifer A.
We investigated ways of defining and measuring the value of services provided by governmental public health systems. Our data sources included literature syntheses and qualitative interviews of public health professionals. Our examination of the health economic literature revealed growing attempts to measure value of public health services explicitly, but few studies have addressed systems or infrastructure. Interview responses demonstrated no consensus on metrics and no connection to the academic literature. Key challenges for practitioners include developing rigorous, data-driven methods and skilled staff; being politically willing to base allocation decisions on economic evaluation; and developing metrics to capture “intangibles” (e.g., social justice and reassurance value). Academic researchers evaluating the economics of public health investments should increase focus on the working needs of public health professionals. PMID:18923123
Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob
Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood
Sanchez-Bocanegra, C L; Sanchez-Laguna, F; Sevillano, J L
People are looking for appropriate health information which they are concerned about. The Internet is a great resource of this kind of information, but we have to be careful if we don't want to get harmful info. Health recommender systems are becoming a new wave for apt health information as systems suggest the best data according to the patients' needs.The main goals of health recommender systems are to retrieve trusted health information from the Internet, to analyse which is suitable for the user profile and select the best that can be recommended, to adapt their selection methods according to the knowledge domain and to learn from the best recommendations.A brief definition of recommender systems will be given and an explanation of how are they incorporated in the health sector. A description of the main elementary recommender methods as well as their most important problems will also be made. And, to finish, the state of the art will be described.
Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.
Saunders, Carla; Carter, David J
Objective Delivering genuine integrated health care is one of three strategic directions in the New South Wales (NSW) Government State Health Plan: Towards 2021. This study investigated the current key health service plan of each NSW Local Health District (LHD) to evaluate the extent and nature of health systems integration strategies that are currently planned.Methods A scoping review was conducted to identify common key principles and practices for successful health systems integration to enable the development of an appraisal tool to content assess LHD strategic health service plans.Results The strategies that are planned for health systems integration across LHDs focus most often on improvements in coordination, health care access and care delivery for complex at-risk patients across the care continuum by both state- and commonwealth-funded systems, providers and agencies. The most common reasons given for integrated activities were to reduce avoidable hospitalisation, avoid inappropriate emergency department attendance and improve patient care.Conclusions Despite the importance of health systems integration and finding that all NSW LHDs have made some commitment towards integration in their current strategic health plans, this analysis suggests that health systems integration is in relatively early development across NSW.What is known about the topic? Effective approaches to managing complex chronic diseases have been found to involve health systems integration, which necessitates sound communication and connection between healthcare providers across community and hospital settings. Planning based on current health systems integration knowledge to ensure the efficient use of scarce resources is a responsibility of all health systems.What does this paper add? Appropriate planning and implementation of health systems integration is becoming an increasingly important expectation and requirement of effective health systems. The present study is the first of its
This system is designed to assist diagnosis of the plant health globally. The system is formed by portable plant health measurement devices connected to a diagnosis and analysis center through a flexible information network. A flexible network is formed so that users from the remote areas as well as internet are able to use the system. The hardware and software is designed in an open technology for easier upgrades. Portable plant health measurement instrument is a networkable leaf flash spectrophotometer capable of measuring Qa, Electrochromy, P700, Fluorescence, S Fluorescence, reflectance spectra, temperature, humidity and image of the leaf with GPS information. The network and intelligent user interface options of the system can be used by any commercially or user designed instrument.
Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene
Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.
Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; Reyes, Juan de Dios; Manuel, Annick
This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small proportion of the population uses private health services and pays for them out-of-pocket. Around l0% of the population is covered by other public agencies, basically the Health Services for the Armed Forces. The system was recently reformed with the establishment of a Universal System of Explicit Entitlements, which operates through a Universal Plan of Explicit Entitlements (AUGE), which guarantees timely access to treatment for 56 health problems, including cancer in children, breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease, HIV/AIDS and diabetes.
The 'cube' meta-model for the information system of large health sector organizations--a (platform neutral) mapping tool to integrate information system development with changing business functions and organizational development.
To develop information systems (IS) in the changing environment of the health sector, a simple but throughout model, avoiding the techno-jargon of informatics, might be useful for the top management. A platform neutral, extensible, transparent conceptual model should be established. Limitations of current methods lead to a simple, but comprehensive mapping, in the form of a three-dimensional cube. The three 'orthogonal' views are (a) organization functionality, (b) organizational structures and (c) information technology. Each of the cube-sides is described according to its nature. This approach enables to define any kind of an IS component as a certain point/layer/domain of the cube and enables also the management to label all IS components independently form any supplier(s) and/or any specific platform. The model handles changes in organization structure, business functionality and the serving info-system independently form each other. Practical application extends to (a) planning complex, new ISs, (b) guiding development of multi-vendor, multi-site ISs, (c) supporting large-scale public procurement procedures and the contracting, implementation phase by establishing a platform neutral reference, (d) keeping an exhaustive inventory of an existing large-scale system, that handles non-tangible aspects of the IS.
Boyles, Linda R.; And Others
This health and human development curriculum for grades 1-6 contains tips for teachers and overviews of the philosophy behind teaching these topics to elementary school students. The section on health education is structured around ten content strands: (1) health knowledge, attitudes, decisions, and behavior; (2) emotional and social health; (3)…
Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…
Dyson, R. J. E.
The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.
Many Medicaid programs have either fully or partially carved out mental health services. The evaluation of carve-out plans requires a case-mix model that accounts for differing health status across Medicaid managed care plans. This article develops a diagnosis-based case-mix adjustment system specific to Medicaid behavioral health care. Several…
Courtney, Paul K
In 2001, the Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm and the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics report Information for Health were released, and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data are provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "data liquidity." This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for health information technology, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This article looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable.
Toro-Palacio, Luis Fernando; Ochoa-Jaramillo, Francisco Luis
This article points out the enormous gap that exists between complex thinking of an intellectual nature currently present in our environment, and complex experimental thinking that has facilitated the scientific and technological advances that have radically changed the world. The article suggests that life, human beings, global society, and all that constitutes health be considered as adaptive complex systems. This idea, in turn, prioritizes the adoption of a different approach that seeks to expand understanding. When this rationale is recognized, the principal characteristics and emerging properties of health as an adaptive complex system are sustained, following a care and services delivery model. Finally, some pertinent questions from this perspective are put forward in terms of research, and a series of appraisals are expressed that will hopefully serve to help us understand all that we have become as individuals and as a species. The article proposes that the delivery of health care services be regarded as an adaptive complex system.
Patrick, Walter K.
An attempt was made to study the influence of social networks in Sri Lanka by identifying, selecting, and training volunteers to serve as informal educators of their own social networks. These educators who each were to serve a cluster of 20-25 families were young adults; the majority were females linked to health, education, or community…
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160
Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David
Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice.
Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.
This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to
Krewitt, W; Hurley, F; Trukenmüller, A; Friedrich, R
Health risks from fossil, renewable and nuclear reference energy systems are estimated following a detailed impact pathway approach. Using a set of appropriate air quality models and exposure-effect functions derived from the recent epidemiological literature, a methodological framework for risk assessment has been established and consistently applied across the different energy systems, including the analysis of consequences from a major nuclear accident. A wide range of health impacts resulting from increased air pollution and ionizing radiation is quantified, and the transferability of results derived from specific power plants to a more general context is discussed.
Leng, C H
The health of a population and the development of health services in a country at a particular time in history are directly linked to the socioeconomic system. This paper discusses health and health services in Malay Peninsula during the time that it was a British colony. Economic production under British colonialism, which is basically a capitalist system, is organized primarily for the purpose of realizing profits. The health of the population is in direct conflict with and generally subordinated to this main objective. The pattern of health that emerges reflects this general framework. Moreover, health services under the colonialist system are developed primarily to serve the economic interests of the colonialists. Hence, the structure of health services is biased toward curative medicine and centered mainly in the urban areas.
Kates, Jennifer; Marconi, Katherine; Mannle, Thomas E., Jr.
Describes an approach to introducing performance measurement into a large federal health program, the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act, in response to the government Performance and Results Act. Also discusses characteristics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic that present unique challenges for performance measurement. (SLD)
Health care for mothers and children has been a cornerstone of the Swedish system of health care for many years, starting in the 1930s, when a national network of maternal health centers offered a variety of free prenatal services. This paper describes modern maternal health services whose primary goal is preventive care. Instruments for attaining this goal are regular check-ups for early detection of problems and for maintenance of good health; social and psychological support to expectant parents; information and training to prepare parents for delivery and parenting; information and education about risk factors in the parents' local environment and in society in general. Details of how these programs were developed, delivered and evaluated are provided by the author, a former Senior Medical Officer at the National Board of Health and Welfare, responsible for maternal health care and family planning on a national level.
Cifuentes, Myriam Patricia
Health is a complex object for science and operative levels, partly because there are many approaches defining it but not scientifically sufficient or operatively accepted. This is relevant for health understanding but also for decision making on health related problems. "Determinants of Health" as a widely accepted theoretical proposal, identifies as problematic the reductionist view of health as the disease opposite, attempting to develop it positively according to WHO's definition, proposing a set of factors determining health outcomes. Though this allows a larger comprehension of health causes and effects, still has insufficiently defined theoretical statements and unproved assumptions which difficult understanding and effective actions orientation. Complexity deductive modeling since the insufficiently formalized frameworks, implies incorporating unmanageable object assumptions or reducing health broadness. Taking profit of Bogotá government adherence to DH proposal leading a health information system development, was possible inductive modeling since a systemic massive database (690.000 registries). In this way, DH theoretical statements about health components connectedness were explored by classic statistic approach, and by learning Bayesian networks from data (data mining). First approach showed understanding difficulties. Second was advantageous in approximating within and between determinants relationship structure. However, though DH introduces a systemic approach in considering diverse interacting elements is not empirically satisfactory to exhibit all the meaning of health complexity, because just matches analytic fashioned constructs depending on data expression. A strong networked model developing health complexity, needs the orientation by theoretical constructs as human agency and organization, to explore and understand emergent patterns of health.
Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.
This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.
Santi, L. Michael; Sowers, T. Shane; Aguilar, Robert B.
Sensor data are the basis for performance and health assessment of most complex systems. Careful selection and implementation of sensors is critical to enable high fidelity system health assessment. A model-based procedure that systematically selects an optimal sensor suite for overall health assessment of a designated host system is described. This procedure, termed the Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4), was developed at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center in order to enhance design phase planning and preparations for in-space propulsion health management systems (HMS). Information and capabilities required to utilize the S4 approach in support of design phase development of robust health diagnostics are outlined. A merit metric that quantifies diagnostic performance and overall risk reduction potential of individual sensor suites is introduced. The conceptual foundation for this merit metric is presented and the algorithmic organization of the S4 optimization process is described. Representative results from S4 analyses of a boost stage rocket engine previously under development as part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program are presented.
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Various indicators show that the health of the population has improved over the last few decades. However, inequalities in health across socioeconomic groups have been increasing since the 1970s. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, cancer, diseases of the respiratory system and diseases of the digestive system. Risk factors such as the steadily rising levels of alcohol consumption, the sharp increases in adult and child obesity and prevailing smoking levels are among the most pressing public health concerns, particularly as they reflect the growing health inequalities among different socioeconomic groups. Health services in England are largely free at the point of use. The NHS provides preventive medicine, primary care and hospital services to all those ordinarily resident. Over 12% of the population is covered by voluntary health insurance schemes, known in the United Kingdom as private medical insurance (PMI), which mainly provides access to acute elective care in the private sector. Responsibility for publicly funded health care rests with the Secretary of State for Health, supported by the Department of Health. The Department operates at a regional level through 10 strategic health authorities (SHAs), which are responsible for ensuring the quality and performance of local health services within their geographic area. Responsibility for commissioning health services at the local level lies with 151 primary care
Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal
To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.
Kessel, Kerstin A; Combs, Stephanie E
Recently, information availability has become more elaborate and widespread, and treatment decisions are based on a multitude of factors, including imaging, molecular or pathological markers, surgical results, and patient's preference. In this context, the term "Big Data" evolved also in health care. The "hype" is heavily discussed in literature. In interdisciplinary medical specialties, such as radiation oncology, not only heterogeneous and voluminous amount of data must be evaluated but also spread in different styles across various information systems. Exactly this problem is also referred to in many ongoing discussions about Big Data - the "three V's": volume, velocity, and variety. We reviewed 895 articles extracted from the NCBI databases about current developments in electronic clinical data management systems and their further analysis or postprocessing procedures. Few articles show first ideas and ways to immediately make use of collected data, particularly imaging data. Many developments can be noticed in the field of clinical trial or analysis documentation, mobile devices for documentation, and genomics research. Using Big Data to advance medical research is definitely on the rise. Health care is perhaps the most comprehensive, important, and economically viable field of application.
Kessel, Kerstin A.; Combs, Stephanie E.
Recently, information availability has become more elaborate and widespread, and treatment decisions are based on a multitude of factors, including imaging, molecular or pathological markers, surgical results, and patient’s preference. In this context, the term “Big Data” evolved also in health care. The “hype” is heavily discussed in literature. In interdisciplinary medical specialties, such as radiation oncology, not only heterogeneous and voluminous amount of data must be evaluated but also spread in different styles across various information systems. Exactly this problem is also referred to in many ongoing discussions about Big Data – the “three V’s”: volume, velocity, and variety. We reviewed 895 articles extracted from the NCBI databases about current developments in electronic clinical data management systems and their further analysis or postprocessing procedures. Few articles show first ideas and ways to immediately make use of collected data, particularly imaging data. Many developments can be noticed in the field of clinical trial or analysis documentation, mobile devices for documentation, and genomics research. Using Big Data to advance medical research is definitely on the rise. Health care is perhaps the most comprehensive, important, and economically viable field of application. PMID:27066456
Understanding the state of a polar station's power system can be critical to a successful long-term deployment. Knowing how the system is functioning, prior to service, is key to proper logistics, scheduling and the service performed during a visit. A full record of power system performance is key to proper analysis of the health of the power system. The design of a power system with monitoring is a balance of components to gather information while still trying to keep complexity low. To properly incorporate a system to analyze a stations power system a firm understanding of how the power components function in polar environments as well as communication to data acquisition and / or telemetry is needed. For example designers will need to know how a station's power storage system will change in colder environments then manufactures standard design criteria. This would include the reduced available capacity, change in the mean time between failure and possible new failure modes. This understanding coupled with a system that would collect key information on the state of health of the power system will provide crucial insight in to what service is needed to keep the station functioning.
The FSWRS will be used by forces deployed to Theaters of Operations located in water-short areas of the world, and will greatly reduce water supply... operators take ’ A appropriate precautions in handling sulfuric acid and un- . treat.d waters. Although no health hazards are anticipated to result from...field. The FSWRS will be used by forces deployed to Theaters of Operations located in water short areas of the world, and will greatly reduce water
Garbos, Raymond J.; Mouyos, William
To reduce operations cost, the RLV must include the following elements: highly reliable, robust subsystems designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure and incorporating expedited decision making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) RLV System used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM deals with the vehicle component- Vehicle Health Management (VHM), the ground processing associated with the fleet (GVHM) and the Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The objective is to provide an automated collection and paperless health decision, maintenance and logistics system. Many critical technologies are necessary to make the SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable and cost effective. Sanders is leading the design, development and integration of the SHM system for RLV and X-33 SHM (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for RLV SHM. This paper will also discuss other applications of these technologies.
Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis
This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards.
Brandejs, J. F., And Others
To effectively handle changes in health policy and health information, new designs and applications of automation are explored. Increased use of computer-based information systems in health care could serve as a means of control over the costs of developing more comprehensive health service, with applications increasing not only the automation of…
Mashego, Rosemary H.
Background The South African government has introduced Performance Management and Development System (PMDS) as a tool to monitor and manage the performances of health institutions, in order to improve service delivery within primary health care settings. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge and practices of supervisors regarding PMDS in primary health institutions of the Limpopo Province. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study was used. A total of 117 participants were sampled using stratified random sampling technique and a questionnaire was used to collect data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyse both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Generally all the respondents had an average (65.8%) understanding of the PMDS processes including the purpose and their roles as supervisors. However, a gap exists between the theoretical knowledge and the actual ability to practise PMDS which was found to be at 52%. There are areas of weakness that still need attention, such as unavailability of PMDS guidelines and lack of training of both supervisors and employees on PMDS. Conclusion This study highlights the problem of lack of knowledge and skills, unavailability of PMDS policy and poor induction into PMDS. To improve the knowledge and ability to supervise PMDS, proper induction of all PMDS supervisors and periodic in-service training should be done; reference materials, the PMDS policy manuals, are to be made available in the facility and all supervisors be orientated on how to use these manuals. PMID:28155321
Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J
In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs.
Baranov, Alexander; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Albitskiy, Valeriy; Ustinova, Natalia; Terletskaya, Rimma; Komarova, Olga
We present a historical and analytical overview of the Russian child health care system describing strengths and challenges of the system. Main indicators of social environment and children's health, general demographics, and socioeconomic factors of Russia are described. The Russian health care system has preserved positive elements of the former Soviet model of pediatric care. However, beginning in 1991, it has been altered greatly in its funding and management. The child health care system is composed of a special network of outpatient and inpatient facilities. The key element of pediatric community care is the pediatric polyclinic, staffed by district pediatricians and nurses. Undergraduate pediatric training is separate from adult medical training. From day one onward, future pediatricians are trained at separate pediatric faculties of universities. Thus, they qualify as general pediatricians after only 2 years of postgraduate training. It should be emphasized that the gap between the health status of children in developed countries and the Russian Federation is largely due to the influence of socioeconomic determinants, such as traffic accidents, poverty, pollution, and hazardous life styles, including binge drinking. Further improvements of children's health require protective measures by the state to address the underlying socioeconomic determinants.
Racine, Andrew D
The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty.
DeBate, R D; Cragun, D; Gallentine, A A; Severson, H H; Shaw, T; Cantwell, C; Christiansen, S; Koerber, A; Hendricson, W; Tomar, S L; McCormack Brown, K; Tedesco, L A
Oral healthcare providers are likely to encounter a number of sensitive oral/systemic health issues whilst interacting with patients. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a framework aimed at oral healthcare providers to engage in active secondary prevention of eating disorders (i.e. early detection of oral manifestations of disordered eating behaviours, patient approach and communication, patient-specific oral treatment, and referral to care) for patients presenting with signs of disordered eating behaviours. The EAT Framework was developed based on the Brief Motivational Interviewing (B-MI) conceptual framework and comprises three continuous steps: Evaluating, Assessing, and Treating. Using a group-randomized control design, 11 dental hygiene (DH) and seven dental (D) classes from eight institutions were randomized to either the intervention or control conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Hierarchical linear models were conducted to measure the effects of the intervention whilst controlling for baseline levels. Statistically significant improvements from pre- to post-intervention were observed in the Intervention group compared with the Control group on knowledge of eating disorders and oral findings, skills-based knowledge, and self-efficacy (all P < 0.01). Effect sizes ranged from 0.57 to 0.95. No statistically significant differences in outcomes were observed by type of student. Although the EAT Framework was developed as part of a larger study on secondary prevention of eating disorders, the procedures and skills presented can be applied to other sensitive oral/systemic health issues. Because the EAT Framework was developed by translating B-MI principles and procedures, the framework can be easily adopted as a non-confrontational method for patient communication.
Coovadia, Hoosen; Jewkes, Rachel; Barron, Peter; Sanders, David; McIntyre, Diane
The roots of a dysfunctional health system and the collision of the epidemics of communicable and non-communicable diseases in South Africa can be found in policies from periods of the country's history, from colonial subjugation, apartheid dispossession, to the post-apartheid period. Racial and gender discrimination, the migrant labour system, the destruction of family life, vast income inequalities, and extreme violence have all formed part of South Africa's troubled past, and all have inexorably affected health and health services. In 1994, when apartheid ended, the health system faced massive challenges, many of which still persist. Macroeconomic policies, fostering growth rather than redistribution, contributed to the persistence of economic disparities between races despite a large expansion in social grants. The public health system has been transformed into an integrated, comprehensive national service, but failures in leadership and stewardship and weak management have led to inadequate implementation of what are often good policies. Pivotal facets of primary health care are not in place and there is a substantial human resources crisis facing the health sector. The HIV epidemic has contributed to and accelerated these challenges. All of these factors need to be addressed by the new government if health is to be improved and the Millennium Development Goals achieved in South Africa.
Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott
The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.
Iddrisu, Farouk Adam; Dhakal, Sarita; Nam, Eun Woo
This study aims to determine means of strengthening the health system to accelerate achievement of MDGs 4 and 5 in the Volta Region of Ghana, with a particular emphasis in the Ketu South and Keta municipalities. Secondary data have been used in this study. High maternal and infant mortality is a crucial issue in Ghana. Maternal and infant mortality is high in rural area compared to urban area due to unavailability of the service facilities. A community based health planning and services programs have been established to improve access and quality of health care in Ghana. Our study suggests that health system strengthening with community health care programs improved access to quality health care and resulted in a decrease of maternal and child mortality in Ketu South and Keta Municipalities in Ghana.
Courtney, Paul K.
In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328
Miller, Franklin G; Kim, Scott Y H
The idea of a "learning health care system"--one that systematically integrates clinical research with medical care--has received considerable attention recently. Some commentators argue that under certain conditions pragmatic comparative effectiveness randomized trials can be conducted ethically within the context of a learning health care system without the informed consent of patients for research participation. In this article, we challenge this perspective and contend that conducting randomized trials of individual treatment options without consent is neither necessary nor desirable to promote and sustain learning health care systems. Our argument draws on the normative conception of personal care developed by Charles Fried in a landmark 1974 book on the ethics of randomized controlled trials.
McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E
Background: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state’s common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources. PMID:23271926
Marceglia, Sara; Bonacina, Stefano; Braidotti, Andrea; Nardelli, Marco; Pinciroli, Francesco
Electronic health records are a fundamental support needed not only by healthcare providers, but also for individual patients. We considered the health management in the familiar environment and we developed a web-based system for family health record. The system permits an easy compilation and provides an effective visualization of the clinical data concerning family members also for friendly printing tasks. PMID:17238642
Marceglia, Sara; Bonacina, Stefano; Braidotti, Andrea; Nardelli, Marco; Pinciroli, Francesco
Electronic health records are a fundamental support needed not only by healthcare providers, but also for individual patients. We considered the health management in the familiar environment and we developed a web-based system for family health record. The system permits an easy compilation and provides an effective visualization of the clinical data concerning family members also for friendly printing tasks.
In 1984, Peter Reichertz gave a lecture on the past, present and future of hospital information systems. In the meantime, there has been a tremendous progress in medicine as well as in informatics. One important benefit of this progress is that our life expectancy is nowadays significantly higher than it would have been even some few decades ago. This progress, leading to aging societies, is of influence to the organization of health care and to the future development of its information systems. Twenty years later, referring to Peter Reichertz' lecture, but now considering health information systems (HIS), two questions are discussed: which were lines of development in health information systems from the past until today? What are consequences for health information systems in the future? The following lines of development for HIS were considered as important: (1) the shift from paper-based to computer-based processing and storage, as well as the increase of data in health care settings; (2) the shift from institution-centered departmental and, later, hospital information systems towards regional and global HIS; (3) the inclusion of patients and health consumers as HIS users, besides health care professionals and administrators; (4) the use of HIS data not only for patient care and administrative purposes, but also for health care planning as well as clinical and epidemiological research; (5) the shift from focusing mainly on technical HIS problems to those of change management as well as of strategic information management; (6) the shift from mainly alpha-numeric data in HIS to images and now also to data on the molecular level; (7) the steady increase of new technologies to be included, now starting to include ubiquitous computing environments and sensor-based technologies for health monitoring. As consequences for HIS in the future, first the need for institutional and (inter-) national HIS-strategies is seen, second the need to explore new (transinstitutional
Significant investment in eHealth solutions is being made in nearly every country of the world. How do we know that these investments and the foregone opportunity costs are the correct ones? Absent, poor, or vague eHealth strategy is a significant barrier to effective investment in, and implementation of, sustainable eHealth solutions and establishment of an eHealth favorable policy environment. Strategy is the driving force, the first essential ingredient, that can place countries in charge of their own eHealth destiny and inform them of the policy necessary to achieve it. In the last 2 years, there has been renewed interest in eHealth strategy from the World Health Organization (WHO), International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the African Union, and the Commonwealth; yet overall, the literature lacks clear guidance to inform countries why and how to develop their own complementary but locally specific eHealth strategy. To address this gap, this paper further develops an eHealth Strategy Development Framework, basing it upon a conceptual framework and relevant theories of strategy and complex system analysis available from the literature. We present here the rationale, theories, and final eHealth strategy development framework by which a systematic and methodical approach can be applied by institutions, subnational regions, and countries to create holistic, needs- and evidence-based, and defensible eHealth strategy and to ensure wise investment in eHealth. PMID:23900066
Scott, Richard E; Mars, Maurice
Significant investment in eHealth solutions is being made in nearly every country of the world. How do we know that these investments and the foregone opportunity costs are the correct ones? Absent, poor, or vague eHealth strategy is a significant barrier to effective investment in, and implementation of, sustainable eHealth solutions and establishment of an eHealth favorable policy environment. Strategy is the driving force, the first essential ingredient, that can place countries in charge of their own eHealth destiny and inform them of the policy necessary to achieve it. In the last 2 years, there has been renewed interest in eHealth strategy from the World Health Organization (WHO), International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the African Union, and the Commonwealth; yet overall, the literature lacks clear guidance to inform countries why and how to develop their own complementary but locally specific eHealth strategy. To address this gap, this paper further develops an eHealth Strategy Development Framework, basing it upon a conceptual framework and relevant theories of strategy and complex system analysis available from the literature. We present here the rationale, theories, and final eHealth strategy development framework by which a systematic and methodical approach can be applied by institutions, subnational regions, and countries to create holistic, needs- and evidence-based, and defensible eHealth strategy and to ensure wise investment in eHealth.
The Professional Health Card Public interest group (Groupement d'Intérêt Public-Carte de professionnel de Santé (GIP-CPS)) was founded in 1993 as a joint initiative by the different parties involved in health care in France: the state, the representatives of the health care professions and the compulsory and complementary health insurance organizations. The CPS system enables safe exchange and electronic sharing of medical data. Via Intranet connections and Extranet hosting of medical files, databases, the CPS system enables health care professionals who access servers to be identified with certainty. For email exhanges, the CPS systems guarantees the sender's identity and capacity. The electronic signature gives legal value to the email. The system also enables confidential email. The health card system (CPS) contributes to making the health service efficient. Shared medical files, health care networks, health warning systems or electronic requests for reimbursement of health insurance expenses all use the CPS system. More than 300,000 health care professionals use it regularly. The freedom of movement of patients throughout Europe has led to the growth of exchanges and information sharing between health professionals in the States of the Union. More and more health professionals will be leaving their own countries to work in foreign countries in the future. It is essential that their freedom of movement is accompanied by the ability to prove their rights to practice.
MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.
Newly developed assessments of nutrition and exercise knowledge, attitudes, and behavior were administered to 383 eighth-graders. Evidence for the validity of assessment scores was evaluated with five findings. First, parent- and self-reported behaviors were similar and congruent for healthy eating and exercising but not for sedentary behaviors or…
Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.
New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167
Conrad, D A; Shortell, S M
Today's ¿virtually¿ and vertically integrated health systems increasingly are much better positioned than the multihospital systems of the 1980s to respond to the healthcare challenges of the twenty-first century. The authors argue that the control of the health services ¿value chain¿ will devolve naturally to those market players who have the comparative advantage in coordinating the flows of information, human, and physical resources along the continuum of services required to improve and maintain the health of populations. Available evidence does not render a clear verdict on whether superior performance is generated by the virtual integration of strategic alliances and affiliations or the vertical integration represented by unified single ownership of all system components. While inertia, acute care-based ¿mental models,¿ weak incentives, and insufficiently developed information systems represent important barriers to the creation and sustainability of integrated systems, the authors argue that system evolution is occurring and offers promise of enhanced efficiency and patient benefit. However, the full potential of these systems will only be realized as they accept explicit accountability for meeting the health needs of their local communities. The transition from ¿covered lives¿ to accountability for the community population is crucial.
Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M
This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.
Anchala, Raghupathy; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Franco, Oscar H.
Background Hypertension remains the top global cause of disease burden. Decision support systems (DSS) could provide an adequate and cost-effective means to improve the management of hypertension at a primary health care (PHC) level in a developing country, nevertheless evidence on this regard is rather limited. Methods Development of DSS software was based on an algorithmic approach for (a) evaluation of a hypertensive patient, (b) risk stratification (c) drug management and (d) lifestyle interventions, based on Indian guidelines for hypertension II (2007). The beta testing of DSS software involved a feedback from the end users of the system on the contents of the user interface. Software validation and piloting was done in field, wherein the virtual recommendations and advice given by the DSS were compared with two independent experts (government doctors from the non-participating PHC centers). Results The overall percent agreement between the DSS and independent experts among 60 hypertensives on drug management was 85% (95% CI: 83.61 - 85.25). The kappa statistic for overall agreement for drug management was 0.659 (95% CI: 0.457 - 0.862) indicating a substantial degree of agreement beyond chance at an alpha fixed at 0.05 with 80% power. Receiver operator curve (ROC) showed a good accuracy for the DSS, wherein, the area under curve (AUC) was 0.848 (95% CI: 0.741 - 0.948). Sensitivity and specificity of the DSS were 83.33 and 85.71% respectively when compared with independent experts. Conclusion A point of care, pilot tested and validated DSS for management of hypertension has been developed in a resource constrained low and middle income setting and could contribute to improved management of hypertension at a primary health care level. PMID:24223984
Perez, A M; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Hofman, K; Kalideen, S; Maker, A; Mokonoto, D; Morojele, N; Naidoo, P; Parry, C D H; Rendall-Mkosi, K; Saloojee, Y
South Africa has a 'quadruple burden of disease'. One way to reduce this burden, and address the social determinants of health and social inequity, could be through health promotion interventions driven by an independent Health Promotion and Development Foundation (HPDF). This could provide a framework to integrate health promotion and social development into all government and civil society programmes. On priority issues, the HPDF would mobilise resources, allocate funding, develop capacity, and monitor and evaluate health promotion and development work. Emphasis would be on reducing the effects of poverty, inequity and unequal development on disease rates and wellbeing. The HPDF could also decrease the burden on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) system. We reflect on such foundations in other countries, and propose a structure for South Africa's HPDF and a dedicated funding stream to support its activities. In particular, an additional 2% levy on alcohol and tobacco products is proposed to be utilised to fund the HPDF.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose: Because of the significant aging of the global population, world regions are experiencing an increase in the number of generations within families. However, to date most practice methods in the health and human services are explicitly organized by age. This article discusses a multigenerational practice approach and the impact of an…
place to the base unit (consultation site). The transmission is performed through GSM, Satellite links or POTS . Using this device a specialist...standardized medical protocol. Keywords – Emergency Health Care Telemedicine, GSM, Satellite, POTS I. INTRODUCTION The availability of prompt and expert...of communication means (Satellite, GSM and Plain Old Telephony System - POTS ). The base unit is comprised of a set of user-friendly software
Bouchard, Louise; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Casteigts, Arnaud; Chartier, Mariette; Trugeon, Alain; Warnke, Jan
Health information is indispensable for monitoring the progress that has been made in improving and maintaining population health and health system functions. In the context of health reforms aiming to bring health systems closer to populations and with the objective of consistent health services planning at the community level, access to reliable social and health data has become a major issue. The need to develop specific treatment tools and the appropriation of results by the various actors involved (decision makers, planners, researchers and consumers) are central to the presentations and exchanges in this symposium.
Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).
Contracting is one of the tools increasingly being used to enhance the performance of health systems in both developed and developing countries; it takes different forms and cannot be limited to the mere purchase of services. Actors adopt contracting to formalize all kinds of relations established between them. A typology for this approach will demonstrate its diversity and provide a better understanding of the various issues raised by contracting. In recent years the way health systems are organized has changed significantly. To remedy the under-performance of their health systems, most countries have undertaken reforms that have resulted in major institutional overhaul, including decentralization of health and administrative services, autonomy for public service providers, separation of funding bodies and service providers, expansion of health financing options and the development of the profit or nonprofit private sector. These institutional reshuffles lead not only to multiplication and diversification of the actors involved, but also to greater separation of the service provision and administrative functions. Health systems are becoming more complex and can no longer operate in isolation. Actors are gradually realizing that they need to forge relations. The simplest way to do that is through dialogue, although some prefer a more formal commitment. Interaction between actors may take various forms and be on different scales. There are several types of contractual relations: some are based on the nature of the contract (public or private), others on the parties involved and yet others on the scope of the contract. Here they are classified into three categories according to the object of the contract: delegation of responsibility, act of purchase of services, or cooperation. PMID:17143459
Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy; Saha, Hiranmay
The paper describes the design and training of a fuzzy neural network used for early diagnosis of a patient through an FPGA based implementation of a smart instrument. The system employs a fuzzy interface cascaded with a feed-forward neural network. In order to obtain an optimum decision regarding the future pathophysiological state of a patient, the optimal weights of the synapses between the neurons have been determined by using inverse delayed function model of neurons. The neurons that are considered in the proposed network are devoid of self connections instead of commonly used self connected neurons. The current work also find out the optimal number of neurons in the hidden layer for accurate diagnosis as against the available number of CLB in the FPGA. The system has been trained and tested with renal data of patients taken at 10 days interval of time. Applying the methodology, the chance of attainment of critical renal condition of a patient has been predicted with an accuracy of 95.2%, 30 days ahead of actually attaining the critical condition. The system has also been tested for pathophysiological state prediction of patients at multiple time steps ahead and the prediction at the next instant of time stands out to be the most accurate.
Wimbush, Erica; Young, Ian; Robertson, Graham
Scotland has recently embarked on a new phase of policy and infrastructure development for improving population health and reducing health inequalities that broadly conforms to the Ottawa Charter and WHO's strategic framework for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. The new phase is characterised by an integrated, cross-government approach to improving health with strengthened political and Scottish Executive leadership and investment since devolution. A comprehensive policy framework for improving young people's health and reducing inequalities has been developed across education, health, environment and social justice. It builds on an earlier phase of relative stability and continuity in the health promotion infrastructure with policy focused on CVD and cancer prevention and tackling the behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity) as well as sexual health and mental health and wellbeing. These national strategies are currently being implemented across Scotland. They combine promotion, prevention, treatment and protection goals and target both population-level and high-risk groups. Crosscutting government objectives and headline targets for addressing poverty, disadvantage and health inequalities now supplement the NHS health improvement targets on smoking, alcohol, physical activity, teenage pregnancy and child immunization. Within the health service, prevention efforts are largely concerned with primary care development (anticipatory care) and health system reform to maximize their impact on reducing health inequalities. Efforts to tackle the social determinants of health and reduce inequalities in health outcomes are beginning to be connected and mainstreamed across local government with Community Planning Partnerships as the main vehicle. National level mechanisms for integrated funding, planning and performance reporting to deliver shared priority outcomes have yet to be developed. The development of health
Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.
This report summarizes initial modeling of the local response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts using a structural, non-linear, transient dynamic finite element code. Complementary test results for a local BEAM structure are presented for both hammer and projectile impacts. Review of these data provided guidance for the transient dynamic model development. The local model is intended to support predictions using the global BEAM model, described in a companion report. Two types of local models were developed. One mimics the simplified Soft-Goods (fabric envelop) part of the BEAM NASTRAN model delivered by the project. The second investigates through-the-thickness modeling challenges for MMOD-type impacts. Both the testing and the analysis summaries contain lessons learned and areas for future efforts.
Bramesfeld, Anke; Pauletzki, Jürgen; Behrenz, Lars; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Willms, Gerald; Broge, Björn
Since 2001, statutory external quality assurance (QA) for hospital care has been in place in the German health system. In 2009, the decision was taken to expand it to cross-sectoral procedures. This novel and unprecedented form of national QA aims at (1) making the quality procedures comparable that are provided both in inpatient and outpatient care, (2) following-up outcomes of hospital care after patients' discharge and (3) measuring the quality of complex treatment chains across interfaces. As a pioneer procedure a QA procedure in cataract surgery QA was developed. Using this as an example, challenges of cross-sectoral QA are highlighted. These challenges relate, in particular, to three technical problems: triggering cases for documentation, following-up patients' after hospital discharge, and the burden of documentation in outpatient care. These problems resulted finally in the haltering of the development of the QA procedure. However, the experiences gained with this first development of cross-sectoral QA inspired the reorientation and further development of the field in Germany. Future cross-sectoral QA will rigorously aim at keeping burden of documentation small. It will draw data for QA mainly at three sources: routine data, patient surveys and peer reviews using indicators. Policy implications of this reorientation are discussed.
Shaw, James; Wong, Ivy; Griffin, Bailey; Robertson, Michael; Bhatia, R Sacha
Jurisdictions across Canada and around the world face the challenge of planning high-performing and sustainable health systems in response to growing healthcare demands. In this paper, we report on the process of developing principles for health system capacity planning by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in Ontario. Integrating the results of a literature review on health system planning and a symposium with representatives from local health integration networks, we describe the following six principles in detail: (1) develop an aspirational vision, (2) establish clear leadership, (3) commit to stakeholder engagement, (4) engage patients and the public, (5) build analytics infrastructure and (6) revise policy when necessary.
Wada, Koji; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Hoshi, Keika; Sato, Yasuto; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Satoh, Toshihiko
Preferences among people for health system goals are important determinants in developing health policy. The aim of this study was to determine preferences for health system goals and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the general population in 5 prefectures and were asked to rank 5 health system goals in order of preference: health, health inequality, responsiveness, responsiveness inequality, and fair financing. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and preferences for health system goals were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A total of 4936 persons responded to this study. Health system goals in order of preference were health inequality (37.6%), responsiveness inequality (20.9%), health (18.4%), responsiveness (16.0%), and fair financing (7.1%). Sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, age, family status, education completed, and usage of health care services were associated with the preferred health system goal. Health policy makers should take these associations into account when developing prospective policy.
Sheahan, M D
Despite the political and economic reforms that have swept Eastern Europe in the past 5 years, there has been little change in Poland's health care system. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has targeted preventive care as a priority, yet the enactment of legislation to meet this goal has been slow. The process of reform has been hindered by political stagnation, economic crisis, and a lack of delineation of responsibility for implementing the reforms. Despite the delays in reform, recent developments indicate that a realistic, sustainable restructuring of the health care system is possible, with a focus on preventive services. Recent proposals for change have centered on applying national goals to limited geographic areas, with both local and international support. Regional pilot projects to restructure health care delivery at a community level, local health education and disease prevention initiatives, and a national training program for primary care and family physicians and nurses are being planned. Through regionalization, an increase in responsibility for both the physician and the patient, and redefinition of primary health care and the role of family physicians, isolated local movements and pilot projects have shown promise in achieving these goals, even under the current budgetary constraints. PMID:7610217
Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew
The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.
Gentry, Daniel; Klesges, Lisa M.
As the field of public health advances toward addressing complex, systemic problems, future public health professionals must be equipped with leadership and interprofessional skills that support collaboration and a culture of health. The University of Memphis School of Public Health has infused innovative strategies into graduate education via experiential learning opportunities to enhance leadership, collaboration, and professional development. Novel training programs such as Day One, Public Health Interdisciplinary Case Competition, and Memphis Healthy U support Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health cross-cutting competencies and prepare Master of Public Health and Master of Health Administration graduates to function effectively at the outset of their careers and become catalysts for creating a culture of health. PMID:25706016
Levy, Marian; Gentry, Daniel; Klesges, Lisa M
As the field of public health advances toward addressing complex, systemic problems, future public health professionals must be equipped with leadership and interprofessional skills that support collaboration and a culture of health. The University of Memphis School of Public Health has infused innovative strategies into graduate education via experiential learning opportunities to enhance leadership, collaboration, and professional development. Novel training programs such as Day One, Public Health Interdisciplinary Case Competition, and Memphis Healthy U support Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health cross-cutting competencies and prepare Master of Public Health and Master of Health Administration graduates to function effectively at the outset of their careers and become catalysts for creating a culture of health.
The disciplines of biomedical engineering and health informatics complement each other. These two scientific fields sometimes strive independently to deliver better health care services. The rapid evolution in data-intensive methods has made practitioners to think about reviewing the educational needs of the biomedical health informatics workforces. This paper discusses the changing skills requirements in biomedical health informatics discipline. The author reports on the challenges faced by IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBS) in the context of continuous career development of the EMBS members. This paper discusses Queensland chapter's initiative towards an integrated career development to address challenges faced by IEEE EMBS.
Lubben, Marianne; Mayhew, Susannah H.; Collins, Charles; Green, Andrew
It is not clear how policy-making in the field of reproductive health relates to changes associated with programmes for the reform of the health sector in developing countries. There has been little communication between these two areas, yet policy on reproductive health has to be implemented in the context of structural change. This paper examines factors that limit dialogue between the two areas and proposes the following framework for encouraging it: the identification of policy groups and the development of bases for collaborative links between them; the introduction of a common understanding around relevant policy contexts; reaching agreement on compatible aims relating to reproductive health and health sector change; developing causal links between policy content in reproductive health and health sector change as a basis for evidence-based policy-making; and strengthening policy-making structures, systems, skills, and values. PMID:12219159
Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia
In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development.
Sanders, Jay H.
The Interactive Telemedicine Systems (ITS) system was specifically developed to address the ever widening gap between our medical care expertise and our medical care delivery system. The frustrating reality is that as our knowledge of how to diagnose and treat medical conditions has continued to advance, the system to deliver that care has remained in an embryonic stage. This has resulted in millions of people being denied their most basic health care needs. Telemedicine utilizes an interactive video system integrated with biomedical telemetry that allows a physician at a base station specialty medical complex or teaching hospital to examine and treat a patient at multiple satellite locations, such as rural hospitals, ambulatory health centers, correctional institutions, facilities caring for the elderly, community hospital emergency departments, or international health facilities. Based on the interactive nature of the system design, the consulting physician at the base station can do a complete history and physical examination, as if the patient at the satellite site was sitting in the physician's office. This system is described.
Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah
NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.
Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David
The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world.
Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David
The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world. PMID:26966502
Lansang, Mary Ann; Dennis, Rodolfo
Strong national health research systems are needed to improve health systems and attain better health. For developing countries to indigenize health research systems, it is essential to build research capacity. We review the positive features and weaknesses of various approaches to capacity building, emphasizing that complementary approaches to human resource development work best in the context of a systems and long-term perspective. As a key element of capacity building, countries must also address issues related to the enabling environment, in particular: leadership, career structure, critical mass, infrastructure, information access and interfaces between research producers and users. The success of efforts to build capacity in developing countries will ultimately depend on political will and credibility, adequate financing, and a responsive capacity-building plan that is based on a thorough situational analysis of the resources needed for health research and the inequities and gaps in health care. Greater national and international investment in capacity building in developing countries has the greatest potential for securing dynamic and agile knowledge systems that can deliver better health and equity, now and in the future. PMID:15643798
Lansang, Mary Ann; Dennis, Rodolfo
Strong national health research systems are needed to improve health systems and attain better health. For developing countries to indigenize health research systems, it is essential to build research capacity. We review the positive features and weaknesses of various approaches to capacity building, emphasizing that complementary approaches to human resource development work best in the context of a systems and long-term perspective. As a key element of capacity building, countries must also address issues related to the enabling environment, in particular: leadership, career structure, critical mass, infrastructure, information access and interfaces between research producers and users. The success of efforts to build capacity in developing countries will ultimately depend on political will and credibility, adequate financing, and a responsive capacity-building plan that is based on a thorough situational analysis of the resources needed for health research and the inequities and gaps in health care. Greater national and international investment in capacity building in developing countries has the greatest potential for securing dynamic and agile knowledge systems that can deliver better health and equity, now and in the future.
Sachs, Jeffrey D.
The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410
Chen, Robert H.; Ng, Hok K.; Speyer, Jason L.; Guntur, Lokeshkumar S.; Carpenter, Russell
A health monitoring system based on analytical redundancy is developed for satellites on elliptical orbits. First, the dynamics of the satellite including orbital mechanics and attitude dynamics is modelled as a periodic system. Then, periodic fault detection filters are designed to detect and identify the satellite's actuator and sensor faults. In addition, parity equations are constructed using the algebraic redundant relationship among the actuators and sensors. Furthermore, a residual processor is designed to generate the probability of each of the actuator and sensor faults by using a sequential probability test. Finally, the health monitoring system, consisting of periodic fault detection lters, parity equations and residual processor, is evaluated in the simulation in the presence of disturbances and uncertainty.
Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Kumara, Harsha; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul
We sought to enable better interoperability and easy adoption of healthcare applications by developing a standardized domain independent Application Programming Interface (API) for an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. We leveraged the modular architecture of the Open Medical Record System (OpenMRS) to build a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) based add-on module that could consume FHIR resources and requests made on OpenMRS. The OpenMRS FHIR module supports a subset of FHIR resources that could be used to interact with clinical data persisted in OpenMRS. We demonstrate the ease of connecting healthcare applications using the FHIR API by integrating a third party Substitutable Medical Apps & Reusable Technology (SMART) application with OpenMRS via FHIR. The OpenMRS FHIR module is an optional component of the OpenMRS platform. The FHIR API significantly reduces the effort required to implement OpenMRS by preventing developers from having to learn or work with a domain specific OpenMRS API. We propose an integration pathway where the domain specific legacy OpenMRS API is gradually retired in favor of the new FHIR API, which would be integrated into the core OpenMRS platform. Our efforts indicate that a domain independent API is a reality for any EMR system. These efforts demonstrate the adoption of an emerging FHIR standard that is seen as a replacement for both Health Level 7 (HL7) Version 2 and Version 3. We propose a gradual integration approach where our FHIR API becomes the preferred method for communicating with the OpenMRS platform.
Reddy, K Srinath; Mathur, Manu Raj; Negi, Sagri; Krishna, Bhargav
Adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by member states of the United Nations (UN) has set a new agenda for public health action at national and global levels. The changed context calls for a reframing of what constitutes effective leadership in public health, through a construct that reflects the interdependence of leadership at multiple levels across the health system and its partners in other sectors. This is especially important in the context of Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) that are facing complex demographic and epidemiological transitions. The health system needs to exercise leadership that effectively mobilises all its resources for maximising health impact, and channels trans-disciplinary learning into well-coordinated multi-sectoral action on the wider determinants of health. Leadership is essential not only at the level of inspirational individuals who can create collective vision and commitment but also at the level of supportive institutions situated in or aligned to the health system. In turn, the health system as a whole has to exercise leadership that advances public health in the framework of sustainable development. This commentary examines the desirable attributes of effective leadership at each of these levels and explores the nature of their inter-dependence.
Perotti, José; Lucena, Angel; Burns, Bradley
The health of electromechanical systems (actuators) and specifically of solenoid valves is a primary concern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These systems control the storage and transfer of such commodities as liquid hydrogen. The potential for the failure of electromechanical systems to delay a scheduled launch or to cause personnel injury requires continual maintenance and testing of the systems to ensure their readiness. Monitoring devices need to be incorporated into these systems to verify the health and performance of the valves during real operating conditions. It is very advantageous to detect degradation and/or potential problems before they happen. This feature will not only provide safer operation but save the cost of unnecessary maintenance and inspections. Solenoid valve status indicators are often based upon microswitches that work by physically contacting a valve's poppet assembly. All of the physical contact and movement tends to be very unreliable and is subject to wear and tear of the assemblies, friction, breakage of the switch, and even leakage of the fluid (gas or liquid) in the valve. The NASA Instrumentation Branch, together with its contractor, ASRC Aerospace, has developed a solenoid valve smart current signature sensor that monitors valves in a noninvasive mode. The smart system monitors specific electrical parameters of the solenoid valves and detects and predicts the performance and health of the device. The information obtained from the electrical signatures of these valves points to not only electrical components failures in the valves but also mechanical failures and/or degradations.
Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.
We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…
Wurster, Cecil R.; Goodman, John D.
Various approaches to centralized support of computer applications in health care are described. The NIMH project to develop a prototype Management Information System (MIS) for community mental health centers is presented and discussed as a centralized development of an automated data processing system for multiple user organizations. The NIMH program is summarized, the prototype MIS is characterized, and steps taken to provide for the differing needs of the mental health centers are highlighted.
Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.
Chandler, William U.
Bristling with facts, this article argues that what is needed today is a strategy of integrated development to meet basic needs all across the Third World. Stop-gap techniques such as oral rehydration programs that prevent death are good, but must be augmented by policies which promote food production, clean water, education, family planning, and…
Anderberg, Peter; Larsson, Tobias C; Fricker, Samuel A; Berglund, Johan
Background There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems. Objectives The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework. Methods On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and
Davis, Jeffrey R.
Dr. Davis' presentation includes a brief overview of space flight and the lessons learned for health care in microgravity. He will describe the development of policy for health care for international crews. He will conclude his remarks with a discussion of an integrated health care system.
Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al
The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.
Gutenbrunner, C; Egen, C; Kahl, K G; Briest, J; Tegtbur, U; Miede, J; Born, M
Background: Due to the increase of sick leave, prolonging working life and the prediction of shortage of skilled workers in the future, health management systems are continuously gaining importance. Employees in a University Hospital are exposed to particular stress factors, which are also reflected in a higher than average amount of sick leave. Against this background, the project "Fit for Work and Life" (FWL) was developed and implemented by the Hannover Medical School (MHH). Aims: FWL aims to maintain, improve or recover the work ability of employees by offering both preventive and rehabilitative treatments. A second goal is to significantly reduce the days of sick leave. Methods: The project was jointly developed and implemented by five MHH departments and the DRV Braunschweig-Hannover (DRV BS-H) according to previously defined principles. It was scientifically evaluated by the following outcomes: average days of sick leave, work ability (WAI), quality of life (SF-36, WHOQOL), coping strategies (FERUS) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI). Results and Conclusions: So far, this project is unique in its concept. It has been successfully implemented in the organisational structures of the MHH. 376 employees have registered during the first project year. Up to now, 182 participants have completed their individual programmes. The results show that 60.4% of employees have moderate to poor WAI values. The average of the mental summary scale of the SF-36 was 44.9, indicating a high workload.
Zeng, Qing T.; Tse, Tony
Laypersons (“consumers”) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health information due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and explanatory), there have been few systematic efforts to develop and evaluate CHVs. This paper presents the point of view that CHV development is practical and necessary for extending research on informatics-based tools to facilitate consumer health information seeking, retrieval, and understanding. In support of the view, we briefly describe a distributed, bottom-up approach for (1) exploring the relationship between common consumer health expressions and professional concepts and (2) developing an open-access, preliminary (draft) “first-generation” CHV. While recognizing the limitations of the approach (e.g., not addressing psychosocial and cultural factors), we suggest that such exploratory research and development will yield insights into the nature of consumer health expressions and assist developers in creating tools and applications to support consumer health information seeking. PMID:16221948
González, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd; López, Diego M
Health systems around the globe, especially in developing countries, are facing the challenge of delivering effective, safe, and high quality public health and individualized health services independent of time and location, and with minimum of allocated resources (pHealth). In this context, health promotion and health education services are very important, especially in primary care settings. The objective of this paper is to describe the architecture of an adaptive intelligent system mainly developed to support education and training of citizens, but also of health professionals. The proposed architecture describes a system consisting of several agents that cooperatively interact to find and process tutoring materials to disseminate them to users (multi-agent system). A prototype is being implemented which includes medical students from the Medical Faculty at University of Cauca (Colombia). In the experimental process, the student´s learning style - detected with the Bayesian Model - is compared against the learning style obtained from a questioner (manual approach).
Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K
Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the
Solomon, Robert J
Physician involvement in health-system decision making and their support of health-system initiatives can be critical to a health system's success. Many physicians, however, do not have the business skills or perspective to be effective contributors. This paper identifies three levels of physician leader development: awareness and head knowledge; creating an "us" culture; and taking ownership of the marketplace. It also identifies three physician leader-development methods that health systems can use to reach these points: integrated executive education; project-based learning; and facilitating ownership. Based on health-system objectives, top management should choose an appropriate level of physician leader development and then implement an appropriate change plan by using the proposed physician leader-development methods.
Sen, Gita; Govender, Veloshnee
Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are centrally important to health. However, there have been significant shortcomings in implementing SRHR to date. In the context of health systems reform and universal health coverage/care (UHC), this paper explores the following questions. What do these changes in health systems thinking mean for SRHR and gender equity in health in the context of renewed calls for increased investments in the health of women and girls? Can SRHR be integrated usefully into the call for UHC, and if so how? Can health systems reforms address the continuing sexual and reproductive ill health and violations of sexual and reproductive rights (SRR)? Conversely, can the attention to individual human rights that is intrinsic to the SRHR agenda and its continuing concerns about equality, quality and accountability provide impetus for strengthening the health system? The paper argues that achieving equity on the UHC path will require a combination of system improvements and services that benefit all, together with special attention to those whose needs are great and who are likely to fall behind in the politics of choice and voice (i.e., progressive universalism paying particular attention to gender inequalities). PMID:25536851
Gajanayake, Randike; Iannella, Renato; Sahama, Tony
In this paper, we present the results of a survey conducted to measure the attitudes of eHealth consumers towards Accountable-eHealth systems, which are designed for information privacy management. We developed a research model that identify the factors contributing to system acceptance from quantitative data of 187 completed survey responses from university students studying non-health-related courses at university (Queensland, Australia). The research model is validated using structural equation modeling and can be used to identify how specific characteristics of Accountable-eHealth systems would affect their overall acceptance by future eHealth consumers.
Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin
How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086
Behnke, J.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kobler, B.
In the early days of general computer systems for science data processing, staff members working on NASA's data systems would most often be hired as mathematicians. Computer engineering was very often filled by those with electrical engineering degrees. Today, the Goddard Space Flight Center has special position descriptions for data scientists or as they are more commonly called: data systems engineers. These staff members are required to have very diverse skills, hence the need for a generalized position description. There is always a need for data systems engineers to develop, maintain and operate the complex data systems for Earth and space science missions. Today's data systems engineers however are not just mathematicians, they are computer programmers, GIS experts, software engineers, visualization experts, etc... They represent many different degree fields. To put together distributed systems like the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System (EOSDIS), staff are required from many different fields. Sometimes, the skilled professional is not available and must be developed in-house. This paper will address the various skills and jobs for data systems engineers at NASA. Further it explores how to develop staff to become data scientists.
TAKIAN, Amirhossein; AKBARI-SARI, Ali
Background: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development. Methods: To contribute to exploring to the academia’s role in reaching SDGs, the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24–25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. Results: In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”, the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential. PMID:28028502
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis in China revealed not only the failures of the Chinese health-care system but also some fundamental structural deficiencies. A decentralized and fragmented health system, such as the one found in China, is not well-suited to making a rapid and coordinated response to public health emergencies. The commercial orientation of the health sector on the supply-side and lack of health insurance coverage on the demand-side further exacerbate the problems of the under-provision of public services, such as health surveillance and preventive care. For the past 25 years, the Chinese Government has kept economic development at the top of the policy agenda at the expense of public health, especially in terms of access to health care for the 800 million people living in rural areas. A significant increase in government investment in the public health infrastructure, though long overdue, is not sufficient to solve the problems of the health-care system. China needs to reorganize its public health system by strengthening both the vertical and horizontal connections between its various public health organizations. China's recent policy of establishing a matching-fund financed rural health insurance system presents an exciting opportunity to improve people's access to health care. PMID:15500285
Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark
This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.
Baltussen, Rob; Mitton, Craig; Danis, Marion; Williams, Iestyn; Gold, Marthe
Countries around the world are experiencing an ever-increasing need to make choices in investments in health and healthcare. This makes it incumbent upon them to have formal processes in place to optimize the legitimacy of eventual decisions. There is now growing experience among countries of the implementation of stakeholder participation, and a developing convergence of methods to support decision-makers within health authorities in making tough decisions when faced with the stark reality of limited resources. We call for further interaction among health authorities, and the research community to develop best practices in order to confront the difficult choices that need to be made.
This article is based on "Salud, ambiente y desarrollo humano sostenible: el caso de México," a document prepared in June 1997 by the Comité Técnico Nacional para el Desarrollo Sostenible. It opens with information regarding the epidemiologic and demographic changes that have taken place in Mexico, such as the decrease in communicable diseases, the rise in noncommunicable diseases, and the less conspicuous increase in lesions resulting from accidents or acts of violence. This is followed by a discussion of priority problems and problems of lesser magnitude in environmental health, specifically those relating to water and air quality, as well as disposal of household and dangerous wastes. Finally, it proposes three areas of intervention in light of the structural problems detected: the absence of an integrated information system covering the area of health, environment, and development; the absence of channels of communication within and between institutions and sectors, and the lack of coordination in planning and implementing programs and actions in this field.
This article analyzes the reforms introduced over the last quarter century into the French health care system. A particular public-private combination, rooted in French history and institutionalized through a specific division of the policy field between private doctors and public hospitals, explains the system's core characteristics: universal access, free choice, high quality, and a weak capacity for regulation. The dual architecture of this unique system leads to different reform strategies and outcomes in its two main parts. While the state has leverage in the hospital sector, it has failed repeatedly in attempts to regulate the ambulatory care sector. The first section of this article sets out the main characteristics and historical landmarks that continue to affect policy framing and implementation. Section 2 focuses on the evolution in financing and access, section 3 on management and governance in the (private) ambulatory care sector, and section 4 on the (mainly public) hospital sector. The conclusion compares the French model with those developed in the comparative literature and sets out the terms of the dilemma: a state-run social health insurance that lacks both the legitimacy of Bismarckian systems and the leverages of state-run systems. The French system therefore pursues contradictory policy goals, simultaneously developing universalism and liberalism, which explains both the direct state intervention and its limits.
The article reviews the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the European Network of Healthy Cities organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance, and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 77 cities which participated in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the network. Evidence was gathered principally from a general evaluation questionnaire sent to all network cities. CHDPs are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed a trend away from "classic" CHDPs with a primary focus on health development towards ensuring a health dimension to other sector plans, and into the overarching strategies of city governments. Linked to the Phase IV priority themes of Healthy aging and healthy urban planning, cities further developed the concept and application of human-centered sustainability. More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity.
Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.
A system that includes sensors and data acquisition, wireless data-communication, and data-processing subsystems has been developed as a means of both real-time and historical tracking of information indicative of deterioration in the mechanical integrity and performance of a highgeared ball valve or a linearly actuated valve that operates at a temperature between cryogenic and ambient.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
DOOLITTLE, LAWRENCE; HUANG, GANG; DU, QIANG; SERRANO, CARLOS
Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.
Background Despite the mounting attention for health systems and health systems theories, there is a persisting lack of consensus on their conceptualisation and strengthening. This paper contributes to structuring the debate, presenting landmarks in the development of health systems thinking against the backdrop of the policy context and its dominant actors. We argue that frameworks on health systems are products of their time, emerging from specific discourses. They are purposive, not neutrally descriptive, and are shaped by the agendas of their authors. Discussion The evolution of thinking over time does not reflect a progressive accumulation of insights. Instead, theories and frameworks seem to develop in reaction to one another, partly in line with prevailing paradigms and partly as a response to the very different needs of their developers. The reform perspective considering health systems as projects to be engineered is fundamentally different from the organic view that considers a health system as a mirror of society. The co-existence of health systems and disease-focused approaches indicates that different frameworks are complementary but not synthetic. The contestation of theories and methods for health systems relates almost exclusively to low income countries. At the global level, health system strengthening is largely narrowed down to its instrumental dimension, whereby well-targeted and specific interventions are supposed to strengthen health services and systems or, more selectively, specific core functions essential to programmes. This is in contrast to a broader conceptualization of health systems as social institutions. Summary Health systems theories and frameworks frame health, health systems and policies in particular political and public health paradigms. While there is a clear trend to try to understand the complexity of and dynamic relationships between elements of health systems, there is also a demand to provide frameworks that distinguish
Southern Company Services
In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.
Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka
Background With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. Results A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. Conclusions We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth
Feachem, R G; Graham, W J; Timaeus, I M
When we were invited to prepare this background paper on the health problems of the developing countries for the Commission on Health Research for Development, our first thought was to compile and organize available data on the causes of morbidity and mortality affecting different age groups in various populations. It soon became clear that this would not be especially useful. There are major gaps in the available data, particularly from the poorer countries and for people above 5 years of age. The data that are available are often of poor or uncertain quality, collected from unrepresentative or undefined subpopulations, and not strictly comparable due to different definitions and data-collection methods. Additionally, in the absence of agreed definitions and analytical frameworks, it is not clear what could or should be done with the data on health problems so amassed. More fundamentally, we have come to doubt whether the current array of epidemiological concepts and tools is sufficient for the task. We therefore decided that, while giving an overview of current knowledge on levels and trends of morbidity and mortality, the emphasis of this paper should be more towards concepts, methods, and data deficiencies. In Section 1, we set out definitions and frameworks for considering health problems and health research; we review recent conceptual models for the analysis of the determinants of child survival; and we outline a framework, focusing on modifiable determinants of health and life-cycle health effects, which is used in subsequent sections. In Section 2, relationships between national and societal level determinants and health are reviewed and then set aside. In Section 3, we review available data on world patterns and trends of morbidity and mortality, highlighting the data deficiencies and lacunae. In Section 4, we follow the life of a woman in a developing country and examine the health problems, and their determinants, which she and her children face. In
Casey, M M; Wellever, A; Moscovice, I
Rural health networks are a potential way for rural health care systems to improve access to care, reduce costs, and enhance quality of care. Networks provide a means for rural providers to contract with managed care organizations, develop their own managed care entities, share resources, and structure practice opportunities to support recruitment and retention of rural physicians and other health care professionals. The results of early network development initiatives indicate a need for state officials and others interested in encouraging network development to agree on common rural health network definitions, to identify clearly the goals of network development programs, and to document and analyze program outcomes. Future network development efforts need to be much more comprehensive if they are to have a significant impact on rural health care. This article analyzes public policy issues related to integrated rural health network development, discusses current efforts to encourage network development in rural areas, and suggests actions that states may take if they desire to support rural health network development. These actions include adopting a formal rural health network definition, providing networks with alternatives to certain regulatory requirements, and providing incentives such as matching grants, loans, or technical assistance. Without public sector support for networks, managed care options may continue to be unavailable in many less densely populated rural areas of the country, and locally controlled rural health networks are unlikely to develop as an alternative to the dominant pattern of managed care expansion by large urban entities. Implementation of Medicare reform legislation could provide significant incentives for the development of rural health networks, depending on the reimbursement provisions, financial solvency standards, and antitrust exemptions for provider-sponsored networks in the final legislation and federal regulations.
Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.
Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.
Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.
Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.
Mercer, Carolyn R.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Arnold, Steven M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Anderson, Lynn M.
Integrated vehicle health management technologies promise to dramatically improve the safety of commercial aircraft by reducing system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents. To realize this promise, fundamental technology development is needed to produce reliable health management components. These components include diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, physics-based and data-driven lifing and failure models, sensors, and a sensor infrastructure including wireless communications, power scavenging, and electronics. In addition, system assessment methods are needed to effectively prioritize development efforts. Development work is needed throughout the vehicle, but particular challenges are presented by the hot, rotating environment of the propulsion system. This presentation describes current work in the field of health management technologies for propulsion systems for commercial aviation.
Azeez, Aderemi; Bamidele, Samson; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Adebayo, Wura; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Abioye, Abimbola; Mullen, Stephanie
Abstract Introduction Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) are increasingly transitioning to electronic platforms in several developing countries. Establishment of a Master Facility List (MFL) to standardize the allocation of unique identifiers for health facilities can overcome identification issues and support health facility management. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) recently developed a MFL, and we present the process and outcome. Methods The MFL was developed from the ground up, and includes a state code, a local government area (LGA) code, health facility ownership (public or private), the level of care, and an exclusive LGA level health facility serial number, as part of the unique identifier system in Nigeria. To develop the MFL, the LGAs sent the list of all health facilities in their jurisdiction to the state, which in turn collated for all LGAs under them before sending to the FMOH. At the FMOH, a group of RHIS experts verified the list and identifiers for each state. Results The national MFL consists of 34,423 health facilities uniquely identified. The list has been published and is available for worldwide access; it is currently used for planning and management of health services in Nigeria. Discussion Unique identifiers are a basic component of any information system. However, poor planning and execution of implementing this key standard can diminish the success of the RHIS. Conclusion Development and adherence to standards is the hallmark for a national health information infrastructure. Explicit processes and multi-level stakeholder engagement is necessary to ensuring the success of the effort. PMID:25422720
Hunter, Gary W.; Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.
An Integrated Vehicle Health Management system aims to maintain vehicle health through detection, diagnostics, state awareness, prognostics, and lastly, mitigation of detrimental situations for each of the vehicle subsystems and throughout the vehicle as a whole. This paper discusses efforts to advance Propulsion Health Management technology for in-flight applications to provide improved propulsion sensors measuring a range of parameters, improve ease of propulsion sensor implementation, and to assess and manage the health of gas turbine engine flow-path components. This combined work is intended to enable real-time propulsion state assessments to accurately determine the vehicle health, reduce loss of control, and to improve operator situational awareness. A unique aspect of this work is demonstration of these maturing technologies on an operational engine.
Blobel, B; Holena, M
The structure of healthcare systems in developed countries is changing to 'shared care', enforced by economic constraints and caused by a change in the basic conditions of care. That development results in co-operative health information systems across the boundaries of organisational, technological, and policy domains. Increasingly, these distributed and, as far as their domains are concerned, heterogeneous systems are based on middleware approaches, such as CORBA. Regarding the sensitivity of personal and medical data, such open, distributed, and heterogeneous health information systems require a high level of data protection and data security, both with respect to patient information and with respect to users. This paper, relying on experience gained through our activities in CORBAmed, describes the possibilities the CORBA middleware provides to achieve application and communication security. On the background of the overall CORBA architecture, it outlines the different security services previewed in the adopted CORBA specifications which are discussed in the context of the security requirements of healthcare information systems. Security services required in the healthcare domain but not available at the moment are mentioned. A solution is proposed, which on the one hand allows to make use of the available CORBA security services and additional ones, on the other hand remains open to other middleware approaches, such as DHE or HL7.
Cohn, Wendy F; Pannone, Aaron; Schubart, Jane; Lyman, Jason; Kinzie, Mable; Broshek, Donna K; Guterbock, Thomas M; Hartman, David; Mick, David; Bolmey, Armando; Garson, Arthur T
The Consumer Health Education Institute (CHEDI) has developed a model system to improve the quality and effectiveness of patient education and health communication. Through assessment of characteristics and preferences, segmentation into groups and matching with the appropriate materials, we have demonstrated that patients and health consumers have different health information needs and preferences which show promise as a basis for selecting or designing the most appropriate materials or programs.
Background Health system strengthening is critical to ensure the integration and scaling-up of priority health promotion, disease prevention and control programs. Normative guidelines are available to address health system function imbalances while strategic and analytical frameworks address critical functions in complex systems. Tacit knowledge-based health system constructs can help identify actors' perspectives, contributing to improve strengthening strategies. Using maternal health as an example, this paper maps and analyses the health system functions that critical actors charged with formulating and delivering priority health programs consider important for their success. Methods Using concept mapping qualitative and statistical methods, health system functions were mapped for different categories of actors in high maternal mortality states of Mexico and at the federal level. Functions within and across maps were analyzed for degree of classification, importance, feasibility and coding. Results Hospital infrastructure and human resource training are the most prominent functions in the maternal health system, associated to federal efforts to support emergency obstetric care. Health policy is a highly diffuse function while program development, intercultural and community participation and social networks are clearly stated although less focused and with lower perceived importance. The importance of functions is less correlated between federal and state decision makers, between federal decision makers and reproductive health/local health area program officers and between state decision makers and system-wide support officers. Two sets of oppositions can be observed in coding across functions: health sector vs. social context; and given structures vs. manageable processes. Conclusions Concept mapping enabled the identification of critical functions constituting adaptive maternal health systems, including aspects of actor perspectives that are seldom included in
Dugarte, Nelson; Medina, Rubén.; Huiracocha, Lourdes; Rojas, Rubén.
This article presents the development of a Cardiology Electronic Health Record (CEHR) system. Software consists of a structured algorithm designed under Health Level-7 (HL7) international standards. Novelty of the system is the integration of high resolution ECG (HRECG) signal acquisition and processing tools, patient information management tools and telecardiology tools. Acquisition tools are for management and control of the DIGICARDIAC electrocardiograph functions. Processing tools allow management of HRECG signal analysis searching for indicative patterns of cardiovascular pathologies. Telecardiology tools incorporation allows system communication with other health care centers decreasing access time to the patient information. CEHR system was completely developed using open source software. Preliminary results of process validation showed the system efficiency.
Health is a continuum of an optimized state of a biologic system, an outcome of positive relationships with the self and others. A healthy system follows the principles of systems science derived from observations of nature, highlighting the character of relationships as the key determinant. Relationships evolve from our decisions, which are consequential to the function of our own biologic system on all levels, including the genome, where epigenetics impact our morphology. In healthy systems, decisions emanate from the reciprocal collaboration of hippocampal memory and the executive prefrontal cortex. We can decide to change relationships through choices. What is selected, however, only represents the cognitive interpretation of our limited sensory perception; it strongly reflects inherent biases toward either optimizing state, making a biologic system healthy, or not. Health or its absence is then the outcome; there is no inconsequential choice. Public health effort should not focus on punitive steps (e.g. taxation of unhealthy products or behaviors) in order to achieve a higher level of public’s health. It should teach people the process of making healthy decisions; otherwise, people will just migrate/shift from one unhealthy product/behavior to another, and well-intended punitive steps will not make much difference. Physical activity, accompanied by nutrition and stress management, have the greatest impact on fashioning health and simultaneously are the most cost-effective measures. Moderate-to-vigorous exercise not only improves aerobic fitness but also positively influences cognition, including memory and senses. Collective, rational societal decisions can then be anticipated. Health care is a business system principally governed by self-maximizing decisions of its components; uneven and contradictory outcomes are the consequences within such a non-optimized system. Health is not health care. We are biologic systems subject to the laws of biology in spite
Boehme, Dale R.; Bankert, Michelle A.; Christenson, Todd R.
A system to fabricate precise, high aspect ratio polymeric molds by photolithograpic process is described. The molds for producing micro-scale parts from engineering materials by the LIGA process. The invention is a developer system for developing a PMMA photoresist having exposed patterns comprising features having both very small sizes, and very high aspect ratios. The developer system of the present invention comprises a developer tank, an intermediate rinse tank and a final rinse tank, each tank having a source of high frequency sonic agitation, temperature control, and continuous filtration. It has been found that by moving a patterned wafer, through a specific sequence of developer/rinse solutions, where an intermediate rinse solution completes development of those portions of the exposed resist left undeveloped after the development solution, by agitating the solutions with a source of high frequency sonic vibration, and by adjusting and closely controlling the temperatures and continuously filtering and recirculating these solutions, it is possible to maintain the kinetic dissolution of the exposed PMMA polymer as the rate limiting step.
The concept of globalization has been applied recently to ways in which mental health may be developed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), sometimes referred to as the 'Third World' or developing countries. This paper (1) describes the roots of psychiatry in western culture and its current domination by pharmacological therapies; (2) considers the history of mental health in LMICs, focusing on many being essentially non-western in cultural background with a tradition of using a plurality of systems of care and help for mental health problems, including religious and indigenous systems of medicine; and (3) concludes that in a post-colonial world, mental health development in LMICs should not be left to market forces, which are inevitably manipulated by the interests of multinational corporations mostly located in ex-colonizing countries, especially the pharmaceutical companies.
Cohen, Bruce B; Franklin, Saul; West, James K
The Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP) has many distinctive features. These features evolved to maximize the usefulness of this query system for a broad group of users with varied needs, differing levels of knowledge about public health, and diverse experience using public health data. Three major features of MassCHIP help target our large user population. These features are as follows: (1) multiple avenues of entry to initiate queries ranging from an alphabetical list of simple topics to detailed International Classification of Disease codes; (2) the inclusion of data sets from other state agencies in addition to those of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to reflect a broad view of public health; and (3) the capacity to retrieve data for multiple levels of geography, from the neighborhood through the state, including planning districts and hospitals. In this article, we discuss the history and design of MassCHIP, and focus on the features of MassCHIP that target a great variety of user needs and capabilities, and which are distinctive among Web-based data query systems.
Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Flaman, Laura M
The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in health-related research and to critically examine the issues, strengths, and challenges inherent to those approaches from the lenses of health promotion and public health. Through the review process, conducted in 2007, it is evident that health promotion and public health applications of GIS can be generally categorized into four predominant themes: disease surveillance (n = 227), risk analysis (n = 189), health access and planning (n = 138), and community health profiling (n = 115). This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to inform decision making and discusses the extent to which GIS can be applied to address health promotion and public health questions. The contribution of this literature review will be to generate a broader understanding of how GIS-related methodological techniques and tools developed in other disciplines can be meaningfully applied to applications in public health policy, promotion, and practice.
Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying
This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.
two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert
Martens, W. J.; Slooff, R.; Jackson, E. K.
Human-induced climate change threatens ecosystems and human health on a global scale. In order to withstand the worldwide threats to ecosystems, the concept of sustainable development was introduced during the 1980s. Since then, this concept has been widely applied to guide and focus policy-making. The present article reviews the health consequences of human-induced climate change on sustainable development, particularly the potential impact of such change of food supply, natural disasters, infectious diseases, ecosystems, and sea level rise. Discussed is an integrated model containing the key indicators of sustainable development. The relevance of climate change, human health, and sustainable development for international climate change policy is also examined. PMID:9509631
Bauer, Georg; Davies, John Kenneth; Pelikan, Jurgen; Noack, Horst; Broesskamp, Ursel; Hill, Chloe
This paper discusses the work of the EUHPID Project to develop a European Health Promotion Monitoring System based on a common set of health promotion indicators. The Project has established three working groups to progress this task--health promotion policy and practice-driven, data-driven and theory-driven. The work of the latter group is reviewed in particular. EUHPID has taken a systems theory approach in order to develop a model as a common frame of reference and a rational basis for the selection, organization and interpretation of health promotion indicators. After reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of those health promotion models currently proposed for indicator development, the paper proposes a general systems model of health development, and specific analytical, socio-ecological models related to public health and health promotion. These are described and discussed in detail. Taking the Ottawa Charter as the preferred framework for health promotion, the socio-ecological model for health promotion adopts its five action areas to form five types of systems. The structure and processes for each of these five systems are proposed to form the basis of a classification system for health promotion indicators. The paper goes on to illustrate such a system with reference to indicators in the workplace setting. The EUHPID Consortium suggest that their socio-ecological model could become a common reference point for the public health field generally, and offer an invitation to interested readers to contribute to this development.
Health-care parameters for Natives living in isolated northern areas of Canada show rates of life expectancy, morbidity, and infant mortality far worse than the Canadian average. Improving access to medical facilities has not affected these statistics. Socioeconomic factors such as inadequate housing and lack of sewage systems are likely contributors to poor health, as is an attitude of hopelessness and impotence on the part of Native people. Health-care providers have recognized the need for health promotion as well as treatment, but have often instituted programs that blame the victim. An approach to health education that embodies community development, participation, and the fostering of a positive self-image is discussed. The implication of this approach is that when Native Canadian groups can identify their own health problems, have access to the information needed for their solution, and develop the confidence and assertiveness to act, change may occur at a community, as well as an individual, level. PMID:21253037
Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois
This paper puts health questions within the context of national development and industrial policy. It follows the idea of structuralist, Marxist and Schumpeterian approaches, in which industry and innovations form determining factors for the dynamism in capitalist economies and relative positions within the world economy. All countries that have developed and started to compete under better conditions with advanced countries have had an association between strong industry and an endogenous knowledge, learning and innovation base. However, in the field of health, this vision presents problems because business interests move according to the economic logic of profit rather than to meet health needs. The notion of the health-industrial complex is an attempt to provide a theoretical reference that enables linkage between two distinct types of logic: health and economic development. This study has sought to show, on the basis of foreign trade data, how disregard for the logic of health policy development has led to a situation of economic vulnerability in this sector, which may limit the objectives of universality, equality and comprehensiveness. Within this context, a cognitive and political break with these antagonistic visions that put health needs on one side and industrial needs on the other is proposed. A country that aims to reach a condition of development and independence requires strong innovative industries and an inclusive and universal health system, at the same time.
Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire
This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low- and middle-income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long-term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness.
Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire
This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265
Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Salarilak, Shaker; Shoghli, Alireza; Khosravi, Nasim
This retrospective study aimed to address whether or to what extent spatial and non-spatial factors with a focus on a healthcare delivery system would influence successful tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in Urmia, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, data of 452 new TB cases were extracted from Urmia TB Management Center during a 5-year period. Using the Geographical Information System (GIS), health centers and study subjects' locations were geocoded on digital maps. To identify the statistically significant geographical clusters, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) index was used. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of spatial and non-spatial variables on the occurrence of adverse treatment outcomes. The spatial clusters of TB cases were concentrated in older, impoverished and outskirts areas. Although there was a tendency toward higher odds of adverse treatment outcomes among urban TB cases, this finding after adjusting for distance from a given TB healthcare center did not reach statistically significant. This article highlights effects of spatial and non-spatial determinants on the TB adverse treatment outcomes, particularly in what way the policies of healthcare services are made. Accordingly, non-spatial determinants in terms of low socio-economic factors need more attention by public health policy makers, and then more focus should be placed on the health delivery system, in particular men's health.
Laubscher, B.; Cooke, B.; Cafferty, M.; Olivas, N.
The CALIOPE receiver system development at LANL is the story of two technologies. The first of these technologies consists of off-the-shelf mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detectors and amplifiers. The vendor for this system is Kolmar Technologies. This system was fielded in the Tan Trailer I (TTI) in 1995 and will be referred to in this paper as GEN I. The second system consists of a MCT detector procured from Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) and an amplifier designed and built by LANL. This system was fielded in the Tan Trailer II (TTII) system at the NTS tests in 1996 and will be referred to as GEN II. The LANL CALIOPE experimental plan for 1996 was to improve the lidar system by progressing to a higher rep rate laser to perform many shots in a much shorter period of time. In keeping with this plan, the receiver team set a goal of developing a detector system that was background limited for the projected 100 nanosecond (ns) laser pulse. A set of detailed simulations of the DIAL lidar experiment was performed. From these runs, parameters such as optimal detector size, field of view of the receiver system, nominal laser return power, etc. were extracted. With this information, detector physics and amplifier electronic models were developed to obtain the required specifications for each of these components. These derived specs indicated that a substantial improvement over commercially available, off-the-shelf, amplifier and detector technologies would be needed to obtain the goals. To determine if the original GEN I detector was usable, the authors performed tests on a 100 micron square detector at cryogenic temperatures. The results of this test and others convinced them that an advanced detector was required. Eventually, a suitable detector was identified and a number of these single element detectors were procured from SBRC. These single element detectors were witness for the detector arrays built for another DOE project.
Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara
This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600
Zeanah, Paula D.; Stafford, Brian S.; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Rice, Thomas
The science of early development and our understanding of the impact of early experience on later social, emotional, and cognitive development has grown dramatically in the past three decades. Because the data are compelling and far-reaching, there has been increasing interest and concern about the quality of the infant's earliest experiences, and…
Blaya, Joaquin A; Fraser, Hamish S F; Holt, Brian
Is there any evidence that e-health-using information technology to manage patient care-can have a positive impact in developing countries? Our systematic review of evaluations of e-health implementations in developing countries found that systems that improve communication between institutions, assist in ordering and managing medications, and help monitor and detect patients who might abandon care show promise. Evaluations of personal digital assistants and mobile devices convincingly demonstrate that such devices can be very effective in improving data collection time and quality. Donors and funders should require and sponsor outside evaluations to ensure that future e-health investments are well-targeted.
Iverson, David L.
Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.
Kluge, E H
The Canadian health care system is a publicly funded system based on the philosophy that health is a right, not a commodity. The implementation of this perspective is hampered by the fact that the Canadian Constitution makes health care a matter of provincial jurisdiction, while most taxing powers lie in the hands of the federal government. Further problems arise because of Canada's geographic nature and a move to regionalization of provincial health care administration. The issue is compounded by recent developments in reproductive technologies, aboriginal health, changes in consent law, etc.
Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G
Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. PMID:23966783
The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable.
Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines) to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme initiated a reform programme
Neff, Roni A.; Palmer, Anne M.; Mckenzie, Shawn E.; Lawrence, Robert S.
The United States has set a national goal to eliminate health disparities. This article emphasizes the importance of food systems in generating and exacerbating health disparities in the United States and suggests avenues for reducing them. It presents a conceptual model showing how broad food system conditions interplay with community food environments—and how these relationships are filtered and refracted through prisms of social disparities to generate and exacerbate health disparities. Interactions with demand factors in the social environment are described. The article also highlights the separate food systems pathway to health disparities via environmental and occupational health effects of agriculture. PMID:23173027
Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G
The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.
Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin
The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels.
The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation
Palisano, Robert J; Di Rezze, Briano; Stewart, Debra; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Hlyva, Oksana; Freeman, Matthew; Nguyen, Tram; Gorter, Jan Willem
The life course health development (LCHD) model by Halfon et al. conceptualizes health development occurring through person-environment transactions that enable well-being and participation in desired social roles throughout life, areas that have not received adequate attention in healthcare. The aim of this 'perspectives' paper is to apply the six core tenets of the LCHD model and the concept of health development trajectories to individuals with lifelong neurodevelopmental conditions. We share the perspective that modifiable aspects of the environment often restrict health development; we then advocate that children, beginning at a young age, should engage in 'real-world' experiences that prepare them for current and future social roles. LCHD encourages future planning from the outset, continuity of care between pediatric and adult systems, and coordination of services and supports. We believe LCHD can be transformative in enabling healthy living of individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions.
Mauss, Fredrick J.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and
Tomasi, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Maia, Maria de Fatima Santos
This paper explores the debate and initiatives concerning the use of information technology (IT) in primary health care in developing countries. The literature from 1992-2002 was identified from searches of the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS), Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. The search identified 884 references, 350 of which were classified according to the scheme described by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). For the analysis of advantages, problems and perspectives of IT applications and systems, 52 articles were selected according to their potential contribution to the primary health-care processes in non-developed countries. These included: 10 on electronic patient registries (EPR), 22 on process and programmatic action evaluation and management systems (PPAEM) and 20 on clinical decision-support systems (CDS). The main advantages, limitations and perspectives are discussed. PMID:15640923
Blayney, K D; Trulove, J W
Allied health manpower in developing countries should be able to serve the specific needs of these countries in solving malnutrition, diarrheal disease, and other health problems. Disease patterns tend to evolve in stages with each stage requiring a special type of health manpower: 1) the 1st stage where infectious diseases are linked to poverty, malnutrition, and poor personal hygiene for which personnel trained to improve health through providing safe water supplies, improving sanitation, and immunizing the population are needed; 2) in the 2nd stages, diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiac diseases exist, requiring extensive technology such as is available in the US; and 3) the 3rd stage relates to an awareness of health hazards (caused by the environment, by the lifestyle dysfunctions of the society, and an emphasis on health promotion) and implies a responsibility for one's own health by the individual; this is a difficult stage to apply to developing countries since the ability to bring about change assumes literacy on the part of the population which is not always the case. Since most developing countries need to cause change in the 1st stage, more public health personnel such as sanitarians and generalist workers are needed. Training of these personnel should include on-the-job education; traditionally trained US allied health professionals are not always equipped to deal with health problems in developing countries. Health educators should look to the lessons learned by the US in the allied health movement: 1) the system of control that national membership organizations have over schooling and the job environment has contributed to an increased cost of health care delivery, unnecessary prolonged curricula, overspecialization, extreme protectionism for membership, and inappropriate fractionalization of health care delivery; 2) the emphasis on prolonged curricula sometimes causes the student to lose sight of the supposed direct relationship between
Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Le Minh; Cashin, Cheryl; Hinh, Nguyen Duc
Vietnam's health system continues to make great progress in improving its capacities and performance. However, despite the many significant achievements that have been made, this paper summaries 11 health system research papers from different perspectives with the aim of providing scientific evidence for policy actions in Vietnam. Health system research is ultimately concerned with improving the health of people and communities, by enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the health system as an integral part of the overall process of socioeconomic development, with full involvement of all actors. We hope the findings from this cluster of papers provide some insights into issues of importance for the continued advancement and strengthening of the health system in Vietnam and can be considered a valid and reliable resource to inform planning, management and policy-making decisions.
Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.
Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885
RD-RI54 682 EXCELLENCE WiTHIN THE NAVY HEALTH CARE SYSTEM (U) NAVAL I. POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA J A NORTON DEC 84 UNCLRSSIFIED F/G 6/12...STANDAROS-1963-A -J% * .NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC THESIS EXCELLENCE WITHIN THE NAVY HEALTH CARE SYSTEM by JAMES ALFRED NORTON...Within the Navy Health Care December 1984 System S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) James Alfred Norton S
Hersh, William; Margolis, Alvaro; Quirós, Fernán; Otero, Paula
Information and communication technology can be used to improve the quality and safety of health care and to lower costs. But in both developed and developing countries, there is an inadequate supply of skilled individuals who have the technical skills to use this technology to improve health care. Some studies project workforce needs of tens of thousands in English-speaking developed countries, but it is not known what size workforce will be required in the developing world. It is important to identify and develop the skills, training, and competencies-consistent with local cultures, languages, and health systems-that will be needed to realize the full benefits of these technologies. We present a framework for answering these questions and for developing estimates of the size and scope of the workforce that may be needed.
Doctors and other health professionals in developing countries are missing out on relevant information about health. A lot of the information they need is available in the developed countries, and those who have it are happy to share it with them. But transporting information, like food or medicines, from one part of the world to another is not an easy task nor is it the complete answer to the information drought. It is one thing to ferry books and journals from Europe to Africa and another to make relevant information available to the right person at the right time at an affordable cost.
Du, Yi-Chun; Lee, You-Yun; Lu, Yun-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wu, Ming-Jei; Chen, Chung-Lin; Chen, Tainsong
In Taiwan, the number of the patients needing dialysis increases rapidly in recent years. Because there is risk in every hemodialysis session, monitoring physiological status, such as blood pressure measurement every 30 min to 1 h is needed during about 4 h hemodialysis process. Therefore, an assisted measurement on blood pressure is needful in dialysis care centers. Telecare system (TCS) is regarded as one of important technique in the medical care. In this study, we utilized ZigBee wireless technique to establish a mesh network for monitoring blood pressure automatically and data storage in medical record system for display and further analysis. Moreover, while the blood pressure exceeds the normal range, the system could send a warning signal to remind, or inform the relatives and clinicians in health care center through the personal handy-phone system (PHS) immediately. The proposed system provides an assisted device for monitoring patients' blood pressure during hemodialysis process and saving medical manpower.
Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan
With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.
Alvarez, Luz Stella; Salmon, J Warren; Swartzman, Dan
In 1993, the Colombian government sought to reform its health care system under the guidance of international financial institutions (the World Bank and International Monetary Fund). These institutions maintain that individual private health insurance systems are more appropriate than previously established national public health structures for overcoming inequities in health care in developing countries. The reforms carried out following international financial institution guidelines are known as "neoliberal reforms." This qualitative study explores consumer health choices and associated factors, based on interviews with citizens living in Medellin, Colombia, in 2005-2006. The results show that most study participants belonging to low-income and middle-income strata, even with medical expense subsidies, faced significant barriers to accessing health care. Only upper-income participants reported a selection of different options without barriers, such as complementary and alternative medicines, along with private Western biomedicine. This study is unique in that the informal health system is linked to overall neo-liberal policy change.
Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Wint, Zaw; Low, Kim Cheng Patrick; Anshari, Muhammad
This study seeks to determine the dimension of e-health services in Brunei Darussalam from the customer's perspective. The study seeks to identify, understand, analyze, and evaluate the public's expectation of e-health in Brunei Darussalam. A questionnaire was designed to gather quantitative and qualitative data to survey patients, the patient's family, and health practitioners at hospitals, clinics, or home care centers in Brunei Darussalam from February to March 2011. A 25-item Likert-type survey instrument was specifically developed for this study and administered to a sample of 366 patients. These data were analyzed to provide initial ideas and recommendations to policy makers on how to move forward with the e-health initiative as a means to improve health care services. The survey revealed that there is a high demand and expectation from people of Brunei to have better health care services through an e-health system in order to improve health literacy as well as quality and efficiency of health care. Regardless of the limitations of the survey, the general public has responded to the questionnaire with great support for the abilities of an e-health system. The results of the survey provide a solid foundation for our ongoing research project to proceed further to develop the model of e-health and subsequently to develop a system prototype that incorporates expectations from patients.
Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge F.; Turowski, Mark; Morris, John
The development, deployment, operation and maintenance of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) applications require the storage and processing of tremendous amounts of low-level data. This data must be shared in a secure and cost-effective manner between developers, and processed within several heterogeneous architectures. Modern database technology allows this data to be organized efficiently, while ensuring the integrity and security of the data. The extensibility and interoperability of the current database technologies also allows for the creation of an associated support database system. A support database system provides additional capabilities by building applications on top of the database structure. These applications can then be used to support the various technologies in an ISHM architecture. This presentation and paper propose a detailed structure and application description for a support database system, called the Health Assessment Database System (HADS). The HADS provides a shared context for organizing and distributing data as well as a definition of the applications that provide the required data-driven support to ISHM. This approach provides another powerful tool for ISHM developers, while also enabling novel functionality. This functionality includes: automated firmware updating and deployment, algorithm development assistance and electronic datasheet generation. The architecture for the HADS has been developed as part of the ISHM toolset at Stennis Space Center for rocket engine testing. A detailed implementation has begun for the Methane Thruster Testbed Project (MTTP) in order to assist in developing health assessment and anomaly detection algorithms for ISHM. The structure of this implementation is shown in Figure 1. The database structure consists of three primary components: the system hierarchy model, the historical data archive and the firmware codebase. The system hierarchy model replicates the physical relationships between
Alleyne, G A
Information is one of the most powerful instruments of change known to man. It can be used to relieve much pain and suffering, because the basic infrastructure of any successful enterprise is based not only on the management of the physical, financial, and human resources but also on information resources. This paper describes the relationship between health and human development and outlines the roles health sciences librarians might consider in managing information to ensure health, to assist not only medical scientists but also the powerful members of the community. No persons should be hampered in their ability to make decisions about health matters because they did not have access to information librarians have at their disposal.
Petrochuk, M A; Javalgi, R G
Health care reform has become the dominant domestic policy issue in the United States. President Clinton, and the Democratic leaders in the House and Senate have all proposed legislation to reform the system. Regardless of the plan which is ultimately enacted, health care delivery will be radically changed. Health care marketers, given their perspective, have a unique opportunity to ensure their own institutions' success. Organizational, managerial, and marketing strategies can be employed to deal with the changes which will occur. Marketers can utilize personal strategies to remain proactive and successful during an era of health care reform. As outlined in this article, responding to the health care reform changes requires strategic urgency and action. However, the strategies proposed are practical regardless of the version of health care reform legislation which is ultimately enacted.
Burgio, Alessandra; Crialesi, Roberta; Loghi, Marzia
The Health for All - Italia information system collects health data from several sources. It is intended to be a cornerstone for the achievement of an overview about health in Italy. Health is analyzed at different levels, ranging from health services, health needs, lifestyles, demographic, social, economic and environmental contexts. The database associated software allows to pin down statistical data into graphs and tables, and to carry out simple statistical analysis. It is therefore possible to view the indicators' time series, make simple projections and compare the various indicators over the years for each territorial unit. This is possible by means of tables, graphs (histograms, line graphs, frequencies, linear regression with calculation of correlation coefficients, etc) and maps. These charts can be exported to other programs (i.e. Word, Excel, Power Point), or they can be directly printed in color or black and white.
Lendrum, R A; Lockey, D J
The word 'trauma' describes the disease entity resulting from physical injury. Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and deaths due to injury look set to increase. As early as the 1970s, it became evident that centralisation of resources and expertise could reduce the mortality rate from serious injury and that organisation of trauma care delivery into formal systems could improve outcome further. Internationally, trauma systems have evolved in various forms, with widespread reports of mortality and functional outcome benefits when major trauma management is delivered in this way. The management of major trauma in England is currently undergoing significant change. The London Trauma System began operating in April 2010 and others throughout England became operational this year. Similar systems exist internationally and continue to be developed. Anaesthetists have been and continue to be involved with all levels of trauma care delivery, from the provision of pre-hospital trauma and retrieval teams, through to chronic pain management and rehabilitation of patients back into society. This review examines the international development of major trauma care delivery and the components of a modern trauma system.
Welcome, Menizibeya Osain
Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical
Keough, John J.; And Others
This report is a summary of the results of a questionnaire survey of locally developed health education materials. This guide has been prepared to assist school districts in the planning and initiation or expansion of local health programs. It reports on the current status of locally developed programs in the county. Hopefully, this information…
Gille, J. P.
The development of an internal insulation system for cryogenic liquids is described. The insulation system is based on a gas layer concept in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer within a cellular core structure between the tank wall and the contained cryogen. In this work, a 1.8 meter diameter tank was insulated and tested with liquid hydrogen. Ability to withstand cycling of the aluminum tank wall to 450 K was a design and test condition.
Frenk, Julio; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Lezana, Miguel A; Knaul, Felicia Marie
Despite having achieved an average life expectancy of 75 years, much the same as that of more developed countries, Mexico entered the 21st century with a health system marred by its failure to offer financial protection in health to more than half of its citizens; this was both a result and a cause of the social inequalities that have marked the development process in Mexico. Several structural limitations have hampered performance and limited the progress of the health system. Conscious that the lack of financial protection was the major bottleneck, Mexico has embarked on a structural reform to improve health system performance by establishing the System of Social Protection in Health (SSPH), which has introduced new financial rules and incentives. The main innovation of the reform has been the Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance), the insurance-based component of the SSPH, aimed at funding health care for all those families, most of them poor, who had been previously excluded from social health insurance. The reform has allowed for a substantial increase in public investment in health while realigning incentives towards better technical and interpersonal quality. This paper describes the main features and initial results of the Mexican reform effort, and derives lessons for other countries considering health-system transformations under similarly challenging circumstances.
Frenk, Julio; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Lezana, Miguel Angel; Knaul, Felicia Marie
Despite having achieved an average life expectancy of 75 years, much the same as that of more developed countries, Mexico entered the 21st century with a health system mared by its failure to offer financial protection in health to more than half of its citizens; this was both a result and a cause of the social inequalities that have marked the development process in Mexico. Several structural limitations have hampered performance and limited the progress of the health system. Conscious that the lack of financial protection was the major bottleneck, Mexico has embarked on a structural reform to improve health system performance by establishing the System of Social Protection in Health (SSPH), which has introduced new financial rules and incentives. The main innovation of the reform has been the Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance), the insurance-based component of the SSPH, aimed at funding health care for all those families, most of them poor, who had been previously excluded from social health insurance. The reform has allowed for a substantial increase in public investment in health while realigning incentives towards better technical and interpersonal quality. This paper describes the main features and initial results of the Mexican reform effort, and derives lessons for other countries considering health-system transformations under similarly challenging circumstances.
Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations. PMID:23369610
Eckman, Molly; Gorski, Irena; Mehta, Khanjan
Mobile health, or mHealth, technology has the potential to improve health care access in the developing world. However, the majority of mHealth projects do not expand beyond the pilot stage. A core reason why is because they do not account for the individual needs and wants of those involved. A collaborative approach is needed to integrate the perspectives of all stakeholders into the design and operation of mHealth endeavours. Design thinking is a methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems. With roots in participatory processes and self-determined pathways, design thinking provides a compelling framework to understand and apply the needs of diverse stakeholders to mHealth project development through a highly iterative process. The methodology presented in this article provides a structured approach to apply design thinking principles to assess the feasibility of novel mHealth endeavours during early conceptualisation.
In the satellite power system (SPS), satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted to electricity. This SPS environmental assessment considers the microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and effects on electromagnetic systems. No environmental problem has been identified that would preclude the continued study of SPS technology. To increase the certainty of the assessment, some research has been initiated and long-term research is being planned.
Vail, David J.
The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…
Pathology/Diagnosis 3107 Oral Maxillofacial Surgery 3108 Orthodontics 3109 Pedodontics 3110 Periodontics 3111 Public Health Dentistry 3112 Prosthodontics...Maxillofacial Surgery 3108 Orthodontics 3109 Pedodontics 3110 Periodontics 3111 Public Health Dentistry 3112 Prosthodontics 3113 Comprehensive...Executive Dentistry 3103 Endodontics 3102 Oral Pathology/Diagnosis 3107 Oral Maxillofacial Surgery 3108 Orthodontics 3109 Pedodontics 3110 Periodontics 3111