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Sample records for health work force

  1. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  2. The health work force, generalism, and the social contract.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, G F

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990, society has been evolving through a period of significant transformation. In response to an increasingly information-rich and knowledge-based environment, the work force for most of society is becoming more specialized. Medicine is one of the few areas developing a work force which emphasizes generalism. For our current needs, the transitional work force has overproduced physicians. Because the overproduction has been uneven by specialty, it is deceptive to evaluate growth collectively rather than by individual subspecialty. Future shifts in age and types of illness combined with enhanced technology will transform the public's expectations of the American health care system. The type and number of physicians that will be needed in the future will be substantially different than in the past, so current patterns in physician education may not address the population's future demands. Images Figure 1. PMID:7677453

  3. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  4. For the Health-Care Work Force, a Critical Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Daniel W.; Wartman, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    The United States faces a looming shortage of many types of health-care professionals, including nurses, physicians, dentists, pharmacists, and allied-health and public-health workers. There may also be a shortage of faculty members in the health sciences. The results will be felt acutely within the next 10 years. Colleges and health-science…

  5. Work in America. Report of a Special Task Force to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, James; And Others

    The report analyzes health, education, and welfare problems from the perspective of work which plays a powerful role in the psychological, social, and economic aspects determining for many the quality of life. Work problems create repercussions in other parts of the social system. Documentary evidence on which the report is based consists of…

  6. Optical dipole forces: Working together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Clarice D.

    2016-12-01

    Strength lies in numbers and in teamwork: tens of thousands of artificial atoms tightly packed in a nanodiamond act cooperatively, enhancing the optical trapping forces beyond the expected classical bulk polarizability contribution.

  7. Health of the Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    outcomes, or unhealthy behaviors , based on LHIs. It is also a means to improve key P3 measures (sleep, activity, and nutrition). Future versions will not...Approximately 1,295 new injuries per 1,000 AD Soldiers were diagnosed in 2014. BEHAVIORAL HEALTH Roughly 15% of AD Soldiers had a diagnosed behav- ioral health...disorder (range: 9 to 20% across installa- tions). Among behavioral health diagnoses, adjustment disorder, mood disorders and anxiety disorders were

  8. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and work-related accomplishment as predictors of general health and medical utilization among Special Operations Forces personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Stephenson, James A; Morrow, Chad E; Staal, Mark; Haskell, Jeremy

    2014-02-01

    Research has established clear links among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), somatic symptoms, and general health among conventional force military personnel. It is possible that the same relationships exist among Special Operations Force (SOF) personnel, but there are very few, if any, studies that examine these relationships. This study investigated correlates of general health and medical visits among SOF personnel and found that the interaction of somatic and PTSD symptoms was associated with worse health and more frequent medical visits. Follow-up analyses indicated that the interaction of avoidance symptoms with somatic symptoms was significantly associated with worse health, whereas the interaction of emotional numbing with somatic symptoms significantly contributed to increased medical visits. In addition, the results suggest that a sense of accomplishment among SOF personnel may serve as a protective factor against poor health. The results suggest developing interactions among SOF personnel that promote a sense of achievement to ultimately improve the health of the force.

  9. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  10. Magnetic Force and Work: An Accessible Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…

  11. Joining Forces: Working with Spirituality in Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Joining Forces" (Lindamood); "Spiritual Dimension of the Learning Organisation" (Hawkins); "Management--A 'Spiritual' Foundation?" (Nevard); "Hermit in Organisations" (Murray); "Towards a Spiritual Perspective on Behavior at Work" (Henson); "On Uncertainty" (Adlam); "Spirituality in Organisations" (Lee); "Ecological Organisation" (Conn);…

  12. Work force policy perspectives: registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Friss, L O

    1981-01-01

    If the decline in full-time labor force participation by registered nurses in hospitals is to be reversed, the issue of equal pay for comparable work must be addressed. Under pressure for cost containment, policies tend to focus on labor force economics rather than on limitations of services. While the two are interrelated, wage policies must be considered independently. This article describes the network which determines how nurse salaries are set: the relationship between the private sector, the general schedule and the Veteran's Administration. The effects of this system are documented, using testimony from a case in the tenth circuit, as well as comparisons with other reference groups: policemen, teachers, laborers, and VA career fields. The evidence suggests that there is a need for policy intervention. Prime areas for action are the comparability practices by governments, particularly in the areas of classification standards and pay setting. Hospital personnel practices which continue past effects of occupational segregation also should be changed.

  13. Telecommuters: the work force of the future.

    PubMed

    Yancer, D A; Moe, J K

    1995-01-01

    Telecommuters are the work force of the future. The dawning of the information age, with its explosion of telecommunication technology, presents new opportunities for healthcare agencies to extend their borders far beyond traditional physical boundaries. The virtual workplace can become a reality and position healthcare agencies to be geographically dispersed throughout their community. The authors describe a pioneering effort to use telecommunications to retain a valuable employee and create a healthcare agency's first virtual workplace. Strategies for success in telecommuting also are provided from both the telecommuter's and the manager's viewpoints.

  14. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered.

  15. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  16. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  17. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  18. Work of gravediggers and health.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Fernando; Fischer, Frida Marina; Cobianchi, Claudio José

    2012-01-01

    Gravediggers have death as object of their work. Their activities are painful, physically and mental demanding, as well as unhealthy. Literature is scarce about this theme. The aim of this study is to evaluate gravediggers' work activities and health consequences. The methodological frame which guided this study was Dejours' psychic suffering and its association with the psychodynamic aspects of work. Data collection took place in April-May 2011 in one public and one private cemetery of São Paulo, Brazil. Four male workers, aged between 45 to 60 years old were interviewed. Their work activities were observed during a workday. Participants reported their life dreams, defense mechanisms and frustration. The discourse of gravediggers showed serious problems associated to physical and mental demands, public invisibility and/ or social devaluation of work. The most important physical symptom was body pain. In spite this is a preliminary study, it was possible to raise a number of work stressors and health outcomes of gravediggers, an "invisible" worker of our society.

  19. The Multicultural Work Force. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    White males represent only 46 percent of the U.S. work force. Within a few years, 75 percent of those entering the labor force will be women and minorities, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. The work force is getting smaller as well as changing in nature. To attract and keep the most qualified and productive workers, businesses must make…

  20. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any sewer... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  1. Industrial Robots Join the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    Robots--powerful, versatile, and easily adapted to new operations--may usher in a new industrial age. Workers throughout the labor force could be affected, as well as the nature of the workplace, skill requirements of jobs, and concomitant shifts in vocational education. (SK)

  2. Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-27

    Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number...situations during peacetime, Federal regulations governing environmental , safety, and occupational health hazards were applied. At the strategic level o f...o f t h e Army for FHP-OEH matters. DASA–ESOH SUBJECT: Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats 3 b. The ASA

  3. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability.

  4. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  5. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  6. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.

  7. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  8. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  9. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  10. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  11. 48 CFR 223.570 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 223.570 Section 223.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 223.570 Drug-free work force....

  12. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  13. Working together for public health.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Pompeo

    2009-06-01

    Italy's recent economic growth and strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea have made it a prime destination for immigrants and asylum seekers in Europe. Despite its well-developed health care system, statistics on foreign citizens' health are worrisome. In 1998 public health services were extended to illegal immigrants, giving them the right to necessary urgent and non-urgent medical assistance, even for a prolonged period. This paper examines a two-year joint intervention project between Centre for the Study and Research of Public Health (Mental Health), Local Health Agency ROMA E (LHA RME) and the non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Rome.

  14. Work and Family. Policies for a Changing Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne A., Ed.; And Others

    This book reviews changes in work and family structures and their effects on worker productivity and employer practices. The first two chapters introduce the topic and trace the history of family structure and composition in the United States, the changing nature of employment, and the central role of the employment relationship to the social…

  15. [Work as a promoter of health].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Claudia Osorio; Ramminger, Tatiana

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the relation between health and work tend to highlight the negative and pathological aspects, as if work produces only sickness and alienation. On the contrary, our proposal is to stress how work can also produce health. Based on Canguillem's concept of health, and from the contributions of the so-called "work clinics", we intend to analyze the purpose of work as a promoter of health. Canguilhem affirms that health is not adaptive, as such it does not involve adapting well to the world, but to the creation of tenets of life. For their part, the work clinics provide tools to approximate us to the know-how-to-do produced by workers in their daily work, namely not only how workers adapt to work, but how they create and recreate it permanently Thus, we can think work as a promoter of health where there is room for collective and personal creation, as well as recognition of workers in their activity.

  16. The effect of a severe health shock on work behavior: Evidence from different health care regimes.

    PubMed

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kleinjans, Kristin J; Larsen, Mona

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we use the policy variation of two different types of health insurance in the US and in Denmark - employer-provided and universal insurance combined with substantial differences in expected and actual medical out-of-pocket expenditures - to explore the effect of new severe health shocks on the labor force participation of older workers. Our results not only provide insight into how relative disease risk affects labor force participation at older ages, but also into how different types of health care and health insurance systems affect individual decisions of labor force participation. Although employer-tied health insurance and greater out-of-pocket medical expenditures give US Americans greater incentives to continue to work, we find only small differences in the work response between the two countries. We provide compelling evidence that our somewhat counterintuitive finding is the result of differential mortality and baseline health differences coupled with distinct treatment regimes under the respective health care systems.

  17. Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  18. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  19. Integrating Work and Family: Women's Health Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killien, Marcia

    An exploratory study examined the relationship between individual, family, and work variables and working mothers' health. The study also investigated the relationship between health management strategies and health. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather data from 85 women who were married, employed 20 hours a week or more, and had…

  20. [Ergonomy and mental health at work.].

    PubMed

    Dion-Hubert, C

    1985-01-01

    In the last ten years the concepts of health and mental health have been considerably modified and mental health at work is becoming an important interest of the in this field. However, it is difficult to establish with certainty the cause and effect between work and mental health problems since many other factors could possibly be responsible for the onset of those problems. Since work constitutes the principal activity of the human being it is reasonable that it could affect its mental equilibrium. Ergonomy deals with the person at work with the aim of better adapting the work to his needs, capacities and aspirations.

  1. Thailand's Work and Health Transition.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2010-09-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker's health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker's mental and physical health.

  2. Vaccine Acquisition Strategies - The Force Health Protection Gamble

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Wayne Foxworth Project Advisor The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) Deutsch , Mary R. ; 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39.18 ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR : Mary R. Deutsch TITLE: Vaccine Acquisition Strategies-The Force Health Protection Gamble FORMAT

  3. The Effect of Catastrophic Health Expenditure on Work After Retirement.

    PubMed

    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohamad; Souri, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Several factors can force retirees to go to paid work. Catastrophic health-care expenditure (CHCE) is one of the driving forces for retirees to go to paid work. This cross-sectional study was based on 6,307 Iran retirees' data. Xu method was used to calculate CHCE, and a logit model was estimated to show the association between CHCE and bridge employment. Other control variables were added to the model. The findings showed that there was positive relationship between CHCE and bridge employment. Retirement pension had negative relationship with work after retirement. Prevalence of work after retirement was higher in people who lived in rural region and increased due to increase in household size. The financial constraint was the main pushing factor for the retiree to go to paid work. Thus, covering retirees with health insurances and identifying and listing diseases that may face the retirees with CHCE are some possible efforts to decrease CHCE.

  4. [Psychosocial risks at work and occupational health].

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2012-06-01

    The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population.

  5. [Health work in MERCOSUR: a Brazilian approach].

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria Helena; Paula, Aïda El-Khoury de; Aguiar Filho, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    MERCOSUR Member Countries (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela) have viewed the regional integration process and management of work and education in health as a concern for government, considering the health sector's specificities. Key issues are professional accreditation and harmonization of current legislation. This article discusses initiatives in the Permanent MERCOSUR Forum related to work in the health field. The Forum serves as a space for dialogue between various actors: Ministry of Health, health workers, and professional boards, with the aim of supporting the work by the Sub-Commission on Professional Development and Practice, under MERCOSUR Working Sub-Group 11, Health, aiding in the formulation of health management and education policies. The current challenge involves the creation of mechanisms for implementing joint actions to solve problems in the regulation of professional practice, especially in municipalities along the borders between MERCOSUR countries.

  6. Improving the Health of Working Families: Research Connections Between Work and Health. NPA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Irene H.; Frank, John W.

    This document contains two papers on connections between work and health and policy options for improving the health of working families. "Foreword" (James A. Auerbach) places the two papers in the context of recent research on the connections between work, family, and health. Chapter 1's overview addresses the changing nature of work,…

  7. Report of the Task Force - Space for Health Sciences. Building Blocks. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The Task Force on Space for Health Sciences is one of four task forces established by the Committee on Capital Financing of the Council of Ontario Universities to work toward the development of a capital formula that would define space needs and building costs for Ontario universities. Each task force has a particular assignment related to the…

  8. [How to promote health competence at work].

    PubMed

    Eickholt, Clarissa; Hamacher, W; Lenartz, N

    2015-09-01

    Health competence is a key concept in occupational health and safety and workplace health promotion for maintaining and enhancing health resources. The effects of governmental or occupational measures to protect or improve health fall short of what is required with regard to the challenges of a changing workplace, e.g., due to the delimitation of work. To secure employability it is becoming more and more important to encourage the personal responsibility of employees. To offer new conclusions on how employers and employees can promote health competence, a survey is required of the research within the fields of health competence and competence development, and of the status quo in enterprises. In this context, a Delphi Study provides an important contribution, with a focus on small and medium-sized enterprises. The development of an extensive understanding of health competence is essential in a work-related context. Beyond knowledge-based health literacy, an action-oriented concept of competence implies the ability and willingness to act in a reasonable and creative manner in complex situations. The development of health competence requires learning embedded in working processes, which challenges competent behaviour. Enabling informal learning is a promising innovative approach and therefore coordinated operational activities are necessary. Ultimately, this is a matter of suitable organisational measures being implemented to meet the health competence needs of an enterprise. Even though the each individual employee bears his or her own health competence, the development potential lies largely within the prevailing working conditions.

  9. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers.

  10. Imbalances in the health labour force: an assessment using data from three national health facility surveys.

    PubMed

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Angeles, Gustavo; Tsui, Amy

    2006-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the health labour force that can affect health care production is of critical importance to health planners and policymakers. This study uses health facility survey data to examine characteristics of the primary health care labour force in Nicaragua, Tanzania and Bangladesh. The characteristics examined are those that are likely to affect service provision, including urban/rural distribution, demographic characteristics, and experience and in-service training, for three types of providers (physicians, nurses and auxiliary nurses). The profiles suggest a pattern of urban/rural imbalances in Nicaragua and Tanzania. The Bangladesh facility survey did not include hospitals, thereby making concrete conclusions on the supply and distribution of providers difficult to make. Multivariate logistic regressions are used to assess the relationship between the urban/rural placement of providers by health need, population demand and facility characteristics. Health need, as measured by child mortality rates, does not have a significant association with the placement of providers in either country, unlike population size and annual growth rates. The mean number of years providers have worked at a facility is significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of rural placement for the three types of providers in Nicaragua. The mean age and percentage of female providers at each facility has a negative association with the placement of rural providers in Tanzania. The use of health facility data to profile the health care labour force is also discussed.

  11. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety.

  12. Spartanburg Technical College 1998 Work Force Development Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinley, John W.; Cantrell, Jo Ellen

    The 1998 Work Force Development Study focuses on Spartanburg Technical College's (STC's) (South Carolina) role in preparing new workers and training/retraining the current workforce. Surveys were mailed to employers in business and industry--the response rate was 10%. In addition, a series of focus groups, including various business, industry,…

  13. Delivering Alert Messages to Members of a Work Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.

  14. The Aging Work Force: A Guide for Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nancy B., Ed.; Krauss, Herbert H., Ed.

    This volume offers 15 papers on the "graying" of the college and university work force in the context of national demographic trends. The papers are arranged in groups which address: growing older, the graying of America, adapting to changing times, retirement and retirement planning, and the corporate example. The following papers are presented:…

  15. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  16. Military social work in the South African National Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Kruger, A; Van Breda, A D

    2001-11-01

    The transformation of the South African National Defence Force has prompted a critical reassessment of the Directorate of Social Work. As a result, the directorate realized the need for a formal business plan to align the profession strategically with the core business of the military system. After completion of the business plan, the need for a unique military social work practice model was identified. Such a model should present social workers with a strategy for the achievement of the goals and objectives of the business plan. The practice model rests on two key concepts: binocular vision and practice positions. Since the onset of the transformation process in the South African National Defence Force, these two documents have reflected the changing milieu within which social work is practiced. The main concepts of these documents are presented.

  17. [Work processes in Family Health Strategy team].

    PubMed

    Pavoni, Daniela Soccoloski; Medeiros, Cássia Regina Gotler

    2009-01-01

    The Family Health Strategy requires a redefinition of the health care model, characterized by interdisciplinary team work. This study is aimed at knowiong the work processes in a Family Health Team. The research was qualitative, and 10 team members were interviewed. Results demonstrated that the nurse performs a variety of functions that could be shared with other people; this overloads him/her and makes inherent job task execution difficult. Task planning and performing are usually done in teams, but some professionals get more involved in these activities. It was concluded that there is a need for the team to reflect upon work process as well as reassess task assignment, so that each individual is able to perform the work and contribute for an integrated work.

  18. One-Year Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    home and at work, resulting in social stability. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Compressed Work Week Lifestyle .44 Attitude Survey Air Force Base...for 1-year. Few published studies have investigated the impact of CWS on the lifestyle or quality of life of the employee, particularly over extended...grouped into lifestyle subcategories (family, community, health, leisure, social, cultural, sleep, and finances) or job related subcategories

  19. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  20. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  1. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

  2. Reducing the Size of the Federal Civilian Work Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    33 Hiring Freezes 39 Early Retirement 48 vi REDUCING THE SIZE OF THE FEDERAL CIVILIAN WORK FORCE December 1993 FIVE USE OF SEPARATION INCENTIVES AT...Cash Costs and Savings of Early Retirement 22 11. Near-Term Costs and Savings of Offering Employees Cash Incentives to Separate 24 viii REDUCING THE...Changes in U.S. Postal Service Employment, 1992-1993 55 22. Effect of Incentives on Regular and Early Retirement at the U.S. Postal Service and

  3. Work-energy theorem and friction forces: two experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Grandinetti, M.; Sapia, P.

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have showed the subsistence, even in students enrolled in scientific degree courses, of spontaneous ideas regarding the motion of bodies that conflict with Newton’s laws. One of the causes is related to the intuitive preconceptions that students have about the role of friction as a force. In fact, in real world novices do not recognise friction as a force, and for this reason they may believe that a motion with a constant speed needs as a necessary condition the presence of a constant force in the same direction of the motion. In order to face these ‘intuitive ways of reasoning’, in this paper we propose two sequential experiments that can allow undergraduate students to clarify the role of friction forces through the use of the work-energy theorem. This is a necessary first step on the way to a deeper understanding of Newton’s second law. We have planned our experiments in order to strongly reduce quantitative difficult calculations and to facilitate qualitative comprehension of observed phenomena. Moreover, the proposed activities represent two examples of the recurring methodology used in experimental practices, since they offer the possibility to measure very small physical quantities in an indirect way with a higher accuracy than the direct measurements of the same quantities.

  4. When the work force shrinks, so does safety

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    The blues that accompany an organizational reduction in force can lead to safety hazards. Last May, two much-read association publications ran feature stories on the suffering that can result from downsizing. {open_quotes}Casualties of downsizing{close_quotes} were lamented in Robert W. Lucky`s IEEE Spectrum column. {open_quotes}Downsizing: a new form of abandonment{close_quotes} moaned the cover of the APA Monitor, the American Psychological Association`s monthly. For a number of reasons, when employees suffer, the workplace becomes less safe. Safety means more than not stepping into maintenance holes. Persons who work for a government or nonprofit entity are twice as likely to be threatened on the job as are employees of a for-profit business. Government workers constituted 18 percent of the work force but they accounted for 30 percent of homicide victims. Non-fatal assaults in the workplace are most commonly perpetrated by a fellow employee, not a stranger or someone known from outside work. There are other morale-related challenges to safety besides a disgruntled, imbalanced employee bringing a semiautomatic weapon to work. Some of these safety issues are discussed.

  5. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  6. Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lixin; Kalb, Guyonne

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15-49, males aged 50-64, females aged 15-49 and females aged 50-60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups.

  7. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves.

  8. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  9. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor.

  10. [Work and health: Two social rights].

    PubMed

    García Blanco, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Work and health are two concepts whose formulation varies from one society to another depending on unique and temporal appreciation. Updating them to our time involves the challenge to understand their construction as part of consuming organized societies. Political and social processes during the last decades must be analyzed, and so must be the worker subject as a psychophysics unit. Health, as well, ought to be considered a universal right, from where to focus and understand pathological social behaviors impacting the workplace. The subject's social dimension and the health-work relationship are dynamic. And keeping this dynamic involves to continuously review principles, norms and regulations which need to fit reality, and specific communication and language modes, as well as working conditions and environmental aspects. These processes must be considered as taking part in Argentina's social imaginary worth highlighting: a shift in how the State's role is considered, the public policy's sense, the importance of working in a complementary and interdisciplinary way, redesigning the concept of health through the broadening of those under the State's care and considering and building the workplace as a healthy space.

  11. Health surveillance mechanisms used by armed forces worldwide.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Alexander C; Wickramatillake, Hemantha; Rushton, Lesley

    2004-12-01

    Health surveillance is an essential tool in monitoring health in an armed force and in helping to protect the health of service personnel. This study used a literature search and direct contacts with individual countries to identify and evaluate health surveillance mechanisms used by armed forces worldwide. The study identified several health surveillance mechanisms ranging from periodic health assessments of personnel to complex databases of medical data linked to demographic and other supporting data. Essential elements of an effective health surveillance system are outlined, including the requirement that systems are adequately supported and allow the routine monitoring of health at the population level consistently throughout an armed force and consistently during times of peace and during operations. Areas for further research and development include linking of data on hazardous exposures, jobs and the locations of personnel with medical data, and the follow-up of personnel beyond their military service.

  12. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Raymo, James M.; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force. PMID:23082037

  13. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage.

  14. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model.

  15. Health Effects of Vanpooling to Work.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Berman, Barbara A; Stone, Dawn S

    2015-12-01

    Shared commutes to work, such as vanpooling, benefit the environment and provide economic gain for riders in terms of fuel costs, parking fees, and personal vehicle wear and tear. Although ride sharing is commonly believed to promote health through stress reduction, published evidence on this topic is limited, and findings vary. This study explored the perceived health and well-being of vanpoolers using a qualitative, descriptive design. Five focus groups of vanpoolers and two individual interviews with drivers were conducted (N=40 participants). Stress, change in sleep patterns, and interpersonal relationships emerged as major themes. Employee insights about the impact of vanpooling on work productivity and how employer commitment to the vanpool program influences the vanpool experience also were important findings.

  16. Skip policy: road to Force Health Protection 2010.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Pat; Nolan, David L

    2003-09-01

    The 2010 Force Health Protection Capstone concept envisions a single level of theater hospitalization and a greater reliance on the strategic movement of casualties from the theater. A significant Force Health Protection implication is 100% of the combat zone patients leaving theater will not have a second stay at an echelon/level IV hospital. In 2000, the Army began moving toward the Force Health Protection concept by using a skip policy for determining 2007 medical force structure requirements. Implementing the skip policy avoids (eliminates) the second echelon/level IV hospital length of stay for a percentage of combat zone patients leaving theater. The Army's decision to implement a skip policy exposed the complexities associated with determining deployable medical force structure requirements and the inherent inter-relatedness of the services medical mission.

  17. Working conditions and health in hairdressing salons.

    PubMed

    Leino, T; Kähkönen, E; Saarinen, L; Henriks-Eckerman, M L; Paakkulainen, H

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the working conditions in hairdressing salons and the influence of work factors on the workers' health. Twenty randomly sampled hairdressing salons in the Helsinki, Finland, metropolitan area were selected for the study. The study was performed during winter 1994-1995; it included a survey of the hairdressing chemicals in use, the measurement of physical and chemical working conditions, and a self-administered questionnaire of the work environment and health of the workers. The air temperature varied between 16-25 degrees C, air velocity 0.02-0.3 m/s, and relative humidity, 18-42 percent. The total dust concentration varied between 66-133 micrograms/m3. The concentration of volatile organic compounds was 84-465 micrograms/m3 and the peaks rose to 25-45 mg/m3. The highest concentration of ammonia detected was 3.5 mg/m3. The long-term concentrations of thioglycolates and persulfates were at their lowest below the detection limit, and at their highest 1.8 micrograms/m3 for thioglycolates and 4.7 micrograms/m3 for persulfates, respectively, and the peaks of persulfates, 30 micrograms/m3. Hairdressing chemicals, awkward work postures, and repetitive movements were the most frequent causes of discomfort and for some had caused a work-related disease. Good general ventilation decreased the health complaints caused by hairdressing chemicals, but caused discomfort as a result of drafts. On average, the physical and chemical working conditions in the hairdressing salons were satisfactory compared with the Finnish criterion for indoor climate. However, the frequent high peak concentrations of chemicals during dyeing, bleaching, permanenting, and aerosol spraying still pose a significant health problem. Although effective general ventilation alleviated the effects of the air pollutants, it could not completely solve the problem. Therefore, local exhaust ventilation is recommended at the mixing places for hairdressing chemicals and

  18. Funding women's health work -- no easy answers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a community's solution to improving women's health in Guatemala. Indigenous women from the highland community of Cajola formed the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Mujer Mam (APBMM). The APBMM identified a need for women health promoters and good, low-cost medicines. The Instituto de Educacion Integral para la Salud y el Desarrollo (IDEI) helped train 16 women as health communicators or promoters in 1996. The health communicators learned about setting up community medicine distribution. The mayor bypassed APBMM's efforts to set up medicine distribution and set up a community pharmacy himself. Someone else opened a private pharmacy. The 200-member group was frustrated and redirected their energies to making natural herbal medicines, such as eucalyptus rub. The group set up a community medicine chest in the IDEI medical clinic and sold modern medicine, homemade vapor rubs, and syrups. The group was joined by midwives and other volunteers and began educating mothers about treatment of diarrhea and respiratory diseases. The Drogueria Estatal, which distributes medicines nationally to nongovernmental groups, agreed to sell high quality, low cost medicine to the medicine chest, which was renamed Venta Social de Medicamentos (VSM). The health communicators are working on three potential income generation projects: VSM, the production and sale of traditional medicines and educational materials, and an experimental greenhouse to grow medicinal plants and research other crops that can be grown in the highlands.

  19. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  20. Does Europe need immigrants? Population and work force projections.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D A

    1992-01-01

    European countries defined as all Northern and Western Europe including the former East Germany had a population of 498.4 million in 1990. In 1990 Western Europe had 374.4 million people. The European Community (EC) makes u 92% of the total population. Projections forecast a peak of the EC population (excluding the former East Germany) in 2005 at 334.2 million compared with 327 million in 1989, then declining to 332.5 million in 2010, 329.0 million min 2015 and 324.5 million in 2020. In Europe outside the East, the 20-24 year old work force entrance age group will drop from 29,860,000 in 1990 to 26,400,000 in 1005 and 23,480,000 in 2000: decreasing by 6,380,000 or 21.3%. Fertility rose by 22% in Sweden between 1985 and 1990, the rise of negligible in France and Belgium, but 2% in the UK and Switzerland, 4% in the Netherlands, 13% in Norway, 16% in Denmark, and even 6% in Germany and Luxembourg. The Ec labor force was 145 million in 1990 (excluding East Germany); it is projected to peak at 146.9 million in 2000, decline slowly until 2010 and decline faster up to 2025 with the steepest decline occurring in Germany and Italy. Unemployment rates would change from the 1990 estimate of 15.7 million to 15.5 million in 1995. Net migration into the 12 EC countries was on average -4,800 from 1965 to 1969; 357,000 from 1970 to 1974; 164,400 from 1980 to 1984; and 533,000/year from 1985 to 1989 as a result of the rise of asylum applicants and migration of ethnic Germans into Germany. Increased immigration is not needed to satisfy work force shortages for the next 10-20 years in Western Europe or in the EC. Other issues addressed are the economic activity forecast, the hidden labor supply, skill shortages, Eastern Europe, and teenage shortage. High-level manpower movements, immigration of asylum seekers, and illegal immigration will continue, but in the long run the conditions of employment and welfare support have to be improved for the women of Europe.

  1. Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health.

    PubMed

    Bohle, Philip; Willaby, Harold; Quinlan, Michael; McNamara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent full-time workers, 37 (20.7%) were permanent part-time, and 49 (27.4%) were casual employees. Hypothesised structural relationships between employment status, working hours and work organisation, work-life conflict and health were tested using partial least squares modelling in PLS (Chin, 1998). The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit. It supported important elements of the hypothesised structure, although four of the proposed paths failed to reach significance and the fit was enhanced by adding a path. The final model indicated that casual workers reported more variable working hours which were relatively weakly associated with greater dissatisfaction with hours. The interaction of schedule control and variability of hours also predicted dissatisfaction with hours. Conversely, permanent workers reported greater work intensity, which was associated with both lower work schedule control and greater work-life conflict. Greater work-life conflict was associated with more fatigue and psychological symptoms. Labour market factors and the undesirability of longer hours in a stressful, high-intensity work environment appear to have contributed to the results.

  2. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on…

  3. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  4. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  5. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  6. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  7. 48 CFR 252.223-7004 - Drug-free work force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free work force. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7004 Drug-free work force. As prescribed in 223.570-2, use the following clause: Drug-Free Work Force (SEP 1988) (a) Definitions. (1) Employee in a sensitive position, as used...

  8. Masked Symptoms: Mid-Life Women, Health, and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Zelda

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey (1997) reveal that relatively few mid-life women offer ill health as a reason for leaving their job or downshifting to part-time employment, implying that the role of ill health may be inconsequential in effecting changing patterns in mid-life women's labour force activity. In contrast, interviews with 30…

  9. The mental health of deployed UK maritime forces

    PubMed Central

    Whybrow, Dean; Jones, Norman; Evans, Charlotte; Minshall, Darren; Smith, Darren; Greenberg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish the level of psychological symptoms and the risk factors for possible decreased mental health among deployed UK maritime forces. Methods A survey was completed by deployed Royal Navy (RN) personnel which measured the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential alcohol misuse. Military and operational characteristics were also measured including exposure to potentially traumatic events, problems occurring at home during the deployment, unit cohesion, leadership and morale. Associations between variables of interest were identified using binary logistic regression to generate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a range of potential confounding variables. Results In total, 41.2% (n=572/1387) of respondents reported probable CMD, 7.8% (n=109/1389) probable PTSD and 17.4% (n=242/1387) potentially harmful alcohol use. Lower morale, cohesion, leadership and problems at home were associated with CMD; lower morale, leadership, problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with probable PTSD; working in ships with a smaller crew size was associated with potentially harmful alcohol use. Conclusions CMD and PTSD were more frequently reported in the maritime environment than during recent land-based deployments. Rates of potentially harmful alcohol use have reduced but remain higher than the wider military. Experiencing problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with experiencing poorer mental health; higher morale, cohesion and better leadership with fewer psychological symptoms. PMID:26265671

  10. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  11. Executive Health Care in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Grant. Lincoln was in a mood to celebrate the war’s end. In fact, he remarked to his wife on this day “I have never felt so happy in my life .”1 A...consistent with accepted medical practice. It is about assumptions, perceptions, and clear lack of doctrine as well as programmatic deficiencies...Although there is no happy ending, there is a great deal of experience, evidence, and insight to organize a first-class executive health-care system for the

  12. NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health In Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Gralow, Julie R; Biermann, J Sybil; Farooki, Azeez; Fornier, Monica N; Gagel, Robert F; Kumar, Rashmi; Litsas, Georgia; McKay, Rana; Podoloff, Donald A; Srinivas, Sandy; Van Poznak, Catherine H

    2013-08-01

    Bone health and maintenance of bone integrity are important components of comprehensive cancer care. Many patients with cancer are at risk for therapy-induced bone loss, with resultant osteoporotic fractures, or skeletal metastases, which may result in pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, bone pain, and decline in motility and performance status. Effective screening and timely interventions are essential for reducing bone-related morbidity. Management of long-term bone health requires a broad knowledge base. A multidisciplinary health care team may be needed for optimal assessment and treatment of bone-related issues in patients with cancer. Since publication of the previous NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care in 2009, new data have emerged on bone health and treatment, prompting NCCN to convene this multidisciplinary task force to discuss the progress made in optimizing bone health in patients with cancer. In December 2012, the panel members provided didactic presentations on various topics, integrating expert judgment with a review of the key literature. This report summarizes issues surrounding bone health in cancer care presented and discussed during this NCCN Bone Health in Cancer Care Task Force meeting.

  13. Workplace-based health and wellness programs: the intersection of aging, work, and health.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Workplace-based health and wellness programs (HWPs) may be an obvious yet under-utilized strategy for promoting positive health-related behaviors among older workers and for increasing their ability to continue to work. Given the unprecedented number of older adults who extend their labor force attachment beyond traditional retirement ages, a new vision of older adults' economic security and overall quality-of-life should take into account the intersections of aging, work, and health. The purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the workplace as an increasingly important setting that can expand the reach and effectiveness of health promotion efforts; (b) examine current knowledge of barriers and facilitators that can affect older workers' participation in workplace-based HWPs; and (c) suggest new incentive structures that may increase older workers' engagement in these programs. We develop a rationale for our proposition that sustained participation in HWPs may improve the health status of older workers and reduce health care costs. It is our conclusion that there is significant potential for workplace-based HWPs to support older adults who want to or need to work.

  14. American Indians, Blacks, & Asians in Oregon's Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helvoigt, Ted L.

    Labor force issues do not take place in a vacuum. Most individuals base labor force decisions on a multitude of cultural and social factors, such as the environment in which they were reared, family obligations and responsibilities, divorce or the death of a spouse, or because of governmental policies. Sections in this document on demographics,…

  15. Farm elders define health as the ability to work.

    PubMed

    Reed, Deborah B; Rayens, Mary Kay; Conley, Christina K; Westneat, Susan; Adkins, Sarah M

    2012-08-01

    Thirty percent of America's 2.2 million farms are operated by individuals older than 65 years. This study examined how older farmers define health and determined whether demographic characteristics, farm work, and physical and mental health status predict health definition. Data were collected via telephone and mailed surveys during the baseline wave of data collection in a longitudinal study of family farmers residing in two southern states (n=1,288). Nearly 42% defined health as the "ability to work" compared to a physical health-related definition. Predictors of defining health as the ability to work included being White, performing more farm tasks in the past week, taking prescription medications daily, and having minimal health-related limitations to farm work. Health behaviors are centered on the individual's perception of health. Understanding the defining attributes of health can support better approaches to health care and health promotion, particularly among rural subcultures such as farmers, whose identity is rooted in their work.

  16. Asbestos health problems force insulation removal

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.

    1982-08-09

    Employee health concerns linked to asbestos insulation at industrial facilities will require costly containment or removal. Although the 15,000 pending lawsuits target 250 manufacturers and vendors, building owners and managers foresee possible liability in the future because of prior knowledge that the material may cause inflammation or cancer of the lungs after inhalation over a period of time. At least five of the nine major manufacturers no longer make asbestos insulation. Cost estimates for abatement range from $2.00 to $20 per square foot for treating and encapsulating the material or disposing of its. No decision has been made on who is financially responsible for the costs. A directory lists 81 suppliers of industrial insulation. (DCK)

  17. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Muscle/Bone Disorders Health Care Heart Disease Manufacturing Personal Protective Equipment Reproductive Health Respiratory Diseases Sales Serious ... Cancer Ergonomics and Muscle/Bone Disorders Heart Disease Personal Protective Equipment Reproductive Health Respiratory Diseases Serious Injury ...

  18. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  19. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... force account. 151.51 Section 151.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the...

  20. A Health Education Program That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albino, Joseph; Davis, Roy

    1975-01-01

    Recounts a successful implementation of the School Health Curriculum Project in an elementary school. Development of the program has been supported by the federal Bureau of Health Education, Center for Disease Control, and the National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health. (Author/IRT)

  1. Evaluation of knee joint forces during kneeling work with different kneepads.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Jampala, Sree; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine knee joint forces resulting from kneeling work with and without kneepads to quantify how different kneepads redistribute force. Eleven healthy males simulated a tile setting task to different locations during six kneepad states (five different kneepad types and without kneepad). Peak and average forces on the anatomical landmarks of both knees were obtained by custom force sensors. The results revealed that kneepad design can significantly modify the forces on the knee joint through redistribution. The Professional Gel design was preferred among the five tested kneepads which was confirmed with both force measurements and participants' responses. The extreme reaching locations induced significantly higher joint forces on left knee or right knee depending on task. The conclusion of this study is that a properly selected kneepad for specific tasks and a more neutral working posture can modify the force distribution on the knees and likely decrease the risk of knee disorders from kneeling work.

  2. Developing a Culturally Competent Work Force: An Opportunity for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Elaine; Bond, Mary Lou; Mancini, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    To meet the health-care needs of a growing Hispanic population in Dallas, a nursing school used two strategies: short-term cultural immersion (language and cultural experiences in Mexico) and a nurse exchange program with a Mexican hospital. The importance of cultural-competence training for health-care personnel was affirmed. (SK)

  3. Educating the Military Work Force: A Worldwide Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Donald W.; Saltman, Lenore E.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Defense, in cooperation with a number of colleges and universities, offers a variety of higher education opportunities to military personnel: the Community College of the Air Force, the Army and Navy's Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges, and Defense Activity for Nontraditional Education Support (DANTES). (SK)

  4. Work-Energy Theorem and Friction Forces: Two Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Grandinetti, M.; Sapia, P.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have showed the subsistence, even in students enrolled in scientific degree courses, of spontaneous ideas regarding the motion of bodies that conflict with Newton's laws. One of the causes is related to the intuitive preconceptions that students have about the role of friction as a force. In fact, in real world novices do not…

  5. Reduction-in-Force: Working Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    The reduction-in-force (RIF) policies presented here are intended to represent the variety of approaches currently being used throughout the nation. They were obtained through inquiries to personnel in more than 100 U.S. school districts. They are presented to give principals and assistant principals information to allow them to play an…

  6. The Migrant Farm Work Force: Differences in Attachment to Farmwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, Leslie A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates extent of diversity and segmentation within United States migrant farm labor force by examining differences in migrants' attachment to farmwork. Finds three groups of migrants with differing levels of dependence on agriculture differentiated by demographic (age, minority status, region) and employment (earnings) variables. (NEC)

  7. Effects of temperature and force requirements on muscle work and power output.

    PubMed

    Olberding, Jeffrey P; Deban, Stephen M

    2017-03-17

    Performance of muscle-powered movements depends on temperature through its effects on muscle contractile properties. In vitro stimulation of Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) plantaris muscles reveals that interactions between force and temperature affect the mechanical work of muscle. At low temperatures (9 - 17°C), muscle work depends on temperature when shortening at any force, and temperature effects are greater at higher forces. At warmer temperatures (13 - 21°C), muscle work depends on temperature when shortening with intermediate and high forces (≥ 30% P0). Shortening velocity is most strongly affected by temperature at low temperature intervals and high forces. Power is also most strongly affected at low temperature intervals but this effect is minimized at intermediate forces. Effects of temperature on muscle force explain these interactions; force production decreases at lower temperatures, increasing the challenge of moving a constant force relative to the muscle's capacity. These results suggest that animal performance that requires muscles to do work with low forces relative to a muscle's maximum force production will be robust to temperature changes, and this effect should be true whether muscle acts directly or through elastic-recoil mechanisms and whether force is prescribed (i.e. internal) or variable (i.e. external). Conversely, performance requiring muscles to shorten with relatively large forces is expected to be more sensitive to temperature changes.

  8. Work and Health among Latina Mothers in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Methods 220 Latino women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 - July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Results Three-fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, based on the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Conclusions Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers. PMID:25742536

  9. Massachusetts health care reform: is it working?

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Joshua; Irving, Julian; Deslich, Stacie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Before 2006, Massachusetts had more than 500 000 residents who lacked health insurance. Governor Mitt Romney enacted landmark legislation requiring all residents to obtain health insurance. Also, the legislation established a health insurance exchange for the purpose of broadening the choices of insurance plans made available to individuals in the state. The purpose of this research was to assess the Massachusetts health care reform in terms of access, cost, and sustainability. The methodology used was a literature review from 2006 to 2013; a total of 43 references were used. Health reform resulted in additional overall state spending of $2.42 billion on Medicaid for Massachusetts. Since the 2006 reform, 401 000 additional residents have obtained insurance. The number of Massachusetts residents who had access to health care increased substantially after the health care reform was enacted, to 98.1% of residents. The Massachusetts health care reform has not saved money for the state; its funding has been covered by Federal spending. However, reform has been sustained over time because of the high percentage of state residents who have supported the state mandate to obtain health care coverage.

  10. Poverty and Health: Working with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Clare

    This book is concerned with the impact of poverty on health, focusing on families with young children in the United Kingdom. It draws together information from a wide range of disciplines to provide workers in the health and welfare fields with a better understanding of the complex interconnections between living conditions, lifestyles, and health…

  11. Russia's College Students: Work and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, L. Iu.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of secondary employment on the sense of well-being of students in full-time education shows that the degree of fatigue and emotional stress on the job is affected by gender, the students' assessment of their own health, and their disposition to take care of their health.

  12. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  13. Blueprint for Business. Reaching a New Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Lyn A.; Erden, James Van; Mower, Eleanor; Patel, Apurva; Mitchell, Steve

    This guide is designed to help U.S. businesses successfully hire and retain individuals moving from welfare to work. Section 1 discusses the different circumstances created by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and how those changes affect business. Section 2 reviews bottom-line benefits realized by…

  14. Enhancing women's health: A call for social work research.

    PubMed

    Bird, Melissa; Wright, Rachel L; Frost, Caren J

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a critical synthesis of the social work empirical literature on women's health. In light of recent policy changes that directly affect women's health and social work, the authors conducted a literature review of recent publications (2010-2015) regarding social work and women's health nationally. Despite frequent accounts cited in the literature, there has been no comprehensive review of issues involving women's health and social work in the United States. The purpose of this review is to examine the current social work literature addressing women's health at the national (U.S.) level. This research presents a summary description of the status of the social work literature dealing with women's health, specifically 51 articles published between 2010 and 2015. Our search highlights the need for social work research to fill gaps and more fully address the needs of women across the lifespan.

  15. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  16. Work-Family Conflict, Sleep, and Mental Health of Nursing Assistants Working in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Nannini, Angela

    2016-10-28

    Work-family conflict is challenging for workers and may lead to depression, anxiety, and overall poor health. Sleep plays an important role in the maintenance of mental health; however, the role of sleep in the association between work-family conflict and mental health is not well-studied. Questionnaires were collected from 650 nursing assistants in 15 nursing homes. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased work-family conflict was associated with lower mental health scores (β = -2.56, p < .01). More work-family conflict was correlated with more job demands, less job control, less social support, and longer work hours. Poor sleep quality, but not short sleep duration, mediated the association between work-family conflict and mental health. Workplace interventions to improve nursing assistants' mental health should increase their control over work schedules and responsibilities, provide support to meet their work and family needs, and address healthy sleep practices.

  17. Forced migration and child health and mortality in Angola.

    PubMed

    Avogo, Winfred Aweyire; Agadjanian, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally, no differences across the three groups in child morbidity and related health care seeking behavior in the two weeks preceding the survey are found. We interpret these results within the context of the literature on short- and long-term effects of forced migration on child health.

  18. Forced movements of population and health hazards in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Prothero, R M

    1994-08-01

    Significant interactions between disease and population mobility have been demonstrated in tropical Africa in recent decades. Problems arising are greater than in the past. During the last two decades forced movements have become important. These are associated with refugees, coerced resettlement and victims of environmental catastrophe. The health hazards associated with them are reviewed from medical and social science literature for North East Africa (refugees and resettlement) and for West Africa (pastoralists affected by drought). Political, social and economic settings are of importance but tend to receive only limited attention. There is need for more social science input in studying and ameliorating problems arising from health hazards associated with and exacerbated by forced movements of population.

  19. Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women.

  20. Effects of Shift Work on Air Force Security Police Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Vieux . and P. Andlauer (New York: Pergamon Press. 1980), p. 220. p. J. Taylor, "Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other...Monk, and Mary C. Lobban, "Short and Long-Term Adjustment of Circadian Rhythms in ’Permanent’ Night Nurses," Ergonomics, 21, No. 10 (1978), pp. 785-797...Shift Work: Biological and Social Aspects, eds. A. Reinberg, N. Vieux , and P. Andlauer (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), p. 171. 62 Andris Freivalds

  1. Task Force on the Future of Military Health Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    management and financing . In August 2007, four members of the Task Force travelled to Qatar, Iraq, and Germany to meet with leadership at Military Treatment...process; – create a system of checks and balances by separating the acquisition functions from the requirements/operations and the budget/ finance ...the MHS and other experts in health care manage- ment and financing . (See Appendix D for meeting dates, locations, speakers, and participating

  2. [The Italian armed forces health service during the Great War].

    PubMed

    De Caro, Walter; Marucci, Anna Rita; Sansoni, Julita

    2014-06-01

    The Great War had a huge impact on Italian society. The organisation of the armed forces health service faced extreme difficulties due to the extensive loss of life of an almost exclusively terrestrial war. In this context, the role of the medical staff and nursing staff was essential, as the example of the volunteer Red Cross nurses testifies. However, this conflict revealed the need to improve the training of the nursing staff, as was the case in Anglo-Saxon countries.

  3. The Prediction of the Work of Friction Force on the Arbitrary Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matehkolaee, Mehdi Jafari; Majidian, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have calculated the work of friction force on the arbitrary path. In our method didn't use from energy conservative conceptions any way. The distinction of this procedure is that at least do decrease measurement on the path once. Thus we can forecast the amount of work of friction force without information about speed of…

  4. The Health Assessment Longitudinal File imperative: foundation for improving the health of the force.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Judith A; Donahue, Donald A; Harris, Judith S

    2003-08-01

    A smaller active duty force and an increased operational tempo have made the Reserve components (RC) essential elements in the accomplishment of the mission of the U.S. Army. One critical factor in meeting mission is maintaining the optimal health of each soldier. Baseline health data about the RC is currently not being collected, even though increasing numbers of reserve soldiers are being activated. The Annual Health Certification and Survey is being developed as a way to meet the RCs' statutory requirement for annual certification of health while at the same time generating and tracking baseline data on each reservist in a longitudinal health file, the Health Assessment Longitudinal File. This article discusses the Annual Health Certification Questionnaire/Health Assessment Longitudinal File, which will greatly enhance the Army's ability to accurately certify the health status of the RC and track health in relation to training, mission activities, and deployment.

  5. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  6. The aging work force--helping employees navigate midlife.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Diane

    2007-04-01

    The baby-boom generation is aging and workplace demographics are changing. Employees in this age group are now middle-aged. Occupational health nurses are in a unique position to guide these individuals through decisions that can affect the years ahead. Individuals in midlife may experience both physical and psychological changes, including changing physical appearance, decreased stamina, loss of family or friends, and altered vision. In the workplace, annual assessments can include evaluations to address normal changes, personal expectations, and needed support, counseling, or referrals. Middle-aged men and women are at a predictable turning point in life that offers an opportunity for growth. Education in the workplace can assist these individuals as they adjust to changes in relationships, make health care decisions, and plan for retirement.

  7. Situational analysis of nursing education and work force in India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2013-01-01

    Nursing care has been mentioned in the Indian culture from the times of the Vedas. However, according to World Health Organization, the nursing workforce in India is still insufficient to meet the needs of the country. The purpose of this article is to examine the status of nursing education and the nursing workforce in India and the challenges faced by the profession. Data supporting the statements made in the article were obtained from the Nursing Council of India, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the Government of India Web sites, printed journals and communication with experts in the field. In India, there is a need to train approximately a million nurses to meet the current shortfall of health workers in the country. The nursing "brain drain" suggests that it may be one of the factors responsible for this shortfall. Further, nursing education faces challenges, such as streamlining nursing education, enriching the curriculum, strengthening faculty development and increasing the use of innovative teaching and learning techniques.

  8. Thailand’s Work and Health Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health. PMID:22318916

  9. Work ability among nursing personnel in public hospitals and health centers in Campinas--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Inês; Chillida, Manuela de Santana Pi; Moreno, Luciana Contrera

    2012-01-01

    Nursing personnel is essential in hospital, health centers and enterprises and is the large work force in health system. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large city in two public hospitals and five health centre with the objective of to evaluate the work ability and health aspects of nursing staff. The sample was composed by 570 workers. The Work Ability Index - WAI and a questionnaire with socio-demographic, health and life style data was applied. The majority of workers was women (83%), married (50.4%), and was working in night shift work (65.6%); 61.4% was auxiliary nursing, 22.3% was registered nurses (RN). The average age was 38.9 years (SD 7.8) and the Body Mass Index mean was 25.8 (SD 5.3). Only 17.2% referred to practice at least 150 minutes of physical exercise five times per week or more. 26.8% had a second job. The work ability mean was 39.3 (SD 5.3) points. Age had a negative correlation with WAI (p=0.0052). Public hospital and health centre workers had poor work ability score when compared with workers from another branches. Public policies related to workplace health promotion need to be implemented in public hospital and health centre to improve the work ability.

  10. Moving toward integrated health: an opportunity for social work.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Victoria; Videka, Lynn; Thorning, Helle; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and ongoing health care reform efforts, this is a critical time for the social work profession. The approaches and values embedded in health care reform are congruent with social work. One strategy is to improve care for people with co-morbid and chronic illnesses by integrating primary care and behavioral health services. This paper defines integrated health and how the PPACA promotes integrated health care through system redesign and payment reform. We consider how social workers can prepare for health care reform and discuss the implications of these changes for the future of the profession.

  11. Armed Forces VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Walter H.; Zerface, W. A., Ed.

    Armed Services VIEW (Vital Information for Education and Work) is described as a cooperative program with the Department of Defense which (1) introduces career opportunities and training available through volunteer service enlistment, (2) will be provided to senior high schools at no cost, and (3) presents materials in both printed and microfilm…

  12. Guidelines for making health education work.

    PubMed Central

    Grover, P L; Miller, J

    1976-01-01

    The results of a number of studies which have indicated the limited effectiveness of health education efforts using the mass media are reviewed. The cause of these failures, according to the authors was the inability to apply a number of principles of effective design to the instructional materials used in the mass media. The basic slide show produced by the neighborhood health center for its own population may be more effective than a nationally televised spot announcement because locally prepared material can be sharply focused on the learner's characteristics and the specifically desired outcome behavior. The authors list 10 guidelines for the construction of effective instructional materials: define outcome measures, analyze relevant characteristics of the learner, gain and maintain the learner's attention, establish the learner's vulnerability, demonstrate the needs for action, establish the learner as an agent, establish the learner's effectiveness, provide for practice, repeat key facts, and generalize to similar situations. The principles of social reinforcement that must accompany health education instruction if behavior is to be modified are outlined. How environmental factors such as time, distance, expense, and the organization of health services hamper desired behavior outcomes is also discussed. PMID:58424

  13. Health Services Mobility Study, Plan of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York Research Foundation, NY.

    To determine ways and means of facilitating horizontal and vertical mobility within New York City's Health Services Administration and selected private hospitals, a systems approach was adopted. Methodology for manpower development and training in an organizational setting related to the educational system and other accrediting institutions will…

  14. Forced migration and child health and mortality in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally, no differences across the three groups in child morbidity and related healthcare seeking behavior in the two weeks preceding the survey are found. We interpret these results within the context of the literature on short- and long-term effects of forced migration on child health. PMID:19879027

  15. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO.

    PubMed

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2015-11-02

    We analyze factors determining women's decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates.

  16. WORKING AND CARING: THE SIMULTANEOUS DECISION OF LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND INFORMAL ELDERLY AND CHILD SUPPORT ACT IVITIES IN MEXICO*

    PubMed Central

    van Gameren, Edwin; Velandia Naranjo, Durfari

    2016-01-01

    We analyze factors determining women’s decisions to participate in the labor market and provide elderly care and nonfinancial support to their (grand)children. We use data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a survey of people aged 50 and over, applying a three-equation, reduced-form SUR model. Results suggest that care needs are the driving force behind caregiving activities. Traditional roles also appear to be relevant in the labor force participation decision: women with a closer labor market connection when they were young are more likely to work. Simulations of demographic changes illustrate potential effects for future caregiving and participation rates. PMID:26924883

  17. Accountable Care Organizations in California: Market Forces at Work?

    PubMed

    Whaley, Christopher; Frech, H E; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs), one of the most recent and promising health care delivery innovations, encourage care coordination among providers. While ACOs hold promise for decreasing costs by reducing unnecessary procedures, improving resource use as a result of economies of scale and scope, ACOs also raise concerns about provider market power. This study examines the market-level competition factors that are associated with ACO participation and the number of ACOs. Using data from California, we find that higher levels of preexisting managed care leads to higher ACO entry and enrollment growth, while hospital concentration leads to fewer ACOs and lower enrollment. We find interesting results for physician market power - markets with concentrated physician markets have a smaller share of individuals in commercial ACOs but a larger number of commercial ACO organizations. This finding implies smaller ACOs in these markets.

  18. Work-school conflict and health outcomes: beneficial resources for working college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngah; Sprung, Justin M

    2013-10-01

    This study extends prior college student employment research by examining health as an outcome variable. Using 2-wave data from a sample of 216 student workers, this study examined work-school conflict as a predictor of psychological and physical health among working college students. Additionally, 3 resource-providing variables--work-school facilitation, supervisor work-school support, and personal fulfillment at work--were tested for buffering effects in the relation between work-school conflict and health. Results demonstrated that work-school conflict was a significant predictor of psychological health but not physical health. All 3 resource-providing variables ameliorated the negative relation between work-school conflict and psychological health, whereas only personal fulfillment weakened the positive relation between work-school conflict and physical symptoms. These findings suggest the benefits of work-school facilitation, supervisor work-school support, and personal fulfillment in minimizing the detrimental effects of work-school conflict on health outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers, educational institutions, and organizations are discussed.

  19. Reconciling Air Force Physicians’ Peacetime and Wartime Capabilities, Demonstration of a Work Force Design Methodology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    ability to perform other more general tasks not in the tni-service list. The peacetime medical specialists in internal medicine and pediatrics ...Specialist 9416B Colon & Rectal Surgery 9356 Aerospace Medical Physician 9416C Cardiac Surgery 9356A Aerospace Medical Specialist 9416D Pediatric Surgery 9356B...Solu10) This report documents a project to investigate alternative ways of bridging important differences between the Air Force Medical Service’s

  20. A Study of the Air Force Physical Fitness and Health Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    the empIov r (A I Force). A t t i tud e s This research deals with the attitudes people hold about physical fitness and health. The people in the...Loren Falkenberg , Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Management in Organization and Human Resrurces, University of Calgary, found in the review...of previous studies that participants thought they performed better it work after an employee fitness program. Since the dati w*, r - subjective

  1. The Implicit Contract: Implications for Health Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations…

  2. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels.

  3. Health and safety at work: a guide for district nurses.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2010-02-01

    Sickness absence across the NHS costs a billion pounds a year with accidents at work accounting for a significant proportion of that absence. Over half the major injuries in the health service are caused by avoidable slips and falls. Under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 the NHS as an employer and district nurses as employees have a duty to manage health and safety effectively and to ensure that others are not put at risk by work-related activities. Breaching a requirement of health and safety law is a criminal offence so it is essential that district nurses are able to fulfil their duty and so avoid prosecution.

  4. Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature.

    PubMed

    Barnay, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.

  5. Shift work and employee fatigue: implications for occupational health nursing.

    PubMed

    Yumang-Ross, Doreen J; Burns, Candace

    2014-06-01

    Long work hours and irregular shifts are part of the nation's 24-hour society and contribute to employee fatigue. Factors affecting employee fatigue are circadian rhythm, sleep quality and quantity, individual health, the environment, and work tasks. Employee fatigue contributes to accidents and injuries, and affects occupational performance, safety, and health. These findings should be used by occupational health nurses to address fatigue management and develop comprehensive fatigue management programs.

  6. [Mental health and women's work: images and representations of nurses].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Albergaria, Aurenice Karine; da Conceição, Flávia Matos

    2002-01-01

    This investigation advances on the perspective of the construction of knowledge on the relation between mental health and nursing work. It is a descriptive study based on a qualitative approach and on the Social Representations Theory as well as studies on Psychopathology and Work Psychodynamics. The analysis indicated that nurses representations on the relation between mental health and nursing work are influenced by the individual and collective-organizational levels, showing these professionals as a product and producers of their personal history and of the mental health regarding the work environment, understanding them as a manifestation of the social totality.

  7. [Work days lost due to health problems in industry].

    PubMed

    Yano, Sylvia Regina Trindade; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work days lost due to health problems and associated factors among industrial workers. The study population was a simple random cluster sample of 3,403 workers from 16 to 65 years of age in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected with individual home interviews. Among industrial workers, one-year prevalence of work days lost to health problems was 12.5%, of which 5.5% were directly work-related and 4.1% aggravated by work. There were no statistically significant differences when compared to other worker categories. Self-perceived workplace hazards, history of work-related injury, and poor self-rated health were associated with work days lost due to work-related injuries/diseases. The findings showed that work days lost are common among both industrial and non-industrial workers, thereby affecting productivity and requiring prevention programs.

  8. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  9. Meaning and action in employed mothers' health work.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this critical feminist study was to examine employed mothers' meanings of family and personal health as they frame the context of daily experience in caring for their families' and their own health. Twenty mothers employed in support staff positions with a large institution in Western Canada participated in repeat interviews over 2 years. Women considered individual family members and the family group as they emphasized everyday function and satisfaction, and the presence or absence of various attributes of health as a multifaceted and dynamic experience. Women's health work included keeping track, constructing routines, facing challenges, setting priorities, being there for each other, finding joy and fulfillment, and fostering personal development. A preliminary typology of four orientations to family health work is suggested. Common themes between women's and family health and congruence between women's health meanings and actions provide guidance to nurses in family health promotion practice.

  10. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  11. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  12. [Immigration and health: social inequalities in health disparities in the health system, in welfare and work].

    PubMed

    Pullini, A

    2011-01-01

    Within the analysis of the socio-economic context and the data from hospital discharges, the themes of social inequalities, health disparities, determinants of health care are discussed. Regular immigrants versus irregular, wealthy people versus those in poverty, they have access to and receive different health treatments, besides presenting risk conditions significantly different in relation to their social situation. Through the analysis of hospital discharge records as well as data from injuries at work, besides underestimations in foreign people and the greater risk of injuries for immigrants, it is evident how the aspects of inequalities connected to socioeconomic determinants and the different access to health services are pivotal for our health and welfare and that a profound change is required to tackle them properly, focusing on intervention on health care system, according to models which take into account not only evidence based medicine, but also narrative medicine, not only health protection, but also health promotion, so that equity and quality of health care is warranted for everyone.

  13. Conceptualising body work in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Wolkowitz, Carol; Cohen, Rachel Lara; Nettleton, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Body work is a central activity in the practice of many workers in the field of health and social care. This article provides an introduction to the concept of body work--paid work on the bodies of others--and demonstrates its importance for understanding the activities of health and social care workers. Providing an overview of existing research on body work, it shows the manifold ways in which this can inform the sociology of health and illness--whether through a micro-social focus on the inter-corporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through elucidating our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and the increasingly global movements of bodies, workers and those worked-upon. The article shows how understanding work undertaken on the bodies of others as 'body work' provides a mechanism for relating work in the sphere of health and social care to that in other sectors, opening up new avenues for research.

  14. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health.

  15. Effect of a contusion injury on muscular force, power, work, and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Elmer, S; McDaniel, J; Mattson, J; Martin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to compare alterations in muscular force, power, work, and fatigue following a contusion injury. We hypothesized that power and work would be more greatly reduced than isometric force due to several mechanisms that would alter the force-velocity relationship and impair activation/relaxation kinetics specific to dynamic muscle contractions. Contusion injury was administered to the gastrocnemius muscle of adult rats using the drop-mass technique. Isometric force, power during shortening (10, 25, and 40 mm/s), work produced during cyclic contractions (2 and 4 Hz), and fatigue during 60 work loops, were normalized to dry muscle mass and analyzed in control animals (n=11), as well as 1 h (n=11) and 48 h (n=9) following contusion injury. Passive work increased (30-38%) 48 h after injury compared with control (P<0.01). Isometric force, power, and work were significantly reduced by similar magnitudes 1 h (28-33%) and 48 h (28-38%) after injury compared with control (P<0.01). Fatigue index 1 h post-injury was significantly less than control (75% vs 85%; P=0.02). The observed increases in muscle hysteresis were apparently not large enough to cause greater reductions in power and work than isometric force. We conclude that isometric measures provide adequate quantification of muscular dysfunction following a contusion injury in these animals and may offer sufficient information to determine recovery status in clinical settings as well.

  16. Improving Work Force Management in the Department of State: The Program Planning and Budget Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    budgeting and financial management organization and the some 30 bureaus in the department.’ The first alternative system defined provides for greater...work force requirements func- tion would reside within the current personnel organization (PER). The central resource management function would reside...in the financial management organization (FMP). The bureaus would continue to play the main supporting role in work force and program planning and the

  17. The impact of shift work and organizational work climate on health outcomes in nurses.

    PubMed

    von Treuer, Kathryn; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Little, Glenn

    2014-10-01

    Shift workers have a higher rate of negative health outcomes than day shift workers. Few studies however, have examined the role of difference in workplace environment between shifts itself on such health measures. This study investigated variation in organizational climate across different types of shift work and health outcomes in nurses. Participants (n = 142) were nursing staff from a metropolitan Melbourne hospital. Demographic items elicited the type of shift worked, while the Work Environment Scale and the General Health Questionnaire measured organizational climate and health respectively. Analysis supported the hypotheses that different organizational climates occurred across different shifts, and that different organizational climate factors predicted poor health outcomes. Shift work alone was not found to predict health outcomes. Specifically, permanent night shift workers had significantly lower coworker cohesion scores compared with rotating day and evening shift workers and significantly higher managerial control scores compared with day shift workers. Further, coworker cohesion and involvement were found to be significant predictors of somatic problems. These findings suggest that differences in organizational climate between shifts accounts for the variation in health outcomes associated with shift work. Therefore, increased workplace cohesion and involvement, and decreased work pressure, may mitigate the negative health outcomes of shift workers.

  18. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  19. [Shift Work among Men and Women on the Threshold to Higher Working Age - Working Conditions and Health Status].

    PubMed

    Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered.

  20. Relating work, change in internal energy, and heat radiated for dispersion force situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes how Casimir-like forces can be calculated for quasistatic situations of macroscopic bodies composed of different materials. The framework of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) is used for much of this discussion in an attempt to provide a very clear physical picture when considering quantities like forces, work done, changes in internal energy, and heat flow. By relating these quantities, one can readily understand why the different methods of calculating dispersion forces agree, such as when obtaining forces via changes in electromagnetic zero-point energy versus computing the average of the Maxwell stress tensor. In addition, a number of physical subtleties involving dispersion forces are discussed, that were certainly not recognized in early work on blackbody radiation, and that still may not be fully appreciated. .

  1. [Working in multiprofessional teams: the perspectives of family health residents].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ricardo Corrêa; Varga, Cássia Regina Rodrigues; da Silva, Roseli Ferreira

    2009-10-01

    Brazilian medical residency is increasingly specializing physicians in his practices undervaluing the multiprofessional practices that guide the integrality in health. Aiming at changing this practice, the multiprofessional residency in family health was proposed to prepare professionals searching for a comprehensive health care to the general public. In this context, in 2003, Faculdade de Medicina de Marília started this residency program having as the main idea the multiprofessional work in family health teams. The study shows the perception of family health residents at Faculdade de Medicina de Marília regarding the multiprofessional work developed in the Family Health Program. The method used in this research was the qualitative approach. The collected data had been interpreted through a thematic content analysis, building three empirical categories: Anchors and markers of an interdisciplinary view on team work that permeate the Family Health residency perspective; Conflicts and paradoxes of team work and the maintenance of an assembly line; Dilemmas of the team work facing an hierarchical structure. The data analysis points to an advancement that multiprofessional team work brings to the medical formation, once it allows perspectives that would not be possible without a team.

  2. Bending the curve: force health protection during the insertion phase of the Ebola outbreak response.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S; Beaton, K; Bowley, D; Eardley, W; Hunt, P; Johnson, S; Round, J; Tarmey, N T; Williams, A

    2016-06-01

    After >10 years of enduring operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, Defence Strategic Direction is returning to a contingency posture. As the first post-Afghanistan operation, in September 2014, a UK Joint Inter-Agency Task Force deployed to Sierra Leone in response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa. The aims were expanding treatment capacity, assisting with training and supporting host nation resilience. The insertion phase of this deployment created a unique set of challenges for force health protection. In addition to the considerable risk of tropical disease and trauma, deployed personnel faced the risks of working in an EVD epidemic. This report explores how deployed medical assets overcame the difficulties of mounting a short-notice contingent operation in a region of the world with inherent major climatic and health challenges.

  3. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  4. [Work relations in interdisciplinary teams: contributions towards new forms of work organization in health].

    PubMed

    Matos, Eliane; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; de Sousa, Gastão Wagner

    2010-01-01

    This is a qualitative study developed with the interdisciplinary health care teams of two public hospitals in Brazil. One team gave palliative care to cancer patients and the other gave care to the elderly. The study contributes to thinking about work relationships in the health care sector upon analyzing the contribution of these experiences for the constitution of new forms of health care work organization. The results reveal that the interdisciplinary perspective of performance in health care makes better work relationships possible among professionals and between professionals and patients/family, as well as approximates the professionals to the needs of the patient, beyond contributing to better quality care. We conclude that interdisciplinary practice approximates new forms of work organization and, upon favoring these links, reception, and access, contributes to the greater efficiency of the Brazilian National Health Care System.

  5. Enhancing Interprofessional Education: Integrating Public Health and Social Work Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Teri; Blake, Elizabeth W.; Bailey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    National stakeholders in health system improvement and patient safety including accreditation bodies have requested health professional educational programs to include multiple interprofessional experiences through didactic and experiential opportunities. Clinical and population health faculty at the University of South Carolina redesigned and expanded an introductory interprofessional course to include more than 500 students from public health, social work, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing. Students participated in 3 live class meetings and completed required online coursework to explore concepts related to social determinants of health and health disparities, health system improvement, patient safety, cultural competency, and ethics to address interprofessional education core competencies. Course modifications and expanded student enrollment improved understanding of key health concepts and appreciation of interprofessional collaboration. PMID:25706002

  6. Changes in kinematics, metabolic cost and external work during walking with a forward assistive force.

    PubMed

    Zirker, Christopher A; Bennett, Bradford C; Abel, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject's body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes.

  7. Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Stress Scale, the Jaloweic Coping Scale, the Personal Lifestyle Questionaire , the Perceived Health Status Index and an demographic sheet devised by...AD-A218 164 (j) Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force Women with Dependent Children DTIC BY FEB 22...NO. 11. TiTLE (Include Security Classification) (UNCLASSIFIED) Stress, Coping, Health Practices, and Health Status in Enlisted and Officer Air Force

  8. Changing Work, Changing Health: Can Real Work-Time Flexibility Promote Health Behaviors and Well-Being?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees’ schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees’ health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors. PMID:22144731

  9. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

  10. The implicit contract: implications for health social work.

    PubMed

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2010-05-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations that submission to medical care, particularly high-tech medical care, should ensure a positive outcome--in this case a healthy baby. Analysis of data reveals the presence of an implicit contract that the women hold with the medical system,"Mother Nature," or society. The analysis carries an implication that health social work should help patients develop realistic expectations about health care. The presence of implicit contracts may have further implications for liability and litigation. Social work roles and interventions are addressed.

  11. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  12. Relationships Among Intimate Partner Violence, Work, and Health.

    PubMed

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; MacQuarrie, Barbara J

    2016-01-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, and recent attention has focused on its impact on workers and workplaces. We provide findings from a pan-Canadian online survey on the relationships among IPV, work, and health. In total, 8,429 people completed the survey, 95.5% of them in English and 78.4% female. Reflecting the recruitment strategy, most (95.4%) were currently working, and unionized (81.4%). People with any lifetime IPV experience reported significantly poorer general health, mental health, and quality of life; those with both recent IPV and IPV experience over 12 months ago had the poorest health. Among those who had experienced IPV, about half reported that violence occurred at or near the workplace, and these people generally had poorer health outcomes. Employment status moderated the relationship between IPV exposure and health status, with those who were currently working and had experienced IPV having similar health status to those without IPV experience who were not employed. While there were gender differences in IPV experience, in the impacts of IPV at work, and in health status, gender did not moderate any associations. In this very large data set, we found robust relationships among different kinds of IPV exposure (current, recent, and lifetime), health and quality of life, and employment status, including the potentially protective effect of current employment on health for both women and men. Our findings may have implications for strategies to address IPV in workplaces, and should reinforce emerging evidence that IPV is also an occupational health issue.

  13. What changes in health behaviour might nurses logically expect from their health education work?

    PubMed

    Dines, A

    1994-08-01

    This paper examines nurses' health education work from a philosophical perspective. Two key concepts, choice and autonomy, are explored by analysing examples of the health education work of the practice nurse and the health visitor. As a result, the question, 'what changes in health behaviour might nurses logically expect from their health education work?' is considered. The individualistic assumption within nurses' health education work, that individual patients and clients face certain choices and are able to exert some control over their health status, is reviewed. Choices related to healthy eating, for example, are recognized to be constrained by issues such as finance, time and social circumstances. The choice not to smoke is similarly constrained, for example, by social deprivation, cultural patterns and advertising. The paper both rejects an overly determined conception of patients and clients where they are viewed as unable to make any choices, but also cautions against the danger of victim-blaming. Constraints on patients' and clients' autonomy in health education by nurses are also considered. These limitations on health education work include, for example, a lack of scientific knowledge related to an individual's propensity to develop disease. In contrast, health education work within nursing may also be seen as enabling people to be more autonomous in relation to their health by imparting knowledge about health risks. Health education work by nurses thus emerges from the analysis as a constrained but valuable activity.

  14. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  15. Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

    2009-01-01

    More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

  16. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  17. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses.

  18. Health literacy: critical opportunities for social work leadership in health care and research.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M

    2011-05-01

    One-third of U.S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to the values and concerns of the social work profession. Despite the extensive knowledge and skills that social workers can bring to bear to assist patients with low health literacy, the concept of health literacy is underused in social work scholarship.This gap reflects missed opportunities for social workers to contribute their expertise to the evolving field of health literacy and to strategically align their work with organizational and national priorities.To address this gap, this article provides an overview of health literacy, its relevance to social work, and its representation in disciplinary literature; and it outlines opportunities for health social workers to systematically incorporate health literacy concepts and tools into their practices with patients and families. Implications for a social work research and practice agenda in health literacy are discussed.

  19. The Competitiveness and Productivity of Tomorrow's Work Force: Compelling Reasons for Investing in Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet outlines some demographic trends that are influencing the cost and availability of health care for children and making it increasingly necessary to take action to improve the health of the nation's children. In recent years children, as a group, are more likely to be poor, lack health insurance, have working mothers, receive…

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivators: Implications for the Incoming Air Force Officer Workforce. Posters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephanie K.; Davis, Jason J.; Rate, Christopher

    This document contains three poster presentations from a conference on human resource development. "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivators: Implications for the Incoming Air Force Officer Workforce" (Stephanie K. Johnson, Jason J. Davis, Christopher Rate) reports on a study that explored the literature relating to work motivators to…

  1. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  2. Health of children working in small urban industrial shops

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, I; Usta, J; Makarem, M; Khudr, A; El-Zein, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To explore associations between work status and multidimensional health indices in a sample of urban Lebanese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was used to compare 78 male children (aged 10–17 years) working full time in small industrial shops, and a comparison group of 60 non-working male schoolchildren. All children lived and worked or studied in the poor neighbourhoods of three main Lebanese cities. Results: Working children reported frequent abuses. They smoked and dated more than the comparison group. They also reported a higher number of injuries (last 12 months) and recent skin, eye, and ear complaints (last two weeks). Physical examination revealed more changes in their skin and nails, but no differences in height or weight compared to non-working group. A higher blood lead concentration was detected among working children, but no differences in haemoglobin and ferritin. No differences were noted between the two groups of children regarding anxiety, hopelessness, and self-esteem. The drawings of the working children, however, revealed a higher tendency to place themselves outside home and a wider deficit in developmental age when compared to non-working children. Conclusion: Significant differences were found between working and non-working children with respect to physical and social health parameters, but differences were less with regard to mental health. Future research should focus on (1) more sensitive and early predictors of health effects, and (2) long term health effects. The generality of findings to other work settings in the developing world should also be tested. PMID:15657189

  3. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees’ personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees’ work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  4. Women, Work and Health Hazards: A Fact Sheet and Cosmetologists: Health Risks at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    The first part of this document is a fact sheet that provides information on health hazards faced by employed women. It covers the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), job-related diseases suffered by workers in female-dominated occupations, employer responsibilities under OSHA, and the lack of statistical reporting on job-related disease.…

  5. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample.

  6. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment.

  7. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  8. Working-Class Jobs and New Parents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade

    2011-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…

  9. Recreation and Health Agencies: Working Together to Promote Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipp, JoAnn; Dusenbury, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    The Colorado Department of Health formed the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention Coalition to address Colorado's problem with CVD. The article describes the work of the Coalition's Physical Activity Subcommittee, the Subcommittee's Exer-Deck tool to promote increased physical activity, and the training of professionals to work collaboratively…

  10. Single-Parent and Working-Parent Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Single-Parent and Working-Parent Heart Health Updated:Feb 1, ... Like this. Time and time again, parents — especially single parents and families with two working parents — say time ...

  11. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    PubMed Central

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement. PMID:26829972

  12. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  13. Work-Related Violence, Lifestyle, and Health among Special Education Teachers Working in Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Salmi, Venla; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have reported higher levels of absenteeism due to illness among special education teachers compared to other teachers, but it is not known which factors might contribute to this difference. We examined whether health, health behaviors, and exposure to violence at work differed between special education and general education…

  14. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  15. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  16. Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, M G; White, R D

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to perform a literature review on the health consequences of working rotating shifts and implications for structural design. A literature search was performed in June 2012 and a selection of the most relevant peer-review articles was included in the present review. Shift workers are more likely to suffer from a circadian sleep disorder characterized by sleepiness and insomnia. Shift work is associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life and adverse effects on health. Circadian disruption resulting from rotating shift work has also been associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This article summarizes the known health effects of shift work and discusses how light can be used as a countermeasure to minimize circadian disruption at night while maintaining alertness. In the context of the lighted environment, implications for the design of newborn intensive care units are also discussed.

  17. Aligning the Work of Two U.S. Task Forces on Behavioral Counseling Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, David C.; Elder, Randy W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the collaboration and alignment between topics and recommendations related to behavioral counseling interventions from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF). Although the scope and mandates of the USPSTF and CPSTF differ, there are many similarities in the methods and approaches used to select topics and make recommendations to their key stakeholders. Behavioral counseling recommendations represent an important domain for both Task Forces, given the importance of behavior change in promoting healthful lifestyles. This paper explores opportunities for greater alignment between the two Task Forces and compares and contrasts the groups and their current approaches to making recommendations that involve behavioral counseling interventions. Opportunities to enhance behavioral counseling preventive services through closer coordination when developing and disseminating recommendations as well as future collaboration between the USPSTF and CPSTF are discussed. PMID:26296552

  18. [Work environment and health status of agricultural aviation personnel].

    PubMed

    Marks, E; Karpińska, B; Swiecicki, W

    1983-01-01

    The morbidity rate and present health status of flying agricultural aviation personnel under health care of the Main Military Medical Committee for aviation workers were analysed and compared with another group of helicopter pilots. A detailed clinical examination of 77 "Agro" pilots indicated more trauma cases than idiopathic diseases cases, some of those trauma cases were due to professional work. Analysis of the present health status indicated the predominance of pilots with just one health disturbance, pilots with no health disturbances taking the second position in the comparison. The health deviations did not differ from those in other populations, as classified by pilots' age. On the other hand, their percentage was higher than in helicopters pilots control group. Average age of "Agro" pilots was relatively high and number of hours spent in air considerable, too.

  19. [Flexibility of working hours and health: towards ergonomics of working time].

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2005-01-01

    The search for ways and methods able to increase the "flexibility" of working hours deal with several forms of intervention that depend on political choices and work management, according to specific interests and needs of the companies, the individual worker and the whole society. The main problem on the carpet is to evaluate whether that interferes with worker's health and well-being. According to the data of the last European Survey on Working Conditions (EURF 2000), it appears the workers engaged in working hours different from the traditional day work are nowadays the vast majority of the population; moreover, organisational forms which allow more flexibility, that is more autonomy, in working time arrangement are associate to better health and well-being.

  20. [Work community--a threat and support to mental health].

    PubMed

    Sinokki, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    The absolute and relative amount of employees who have disability pensions due to mental disorders has increased over the last few decades. During the last ten years, both disability pensions and absences due to sickness have increased about 1.5-fold. The significance of a good work environment and community to an employee's mental health is and has been widely studied. Many of these studies have shown that poor organization and problems with social relationships and management at work may increase the probability of mental disorders. At the same time, a positive environment and atmosphere at work with suitable challenges for the employees can motivate them to commit to their work. This can increase the employees willingness to continue working until the proper retirement age and promote mental health.

  1. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep.

    PubMed

    Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work.

  2. Working conditions and mental health: Results from the CARESUN study.

    PubMed

    Feola, Daniela; Pedata, Paola; D'Ancicco, Francesco; Santalucia, Laura; Sannolo, Nicola; Ascione, Eduardo; Nienhaus, Albert; Magliano, Lorenza; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-05-03

    The authors conducted a work-related stress surveillance study in 2013 on 6,558 public-sector employees in Italy, examining how they perceived their jobs, via the Job Content Questionnaire, and their mental health status, via the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Of the 2,094 employees completing the questionnaires, 60% were male, 52% had a medium-level education, and 76% had a medium-level job. Three hundred and eighty-five employees (18%) had a GHQ-12 score >3 and were classified as GHQ-12 cases: these were more often female (54%), medium-to-highly educated (54%), and had more often reported health problems over the previous year (51%). Thus, GHQ-12 cases represented a significant percentage of the examined population, indicating that work-related stress surveillance programs are needed for the planning of psychosocial interventions aimed at the reintegration of individuals with mental health problems.

  3. Does team training work? Principles for health care.

    PubMed

    Salas, Eduardo; DiazGranados, Deborah; Weaver, Sallie J; King, Heidi

    2008-11-01

    Teamwork is integral to a working environment conducive to patient safety and care. Team training is one methodology designed to equip team members with the competencies necessary for optimizing teamwork. There is evidence of team training's effectiveness in highly complex and dynamic work environments, such as aviation and health care. However, most quantitative evaluations of training do not offer any insight into the actual reasons why, how, and when team training is effective. To address this gap in understanding, and to provide guidance for members of the health care community interested in implementing team training programs, this article presents both quantitative results and a specific qualitative review and content analysis of team training implemented in health care. Based on this review, we offer eight evidence-based principles for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of team training programs specific to health care.

  4. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  5. Health status of working and non-working school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, Folashade O; Omokhodion, Samuel I

    2004-06-01

    Child labour continues to pose a challenge to national and international agencies. This study compares the health status of working and non-working school children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Altogether, 223 working and 230 non-working children were interviewed. Their ages ranged between 8 and 15 years. Fifty-nine (13%) reported fever, 36 (8%) visual problems, 28 (6%) skin lesions, 17 (4%) muscular and joint pains and 5 (1%) diarrhoea. Schistosoma ova were observed in 25 (6%) children. There was no difference in the occurrence of diseases between working and non-working children. Twenty-seven per cent of the children were underweight and 30% were stunted. Malnutrition was more prevalent among working children as 74 (33%) were underweight (p =0.001) and 76 (34%) were stunted. Public enlightenment about the effect of child labour might discourage parents from engaging their school-age children in work. Governments should address the socio-economic factors that promote child labour.

  6. Community care in practice: social work in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, M; Millward, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the establishment of social work within primary health care settings in Great Britain, following the passage of the National Health Service and Community Care Act in 1990. Although the improvement of relationships between social workers and primary health care teams has been promoted for a number of years, the advent of formal policies for community care has made this a priority for both social services and health. This paper presents interim findings from the evaluation of three pilot projects in Nottinghamshire, Great Britain. These findings are analysed from three linked perspectives. The first is the extent to which structures and organisations have worked effectively together to promote the location of social workers within health care settings. The second is the impact of professional and cultural factors on the work of the social worker in these settings. The third is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the success of the project. The paper will conclude that there is significant learning from each of these perspectives which can be applied to the future location of social workers to primary health care.

  7. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  8. Social capital in working life and the health of employees.

    PubMed

    Liukkonen, Virpi; Virtanen, Pekka; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2004-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that social capital influences health, but only few studies have examined this hypothesis in the context of the workplace. The present prospective cohort study of 6028 public sector employees in Finland investigated social capital as a workplace characteristic which potentially affects employee health. The two indicators of social capital were trust in the labour market, measured by security of the employment contract, and trust in co-worker support. Self-rated health status and psychological distress were used as indicators of health. The combination of subsidised job contract and low co-worker support (i.e. the lowest category of social capital) was associated with poorer health prospects than the combination of permanent employment and high support (the highest social capital category) in an age-adjusted model, but this association disappeared in logistic regression analysis adjusted by sociodemographic background factors and baseline health. Fixed-term employment predicted better self-rated health and less psychological distress when compared with permanent employment. Co-worker support was most common in permanent and least common in subsidised employees and it was associated with better self-rated health in women. Our findings suggest only partial support for the hypothesis of work-related social capital as a health resource.

  9. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals.

  10. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk.

  11. The Health Care Labor Shortage: Report of the Health Care Labor Shortage Work Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    A work group consisting of representatives of public agencies, education, the health care industry, and unions and professional associations was formed to examine education and training issues related to the shortage of health care workers in Washington state. The group concluded that the shortage of available workers in many health care…

  12. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education.

  13. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health risks and appropriate

  14. Health effects of work schedules in healthcare professions.

    PubMed

    Poissonnet, C M; Véron, M

    2000-01-01

    Increasing variety in working patterns and the appearance of new forms of shift schedules in the different occupational sectors, including health services, have raised great concern about the quality of working life and job performance. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature on the effects on health of irregular schedules in healthcare professionals. Computer and manual searches of databases, and discussion with experts, were used to identify relevant studies. No conclusive evidence was found to favour any particular work system, although there is evidence that extended workdays (9-12 h) should be avoided as much as possible. There is need for carefully designed studies in order to evaluate the long-term consequences of work schedules in healthcare workers.

  15. Predictability, Work-Family Conflict, and Intent to Stay: An Air Force Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Equation Modeling (SEM), plausible evidence was found to support the idea that schedule predictability plays a role in intentions to stay via work...predictability, the Expeditionary Aerospace Force (EAF), would moderate the relationship between predictability and intent to stay. Using Structural

  16. Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.

    A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus…

  17. Administrative Task Force on the Four Day Work Week. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles.

    The Administrative Task Force on a 4-day work week at California State University in Los Angeles was charged with the following responsibilities: (1) To make an indepth study of the "literature" of experience of other universities, a survey of staff, faculty, and students if required, and other activities that will result in setting up a…

  18. Valuing our differences. How to manage a culturally diverse work force.

    PubMed

    Veninga, R L

    1994-12-01

    How can we become aware of cultural blind spots that keep us from understanding one another? To adequately prepare for the new work force, healthcare organizations must establish work force diversity goals. Of course, goals by themselves will not empower minority workers. And if goals are perceived as "window dressing," resentment builds. Most organizations claim their hiring practices are not biased. One way to ensure that your hiring practices are unbiased is to ask important questions: Does the ethnic makeup of our work force resemble that of the community? If not, what can be done to strengthen our affirmative action programs? In a multicultural work force, misunderstandings are bound to arise because human behavior is conditioned by cultural factors. One way for an organization to identify problems that are culturally based is for supervisors and subordinates to meet informally to ensure that the organization is maximizing the minority worker's talents. Climate surveys and exit interviews are two other frequently used methods. Cultural diversity training programs can also make a difference in an organization. Some training programs help participants learn how culture influences the way we communicate. Knowledge of the cultural basis of how we interact is one factor in building bridges of understanding.

  19. Profile of a Rural Area Work Force: The Wyoming Uranium Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Thomas L.; Kiner, Phil E.

    1974-01-01

    Designed to provide insights into policies relative to human resource investments and employment information channels, the study's objectives were to: (1) relate types of employment in Wyoming's uranium mines and mills to work force participants; (2) determine employee earnings and relate those earnings to employment categories and…

  20. Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces" is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5-8 that employs 18 inquiry-centered, hands-on lessons called "explorations." The curriculum draws upon students' curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discovery-based learning process. Group-centered lab work is designed to…

  1. For Work-Force Training, a Plan to Give College Credit Where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    After nearly three years of planning, Ohio's higher-education officials are finalizing an ambitious program to grant college credit for some technical courses offered at the state's adult-education centers. The program, called the Career-Technical Credit Transfer, is the latest in a string of state efforts to more closely link work-force training…

  2. Selected Contemporary Work Force Reports: A Synthesis and Critique. Information Series No. 354.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, James M.

    Demographic and social changes, increasing economic interdependence, and educational reform movements are causing major changes in vocational education. Essential work force skills and the standards to account for their achievement are being debated. The 1980s'"Excellence Movement" focused on strengthening academic requirements,…

  3. A Dynamic Model of the Work Force at the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    2. REPORT DATE September 2008 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Dynamic Model of the Work Force at... 3 D. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY...30 3 . Simulation Runs and Data Analysis.................................................39 V

  4. Building a World-Class Work Force: A Vision for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marvin

    As society turns increasingly to education to provide remedies for economic and social ills and to prepare citizens for life and work in a rapidly changing world, the community college is emerging as a major force in U.S. education. Recent trends indicate that U.S. productivity is lagging behind that of other countries, most notably Japan. Japan's…

  5. Demographic Trends and the Scientific and Engineering Work Force. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Federal Government has acknowledged its key role in educating and assuring an adequate supply of scientists and engineers since World War II. Although scientists and engineers represent only three percent of the national work force, they are considered by many to be a crucial element in the nation's efforts to improve its economic…

  6. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1974. A Statistical Report. Agricultural Economic Report No. 297.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gene A.

    Information is given on the number, characteristics, employment, and earnings of persons 14 years of age and over who performed hired farm wagework at any time during 1974. The brief analysis highlights some of the most pertinent changes and trends in the size and composition of the hired farm working force. Data were obtained through a survey…

  7. The Hired Farm Working Force of 1975. Agricultural Economic Report No. 355.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Gene; Smith, Leslie Whitener

    The report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of persons 14 years of age and over who did hired farmwork during 1975, and summarizes the pertinent changes and trends in the size, composition, earnings, and employment patterns of the hired farm working force. Information is given on the Spanish-origin, white,…

  8. Review and Implications of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation Theories for Air Force Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Thomas C.; Hazel, Joe T.

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review certain major theories of work motivation, particularly as related to job satisfaction, (b) distill from such theories and other research, implications for an Air Force job satisfaction research program, and (c) provide a comprehensive bibliography of satisfaction/retention studies. The theoretical…

  9. Preparing for an Aging Work Force: A Practical Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARP, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is intended for human resource managers, provides practical guidance regarding preparing for an aging work force. Chapter 1 concerns the relationship between business practices and age neutrality and offers checklists that human resource managers can use to assess their company's general policy development, training,…

  10. The Symbiotic Relationship between the Air Force’s Active and Reserve Components: Ensuring the Health of the Total Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    inefficiencies drive higher costs and may ultimately imperil our ability to perform the national defense mission. If we properly address the symbiotic...thresholds and tipping points to draw a line beyond which the health of the total force finds itself at risk. Maintaining higher RC experience levels is...schedule, and other performance goals.45 Moreover, the matrix incorporates qualitative factors such as leader- ship, total force education , the triad

  11. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes.

  12. Justice at Work, Job Stress, and Employee Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    A small but growing literature has documented an association between justice at work and employee health. However, the pathways and mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This article proposes a conceptual framework that bridges the organizational justice, occupational stress, and occupational epidemiology literatures.…

  13. Dairy Health. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students learn about dairy herd health, as well as how to gather, record, and interpret information. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize…

  14. Work engagement: a practical measure for workplace health promotion?

    PubMed

    Torp, S; Grimsmo, A; Hagen, S; Duran, A; Gudbergsson, S B

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether psychological job demands, personal control and social support affect the negative health measure of depression differently than the positive measure of work engagement and to investigate whether work engagement mediates the effects of job demands and resources on the level of depression. We discuss the implications of using engagement as an outcome measure in workplace health promotion. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study among a general working population in Norway (n = 605). In the multivariate analysis, high psychological job demands as well as high control and social support correlated significantly with high work engagement. High demands as well as low control and social support correlated significantly with high levels of depression. When we included engagement as an independent variable together with demands, control and social support in the multivariate analysis, the positive correlation between demands and depression remained as well as the significant correlations between the level of depression and control and social support became non-significant. This indicates that engagement mediates the effects of control and social support on the level of depression. Encouraging enterprises to improve engagement in addition to focusing on preventing diseases may be worthwhile in workplace health promotion. Promoting engagement may have more positive organizational effects than a more traditional disease prevention focus, because engagement is contagious and closely related to good work performance and motivation.

  15. Working families' health insurance coverage, 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Bradley C; Reschovsky, James D

    2002-08-01

    Despite a booming U.S. economy, falling unemployment and moderate health insurance premium growth, the percentage of working Americans and their families with employer-sponsored health insurance failed to increase substantially between 1997 and 2001, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) Community Tracking Study Household Survey. There were, however, dramatic changes in the insurance status of people who lacked access to or did not take up employer coverage: fewer uninsured, more public program enrollment and a decline in coverage by individual insurance and other sources. While the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) clearly reduced uninsurance among low-income children, evidence also suggests a fair amount of substitution of public insurance for private coverage.

  16. The impact of conservative forces on student reasoning about graphical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John; Clark, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Many students compare thermodynamic work done during processes based on P-V diagrams using the endpoints of the processes being compared rather than the process paths. Researchers speculate one cause of this reasoning to be overgeneralization of work done by conservative forces. In a study to investigate this possibility, students in introductory calculus-based physics were presented with a force-position graph (F-x) that showed two different mechanical processes with identical initial values and identical final values for force and position. The task, to compare the work done in each process, was administered before and after relevant instruction along the two-semester sequence to probe differences in student responses and reasoning. Findings were also compared to results from analogous thermodynamics questions in physics and engineering courses. Response prevalence varied little with instruction. However, student reasoning did show trends, with more intuitive explanations on the pretest and more technical explanations after instruction for both correct and incorrect responses, including more prevalent invocation of ``path independence'' or ``conservative forces'' for the major incorrect interpretation. Supported in part by NSF Grants DUE-0817282 and DUE-1323426.

  17. [Female health workers: lifestyle, work, and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Mariano; Gutiérrez, Guadalupe; Méndez, Ignacio; Pulido, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    The relationships were studied between daily life, work, and mental disorders in female health workers from the Mexican Health Insurance Institute. The study sample (n = 170) included female physicians, nurses, laboratory workers, and medical assistants. Primary data were obtained through an interview which had been previously validated in a population of workers in Mexico. Relationships were found between mental disorders and all facets of women's lives. In relation to the domestic environment, women with higher rates of mental disorders were those who were mothers, had more children, did not have household help, and had husbands or partners. Prevalence of mental disorders in relation to paid work was associated with the length of the workday, absenteeism, and lack of job content. Skills development, job satisfaction, and creativity had a "protective" or preventive effect against mental disorders and fatigue. The main risks and conditions that functioned as stressors were heat, noise, physical effort, awkward positions, and intense, repetitive work.

  18. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  19. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  20. Opportunities for health and safety professionals in environmental restoration work

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The safety of workers in waste management and in environmental restoration work is regulated in large part by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Many of the OSHA rules are given in Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Section 120 of 29 CFR 1910 specifically addresses hazardous waste operations and emergency response operations. The remainder of this discussion focuses on clean-up operations. The purpose of this paper is to review areas of employment opportunity in environmental restoration work for health and safety professionals. Safety and health risk analyses are mentioned as one area of opportunity, and these analyses are required by the standards. Site safety and health supervisors will be needed during field operations. Those who enjoy teaching might consider helping to meet the training needs that are mandated. Finally, engineering help both to separate workers from hazards and to improve personal protective equipment, when it must be worn, would benefit those actively involved in environmental restoration activities.

  1. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance personnel and the core work force in Denmark. In addition, to examine the association between physical and psychosocial work environment factors and different measures of health among ambulance personnel. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide sample of ambulance personnel and fire fighters (n = 1,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self-rated health compared to the core work force (5% vs. 10%). Levels of mental health were the same across the two samples whereas a substantially higher proportion of the ambulance personnel reported musculoskeletal pain (42% vs. 29%). The ambulance personnel had higher levels of emotional demands and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor that was associated with both poorer mental health and worse sleep quality. Conclusions Ambulance personnel have similar levels of mental health but substantially higher levels of musculoskeletal pain than the work force in general. They are more exposed to emotional demands and these demands are associated with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence

  2. Effect of reciprocating motions around working points on levitation force of superconductor-magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jimin; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Cuiping

    2016-09-01

    In order to simulate vibration around working points in practical operation of superconducting levitation system, magnet in a simple superconductor-magnet system are conducted reciprocating motions around static height in this study. Two YBCO cylindrical samples with different grain orientations are used to investigate the effect of reciprocating motions of magnet on superconducting magnetic force. The c-axis of sample S1 is perpendicular to the top surface while sample S2 is parallel to the top surface. The initial cooling processes for the superconductors include zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and filed-cooled (FC). Compared to the levitation force before reciprocating motions, the ZFC levitation force at static height becomes smaller after reciprocating while the FC force presents opposite phenomenon. It is found that levitation force at static height tends to be stable after several times of reciprocating under ZFC and FC conditions and its time-decay phenomenon is suppressed in some extent, which is meaningful for the practical application of superconducting levitation system. Based on vortex dynamic, some physical discussions are presented to the experimental results.

  3. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  4. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  5. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply

  6. The impact of work-limiting disability on labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Webber, Douglas A; Bjelland, Melissa J

    2015-03-01

    According to the justification hypothesis, non-employed individuals may over-report their level of work limitation, leading to biased census/survey estimates of the prevalence of severe disabilities and the associated labor force participation rate. For researchers studying policies which impact the disabled or elderly (e.g., Supplemental Security Income, Disability Insurance, and Early Retirement), this could lead to significant bias in key parameters of interest. Using the American Community Survey, we examine the potential for both inflated and deflated reported disability status and generate a general index of disability, which can be used to reduce the bias of these self-reports in other studies. We find that at least 4.8 million individuals have left the labor force because of a work-limiting disability, at least four times greater than the impact implied by our replication of previous models.

  7. Health Insurance: An Overview of the Working Uninsured

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-24

    at least two-thirds who were under the age of 65 were working adults and their uninsured dependents. Reduced availability of health insurance...working adults and their uninsured depend- ents, and the number of this group of uninsured seems to be increasing. The Charman of the Senate Committee...if it0. I30 rando mly selected persi ins was ii nidiated h.’t ween the sprinlg wuid fallI intlhs in hiit h 198tt2 and 1996I~. with ;I aciimpet ed

  8. Effects of inertial setting on power, force, work and eccentric overload during flywheel resistance exercise in women and men.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Aranda, Luis Manuel; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo

    2016-09-16

    Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e. loads) during iso-inertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force and eccentric-overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n=11) and men (n=11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing six inertias (0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 kg*m). Power decreased as higher inertias were used, with men showing greater (P< 0.05) decrements than women (-36% vs. -29% from lowest to highest inertia). In contrast, work increased as higher inertias were employed, independent of sex (P<0.05; ∼48% from lowest to highest inertia). Women increased CON and ECC mean force (46-55%, respectively) more (P<0.05) than men (34-50%, respectively) from the lowest to the highest inertia evaluated, although the opposite was found for peak force data (i.e. peak force increased more in men than in women as inertia was increased). Men, but not women, increased ECC overload from inertia 0.0125 to 0.0375 kg*m. While estimated stretch-shorting cycle use during flywheel exercise was higher (P<0.05) in men (6.6%) than women (4.9%), values were greater for both sexes when using low to -medium inertias. The information gained in this study could help athletes and sport and health professionals to better understand the impact of different inertial settings on skeletal muscle responses to flywheel resistance exercise.

  9. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  10. [Global changes and trends in work safety and health].

    PubMed

    Pinnagoda, C

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the occupational health and safety problems which are common to workers all over the world, where these must be tackled with a view to achieving coherent and ongoing occupational safety for workers in their jobs. Occupational safety and health will continue to be priorities in international collaboration. Although the nature of the problems and solutions vary as a function of real priorities and needs, it is necessary to place greater emphasis on the application of overall activities concerning safety and health so that measures can be made and policies taken whose development is sustainable. International standards must be turned into actions on a national and company level with the active participation of social workers. The tripartite consensus will continue to be necessary for drawing up plans of action adapted to local situations, with a view to introducing improvements in work centres.

  11. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lauren B

    2015-09-16

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual's attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement.

  12. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  13. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  14. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  15. Six-Month Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Air Force Base workers Compressed work week 60 Attitude survey Lifestyle 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...10 APPENDIX A The Kelly AFB Attitude Survey ................. 13 B Responses to the Lifestyle and Job Relat i Questions (1-91) on the Survey (Sections...on CWS for a 6-month period. There are few published studies regarding the impact of CWS on the lifestyle or quality of life of the employee

  16. Light at work: the use of optical forces for particle manipulation, sorting, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Jonás, Alexandr; Zemánek, Pavel

    2008-12-01

    We review the combinations of optical micro-manipulation with other techniques and their classical and emerging applications to non-contact optical separation and sorting of micro- and nanoparticle suspensions, compositional and structural analysis of specimens, and quantification of force interactions at the microscopic scale. The review aims at inspiring researchers, especially those working outside the optical micro-manipulation field, to find new and interesting applications of these methods.

  17. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  18. [Work as a basic human need and health promoting factor].

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, P A

    2010-01-01

    The Italian Constitution (1948) defines 'work' as the founding value of the Italian Republic. This choice was not motivated by mere economic reasons, but rather stemmed from the recognition that work is the most appropriate tool for the expression of the human personality in society, that it is an asset and a right that will increase the dignity of every person, and which corresponds to a fundamental human desire to fulfil oneself in relationship with other persons and the entire world This view of work, including its technical and manual aspects, was unknown to the ancient mentality and became familiar to us through the monastic orders of the early middle ages, which began to conceive and practise human work as a means of participating in the work of creation and transmitted this value over the centuries. As we experience today, if occupation is lacking, a basic condition for the development of the person and for his/her contribution to the growth of society is lost. Given the meaning of work in human experience, it is not surprising that unemployment represents not only a worrisome economic indicator, but also the cause of ill health. At the end of 2009 unemployment in the European Union reached 10%, similar to the rate in the US; in Italy it was estimated at 8.5% in December 2009 and is expected to reach 10% in 2010. In Lombardy, although employment had been constantly increasing between 1995 and 2008, and the current unemployment rate is as low as 4.9%, 100,000 jobs were lost in 2009. Several scientific papers have demonstrated the association between lack of occupation and lack of physical and mental health. In the present period of crisis, increases of 30% in cases of anxiety syndrome and of 15% in cases of depression have been reported. An increase in suicides among unemployed persons has been documented in several countries even if there are still problems of interpretation of the causal chain of events. Mortality among the unemployed increased, not only

  19. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care

    PubMed Central

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-01-01

    Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout. PMID:15317917

  20. Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eren, B.; Gysin, U.; Marot, L. Glatzel, Th.; Steiner, R.; Meyer, E.

    2016-01-25

    Few layer graphene and graphite are simultaneously grown on a ∼100 nm thick polycrystalline nickel film. The work function of few layer graphene/Ni is found to be 4.15 eV with a variation of 50 meV by local measurements with Kelvin probe force microscopy. This value is lower than the work function of free standing graphene due to peculiar electronic structure resulting from metal 3d-carbon 2p(π) hybridization.

  1. The training value of working with armed forces inpatients in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    de Burgh, H Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 10 years, the UK armed forces (UKAF) have been involved in operations worldwide. Mental health in the armed forces (AF) has been the subject of considerable interest in part because of a perceived added risk of psychological distress in this population. Inpatient psychiatric services are provided through partnerships with NHS hospitals. The Cavell Centre, Peterborough's acute inpatient psychiatric unit has up to four beds for service personnel, under the care of a civilian consultant psychiatrist and his AF Foundation Year 2 doctor (F2). This was the only Ministry of Defence (MoD) inpatient unit which had a training post for an AF doctor, but the post ended in August 2014 with the closure of MoD Hospital Unit Peterborough (MDHU(P)). This article outlines the differences in civilian and AF inpatient care and discusses the training value of AF doctors managing service personnel who are psychiatric inpatients.

  2. Burnout and Work Demands Predict Reduced Job Satisfaction in Health Professionals Working In a Surgery Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout syndrome develops in health professionals (HPs) as a result of exposure to chronic emotional and interpersonal workplace stressors. Research demonstrates the links between burnout, work demands, and job satisfaction in hospital HPs. AIMS: To examine the associations between burnout, work demands and job satisfaction, and to demonstrate the mediation effect of emotional exhaustion on the relationship between work demands and job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used for assessment of burnout. Work demands and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. In order to examine the role of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and work demands, controlling for age, hospital tenure, and unit tenure, a hierarchical multiple regression models were tested for each job satisfaction factor. RESULTS: Job satisfaction was negatively predicted by emotional exhaustion. Certain types of work demands negatively predicted different factors of job satisfaction. Emotional exhaustion was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between work demands and job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of work demands, particularly excessive workload, time pressure, and lack of staff can lead to prevention of burnout and reduced job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs, and contribute to better quality of patient care. PMID:27275216

  3. Maternity rights, work, and health in France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the principles and the implementation of maternity rights (MR) in France and Italy. Results show that MR are well established in both countries, where about 80% of women employed during pregnancy were back to work 1 year after childbirth. Nevertheless, social inequalities were found. Less-educated women and those who had manual jobs or worked in small firms in the private sector or off-the-books were less likely to take an extended leave and to return to work. Despite differences in child care provisions, quality and accessibility of child care were common concerns for both French and Italian mothers. Employment was not related to any health problem in Italy 1 year after birth; in France, unemployed new mothers had high rates of psychological distress. Financial worries and marital problems were associated with several health problems in both countries. In conclusion, combining work and motherhood is possible in these 2 countries without too many costs for women, at least for the more privileged among them. However, this relative ease could vanish if social and economic conditions changed for the worse.

  4. Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, P Timothy; Colombi, Alberto; Caruso, Claire C; Tak, Sangwoo

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that work schedules may influence rates of unhealthy behaviors, suggesting that addressing work schedule challenges may improve health. Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey responses were collected during 2000-2008 in a multinational chemical and coatings manufacturer. Responses of 26,442 were sufficiently complete for analysis. Rates of smoking, lack of exercise, moderate to high alcohol use, obesity (BMI > or = 30), and short sleep duration were compared by work schedule type (day, night, or rotating shift) and daily work hours (8, 10, or 12 h). Prevalence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, adjusting for age group, sex, marital/living status, job tenure, and occupational group. The reference group was 8-h day shift employees. Overall prevalence rates were: sleep duration of 6 h or less per night 47%, smoking 17.3%, no exercise 22.0%, BMI > or = 30 28.3%, and moderate to heavy alcohol consumption 22.2%. Statistically significant RRs include the following: Short sleep duration: 10 h rotating shift (RR=1.6), 12 h day and 12 h rotating shifts (RR=1.3); Smoking: 12 h day and rotating shifts (RR=1.6), 10 and 12 h night and 8 h rotating shift (RR=1.4); No exercise: 8, 10, and 12 h rotating shifts (RR=1.2 to 1.3), 12 h day schedules (RR=1.3). Obesity (BMI > or = 30): 8 and 10 h night shifts (RR=1.3 and 1.4, respectively).

  5. [Challenges of team work according to nurses working in the family health program].

    PubMed

    Colomé, Isabel Cristina dos Santos; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva

    2006-12-01

    This study aimed at identifying, according to the perception of nurses working in the Family Health Program, the difficult and the easy aspects of their daily routine. This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 23 nurses. Data were submitted to thematic analysis. Results showed that nurses perceive team work as a practice for integration and cooperation among professionals. However, there are many factors that interfere in the team's actions, and therefore, interfere in their development and results.

  6. Health Care Providers' Spirit at Work Within a Restructured Workplace.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Joan I J; Brooks, Denise; Urban, Ann-Marie

    2016-12-01

    Spirit at work (SAW) research emerged as a response to care provider determination to maintain a healthy and productive health care work environment, despite restructuring. The aim of this descriptive mixed-methods research is to present the care provider's perceptions of SAW. SAW is a holistic measure of care provider workplace outcomes, defined as the unique experience of individuals who are passionate about and energized by their work. A mixed group of licensed and unlicensed care providers in a continuing care workplace were surveyed. Eighteen Likert-type scale survey questions were further informed by two open-ended questions. Results indicated that unlicensed continuing care providers' perceptions of SAW are lower than licensed care providers. Responses suggest that open discussion between managers and team members, combined with structured workplace interventions, will lead to enhanced SAW and improved patient care. Further research on SAW within the continuing care workplace is required.

  7. Work-related health disorders among Saudi computer users.

    PubMed

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators.

  8. Work-Related Health Disorders among Saudi Computer Users

    PubMed Central

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

  9. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Snoijer, Mirjam; de Kok, Brenda P.H.; van Vilsteren, Jeroen; Hofstetter, Hedwig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at management, team, and individual level targeting self-management to perform healthy behaviors: a kick-off session, vitality training sessions, workshops, individual coaching, and intervision. Outcome measures were collected using questionnaires, health checks, and sickness absence data at baseline, after the intervention and at 10 months follow-up. For analysis linear and generalized mixed models were used. Results: Vitality, work performance, sickness absence, and self-management significantly improved. Good organizational support and involved supervisors were significantly associated with lower sickness absence. Conclusions: Including all organizational levels and focusing on increasing self-management provided promising results for improving vitality, health, and work-related outcomes. PMID:27136605

  10. [Preventing mental health problems linked to work: a new public health challenge].

    PubMed

    Vézina, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the workplace environment has undergone profound changes that have been shown to be related to the development of mental health problems. Theoretical models have been developed and validated in order to identify specific psychosocial dimensions of the work environment which represent an occupational health risk. They are the "demand-autonomy-support" model and the "effort-reward imbalance" model. In addition to reducing the complexity of the psychosocial reality of work to a set of significant elements in terms of health risks, these models facilitate the development and implementation of effective organisational interventions in the workplace setting. Four theory-grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial occupational risk factors have been identified: high psychological demands, low scope for decision-making, low social support, and low reward. From a public health perspective, the implementation of preventive measures and reduction of psychosocial risk factors at work have been shown to be feasible and effective interventions.

  11. The Plastic Surgeon at Work and Play: Surgeon Health, Practice Stress, and Work-Home Balance.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Plastic surgeon wellness encompasses physical and mental health, considered in the context of practice stress. In addition, the challenges of work-home balance can lead to substantial negative impact on the surgeon, family, staff, and patients. The data-driven impact of each of these three components with personal vignettes, both individually and collectively, is presented by Michael Bentz, MD as the 2016 presidential address of American Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  12. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Zenan, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

  13. Work-related health factors for female immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Sharareh; Bildt, Carina; Wamala, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Work-related health has been a focus of research since the rate of sickness-related absences began to increase in Sweden. The incidence of sickness-related absences and early retirement is higher among female immigrants than among others in the total population. This study is based on a questionnaire survey which was conducted in a municipality in Sweden. The study population consisted of 2 429 native and immigrant female employees. The aim was to study work-related health factors for female immigrants. The results of this study show that about 20% of female immigrants who participate in the survey have temporary employment while the proportion is 8% for native women. The perception of ethnic discrimination among female immigrants was three times as much as among native females. The results also show that 69% of female immigrants report having received no opportunity to discuss their wages with managers, in comparison to 63% of native females. About 40% of female immigrants and 35% of native women report that they do not get opportunities to upgrade their skills. Female immigrants over the age of 50 experience gender and ethnic discrimination and lack of access to skills training programs more often than younger immigrants. They also participate in health-care activities more often.

  14. Working across the veterinary and human health sectors.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Dawson, Susan; Cookson, Barry; Hawkey, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in human and veterinary medicine for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. This practice has led to the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in both humans and animals. The potential role that animals, particularly livestock, might play as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes has been recognized, and it is currently a cause of public health concern. The impact of animal and human antibiotic usage on the emergence and persistence of resistant bacteria and the precise transfer pathways for resistance genes between humans and animals are not currently fully understood. As part of the remit of the UK Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infection (ARHAI), two main areas were addressed, namely methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, where both the human and veterinary health sectors share interests. We review the current knowledge of MRSA and resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and provide guidance on occupational risks for veterinary healthcare workers relating to animals infected or colonized with MRSA. Findings and recommendations for further work across disciplines and future research in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are also presented. Working collaboratively across disciplines is essential in order to better understand and challenge an important human and animal health problem: antimicrobial resistance.

  15. AGU's new task force on scientific ethics and integrity begins work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter; Townsend, Randy

    2011-11-01

    In support of the new strategic plan, AGU has established a new task force to review, evaluate, and update the Union's policies on scientific misconduct and the process for investigating and responding to allegations of possible misconduct by AGU members. As noted by AGU president Michael McPhaden, "AGU can only realize its vision of `collaboratively advancing and communicating science and its power to ensure a sustainable future' if we have the trust of the public and policy makers. That trust is earned by maintaining the highest standards of scientific integrity in all that we do. The work of the Task Force on Scientific Ethics is essential for defining norms of professional conduct that all our members can aspire to and that demonstrate AGU's unwavering commitment to excellence in Earth and space science."

  16. Estimation of intrinsic work function of multilayer graphene by probing with electrostatic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anshika; Guha, Puspendu; Panwar, Amrish K.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2017-04-01

    In present study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to estimate the intrinsic work function of few layer graphene (FLG) transferred on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si (500 μm) substrate. This FLG has been prepared by using the mechanical exfoliation technique. In exfoliated FLG, adhesive residues are always left from scotch tape on its surface. These residues as well as SiO2 substrate could modify the work function due to the formation of dipoles on the surface. Taking the effect of adhesive into account, FLG is pre-charged and then scanned with a tip biased with dc voltage. Intrinsic work function of FLG is determined and found to be 4.52 ± 0.1 eV.

  17. Protocol Optimisation For Work-Function Measurements Of Metal Gates Using Kelvin Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mariolle, D.; Kaja, K.; Bertin, F.; Martinez, E.; Martin, F.; Gassilloud, R.

    2007-09-26

    Currently, the work-functions of metal gates are determined using capacitance-versus-gate-voltage measurements of a dedicated MOS capacitor structure. Alternatively, Kelvin Force Microscopy (KFM) is a promising technique which allows the work-function to be measured with high spatial resolution (<100 nm) coupled with a high sensitivity (10 meV). Nevertheless, before becoming a standard technique, there are still challenges facing a reliable operating protocol such as careful specimen preparation and environmental control to avoid surface artifacts. In the paper we show that the presence of an oxide, confirmed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), on a WSi{sub x} metallic layer surface have a detrimental effect on the work-function measurement using KFM.

  18. [Can the occupational health physician promote work as a health factor?].

    PubMed

    Cassina, T

    2010-01-01

    This report answers the question: "In carrying out his/her institutional tasks, can the Occupational Health Physician (MC--medico competente--in Italian) promote work as a health factor?" The answer is in the affirmative, with identification of the social and regulatory framework within which the occupational health physician operates, examples of professional activities directed towards this aim and stressing the fact that the physician requires clinical skills so that he/she can work actively in the process of diagnosis-treatment-rehabilitation of the sick worker. Furthermore technological and organizational knowledge of the enterprise is required together with knowledge of the "social safeguards", that are useful for both the worker and the enterprise that employs him/her. In the current social and regulatory context the occupational health physician can promote work as a health factor both through cooperation in the process of improvement of the workplace, and by actively participating in the most appropriate placement of "frail" workers' (elderly people, disease sufferers, the disabled). It is necessary for the occupational health physician to develop a close working cooperation with the business system to achieve these aims.

  19. The underdevelopment of health of working America: causes, consequences and possible solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the health conditions of working America, and provides an analysis of the causes of that situation. It is postulated that the main health problems in the U.S. are due not to prevalent life styles-as the behavioralists indicate-but to the dramatic maldistribution of economic and political power in our society, with the absence of control by the majority of the U.S. population-the working and lower-middle classes-over the work process with which they are involved, the economic wealth that they produce, and the political institutions that they pay for. The production of goods and wealth as well as the political institutions of the United States are dominated and controlled by a minority of our population-the corporate and upper-middle classes. Empirical information is presented to support this postulate. In light of this explanation, it is asserted that a major public health task is to deliberately and actively contribute to the political mobilization of forces aimed at bringing about profound changes in the pattern of control of our working insitutions and of the distribution of wealth and political power, changes which seek to shift that control from the few to the many. PMID:937599

  20. Forces Pushing Prescription Psychotropic Drugs in College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leighton C.

    2007-01-01

    A complex of forceful influences is greatly accelerating the use of what are usually referred to as "psychiatric drugs," although most prescribing is not done by psychiatrists. Many other clinicians, including other kinds of physicians, and recently psychologists, prescribe these medications. The influences contributing to this dramatic…

  1. Initial Report of the Task Force on Cultural Competence Education in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Task Force on Cultural Competence Education and represents the distillation of the Task Force's efforts to fulfill its legislative charge. The report is intended to facilitate a statewide conversation about the health services provided to New Mexico's multicultural citizenry. It…

  2. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss

  3. Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-23

    The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

  4. Life in and after the Armed Forces: social networks and mental health in the UK military.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Stephani L; Harvey, Samuel B; Dandeker, Christopher; Burdett, Howard; Greenberg, Neil; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the influence of structural aspects of social integration (social networks and social participation outside work) on mental health (common mental disorders (CMD), that is, depression and anxiety symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and alcohol misuse). This study examines differences in levels of social integration and associations between social integration and mental health among service leavers and personnel still in service. Data were collected from regular serving personnel (n=6,511) and regular service leavers (n=1,753), from a representative cohort study of the Armed Forces in the UK. We found that service leavers reported less social participation outside work and a general disengagement with military social contacts in comparison to serving personnel. Service leavers were more likely to report CMD and PTSD symptoms. The increased risk of CMD but not PTSD symptoms, was partially accounted for by the reduced levels of social integration among the service leavers. Maintaining social networks in which most members are still in the military is associated with alcohol misuse for both groups, but it is related to CMD and PTSD symptoms for service leavers only.

  5. Working at sea and psychosocial health problems Report of an International Maritime Health Association Workshop.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tim

    2005-05-01

    Many of the recognised risk factors for psychosocial health problems impact on seafarers because of the nature and organisation of their work. The consequences are serious because of the safety critical nature of many of the tasks at sea and because of the level of health required to continue working remote from care. There is relatively little relevant research on the scale of psychosocial health problems in seafarers and so the justification for taking preventative action is not secure. The workshop was convened to develop a consensus on how psychosocial risks at sea can best be characterised, their consequences in terms of health, well being and performance and the steps which can be taken to provide better information on risks and on the validity of various forms of intervention. A number of interim measures have been proposed in advance of more definitive research results.

  6. Associations of work and health-related characteristics with intention to continue working after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; de Graaf, Ron

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the association of work and health-related characteristics with the intention to continue working after the age of 65 years. Data were from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative population survey, including 1854 employees aged 45-64 years; 29.0% reported the intention to continue working after 65 years. Lower education, more adverse psychosocial working conditions and any physical disorder were negatively associated with this intention. Mental disorders were not associated. These findings highlight the importance of favourable working conditions and good physical health in relation to employees' intention to continue working after 65 years.

  7. New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry View of Critical Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D. J.; LaTourrette, Tom; Bartis, James T.

    2007-04-01

    RAND has just published a report entitled, "New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry Views of Critical Technologies," by D. J. Peterson, Tom LaTourrette, and James T. Bartis. The report presents the results of a series of in-depth discussions with leading mining industry representatives selected for their prominent position and their ability to think broadly about technology trends. The discussions highlighted the importance of collaborative technology research, development, and implementation strategies and the increasingly critical role of mine personnel in the utilization of new technologies.

  8. Foundations for a new tomorrow: how to bridge the gap in work force literacy.

    PubMed

    Turnquist, W H

    1998-02-01

    U.S. companies face substantial challenges from abroad, and to meet these challenges they need workers who have the ability to learn on their own. Unfortunately, many workers lack the basic skills they must possess in order to respond to current and future changes. This article describes a new perspective on literacy in the workplace and presents a strategic approach to improving literacy. The approach includes determining what skills are truly needed, evaluating the current skill level of the work force, and tailoring education to meet the specific needs of particular groups of workers.

  9. Gender and beliefs about work force discrimination in the United States and Australia.

    PubMed

    Browne, B A

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about gender discrimination in the work force were investigated among a sample of American (n = 201) and Australian (n = 177) business students. Significant differences between genders in beliefs about the existence of gender discrimination were indicated, with women being more likely than men to affirm its existence, particularly in the area of salary discrimination. In addition, there were differences between genders and between countries in assessment of the factors that might lead to lower participation of women in management and in the assessment of avenues of advancement for women.

  10. Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Dahlman, Joakim; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Gerdle, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Repetitive and stressful work tasks have been linked to the development of pain in the trapezius muscle, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In earlier studies, it has been hypothesized that chronic muscle pain conditions are associated with imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, predominantly expressed as an increased sympathetic activity. This study investigates whether women with chronic trapezius myalgia show higher muscle activity and increased sympathetic tone at baseline and during repetitive low-force work and psychosocial stress, compared with pain-free controls. Methods Eighteen women with chronic trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 30 healthy female controls (CON) were studied during baseline rest, 100 min of repetitive low-force work, 20 min of psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), and 80 min recovery. The subjects rated their pain intensity, stress and energy level every 20 min throughout the experiment. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography in the trapezius muscle (EMGtrap) and deltoid muscle (EMGdelt). Autonomic reactivity was measured through heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SCL), blood pressure (MAP) and respiration rate (Resp). Results At baseline, EMGtrap, stress ratings, and HR were higher in MYA than in CON. Energy ratings, EMGdelt, SCL, MAP and Resp were, however, similar in the two groups. Significant main group effects were found for pain intensity, stress ratings and EMGtrap. Deltoid muscle activity and autonomic responses were almost identical in MYA and CON during work, stress and recovery. In MYA only, pain intensity and stress ratings increased towards the end of the repetitive work. Conclusion We found increased muscle activity during uninstructed rest in the painful muscle of a group of women with trapezius myalgia. The present study could not confirm the hypothesis that chronic trapezius myalgia is associated with increased sympathetic activity. The suggestion of

  11. Health and turnover of working mothers after childbirth via the work-family interface: an analysis across time.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-09-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the associations of 2 job demands (psychological requirements and nonstandard work schedules) with work-to-family conflict. Further, we considered subsequent impact of work-to-family conflict and enrichment on women's health (physical and mental health) 8 months after women returned to work and the impact of health on voluntary turnover 12 months after women returned to work. Having a nonstandard work schedule was directly and positively related to conflict, whereas schedule control buffered the effect of psychological requirements on conflict. Skill discretion and job security, both job resources, directly and positively related to enrichment. Work-to-family conflict was negatively related to both physical and mental health, but work-to-family enrichment positively predicted only physical health. Physical health and mental health both negatively influenced turnover. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research.

  12. Health care reform and medical education: forces toward generalism.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, E H; Seifer, S D

    1995-01-01

    The transformation of U.S. health care is driven by underlying principles. The tensions between what exists now and what will emerge over the next 15 years pervade health care delivery and financing, the doctor-patient relationship, the provider-payer relationship, and the atmosphere within educational institutions for the health professions. The institutions that early on develop the capacity to forge and sustain strategic partnerships will be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities of a rapidly changing system, but those that do not will risk being isolated without the diversity of resources needed to make meaningful contributions to health care. The tensions also drive major changes in the way health professionals are educated, trained, and deployed. Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of the medical school in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. These institutions face external pressures to change and internal barriers to change, not the least of which are the lack of sustained leadership and collective vision. Academic medical centers must take active steps now to assess their strengths and weaknesses objectively, look realistically at options, and construct new, mutually beneficial partnerships that will be the keys to success.

  13. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  14. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health.

  15. Modeling U.S. Air Force Occupational Health Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Record Keeping, the total costs include pay while away from work, medical treatment , hospitalization, dependent survival, training costs, burial...leading cause of death in 1997, after diabetes but before suicide. To add some perspective, deaths from occupational-related diseases are estimated...work, seeks care at a treatment facility, then returns to work on the same day or at latest the following day. For illnesses resulting in

  16. Women's health and women's work in health services: what statistics tell us.

    PubMed

    Hedman, B; Herner, E

    1988-01-01

    This article draws together statistical information in several broad areas that relate to women's health, women's reproductive activities and women's occupations in Sweden. The statistical analysis reflects the major changes that have occurred in Swedish society and that have had a major impact on the health and well-being, as well as on the social participation rate, of women. Much of the data is drawn from a recent special effort at Statistic Sweden aimed at influencing the classification, collection and presentation of statistical data in all fields in such a way that family, working, education, health and other conditions of women can be more readily and equitably compared with those of men. In addition, social changes have seen the shifting of the responsibility of health care from the unpaid duties of women in the home to health care institutions, where female employees predominate. These trends are also discussed.

  17. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  18. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers. PMID:26366433

  19. [The state of health of the US Armed Forces military personnel in 2012].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Sivashchenko, P P

    2013-08-01

    The current article is dedicated to the state of health of the US Armed Forces military active component personnel in 2012 according to the report published by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center in April 2013 issue of Center's Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Sequentially, the key characteristics of ambulatory visits and hospitalization for the leading disease chapters and certain disease groups have been presented. The data have been given for the total personnel as well as for male and female separately. The general hospitalization has also been presented for the US Armed Forces components.

  20. Integrated approach for managing health risks at work--the role of occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Luiza G

    2007-02-01

    Currently, many organizations are using a department-centered approach to manage health risks at work. In such a model, segregated departments are providing employee benefits such as health insurance, workers' compensation, and short- and long-term disability or benefits addressing work-life issues. In recent years, a new model has emerged: health and productivity management (HPM). This is an employee-centered, integrated approach, designed to increase efficiency, reduce competition for scarce resources, and increase employee participation in prevention activities. Evidence suggests that corporations using integrated HPM programs achieve better health outcomes for their employees, with consequent increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. Occupational health nurses are well positioned to assume leadership roles in their organizations by coordinating efforts and programs across departments that offer health, wellness, and safety benefits. To assume their role as change agents to improve employees' health, nurses should start using the language of business more often by improving their communication skills, computer skills, and ability to quantify and articulate results of programs and services to senior management.

  1. Making primary health care work: the case of Fundacao Esperanca.

    PubMed

    Offenheiser, R C

    1986-01-01

    For the past 15 years, the Fundac Esperanca, a private organization founded in Santarem by a North American Franciscan priest, has been working to provide the widely scattered rural residents in the mid-Amazon region of Brazil with effective health care. Early efforts focused on Esperanca's hospital boat, which traveled up and down the river to reach the remote settlements. During the 1st decade of operation, Esperanca vaccinated some 150,000 people and provided general medical and surgical services to countless others. Yet, by the late 1970s, the program's staff were beginning to question the longterm effectiveness of their efforts. In 1979, Esperanca decided it could have a longer lasting impact on health in the mid-Amazon region if it could mobilize rural communities to improve family diets and sanitary practices and carry out comprehensive vaccination campaigns. Supported by a grant from Private Agencies Collaborating Together (PACT), it launched its own primary health care program. This initiative began with a health survey of the region. The studies revealed that 1/3 of the children under age 6 were malnourished, 90% had untreated cavities, and 2/3 of the 10,000 people tested showed evidence of parasitosis. There were higher than normal incidences of malaria, anemia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, uterine cancer in women, smallpox, and visual problems. The social, cultural, and demographic characteristics of the region also were discouraging. Most people lived in widely scattered river villages and were illiterate, with little understanding of hygiene, nutrition, or public health. None of the settlements had formal health care systems. Esperanca chose to make the community paramedic the keystone of its program, stating clearly that the outreach worker is the conduit to clinical services in Santarem. In time, it was decided to phase out the hospital boat's activities. It had come to signal the wrong message, i.e., the doctors were coming and good health was on the

  2. Workplace Health Promotion and Mental Health: Three-Year Findings from Partnering Healthy@Work

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women’s psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors. PMID:27513577

  3. Navy Information Dominance, the Battle of Midway, and the Joint Force Commander: It Worked Then, It Needs to Work Now

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-19

    cyberspace, is putting increased emphasis on the need for the Joint Force Commander to employ his force to achieve Information Dominance . The information... Information Dominance is to assist in achieving Decision Superiority, Assured Command and Control, Battlespace Awareness, and Integrated Fires. Navy... Information Dominance aims to use information in cyberspace as a way and means in warfare -- as a battery in the Joint Force Commander’s arsenal. The

  4. 75 FR 4051 - Defense Health Board; DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... of the Secretary Defense Health Board; DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces; Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] SUMMARY...)(2) of Public Law, the DoD Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed...

  5. Latina Workers in North Carolina: Work Organization, Domestic Responsibilities, Health, and Family Life.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors.

  6. An evaluation of the public health paradigm: a view of social work.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    This article engages in a critical review of the public health paradigm to determine the compatibility with social work's guiding value of social justice. This critical examination explores the history, epistemology, and view of health underlying the public health paradigm. Implications of the public health paradigm's view of health on social work practice and discourse is examined.

  7. Health status of people with work-related musculoskeletal disorders in return to work programs: a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Murad, Mohd Suleiman; O'Brien, Lisa; Farnworth, Louise; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the health status of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders enrolled in the Malaysian Return to Work (RTW) program. The 102 participants were categorized into three RTW groups: Off-work (n = 30, 29.4%), Re-entry (n = 44, 43.1%), and Maintenance (n = 28, 27.5%). Overall health status, as measured by the SF-36 version 2, of the workers exhibited below average compared to the internationally established normative population, with their physical health component summary rated lower than mental health. Across the different groups, significant differences were found in role-physical, vitality, bodily pain, general health, and mental health. However, the mean values of these variables were higher in the Maintenance group and were found significant. The current health status of injured workers at Off-work and Re-entry phases was significantly low and warranted to be improved by involving other health professionals such as occupational therapists, ergonomists, and psychologists.

  8. Health@Home: The Work of Health Information Management in the Household (HIMH): Implications for Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Anne; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary health care places enormous health information management demands on laypeople. Insights into their skills and habits complements current developments in consumer health innovations, including personal health records. Using a five-element human factors model of work, health information management in the household (HIMH) is characterized by the tasks completed by individuals within household organizations, using certain tools and technologies in a given physical environment. Design: We conducted a descriptive-exploratory study of the work of HIMH, involving 49 community-dwelling volunteers from a rural Midwestern community. Measurements: During in-person interviews, we collected data using semistructured questionnaires and photographs of artifacts used for HIMH. Results: The work of HIMH is largely the responsibility of a single individual, primarily engaged in the tasks of acquiring, managing, and organizing a diverse set of health information. Paper-based tools are most common, and residents develop strategies for storing information in the household environment aligned with anticipated use. Affiliative relationships, e.g., parent-child or spousal, within the household serve as the organization that gives rise to health information management practices. Synthesis of these findings led to identification of several storage strategies employed in HIMH. These strategies are labeled “just-in-time,” “just-because,” “just-in-case,” and “just-at-hand,” reflecting location of the artifacts of health information and anticipated urgency in the need to retrieve it. Conclusion: Laypeople develop and employ robust, complex strategies for managing health information in the home. Capitalizing on these strategies will complement and extend current consumer health innovations to provide functional support to people who face increasing demands to manage personal health information. PMID:16049230

  9. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, T. I. J.; Alavinia, S. M.; Bredt, F. J.; Lindeboom, D.; Elders, L. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Results Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Conclusion Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors. PMID:18175140

  10. Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

    1995-01-01

    Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

  11. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Human Systent Division (NSD) Corporation C SAIC)II ic LCCESS (City, State. and ZIP Code) 7b. ADORIS3 (Gey,.Stato. adfl ZIP Cocie) McLean.*Virginia...Comparison group contrasts contained in the 1987 examination report published in February 1990. Tlat report was the third in a series of epiderniohkb- ic v...2-1 QUALITY CONTROL ....... ........................................ 2-1 DATA DELIVERED TO THE AIR FORCE BY THE CENCTERS F% DISEASE

  12. Federal Pollinator Health Task Force: EPA’s Role

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide risk management must be based on sound science, consistent with the laws under which pesticides are regulated in the United States. EPA has been working aggressively to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide exposures.

  13. Exploring core competencies for mental health and addictions work within a Family Health Team setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Brian; McPherson-Doe, Catherine; Behrooz, Reneé C; Cudmore, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 200 Family Health Teams (FHTs) have been implemented in Ontario to improve access to primary healthcare, including mental health and addiction. The objectives of this project were to examine, through a focus group and qualitative methodology with three FHTs, the profile of patients' mental health and addiction-related needs and to identify the implications for the development of core competencies in these innovative organisations. A spectrum of needs and service trajectories was identified, as well as the importance of a wide range of clinical skills and knowledge. The results indicate that 'core' competencies for mental health work in the context of an FHT go well beyond those required for an embedded mental health 'programme' or specialised mental health counsellors, but rather they relate to the core and discipline-specific competencies of members of the entire team. In addition to specific knowledge and skills, competencies include common attitudes and values relating to teamwork, good communication and collaboration. Challenges were noted with regard to working with some community service providers, especially addiction services. Implications for core competencies at the individual and organisational level were identified.

  14. Military deployment health surveillance policy and its application to Special Operations Forces.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Richard T; Wolfson, Jay; Yevich, Steven J

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation research methodology was used to determine whether deployment health surveillance for Special Operations Forces conformed with Department of Defense policy directives for the specified target population. Data for this methodology were based on pre- and postdeployment health assessments as well as patient encounters recorded during deployments. The data represented 1,094 individual and unique Special Operations Forces members deployed to 12 different countries from October 2000 through December 2001. Results from the study suggested that military deployment health surveillance policy goals for predeployment medical referrals, patient data capture, and documentation during the deployment and postdeployment medical referrals were being poorly met when Department of Defense and Joint Chiefs of Staff mandates were applied to Special Operations Forces in an unconventional operations environment. Preliminary evaluation indicates that deployment health surveillance implementation could be improved with the introduction of policy awareness education, training, and technology.

  15. Constructing a positive identity: A qualitative study of the driving forces of peer workers in mental health-care systems.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Joeri; Debyser, Bart; Beeckman, Dimitri; Vandecasteele, Tina; Deproost, Eddy; Van Hecke, Ann; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2017-04-01

    There is growing recognition in mental health for the perspective of individuals with lived experience of mental health problems and mental health service use. As peer workers, these individuals can use their specific experience to benefit and support peers and professional caregivers, and to participate at all levels of mental health-care systems. The aim of the present study was to develop a conceptual framework representing the driving forces of peer workers to fullfil their position in mental health-care systems. A qualitative interview approach was employed using principles of grounded theory. Over a period of 5 months in 2014-2015, semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 peer workers in residential and community mental health-care systems. The emerged conceptual framework reveals that peer workers strive towards constructing a positive identity. This process is powered by driving forces reflecting a desire for normalization and an urge for self-preservation. Peer workers realize a meaningful employment by using their lived experience perspective as an asset, liberating themselves out of restrictive role patterns, and by breaking down stigma and taboo. As a precondition to engage in these normalization processes, peer workers perceive they need to secure their self-preservation by balancing the emergence of adverse emotional fluctuations. The conceptual framework can inform the development of work contexts in which peer workers have an authentic and meaningful contribution, while being offered sufficient support and learning opportunities to manage their well-being.

  16. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  17. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).

  18. ‘The dangers attending these conditions are evident’: Public Health and the Working Environment of Lancashire Textile Communities, c.1870–1939

    PubMed Central

    Greenlees, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the position of the working environment within public health priorities and as a contributor to the health of a community. Using two Lancashire textile towns (Burnley and Blackburn) as case studies and drawing on a variety of sources, it highlights how, while legislation set the industry parameters for legal enforcement of working conditions, local public health priorities were pivotal in setting codes of practice. The complexities entwined with identifying the working environment as a cause of ill health and with improving it were entangled within the local community health context. In addition, the multiple understandings of Medical Officers of Health surrounding the remit of their responsibilities impacted the local health context. These did not always parallel national regulations. Indeed, it was these local, community specific forces that set the public health agenda, determined its path and the place of the working environment within this. PMID:24771979

  19. Keyboard reaction force and finger flexor electromyograms during computer keyboard work.

    PubMed

    Martin, B J; Armstrong, T J; Foulke, J A; Natarajan, S; Klinenberg, E; Serina, E; Rempel, D

    1996-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between forearm EMGs and keyboard reaction forces in 10 people during keyboard tasks performed at a comfortable speed. A linear fit of EMG force data for each person and finger was calculated during static fingertip loading. An average r2 of .71 was observed for forces below 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). These regressions were used to characterize EMG data in force units during the typing task. Averaged peak reaction forces measured during typing ranged from 3.33 N (thumb) to 1.84 N (little finger), with an overall average of 2.54 N, which represents about 10% MVC and 5.4 times the key switch make force (0.47 N). Individual peak or mean finger forces obtained from EMG were greater (1.2 to 3.2 times) than force measurements; hence the range of r2 for EMG force was .10 to .46. A closer correspondence between EMG and peak force was obtained using EMG averaged across all fingers. For 5 of the participants the force computed from EMG was within +/-20% of the reaction force. For the other 5 participants forces were overestimated. For 9 participants the difference between EMG estimated force and the reaction force was less than 13% MVC. It is suggested that the difference between EMG and finger force partly results from the amount of muscle load not captured by the measured applied force.

  20. Identifying vulnerable Asian Americans under Health Care Reform: working in small businesses and health care coverage.

    PubMed

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Ko Chin, Kathy; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina

    2014-11-01

    Working in small businesses has been identified as a key factor for low coverage rates in immigrant communities. In this study, we identify specific cultural and socioeconomic predictors of Asian Americans who work in small businesses to identify subgroups at a greater disadvantage than others in obtaining health insurance. Logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 3,819 Asian American small business owners and employers extracted from pooled 2005–2012 California Health Interview Survey data. We found that individuals with low income levels, Korean Americans, U.S.-born South Asian and Southeast Asian (other than Vietnamese) Americans, immigrants without citizenship (particularly those lacking a green card), and individuals with limited English proficiency had higher odds of lacking coverage. The odds of being uninsured did not differ between small business owners and employees. Based upon these key findings, we propose several strategies to expand coverage for Asian Americans working in small businesses and their most vulnerable subgroups.

  1. Correlates of Injury-forced Work Reduction for Massage Therapists and Bodywork Practitioners†

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Gary; Monos, Christopher; Boyer, Ed; Davis, Kathleen; Flanagan, Richard; Lopez, Andrea; Tatum, Donna S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Injury-forced work reduction (IFWR) has been acknowledged as an all-too-common occurrence for massage therapists and bodywork practitioners (M & Bs). However, little prior research has specifically investigated demographic, work attitude, and perceptual correlates of IFWR among M & Bs. Purpose To test two hypotheses, H1 and H2. H1 is that the accumulated cost variables set ( e.g., accumulated costs, continuing education costs) will account for a significant amount of IFWR variance beyond control/demographic (e.g., social desirability response bias, gender, years in practice, highest education level) and work attitude/perception variables (e.g., job satisfaction, affective occupation commitment, occupation identification, limited occupation alternatives) sets. H2 is that the two exhaustion variables (i.e., physical exhaustion, work exhaustion) set will account for significant IFWR variance beyond control/demographic, work attitude/perception, and accumulated cost variables sets. Research Design and Participants An online survey sample of 2,079 complete-data M & Bs was collected. Stepwise regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses. The research design first controlled for control/demographic (Step1) and work attitude/perception variables sets (Step 2), before then testing for the successive incremental impact of two variable sets, accumulated costs (Step 3) and exhaustion variables (Step 4) for explaining IFWR. Results Results supported both study hypotheses: accumulated cost variables set (H1) and exhaustion variables set (H2) each significantly explained IFWR after the control/demographic and work attitude/perception variables sets. The most important correlate for explaining IFWR was higher physical exhaustion, but work exhaustion was also significant. It is not just physical “wear and tear”, but also “mental fatigue”, that can lead to IFWR for M & Bs. Being female, having more years in practice, and having higher continuing

  2. Working on wellness (WOW): A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    CVD is preferred. Importantly, this study extends the work of a previous, similar study, Health Under Construction, in a different setting. Finally, this study will allow an economic evaluation of the intervention that will be an important outcome for health care funders, who ultimately will be responsible for implementation of such an intervention. Trial registration United States Clinical Trails Register NCT 01494207 PMID:22625844

  3. Using conceptual work products of health care to design health IT.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew B L; Butler, Keith A; Harrington, Craig; Braxton, Melissa O; Walker, Amy J; Pete, Nikki; Johnson, Trevor; Oberle, Mark W; Haselkorn, Jodie; Paul Nichol, W; Haselkorn, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces a new, model-based design method for interactive health information technology (IT) systems. This method extends workflow models with models of conceptual work products. When the health care work being modeled is substantially cognitive, tacit, and complex in nature, graphical workflow models can become too complex to be useful to designers. Conceptual models complement and simplify workflows by providing an explicit specification for the information product they must produce. We illustrate how conceptual work products can be modeled using standard software modeling language, which allows them to provide fundamental requirements for what the workflow must accomplish and the information that a new system should provide. Developers can use these specifications to envision how health IT could enable an effective cognitive strategy as a workflow with precise information requirements. We illustrate the new method with a study conducted in an outpatient multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic. This study shows specifically how the different phases of the method can be carried out, how the method allows for iteration across phases, and how the method generated a health IT design for case management of MS that is efficient and easy to use.

  4. [Social determinants of health: community features and nurse work in family health care].

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Social Determinants of Health Care which emerge in nurses' statements as they characterize the community, analyzing its relation to the work carried out by them. It is an exploratory and descriptive study containing a qualitative analysis in the theoretical categories of the determinants. We used a semi-structured interview, recorded with the permission of the 65 nurses of the Family Health Care, members of the 3rd Regional Health Care Coordination of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has been shown the inter- and intra-relation in the health determinant factors, obtaining 104 citations for the anatomo-physiological features of the corresponding individuals/community to the proximal correspondents and in association, mainly, to the work carried out by the nurses. For intermediate determinants there were 27 citations and, for distals, 166, with predominant reference to the territorial localization of communities in rural areas and peripheries. The nurses have stated a narrow relation between the proximal features and the work carried out by them, as well as the connection with other determinants in the relation with the process of getting sick.

  5. The Occupational Safety of Health Professionals Working at Community and Family Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Havva; Babacan, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare professionals encounter many medical risks while providing healthcare services to individuals and the community. Thus, occupational safety studies are very important in health care organizations. They involve studies performed to establish legal, technical, and medical measures that must be taken to prevent employees from sustaining physical or mental damage because of work hazards. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine if the occupational safety of health personnel at community and family health centers (CHC and FHC) has been achieved. Martials and Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study comprised 507 nurses, 199 physicians, and 237 other medical personnel working at a total of 18 family health centers (FHC) and community health centers (CHC) in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of a total of 418 nurses, 156 physicians, and 123 other medical personnel. Sampling method was not used, and the researchers tried to reach the whole population. Data were gathered with the Occupational Safety Scale (OSS) and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and occupational safety. Results: According to the evaluations of all the medical personnel, the mean ± SD of total score of the OSS was 3.57 ± 0.98; of the OSS’s subscales, the mean ± SD of the health screening and registry systems was 2.76 ± 1.44, of occupational diseases and problems was 3.04 ± 1.3 and critical fields control was 3.12 ± 1.62. In addition, occupational safety was found more insufficient by nurses (F = 14.18; P < 0.001). Conclusions: All healthcare personnel, particularly nurses working in CHCs and FHCs found occupational safety to be insufficient as related to protective and supportive activities. PMID:25558383

  6. Uranium mining and milling work force characteristics in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.A.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the socioeconomic characteristics associated with 11 uranium mine and mill operations in 5 Western States. Comparisons are made with the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews for coal mines and utility plants in eight Western States. Worker productivity also is compared with that in similar types of coal and uranium mining operations. We found that there existed no significant differences between the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews and the secondary employment impacts associated with uranium mines and mills when compared with those associated with coal mines and utility plants requiring similar skills at comparable locations. In addition, our survey includes a comparison of several characteristics associated with the households of basic and nonbasic work forces and concludes that significant changes have occurred in the last 5 yr. Accordingly, we recommend additional monitoring and updating of data used in several economic forecasting models to avoid unwarranted delays in achieving national energy goals.

  7. Cognitive appraisal of stress and health status of wage working and non-wage working women in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hattar-Pollara, Marianne; Dawani, Hania

    2006-10-01

    This cross-sectional correlation study addresses the stress appraisal of 93 Jordanian wage working and non-wage working single and married women in Jordan and the relationship of appraised stress to their physical and psychological health. Data were collected using a demographic interview guide that included a Likert-type scale addressing perceived global social stress, the Cornell Medical Index (CMI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Perceived stress had no significant relations with physical and emotional health as measured by the PSS, but significant relations were found between social stress and indicators of health. In fact, social stress was the single most significant predictor of overall health, physical health, and emotional health. The findings on the health profile of participants and social stress have important implications for future research and for illness prevention and health promotion initiatives.

  8. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.

  9. Work and power outputs determined from pedalling and flywheel friction forces during brief maximal exertion on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Hibi, N; Fujinaga, H; Ishii, K

    1996-01-01

    Work and power outputs during short-term, maximal exertion on a friction loaded cycle ergometer are usually calculated from the friction force applied to the flywheel. The inertia of the flywheel is sometimes taken into consideration, but the effects of internal resistances and other factors have been ignored. The purpose of this study was to estimate their effects by comparing work or power output determined from the force exerted on the pedals (pedalling force) with work or power output determined from the friction force and the moment of inertia of the rotational parts. A group of 22 male college students accelerated a cycle ergometer as rapidly as possible for 3 s. The total work output determined from the pedalling force (TWp) was significantly greater than that calculated from the friction force and the moment of inertia (TWf). Power output determined from the pedalling force during each pedal stroke (SPp) was also significantly greater than that calculated from the friction force and the moment of inertia. Percentage difference (% diff), defined by % diff = ¿(TWp - TWf)/TWf¿ x 100, ranged from 16.8% to 49.3% with a mean value of 30.8 (SD 9.1)%. It was observed that % diff values were higher in subjects with greater TWp or greater maximal SPp. These results would indicate that internal resistances and other factors, such as the deformation of the chain and the vibrations of the entire system, may have significant effects on the measurements of work and power outputs. The effects appear to depend on the magnitudes of pedalling force and pedal velocity.

  10. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  11. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. Objective: To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. Methods: We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. Results: A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). Conclusion: More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. Results indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services. PMID:25482656

  12. Public Health Works: Blood Donation in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vincanne; Erwin, Kathleen; Le, Phuoc V

    2009-01-01

    Recent shifts in the global health infrastructure warrant consideration of the value and effectiveness of national public health campaigns. These shifts include the globalization of pharmaceutical research, the rise of NGO-funded health interventions, and the rise of biosecurity models of international health. We argue that although these trends have arisen as worthwhile responses to actual health needs, it is important to remember the key role that public health campaigns can play in the promotion of national health, especially in developing nations. Focusing on an example set by China in response to a public health crisis surrounding the national need for a clean and adequate blood supply and the inadvertent spread of HIV by way of blood donation in the early 19902, we argue that there is an important role for strong national public health programs. We also identify the key factors that enabled China’s response to this bourgeoning epidemic to be, in the end, largely successful. PMID:19058887

  13. From insecure to secure employment: changes in work, health, health related behaviours, and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, M; Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether change in employment status (from fixed term to permanent employment) is followed by changes in work, health, health related behaviours, and sickness absence. Methods: Prospective cohort study with four year follow up. Data from 4851 (710 male, 4141 female) hospital employees having a fixed term or permanent job contract on entry to the study were collected at baseline and follow up. Results: At baseline, compared to permanent employees, fixed term employees reported lower levels of workload, job security, and job satisfaction. They also reported greater work ability. All fixed term employees had a lower rate of medically certified sickness absence at baseline. Baseline rate ratios for those who remained fixed term were 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.75), and were 0.50 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.75) for those who later became permanent. Continuous fixed term employment was not associated with changes in the outcome measures. Change from fixed term to permanent employment was followed by an increase in job security, enduring job satisfaction, and increased medically certified sickness absence (compared to permanent workers rate ratio 0.96 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.16)). Other indicators of work, health, and health related behaviours remained unchanged. Conclusion: Receiving a permanent job contract after fixed term employment is associated with favourable changes in job security and job satisfaction. The corresponding increase in sickness absence might be due to a reduction in presenteeism and the wearing off of health related selection. PMID:14634187

  14. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  15. Low health literacy and older adults: meanings, problems, and recommendations for social work.

    PubMed

    Findley, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults struggle to manage their health care problems. Low health literacy exacerbates such struggles and contributes to a variety of adverse health behaviors and outcomes. Addressing how health literacy impinges on the lives of older adults is a neglected area of social work practice and knowledge. This article explores seven areas: defining health literacy, the problem and prevalence of low health literacy among older adults, health inequalities and health literacy, a brief literature review, neglected issues in the literature, suggestions for macro and micro social work interventions to improve health literacy for older adult populations, and conclusion.

  16. Crisis as opportunity: international health work during the economic depression.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The economic depression of the 1930s represented the most important economic and social crisis of its time. Surprisingly, its effect on health did not show in available morbidity and mortality rates. In 1932, the League of Nations Health Organisation embarked on a six-point program addressing statistical methods of measuring the effect and its influence on mental health and nutrition and establishing ways to safeguard public health through more efficient health systems. Some of these studies resulted in considerations of general relevance beyond crisis management. Unexpectedly, the crisis offered an opportunity to reconsider key concepts of individual and public health.

  17. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  18. Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Gómeez, Milena E; Sanchez, Juan F; Cardona, Angélica M; Pioquinto, Jaime F; Torres, Paula; Sanchez, Deisy; Camargo, Lina M; Castañeda, René A; Villamizar, Rafael H; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia). In these workshops, all the most exposed workers to wood dust were surveyed at the areas of sanding, brushing, immunization and painting (workers with the highest risk to get chronic respiratory disease). They were 177 workers. The use of hard and soft woods for furniture was detected. Besides, some pesticides, volatile organic solvents, synthetic epoxy resins glues and paintings, were used for finishes, which increases the risk of acquiring some neurological diseases and damage to the nervous system. Occurrence of cancer in nostrils mainly due to the use of hardwoods is an additional risk. With regard to the basic lighting conditions, it was found that half of workshops had deficiencies in special carving areas, because they were below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux). With relation to noise, all the workshops exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA). With respect to the occurrence of occupational events, no data were found in the companies, or analysis of employee absenteeism due to the exposure to particulate matter.

  19. Investigating the work-family conflict and health link: Repetitive thought as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly D; Gere, Judith; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2016-10-06

    Research is needed to investigate mechanisms linking work-family conflict to poor health in working adults. We took a novel approach to build on extant studies by testing a potential mechanism in these associations - repetitive thought. Data came from a sample of 203 partnered working adults. There were significant direct effects of work-family conflict with lower life satisfaction, positive affect, and perceived health as well as greater fatigue. As for total effects, work-family conflict was significantly associated with all health outcomes - life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, perceived health, and chronic health conditions - in the expected directions through repetitive thought. This study provides support that repetitive thought is one potential mechanism of how work-family conflict can take a toll on psychological and physical health. Findings are discussed in relation to improving workplace policies to improve the health of working adults managing work-family conflict.

  20. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  1. The Trouble with Health Savings Accounts: A Social Work Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, conservatives have promoted health savings accounts (HSAs) as a way of addressing the growing cost of health insurance. HSAs were introduced under the Medical Modernization Act of 2003 as "an alternative to traditional health insurance." They are at the heart of an effort to replace the current system of insurance with…

  2. Health of Children of the Working Poor: Description and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.; Wang, Shirley J.; Kwasman, Alan; Green, Delores; Morton, Linda

    More and more often, children in the United States are denied services that help keep them healthy or heal them when they are ill. This study examines the demographic, psychological, and physical health status of a group of children (N=293) with no access to health care, and who experienced an acute health problem. The children ranged in age from…

  3. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  4. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  5. The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings. Working Paper: 1146-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; And Others

    The primary focus of this paper is on the impact an early birth has on later labor force participation and earnings of women. Variables affecting the participation of women in a given year and factors affecting the total work experience are discussed in detail. These include: hours worked, annual earnings, hourly wages, occupational status, race,…

  6. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees.

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand-specific work ability). Reduced demand-specific work ability varied from 9% to 19% among the 46-year old and from 11% to 21% among the 56-year old. Age was associated with two, gender with four, and education with all measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. MSP was associated with four and MD was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability.

  7. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men.

  8. Work time control and mental health of workers working long hours: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. The study also attempted to show how that relationship depended on age and gender. Three hundred and six white-collar workers doing clerical work for over 8 h daily were diagnosed on work time control and mental health with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. The results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that participants working long hours but having high control over their work time had a significantly higher level of their mental health with regard to somatic complaints and anxiety and marginally higher with regard to social dysfunction than workers with low control over their work time. Male and female workers reported different problems with their mental health depending on what age (stage of life) they were at. It is hypothesized that the work-family conflict, inability to fulfil social commitments and poor working conditions can influence those effects.

  9. Toward Standardized, Comparable Public Health Systems Data: A Taxonomic Description of Essential Public Health Work

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jacqueline; Keeling, Jonathan; Gebbie, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify taxonomy of task, knowledge, and resources for documenting the work performed in local health departments (LHDs). Data Sources Secondary data were collected from documents describing public health (PH) practice produced by organizations representing the PH community. Study Design A multistep consensus-based method was used that included literature review, data extraction, expert opinion, focus group review, and pilot testing. Data Extraction Methods Terms and concepts were manually extracted from documents, consolidated, and evaluated for scope and sufficiency by researchers. An expert panel determined suitability of terms and a hierarchy for classifying them. This work was validated by practitioners and results pilot tested in two LHDs. Principal Findings The finalized taxonomy was applied to compare a national sample of 11 LHDs. Data were obtained from 1,064 of 1,267 (84 percent) of employees. Frequencies of tasks, knowledge, and resources constitute a profile of PH work. About 70 percent of the correlations between LHD pairs on tasks and knowledge were high (>0.7), suggesting between-department commonalities. On resources only 16 percent of correlations between LHD pairs were high, suggesting a source of performance variability. Conclusions A taxonomy of PH work serves as a tool for comparative research and a framework for further development. PMID:19686248

  10. [Selected work-related health problems in drivers of public transport vehicles].

    PubMed

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga

    2006-01-01

    The literature data and our own studies show that in drivers of public transport vehicles, largely intensified work-related risk factors for arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, duodenal and gastric ulcer diseases and back pain syndrome are found. These involves occupational risk factors as well as classic ones, such as obesity, limited physical activity or tobacco smoking. Among occupational risk factors, stress induced by the responsibility for assuring public safety in heavy urban traffic, time pressure and contacts with passengers predominate. Other burdens observed in this occupational group include specific, partly forced, position of the body at work and the shift work system. Exposure to chemical agents present in exhaust gas may increase the incidence of cancer at some sites in this group of drivers. Multifaceted burdens occurring in this occupation may impair health, leading to temporary or permanent disability to work. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop specific preventive programs addressed to this occupational group not only because of economic reasons, but mostly to increase public transport safety.

  11. Health and sexual outcomes of women who have experienced forced or coercive sex.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked women's history of experiencing sexual assault with negative health outcomes; however, much of this research is over a decade old. Furthermore, little research has examined the relationship between sexual assault and women's sexuality. In the current study the authors aimed to assess the relation of experiencing sexual assault to women's health and sexuality and the relation of repeat victimization by multiple different perpetrators to such outcomes. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 2,915 women using an online questionnaire. Nearly half (n = 1,394, 47.8%) indicated having experienced forced or coercive sex. Women who had experienced forced or coercive sex were more likely to report negative health outcomes (Adj. OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.35-1.82, p < .001) and some negative sexual outcomes compared to women without a history of forced or coercive sex. Similarly, women who experienced repeat victimizations by multiple different perpetrators were even more likely to report negative health outcomes (Adj. OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.28-1.59, p < .001) as well as some negative sexual outcomes. Healthcare providers should be aware of the relation of sexual assault to health and sexuality and continue to address health and sexuality issues associated with sexual assault for their patients.

  12. Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required. PMID:20382906

  13. Leveraging the Social Determinants of Health: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren A.; Tan, Annabel Xulin; Coyle, Caitlin E.; Ndumele, Chima; Rogan, Erika; Canavan, Maureen; Curry, Leslie A.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    We summarized the recently published, peer-reviewed literature that examined the impact of investments in social services or investments in integrated models of health care and social services on health outcomes and health care spending. Of 39 articles that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 32 (82%) reported some significant positive effects on either health outcomes (N = 20), health care costs (N = 5), or both (N = 7). Of the remaining 7 (18%) studies, 3 had non-significant results, 2 had mixed results, and 2 had negative results in which the interventions were associated with poorer health outcomes. Our analysis of the literature indicates that several interventions in the areas of housing, income support, nutrition support, and care coordination and community outreach have had positive impact in terms of health improvements or health care spending reductions. These interventions may be of interest to health care policymakers and practitioners seeking to leverage social services to improve health or reduce costs. Further testing of models that achieve better outcomes at less cost is needed. PMID:27532336

  14. The Combined Effect of Sleep Duration and Quality on Mental Health Among Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, Hee-Choon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-11-01

    Sleep problems in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces have increased. This study analyzed the mental health impact of sleep duration and quality on personnel of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Degree of sleep duration and quality were measured by this self-reported questionnaire. Analysis of variance was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K10) scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between sleep duration, quality, and K10 scores. Among the personnel studied, 2.5% reported severe sleep difficulties. The average sleep duration was 6.83 ± 1.12 hours. Short sleep duration and sleep difficulty were associated with poorer K10 scores. Higher K10 scores among individuals with short sleep duration and low sleep quality were identified in the isolated military area group, the over 53 working hours/week group, and the enlisted soldier group. The factors listed were not by themselves associated with poorer mental health scores. Rather, specific workplaces and specific rank groups were more prone to poorer mental health. These results provide helpful information to minimize the negative psychological effects of sleep factors and to promote a sleep problem prevention and management policy.

  15. Characteristics of personal health records: findings of the Medical Library Association/National Library of Medicine Joint Electronic Personal Health Record Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, Jean P; Plaut, Daphne A; Selden, Catherine R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Medical Library Association (MLA)/National Library of Medicine (NLM) Joint Electronic Personal Health Record Task Force examined the current state of personal health records (PHRs). Methods: A working definition of PHRs was formulated, and a database was built with fields for specified PHR characteristics. PHRs were identified and listed. Each task force member was assigned a portion of the list for data gathering. Findings were recorded in the database. Results: Of the 117 PHRs identified, 91 were viable. Almost half were standalone products. A number used national standards for nomenclature and/or record structure. Less than half were mobile device enabled. Some were publicly available, and others were offered only to enrollees of particular health plans or employees at particular institutions. A few were targeted to special health conditions. Conclusions: The PHR field is very dynamic. While most PHR products have some common elements, their features can vary. PHRs can link their users with librarians and information resources. MLA and NLM have taken an active role in making this connection and in encouraging librarians to assume this assistance role with PHRs. PMID:20648259

  16. Educational needs of health professionals working in rheumatology in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H.M; Alliot-Launois, Francoise; Beauvais, Catherine; Gobbo, Milena; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Munuera-Martínez, Pedro V; Opava, Christina H; Prior, Yeliz; Redmond, Anthony; Smucrova, Hana; Wiek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the availability of postgraduate education for health professionals (HPs) working in rheumatology in Europe, and their perceived educational needs and barriers for participation in current educational offerings. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with national representatives of rheumatology HPs' organisations and an online survey among individual HPs was disseminated through existing European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) networks (10 languages including English). These comprised questions on: availability of postgraduate education, familiarity with EULAR and its educational offerings, unmet needs regarding the contents and mode of delivery and potential barriers to participate in education (0–10 scales). Results According to 17 national representatives, postgraduate rheumatology education was most common for nurses, physical and occupational therapists. There were 1041 individuals responding to the survey, of whom 48% completed all questions. More than half (56%) were familiar with EULAR as an organisation, whereas <25% had attended the EULAR congress or were familiar with EULAR online courses. Educational needs regarding contents were highest for ‘inflammatory arthritis’ and ‘connective tissue diseases’ and regarding modes of delivery for ‘courses organised in own country’ and ‘online courses’. Important barriers to participation included lack of ‘resources’, ‘time’ and ‘English language skills’. Overall, there was considerable variation in needs and barriers among countries. Conclusions There is a lack of postgraduate rheumatology education for HPs in most countries. There are opportunities to raise awareness regarding EULAR educational offerings and to develop courses provided in HPs' own country, tailored to national needs and barriers and taking language barriers into consideration. PMID:27933210

  17. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    with any SRSDA subscale. Conclusions: Burnout appears to implicate mental health status of healthcare providers in work index. Emotional exhaustion is the burnout dimension that is correlated the most with employees’ mental health. PMID:25870487

  18. Health Literacy: Critical Opportunities for Social Work Leadership in Health Care and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liechty, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of U. S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to…

  19. Primary Health Care That Works: The Costa Rican Experience.

    PubMed

    Pesec, Madeline; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    Long considered a paragon among low- and middle-income countries in its provision of primary health care, Costa Rica reformed its primary health care system in 1994 using a model that, despite its success, has been generally understudied: basic integrated health care teams. This case study provides a detailed description of Costa Rica's innovative implementation of four critical service delivery reforms and explains how those reforms supported the provision of the four essential functions of primary health care: first-contact access, coordination, continuity, and comprehensiveness. As countries around the world pursue high-quality universal health coverage to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, Costa Rica's experiences provide valuable lessons about both the types of primary health care reforms needed and potential mechanisms through which these reforms can be successfully implemented.

  20. The Relationship between Work-Life Conflict/Work-Life Balance and Operational Effectiveness in the Canadian Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    August 27, 2001. [23] Dowden, C. (May, 2000). Quality of life in the Canadian Forces: Conceptualization and measurement of the QOL construct...Directorate of Quality of Life. [77] Thomas, J.L., Adler, A.B., & Castro, C.A. (2005). Measuring operations tempo and relating it to military performance...operational pace, appear to have had a negative impact on the quality of life of CF members (e.g., Jefferies 2001a, 2001b; Dunn & Pepin, 2006

  1. Impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act on U. S. Naval Construction Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) effective 29 December 1970 (P. L. 91-596) and its impact on the U.S. Naval Construction Force (NCF...is examined. The history of occupational safety legislation in the United States is summarized and discussed. The OSH Act is condensed and interpreted

  2. Promoting Positive Emotional Health of Children of Transient Armed Forces Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eodanable, Miranda; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research was to promote emotional health in a small primary school (n = 180), with a highly transient pupil population of armed forces children (Service children). Negative effects of pupil mobility have been found to relate to academic attainment (Dobson, Henthorne, & Lynas, 2000; Mott, 2002), but its effect on social and…

  3. Information Technology Management: Acquisition of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-18

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of Inspector General May 18, 2006 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Acquisition of the...AND SUBTITLE Information Technology Management : Acquisition of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    with its expansive network of renown international researchers, continues to strive for surveillance products of benefit for force health protection...to DOD and US Army requirements and delivers life saving products including knowledge, technology, and medical materiel that sustain the combat...deployed veterinary personnel to screen for highly pathogenic avian influenza in animals by validating the National Veterinary Service Laboratory avian

  5. Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

  6. The Joint Commission has provided a tool to change your work force: are you paying attention?

    PubMed

    Decker, P J; Strader, M K

    1998-03-01

    Most health care managers wonder how to change employee "attitudes" so that their staff will be more accountable for patient satisfaction, cost reduction, and quality of care. Employees were trained to function in an industry where the power players were the physician and the administrator and now it is exceedingly difficult to get them to switch their attention to the patient and the payer in a market-driven economy. For hospital managers, the answer may be right at their fingertips: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards demanding that employee competence be objectively measured, proven, tracked & trended, improved, and age specific. A comprehensive competence assessment system can save the health care manager enormous work in measuring fewer things, focusing performance assessment on the 20 percent of things that are true problems, and helping to specifically define certain competencies such as customer focus and cost consciousness so that coaching, training, and giving performance feedback is easier. Developing a comprehensive competence assessment system is a powerful tool to change the culture of organizations. Consequently, it is important that managers be aware of those possibilities before they embark on developing "competencies" or before their organizations get too carried away on redesigning systems to satisfy standards.

  7. Process evaluation of an integrated health promotion/occupational health model in WellWorks-2.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Mary Kay; Lederman, Ruth; Stoddard, Anne M; LaMontagne, Anthony D; McLellan, Deborah; Combe, Candace; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Glorian

    2005-02-01

    Disparities in chronic disease risk by occupation call for new approaches to health promotion. Well Works-2 was a randomized, controlled study comparing the effectiveness of a health promotion/occupational health program (HP/OHS) with a standard intervention (HP). Interventions in both studies were based on the same theoretical foundations. Results from process evaluation revealed that a similar number of activities were offered in both conditions and that in the HP/OHS condition there were higher levels of worker participation using three measures: mean participation per activity (HP: 14.2% vs. HP/OHS: 21.2%), mean minutes of worker exposure to the intervention/site (HP: 14.9 vs. HP/OHS: 33.3), and overall mean participation per site (HP: 34.4% vs. HP/ OHS: 45.8%). There were a greater number of contacts with management (HP: 8.8 vs. HP/OHS: 24.9) in the HP/ OHS condition. Addressing occupational health may have contributed to higher levels of worker and management participation and smoking cessation among blue-collar workers.

  8. Work function measurement of multilayer electrodes using Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, L.; Bou, A.; Cornille, C.; Barakel, D.; Torchio, P.

    2017-04-01

    The workfunction of dielectric|metal|dielectric transparent and conductive electrodes, promising candidates for replacing ITO in thin film solar cells, is measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Measurement on commercial ITO gives a workfunction of 4.74 eV, which is in agreement with the values reported in the literature. Measurements are then performed on optically optimised multilayer electrodes fabricated on glass by e-beam evaporation, using three different dielectrics. For TiO2(37 nm)|Ag(13 nm)|TiO2(42 nm), SnO x (45 nm)|Ag(10 nm)|SnO x (45 nm), and ZnS(47 nm)|Ag(12 nm)|ZnS(42 nm), workfunctions of 4.83 eV, 4.75 eV, and 4.48 eV are measured respectively. These values suggest that these transparent and conductive electrodes are well adapted to extract photo-generated charge carriers in photovoltaic devices in which ITO is normally used. Furthermore, the KPFM technique proves to be an efficient and relatively fast way to determine the work function values of such electrodes.

  9. [Management of "complicated" work fitness judgements among health care workers].

    PubMed

    Tonelli, F; Salvioni, M; Cucchi, I; Omeri, E; Piretti, C; Ronchin, M; Carrer, P

    2007-01-01

    The occupational physician, performing health surveillance within a hospital, may face to some difficulties due to the variety and complexity of the tasks and the health risk factors of the health care workers. One of the hardest issue for occupational physician is to provide judgement on worker's fitness. Moreover, this task could be more complicated when a impaired worker could represent an hazard for his patients and colleagues. The authors will illustrate three critical clinical cases examined in Occupational Health Unit of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan; furthermore, the authors will show the difficulties and the applied solutions in order to provide the judgement on worker's fitness.

  10. Citizenship, work, welfare, education and health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Des

    2011-05-27

    Access to excellent, unconstrained and timely health care is considered a birthright by most New Zealanders. However, there are shortcomings in some health services, especially in mental health and rehabilitation, and these not only have an adverse personal impact but also challenge the sustainability of the national welfare system. There are insufficient well-trained people who can manage 'care' in line with either generic best practice or Whanau Ora ideology. An important and core reform is for a coordination of relevant programmes in education, health, justice and welfare, and for both shared accountabilities and linked governance.

  11. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  12. Is Lifelong Knee Joint Force from Work, Home, and Sport Related to Knee Osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Ratzlaff, Charles R.; Koehoorn, Mieke; Cibere, Jolanda; Kopec, Jacek A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the association of cumulative lifetime knee joint force on the risk of self-reported medically-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Exposure data on lifetime physical activity type (occupational, household, sport/recreation) and dose (frequency, intensity, duration) were collected from 4,269 Canadian men and women as part of the Physical Activity and Joint Heath cohort study. Subjects were ranked in terms of the “cumulative peak force index”, a measure of lifetime mechanical knee force. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to obtain adjusted effects for mean lifetime knee force on the risk of knee OA. Results. High levels of total lifetime, occupational and household-related force were associated with an increased in risk of OA, with odds ratio's ranging from approximately 1.3 to 2. Joint injury, high BMI and older age were related to risk of knee OA, consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. A newly developed measure of lifetime mechanical knee force from physical activity was employed to estimate the risk of self-reported, medically-diagnosed knee OA. While there are limitations, this paper suggests that high levels of total lifetime force (all domains combined), and occupational force in men and household force in women were risk factors for knee OA. PMID:22848225

  13. Child Health Inequality: Framing a Social Work Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Montana, Salvador; Clarke, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies acknowledge that the well-being of our nation hinges on the health of its people. There is specific concern about children because they represent the future. Ignoring children's health needs can compromise their educational preparedness, occupational pursuits, productivity, and longevity. Current science demonstrates that…

  14. Working together to create supportive environments in worksite health promotion.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, Thomas; Allen, Judd; Edington, Dee

    2008-01-01

    A conccptual model for addressing the creation of supportive environments for worksite health promotion settings is presented. The authors also discuss the variety of organizational and cultural interventions that are necessary in creating a supportive environment for healthy behavior using a social ecology perspective. The connection to next generation strategies in worksite health promotion is proposed and summaries of the relevant literatures are cited.

  15. Scientific and popular health knowledge in the education work of community health agents in Rio de Janeiro shantytowns.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, M S; Kolawole Salami, B; Perreault, M; Leite, L C

    2012-08-01

    Health education for socially marginalized populations challenges the efficacy of existing strategies and methods, and the pertinence of the educational and philosophical principles that underpin them. The Brazilian Community Health Agents Initiative (CHAI) hires residents of deprived marginalized communities to undertake health promotion and education in their communities. The ultimate goal of the CHAI is to connect populations with the public healthcare system by promoting social re-affiliation, protecting civil rights and enhancing equity of access to health services. In this article, we present the education work of community health agents through interplay between popular and scientific health knowledge in nine Rio de Janeiro shantytowns. A critical ethnographic research design, using thematic analysis, allowed us to explore agents' education work to enhance family health literacy in shantytowns. Local culture and social practices inspire Agents to create original strategies to reconcile forms of health knowledge in their work.

  16. [Subjectiveness and management: exploring psychosocial links on managerial and health work].

    PubMed

    Sá, Marilene de Castilho; Azevedo, Creuza da Silva

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents our theoretical perspective over health management, particularly on managerial and health work. To face the complex problems related to public health services management and health care quality - important challenges of Brazilian Sanitary Reform - we study the group/inter-subjective and unconscious characteristic of organizational processes, which has important effects over health services dynamics and their quality. For this purpose, we attempt to articulate three theoretical perspectives:(1) the French Psycho sociology approach on organizations and contemporary society; (2) the psychoanalytical theory on inter-subjective and group processes; and (3) the Work Psychodynamics, which focuses the relations between pleasure and suffering in work processes. Through this research process, we explore links and mediations among psychic, inter-subjective, group and social realities that are present in health organizations, managerial work and health work. Also, limits and possibilities these mediations set to leadership, cooperation, collective projects and health care quality are identified.

  17. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  18. Work, Health, And Worker Well-Being: Roles And Opportunities For Employers.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Robert K

    2017-02-01

    Work holds the promise of supporting and promoting health. It also carries the risk of injury, illness, and death. In addition to harms posed by traditional occupational health hazards, such as physically dangerous workplaces, work contributes to health problems with multifactorial origins such as unhealthy lifestyles, psychological distress, and chronic disease. Not only does work affect health, but the obverse is true: Unhealthy workers are more frequently disabled, absent, and less productive, and they use more health care resources, compared to their healthy colleagues. The costs of poor workforce health are collectively borne by workers, employers, and society. For business as well as altruistic reasons, employers may strive to cost-effectively achieve the safest, healthiest, and most productive workforce possible. Narrowly focused health goals are giving way to a broader concept of employee well-being. This article explores the relationship between health and work, outlines opportunities for employers to make this relationship health promoting, and identifies areas needing further exploration.

  19. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  20. Assessing human resources for health: what can be learned from labour force surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeru; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2003-01-01

    Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of occupational distribution and

  1. The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI) can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI): normal (18.5 − 24.9 kg/m2; n = 197), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2; n = 154) and obese (≥30 kg/m2) with restricted body fat (≤28% for females, ≤24% for males) (n = 148) and with no restriction on body fat (n = 180). Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions) and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service) over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p < 0.05) in both obese cohorts compared with the normal cohort. The estimated productivity losses from restricted work days were also higher (p < 0.05) in the obese cohort with no restriction on body fat compared with the normal cohort. Within the obese cohort, the prevalence of injury and illness, healthcare usage and productivity were not significantly greater in the obese cohort with no restriction on body fat compared with the cohort with restricted body fat. The number of restricted work days, the rate of re-classification of Medical Employment

  2. The Certification Program, Training, and Competencies--An Examination of the Air Force Contracting Work Force’s Response to the Sufficiency of Professional Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    military missions (Land, 1993: 23 2). Defense Acquisition Work Force: Pennanent civilian employees and military members who occupy acquisition positions, who...certification(Policv Guide, 1994:4). 2-7 C•rer/Professional Development: The professional development of employee potential by integrating the capabilities...needs, interests, and aptitudes of employees participating in a career program through a planned, organized, and systematic method of training and

  3. [Work process and working conditions in poultry processing plants: report of a survey on occupational health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo Antonio Barros; Mendes, Jussara Maria Rosa

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the report of a survey on health surveillance activities performed in poultry processing plants in the south of Brazil. It aims to contribute to an understanding of the work process developed, the growth of the sector, the organization of labor and the confrontation with the economic model of this sector, which has been exposing employees to working conditions that undermine their health. The working conditions identified are considered largely incompatible with health and human dignity. The study supports interinstitutional intervention, especially with the Public Ministry of Labor, criticizes the weak implementation of specific government interventions in health conditions in the industry and introduces the new Regulatory Standard 36 as a positive perspective for the near future.

  4. Creating health connections for vulnerable working populations: Goodwill North Central Wisconsin's Circles of Good Care Model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Marjorie D

    2011-12-01

    Worker health is influenced by workplace, work processes, and workmates. This case study shows it is possible to create health connections for vulnerable working populations through health and wellness coaching. The health and safety of team members has been improved by providing on-site health coaching linked to mental and emotional well-being, as well as financial security. By leveraging the collective efficacy of the workplace, more vulnerable populations can become better health care consumers, with increased self-efficacy in promoting their own health and wellness and that of their families.

  5. How Can Magnetic Forces Do Work? Investigating the Problem with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present a sequence of activities aimed at promoting both learning about magnetic forces and students' reflection about the conceptual bridge between magnetic forces on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. The activity sequence, designed for students in high school or on introductory physics courses, has been…

  6. Health benefits of primary care social work for adults with complex health and social needs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Jules; Mercer, Stewart W; Harris, Fiona M

    2016-04-05

    The prevalence of complex health and social needs in primary care patients is growing. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the impact of psychosocial distress on the significantly poorer health outcomes in this population may have been underestimated. The potential of social work in primary care settings has been extensively discussed in both health and social work literature and there is evidence that social work interventions in other settings are particularly effective in addressing psychosocial needs. However, the evidence base for specific improved health outcomes related to primary care social work is minimal. This review aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence on the health benefits of social work interventions in primary care settings. Nine electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2015 and seven primary research studies were retrieved. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Although there is no definitive evidence for effectiveness, results suggest a promising role for primary care social work interventions in improving health outcomes. These include subjective health measures and self-management of long-term conditions, reducing psychosocial morbidity and barriers to treatment and health maintenance. Although few rigorous study designs were found, the contextual detail and clinical settings of studies provide evidence of the practice applicability of social work intervention. Emerging policy on the integration of health and social care may provide an opportunity to develop this model of care.

  7. Course Content for Social Work Practice in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Barbara; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for developing curricula that integrate health-specific content with traditional foundation content. Specific course content for practice in human behavior, social environment, organization, and policy sequences are proposed. (Author/MH)

  8. Between the Cracks: Access to Physical Health Care in Children of the Working Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.; Wang, Shirley J.; Kwasman, Alan; Green, Delores

    This study examined the demographic and psychological characteristics of the parents of a group of children with no access to health care, due to their status as "working poor" and thus denied either public or private health insurance whose children were referred for treatment for an acute health problem by a volunteer health care…

  9. Preparing for Global Women’s Health Work

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Interest in global maternal health has steadily increased over the past decade. Medical schools are offering courses on this subject, residencies are incorporating international elective rotations into their practices, and retiring practitioners are opting to spend a year or two in low-resource settings. Although interest is growing, sometimes wellmeaning health practitioners are not entirely prepared for their new experience. Prior to departure, a multistep process is necessary to prepare physicians for living and practicing overseas. PMID:24358408

  10. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  11. [Trends of work force participation of patients with rheumatic diseases : results from German social insurance data and the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers].

    PubMed

    Mau, W; Thiele, K; Lamprecht, J

    2014-02-01

    Positive therapeutic effects on the work force participation derived from international clinical trials may not be directly transferable to the community based care in Germany. Therefore recent changes of data regarding sick leave (SL), work disability pension (WDP) and employment from the social insurance and from the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers were analyzed covering a time period of at least 10 years. Health insurance data showed a steeper decline in the average duration of SL caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with all other diseases. In RA patients from the collaborative arthritis centers the mean duration of SL was much more reduced than the average duration of SL for members of the compulsory health insurance. The proportion of gainfully employed RA patients in collaborative arthritis centers has particularly increased in women. According to data from the pension insurance fund less incident cases of WDP due to RA, AS, and SLE have been observed than WDP caused by all other diseases. Thus different nationwide data show positive changes of the work force participation of individuals suffering from inflammatory rheumatic diseases in Germany.

  12. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  13. Work-based learning in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sue

    This article examines some of the issues encountered in helping to develop and facilitate work-based learning (WBL) in clinical areas from the author's perspective of APEL/WBL co-ordinator. The advantages of work-based learning to both organisations and practitioners are discussed, together with possible drawbacks. The article concludes by identifying the positive aspects, including that of practice development, but suggests caution in attempting to use work-based learning in all circumstances.

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.205 - If my transfer is involuntary (due to i.e., reduction in force, cessation, or transfer of work...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involuntary (due to i.e., reduction in force, cessation, or transfer of work), is it considered to be in the... TYPE Types of Transfers Reduction in Force Relocation § 302-3.205 If my transfer is involuntary (due to i.e., reduction in force, cessation, or transfer of work), is it considered to be in the interest...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.205 - If my transfer is involuntary (due to i.e., reduction in force, cessation, or transfer of work...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involuntary (due to i.e., reduction in force, cessation, or transfer of work), is it considered to be in the... TYPE Types of Transfers Reduction in Force Relocation § 302-3.205 If my transfer is involuntary (due to i.e., reduction in force, cessation, or transfer of work), is it considered to be in the interest...

  16. Multiple vaccinations, health, and recall bias within UK armed forces deployed to Iraq: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the relation between self reported number of vaccinations received and health, and between numbers of vaccinations recorded from individuals’ medical records and health. Design First phase of a cohort study. Setting UK armed forces personnel. Participants 4882 randomly selected military personnel deployed to Iraq since 2003 and a subset of 378 whose vaccination records were accessed. Main outcome measures Psychological distress, fatigue, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, health perception, and multiple physical symptoms. Results Personnel who reported receiving two or more vaccinations on a single day were more likely to report symptoms of fatigue (adjusted risk ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.30), show caseness according to the general health questionnaire (1.31, 1.13 to 1.53), and have multiple physical symptoms (1.32, 1.08 to 1.60). These associations were no longer significant when number of vaccinations recorded in individuals’ medical records was used as the independent variable. Conclusions Multiple vaccinations given to personnel in the UK armed forces in preparation for deployment to Iraq are not associated with adverse health consequences when vaccinations are recorded objectively from medical records. Adverse health consequences associated with self reported multiple vaccinations could be explained by recall bias. PMID:18595928

  17. Risk and resilience: health inequalities, working conditions and sickness benefit arrangements: an analysis of the 2010 European Working Conditions survey.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Bambra, Clare; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A; Lunau, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    In this article we ask whether the level of sickness benefit provision protects the health of employees, particularly those who are most exposed to hazardous working conditions or who have a little education. The study uses the European Working Condition Survey that includes information on 20,626 individuals from 28 countries. Health was measured by self-reported mental wellbeing and self-rated general health. Country-level sickness benefit provision was constructed using spending data from Eurostat. Group-specific associations were fitted using cross-level interaction terms between sickness benefit provision and physical and psychosocial working conditions respectively, as well as those with little education. The mental wellbeing of employees exposed to psychosocial job strain and physical hazards, or who had little education, was better in countries that offer more generous sickness benefit. These results were found in both men and women and were robust to the inclusion of GDP and country fixed effects. In the analyses of self-reported general health, few group-specific associations were found. This article concludes that generous sickness benefit provision may strengthen employee's resilience against mental health risks at work and risks associated with little education. Consequently, in countries with a generous provision of sickness benefit, social inequalities in mental health are smaller.

  18. Integrated Working for Enhanced Health Care in English Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    McNall, Anne; Thompson, Juliana; Hodgson, Philip; Shaw, Lynne; Cowie, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasingly complex nature of care home residents’ health status means that this population requires significant multidisciplinary team input from health services. To address this, a multisector and multiprofessional enhanced healthcare programme was implemented in nursing homes across Gateshead Council in Northern England. Study Aims To explore the views and experiences of practitioners, social care officers, and carers involved in the enhanced health care in care home programme, in order to develop understanding of the service delivery model and associated workforce needs for the provision of health care to older residents. Methods A qualitative constructivist methodology was adopted. The study had two stages. Stage 1 explored the experiences of the programme enhanced healthcare workforce through group, dyad, and individual interviews with 45 participants. Stage 2 involved two workshops with 28 participants to develop Stage 1 findings (data were collected during February–March 2016). Thematic and content analysis were applied. Findings The enhanced healthcare programme provides a whole system approach to the delivery of proactive and responsive care for nursing home residents. The service model enables information exchange across organizational and professional boundaries that support effective decision making and problem solving. Clinical Relevance Understanding of the processes and outcomes of a model of integrated health care between public and independent sector care home services for older people. PMID:28094909

  19. Air Force Health Care Providers: Automation Concerns Relating to - Needs, Experience, and Support,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-22

    aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry... occupational medicine family practice primary care pediatrics pathology radiology radiation therapy neuroradiology nuclear medicine diagnostic...operations. (5) Coputerized Occupational Health Program (CCFI) (a) COHP supports the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. It

  20. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Panis, Constantijn W. A.

    2004-01-01

    What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With such inevitabilities as the proliferation and acceleration of technology worldwide, will more individuals work at home, will more businesses outsource their noncore functions -- and with what consequences? Answering such questions…

  1. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Panis, Constantijn W. A.

    2004-01-01

    What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With such inevitabilities as the proliferation and acceleration of technology worldwide, will more individuals work at home, will more businesses outsource their noncore functions -- and with what consequences? Answering such questions…

  2. Evaluation of Programs for the Gifted and Talented: Report of the Connecticut Task Force on Evaluation. Working Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alan J., Ed.; Milbury, Frank, Comp.

    The report (in working draft form) of the Connecticut Task Force on Evaluation of Programs for the Gifted and Talented examines evaluation issues of product, process, and presage and provides samples of nonstandardized evaluation instruments being used in 21 local Connecticut gifted programs. Product evaluation is seen to focus on student…

  3. Texas Quality Workforce Planning: 1993 Key Industries and Targeted Occupations for Texas' 24 Quality Work Force Planning Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Commerce, Austin.

    In 1993, Texas' 24 quality work force planning committees used a state-developed targeted occupations planning methodology to identify key industries and targeted occupations with the greatest potential for job openings in their respective regions. Between 11 and 20 key industries (13.5 on average) were identified for each region. The following 10…

  4. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no…

  5. Distraction: an assessment of smartphone usage in health care work settings

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308

  6. Making Program Assessment Work: A Profile of the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.; Lowe, James K.; Aretz, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the three levels of course and program assessment present at the U.S. Air Force Academy, including assessment at the course, departmental, and institutional levels. Points out common elements useful to all assessment efforts. (EV)

  7. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  8. Indigenous peoples' food systems for health: finding interventions that work.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet; Erasmus, Bill; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Englberger, Lois; Okeke, Chinwe; Turner, Nancy; Allen, Lindsay; Bhattacharjee, Lalita

    2006-12-01

    This is a short report of a 'safari' held in conjunction with the International Congress of Nutrition in September 2005, in Futululu, St. Lucia, South Africa. Participants were several members of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Task Force on Indigenous Peoples' Food Systems and Nutrition, other interested scientists and members of the Kwa Zulu indigenous community. The paper describes the rationale for and contributions towards understanding what might be successful interventions that would resonate among indigenous communities in many areas of the world. A summary of possible evaluation strategies of such interventions is also given.

  9. Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Goddard, P. M.; Stone, J. R.; Dutra, M.

    2013-05-01

    A short list of Skyrme force parameterizations, recently found to have passed a series of constraints relating to nuclear matter properties is analyzed for their ability to reproduce data in finite nuclei. We analyse binding energies, isotope shifts, neutron skin thicknesses and fission barriers. We find that the subset of forces have no common ability to reproduce(or otherwise)properties of finite nuclei, despite passing the extensive range of nuclear matter constraints.

  10. Air Force Working Capital Fund: Actions Needed to Manage Cash Balances to Required Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    on receiving daily cash balances. • Because airlift rates are set to compete with private sector rates , they do not cover the full cost. The...the maximum cash requirement for fiscal year 2009. Air Force headquarters officials informed us that when they set the rates to be charged to CSAG and... Rates Too High for Supply Items Monthly Cash Balances Fluctuated Because of the Cyclical Nature of Events Page 12 GAO-14-480 Air Force

  11. Small Wars 2.0: A Working Paper on Land Force Planning After Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    land force changes. This new, broader contingency set should move conceptually beyond what was once called the War on Terror ( WoT ) and into...official examination of future ground combat demands that look genetically distinct from those undertaken in the name of the WoT . The concept of...emerged as a result appears to tie the fate of land forces almost rxclusively with persistent, WoT -related CT and COIN. Again, this is clearly a

  12. Does living and working in a hot environment induce clinically relevant changes in immune function and voluntary force production capacity?

    PubMed

    Knez, Wade; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sebastien; Walsh, Andrew; Gaoua, Nadia; Grantham, Justin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of living (summer vs. winter) and working (morning vs. afternoon) in a hot environment on markers of immune function and forearm strength. Thirty-one healthy male gas field employees were screened before (between 05:30 and 07:00) and after their working day (between 15:30 and 17:00) during both seasons. Body core temperature and physical activity were recorded throughout the working days. The hot condition (i.e. summer) led a higher (p≤0.05) average body core temperature (~37.2 vs. ~37.4 °C) but reduced physical activity (-14.8%) during the work-shift. Our data showed an increase (p≤0.05) in lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the summer. Additionally, work-shift resulted in significant (p≤0.001) changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes independently of the environment. Handgrip (p=0.069) and pinch (p=0.077) forces tended to be reduced from pre-to post-work, while only force produced during handgrip manoeuvres was significantly reduced (p≤0.05) during the hot compared to the temperate season. No interactions were observed between the environment and work-shift for any marker of immune function or forearm strength. In summary, working and living in hot conditions impact on markers of immune function and work capacity; however by self-regulating energy expenditure, immune markers remained in a healthy reference range.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-09

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.

  15. Toward a unified system of accreditation for professional preparation in health education: final report of the National Task Force on Accreditation in Health Education.

    PubMed

    Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Auld, M Elaine; Birch, David A; Roe, Kathleen M; Smith, Becky J

    2004-12-01

    During the past 40 years, health education has taken significant steps toward improving quality assurance in professional preparation through individual certification and program approval and accreditation. Although the profession has begun to embrace individual certification, program accreditation in health education has been neither uniformly available nor universally accepted by institutions of higher education. To further strengthen professional preparation in health education, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) and the American Association for Health Education (AAHE) established the National Task Force on Accreditation in Health Education in 2001. The 3-year Task Force was charged with developing a detailed plan for a coordinated accreditation system for undergraduate and graduate programs in health education. This article summarizes the Task Force's findings and recommendations, which have been approved by the SOPHE and AAHE boards, and, if implemented, promise to lay the foundation for the highest quality professional preparation and practice in health education.

  16. Sexual health of adults working in pornographic films.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K M; Banks, A; Heggie, C; Scott, C J; Grover, D; Evans, C; Mandalia, S; McLean, K A; Cohen, C E

    2009-07-01

    We report the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) diagnosed in performers in the adult pornographic film industry. Over a 13 month period, 445 STI screens were performed in 115 patients, 56 women and 59 men. All reported unprotected sex during filming. Seventy-five percent (86) had at least one sexual partner outside work, and 90% used condoms inconsistently with them. Women worked exclusively with women (23%), men only (38%) or both genders (39%). Almost all men (97%) worked exclusively heterosexually. Thirty-eight percent (44/115) were diagnosed with 77 STIs, including non-specific urethritis (51), gonorrhoea (10), chlamydia (6) and genital warts (6). Gonorrhoea was found exclusively at the pharynx in three heterosexual men. There were no cases of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Monthly screening and certification is a working requirement for this population but STIs are common in an industry where unprotected sex is the norm.

  17. Local Health Integration Networks: will "made in Ontario" work?

    PubMed

    Ronson, John

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the prospects for success of the new LHINs and whether or not a "made in Ontario" model is likely to work. It concludes with some advice for independent healthcare corporations in the province.

  18. A novel approach for mental health disease management: the Air Force Medical Service's interdisciplinary model.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Christine N; Fonseca, Vincent P; Meyer, John G; Oordt, Mark S; Talcott, G Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Mental health disorders are one of the most substantial public health problems affecting society today, accounting for roughly 15% of the overall burden of disease from all causes in the United States. Although primary care (PC) has the potential to be the frontline for recognition and management of behavioral health conditions, this has been a challenge historically. In order to more effectively address the broad scope of behavioral health needs, the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) established a new model of behavioral health care. Through a series of coordinated steps, the AFMS ultimately placed trained behavioral health providers into PC clinics to serve as consultants to PC providers (PCPs). Behavioral Health Consultants (BHCs) provide focused assessments, present healthcare options to patients, and deliver brief collaborative interventions in the PC setting. BHCs see patients at the request of the PCP, in 15-30-min appointments. In the pilot study, patients averaged 1.6 visits to the BHC. Over 70% of patients fell into six categories of presenting problems: situational reactions, depressive disorders, adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, health promotion, and obesity. Patient data (n = 76) suggest 97% of patients seen were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with BHC services, and 100% of the PCPs (n = 23, 68% response rate) were highly satisfied and indicated they would "definitely recommend" others use BHC services for their patients. Both the implications and the limitations of this pilot study are discussed.

  19. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Prevention Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports... collaborative initiative through which many organizations and individuals are helping develop an action agenda... exposures. This notice announces the availability of draft National Conversation work group reports...

  20. How older workers with coronary heart disease perceive the health effects of work.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan

    2013-11-01

    More than 3.4 million workers have coronary heart disease (CHD) with significant work limitations and disability. Although the cohort of aging workers with CHD is growing, little is known about how older workers with CHD perceive the relationship between the work environment, including job stress, and their health. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of the health effects of work among older workers with CHD and describe how they cope with work stress. The sample was 47% female and 33% African American. Their mean age was 59.21 (± 5.4) years, and most (55%) worked in professional or managerial jobs. Themes emerged about perceptions of the health effects of work and coping strategies. Because older employees are a vulnerable work group, understanding the perceived health effects of work may guide future workplace program development and policy.

  1. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces: where facts meet fiction

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Elizabeth J. F.; Wessely, Simon; Jones, Norman; Rona, Roberto J.; Greenberg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted into the mental health of the UK military in recent years. This article summarises the results of the various studies and offers possible explanations for differences in findings between the UK and other allied nations. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates are perhaps surprisingly low amongst British forces, with prevalence rates of around 4% in personnel who have deployed, rising to 6% in combat troops, despite the high tempo of operations in recent years. The rates in personnel currently on operations are consistently lower than these. Explanations for the lower PTSD prevalence in British troops include variations in combat exposures, demographic differences, higher leader to enlisted soldier ratios, shorter operational tour lengths and differences in access to long-term health care between countries. Delayed-onset PTSD was recently found to be more common than previously supposed, accounting for nearly half of all PTSD cases; however, many of these had sub-syndromal PTSD predating the onset of the full disorder. Rates of common mental health disorders in UK troops are similar or higher to those of the general population, and overall operational deployments are not associated with an increase in mental health problems in UK regular forces. However, there does appear to be a correlation between both deployment and increased alcohol misuse and post-deployment violence in combat troops. Unlike for regular forces, there is an overall association between deployment and mental health problems in Reservists. There have been growing concerns regarding mild traumatic brain injury, though this appears to be low in British troops with an overall prevalence of 4.4% in comparison with 15% in the US military. The current strategies for detection and treatment of mental health problems in British forces are also described. The stance of the UK military is that psychological welfare of troops is primarily a chain of

  2. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  3. The inconsistent mediating effects of psychosocial work characteristics on the education-health relationship.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hanyao; Bures, Regina; Shehan, Constance L

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and educational disparities in health. Informed by the evidence on the relationship between work pressure and higher education, we suggested reframing the distribution of psychosocial work characteristics in the context of education. We differentiated psychosocial work resources from demands and hypothesized that the inconsistent mediation effects of psychosocial resources and demands are associated with educational status. Using data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW), we found that psychosocial work resources and demands had inconsistent mediating effects on the education-health relationship. Higher educated employees were more likely to report autonomy, challenge and schedule control, but they were also more likely to experience overtime hours, job overload and work-family conflict. Work resources appeared to protect higher-educated workers from stress and health problems while work demands put them at risk of less favorable health outcomes. In addition we found that the 'costs' of psychosocial work demands were stronger among women, particularly those who were highly educated, suggesting that highly educated women did not reap the full health benefit of high educational attainment. Our findings illustrate that the observed positive associations between education and health mask important heterogeneity in the effects of psychosocial work characteristics. We discuss the implications of this study for health and family-based work policies.

  4. [Health promotion based on assets: how to work with this perspective in local interventions?

    PubMed

    Cofiño, Rafael; Aviñó, Dory; Benedé, Carmen Belén; Botello, Blanca; Cubillo, Jara; Morgan, Antony; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan Josep; Hernán, Mariano

    2016-11-01

    An asset-based approach could be useful to revitalise health promotion or community health interventions combining work with multiple partnerships, positive health, community engagement, equity and orientation of health determinants. We set some recommendations about how to incorporate the assets model in programmes, projects and interventions in health promotion. Some techniques are described for assets mapping and some experiences with this methodology being developed in different regions are systematised. We propose the term "Asset-based Health Promotion/Community Health" as an operational definition to work at the local level with a community engagement and participatory approach, building alliances between different institutions at the state-regional level and trying to create a framework for action with the generation of evaluations and evidence to work on population interventions from the perspective of positive health.

  5. Health, supervisory support, and workplace culture in relation to work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  6. Social networks, the 'work' and work force of chronic illness self-management: a survey analysis of personal communities.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Brooks, Helen; Kapadia, Dharmi; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Reeves, David

    2013-01-01

    Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness 'work' undertaken within peoples' social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact) impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples' networks. In networks with 'no partner' other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support.

  7. Rethinking work-health models for the new global economy: a qualitative analysis of emerging dimensions of work.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, Michael; Tompa, Emile

    2004-01-01

    Technology change, rising international trade and investment, and increased competition are changing the organization, distribution and nature of work in industrialized countries. To enhance productivity, employers are striving to increase innovation while minimizing costs. This is leading to an intensification of work demands on core employees and the outsourcing or casualization of more marginal tasks, often to contingent workers. The two prevailing models of work and health - demand-control and effort-reward imbalance - may not capture the full range of experiences of workers in today's increasingly flexible and competitive economies. To explore this proposition, we conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 120 American workers [6]. Our analysis identifies aspects of work affecting the quality of workers' experiences that are largely overlooked by popular work-health models: the nature of social interactions with customers and clients; workers' belief in, and perception of, the importance of the product of their work. We suggest that the quality of work experiences is partly determined by the objective characteristics of the work environment, but also by the fit of the work environment with the worker's needs, interests, desires and personality, something not adequately captured in current models.

  8. Solution focused nursing: a fitting model for mental health nurses working in a public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government health agenda is advocating an extension of public health principles across all levels of the health sector. Since mental health nurses have long been proponents of public health and health promoting behaviours, an opportunity exists for this specialty of nursing to extend their influence and contribution within health. Solution focused nursing (SFN), a model that emerged from mental health practice, offers a framework to assist mental health nurses and leaders to more clearly practise public health principles within nursing and articulate that practice - for it is in the articulation of practice that nurses and nursing is made visible and valued. This paper aims to expand on and reiterate the SFN model, showing how it connects to public health principles and develops the mental health nurse's role - particularly in those clinical areas that require more than medical management and illness stabilization.

  9. Work History and Later-Life Labor Force Participation: Evidence from a Large Telecommunications Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Gangaram; Verma, Anil

    2003-01-01

    Of 1,805 early retirees, 40% returned to work (17% full time, 51% part time, 32% self employed). Return was positively related to work attachment and tenure at last job. Clerical workers were less likely than managers to choose part-time work over retirement. Lateral mobility and high work attachment were negatively related to postretirement…

  10. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Approach to Child Cognitive and Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Alex R; Mabry-Hernandez, Iris R; Grossman, David C

    2016-10-01

    An important component of routine preventive care for children is the monitoring of growth and development. Although cognitive, affective, and behavioral health problems are commonly encountered in pediatric primary care, there is debate around issues related to early detection of significant problems of this type, including the accuracy of screening and the benefits and harms of early diagnosis and treatment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force makes recommendations regarding clinical preventive services for primary care clinicians based on the best available scientific evidence. The Task Force has found important gaps related to the validity of commonly used screening tools and significant gaps related to the evidence regarding early treatment. This review describes the meaning of the grades used by the Task Force, how these grades are determined, and the grades assigned to childhood cognitive, affective, and behavioral health recommendations. The review summarizes common themes in the evidence gaps and the future research necessary to advance the field and improve child health outcomes.

  11. Genomic information as a behavioral health intervention: can it work?

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991

  12. Different contexts, different effects? Work time and mental health in the United States and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender.

  13. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    PubMed

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes.

  14. One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them.

  15. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  16. The effects of shift work on physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Matthias; Braungardt, Tanja; Meyer, Wolfgang; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    Occupational engagement is a pre-requisite for continuous income opportunities. Among the changing social circumstances work-related conditions play an increasingly eminent role in psychological and mental well-being. The public discusses the question of a possible association between the demands of modern work life and the increases of psychological, psychosomatic and cardiovascular disorders. Given the socioeconomic implications of psychiatric and psychosomatic suffering in the general population, there is a need to further elucidate the causes of their increasing incidence. From a medical point of view, any organization of work disrupting the phased circadian rhythms for bio-psycho-social processes and functioning of the individual are interesting against the background of clock genes and certain biological functions that are organized in a circadian fashion. The authors review the influence of shift work as a form of systematic desynchronization of inner clock systems on the endocrine, the physical, and the mental level. The significance of the findings in the field is discussed along with future directions of conclusive research.

  17. Mental Health Recovery Paradigm: Implications for Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jenneth

    2002-01-01

    Article argues that the values and beliefs of the consumer-survivor recovery movement are closely aligned with those of the social work profession, and the movement offers social workers a more promising perspective from which to practice. Primary concepts and values of the evolving recovery paradigm are delineated; implications for direct…

  18. Military Health Service System Ambulatory Work Unit (AWU).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    probability of a value outside 2.0 standard deviations ranges from .0456 for A-3 -Al" 122 NILITRY HEALTH SERVICE SYSTEM AMULRTORY MORKe UurNT CANdU )(U) ARMY...00 2 w w >4 &4~ ~z til 0n0 rz~ co00 P - xU) I : 0 ) ) %z E-4 z U) HHw H~~ ~ ~ 0 olf4 E1E- 004 H U) UDm 0 4 E- H wE- ~ H E-4 H 04 H Z U H Q z HO H % x z

  19. Integration of peer specialists working in mental health service settings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Wendy; Bellinger, Jillian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey; Kaufman, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Peer specialists are people in recovery employed to share their experiences to promote the recovery of others affected by mental illness. Examining workplace integration indicators that predict the job satisfaction of peer specialists employed in a variety of behavioral health settings is critical to ensure the retention and effectiveness of this viable workforce. A survey of Texas Certified Peer Specialists (n = 86) examined workplace integration indicators. Results suggest that supervisor's understanding of the peer specialist job role has a significant impact on job satisfaction. Better workforce integration may be achieved through targeted efforts to educate supervisors about peer specialist job roles.

  20. Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Work-Rest Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    BHP Program Element Goal: Identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration and return to terrestrial life. BHP Requirements: a) Characterize and assess risks (e.g., likelihood and consequences). b) Develop tools and technologies to prevent, monitor, and treat adverse outcomes. c) Inform standards. d) Develop technologies to: 1) reduce risks and human systems resource requirements (e.g., crew time, mass, volume, power) and 2) ensure effective human-system integration across exploration mission.

  1. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the fruits of a growing economy. While the productivity of the American workforce grew during the... has exacerbated the challenges facing middle-class Americans, with health care coverage, safe and...: (1) the Department of Commerce; (2) the Department of Labor; (3) the Department of Health and...

  2. Impact of Rural Training on Physician Work Force: The Role of Postresidency Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 53 obstetrical and rural fellowship programs found that graduates of rural health fellowships were more likely to locate in rural areas. Almost all graduates from obstetrical and rural health programs attained general hospital privileges in family practice and low-risk obstetrics, and a significant number attained privileges in…

  3. Life Works: Explore Health and Medical Science Careers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Health Careers Life Works: Explore Health and Medical Science Careers Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents ... career in case the MT program did not work out, I decided to minor in ... to teach science as an alternative. After completing my biology degree, ...

  4. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  5. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  6. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  7. Video: Animals; Electric Current; Force; Science Activities. Learning in Science Project. Working Papers 51-54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley; And Others

    Four papers to be used in conjunction with video-tapes developed by the Learning in Science Project are presented. Topic areas of the papers focus on: (1) animals; (2) electric current; (3) force; and (4) science activities. The first paper presents transcripts of class discussions focusing on the scientific meaning of the word animal. The second…

  8. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  9. Women in the Work Force: Development and Field Testing of Curriculum Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Louise; Sethney, Barbara J.

    To aid girls in considering future alternatives and making plans for labor force participation and adult female roles, curriculum materials and associated measures of knowledge, attitudes, and plans were developed and pilot tested with 100 girls in Grades 7, 9, and 11. Materials and measures were revised on the basis of pilot test data, including…

  10. Working Group on Ice Forces on Structures. A State-of-the-Art Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Fundation exhbi both stereti and(0) Considering a velocity dependent damping force, in which the above effects are combined, the positive damping behaviour...dimensions ........... 0....................42 2.63 Effect of friction and slope angle ........................... 44 2.64 Effect of ice strength...46 2.65 Effect of ice thickness ...................................... 46 2.66 Three dimensional theory

  11. Black Women in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 90-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    During the 1980s, the population of black women aged 16 years and older in the United States increased by 17.2%, and labor force participation for black women increased by 29%. In 1987, black women accounted for 50% of total black employment. The unemployment rate for black teenagers in 1990 was 30% (versus 10.8% for all black women). Labor force…

  12. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  13. Perspectives: Reforming American Higher Education--Implications for a Vibrant Work Force and a Healthy Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The forces of globalization are finally hitting American postsecondary education. For nearly three decades, since the 1983 publication of "A Nation At Risk" launched a sustained focus on the mediocre, if not failing, K-12 system, American postsecondary education has avoided the accountability spotlight. Postsecondary policy debates have focused…

  14. [Fragments of a health work genealogy: genealogy as a research technique].

    PubMed

    Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Tittoni, Jaqueline; Giannechini, Letícia; Ramminger, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    The article aims to explore the influence of health work in subjectification processes. The notion of history commonly used in health-related scientific output is based on an evolutionist and developmental logic. As a counterpoint, the genealogical approach used in this article and based on Michel Foucault highlights the notions of discontinuity, event, and the production of truth as tools to rethink the ethical and political implications involved in the production of knowledge, practices, and subjects. To illustrate these aspects we sketch a health work genealogy, specifically in the field of mental health and HIV/AIDS work.

  15. Electron work functions of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel and their adhesive forces with AFM silicon probe.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liqiu; Hua, Guomin; Yang, Binjie; Lu, Hao; Qiao, Lijie; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2016-02-12

    Local electron work function, adhesive force, modulus and deformation of ferrite and austenite phases in a duplex stainless steel were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. It is demonstrated that the austenite has a higher electron work function than the ferrite, corresponding to higher modulus, smaller deformation and larger adhesive force. Relevant first-principles calculations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism behind. It is demonstrated that the difference in the properties between austenite and ferrite is intrinsically related to their electron work functions.

  16. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  17. Day laborers' life satisfaction: the role of familismo, spirituality, work, health, and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Lizette; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2013-07-01

    Limited research exists on day laborers' mental health. This study identifies relevant factors that influence the life satisfaction of 143 predominantly undocumented Latino male day laborers. Findings demonstrated the importance of familismo, spirituality, work satisfaction, perceived health, and perceived discrimination on life satisfaction. Given the deleterious impact discrimination can have on mental health, we examined whether perceived discrimination's role on life satisfaction would be buffered by familismo, spirituality, work satisfaction, and perceived health. Among these variable, spirituality and perceived health were identified as protective factors against the role of perceived discrimination on life satisfaction. Implications for research and practice with Latino male day laborers are discussed.

  18. Substance use disorder in the context of LGBT health: a social work perspective.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Anthony; Beatty, Rodger L; Friedman, M Reuel

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of public and private funding of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health research, the state of integration of LGBT health issues into the academic and professional training programs of health care practitioners, and the larger social reality experienced by LGBT people profoundly affect substance use and substance use disorders in those populations. This analysis uses a social work perspective and considers the current state of research, professional training, and social oppression as they affect the health of LGBT people. Suggestions for action are offered that may improve the health of LGBT peoples and the practice of social work.

  19. The Effect of Educational Disequilibrium in Field Work on Graduate Social Work Students' Self-Concept and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The author used a mixed methods design to assess field work-related educational disequilibrium and its effect on the self-concept and mental health of MSW students. Twenty-eight advanced, fourth-semester MSW students were compared with 37 entering, first-semester MSW students in practice-related sense of accomplishment. Compared with first-year…

  20. Working poor in Germany: Dimensions of the problem and repercussions for the health-care system.

    PubMed

    Broding, Horst Christoph; Weber, Andreas; Glatz, Andreas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    The 'working poor' may not exceed the poverty threshold despite full-time (or even double) employment. The general relationship between poverty and illness is understood, but little is known about specific health implications of the 'working poor' status. The proportion of 'working poor' is increasing in Germany. Poverty-related health problems occur because of a lower standard of nutrition and housing, financial restraints, bad labour conditions, high-risk behaviours, and lack of access to health services. Impaired health status, in turn, adversely affects incomes and wages, raising concern about a vicious circle. Limited health-care resources demand preventive policies to improve employment status and income. Health and economic policy demand specific research on the health implications of precarious employment. In some areas, swift action is required.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, depression and mental health barriers to work among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has connected childhood abuse to decreased physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Further, mental health has established a link to employment problems. This study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from individuals accessing public assistance to investigate the relationships among retrospective self-reports of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and prospective indicators of mental health and mental health barriers to work. Logistic regression models found strong relationships between childhood abuse and increased odds of depression and mental health barriers to work. Path models highlight the relative importance of depression for those reporting mental health as the biggest barrier to work. Recommendations for social workers, public health professionals, and program administrators are provided.

  2. What is a health worker? How spa therapists in a Norwegian health hotel understand their work.

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Jorid

    2016-01-01

    In Norway, as in many other wealthy countries, the number of health-related services that are being offered outside of the health sector is increasing. The present paper is based on qualitative interviews that were conducted with providers of health-related services at a commercial health hotel in Norway. The hotel is marketed as a health hotel - that is, a place for people with health problems and for those who need relaxation and an escape from their stressful everyday lives. The paper discusses whether the providers of this kind of service consider it a health service or if they distinguish and distance themselves from the health system. The interviews showed that they consider themselves health workers and refer to themselves as therapists. Even though they use therapy in the health sector as a model, they distinguish themselves from therapists in the health sector. They do not want to treat what they call sick people. Most of their therapy is directed toward cultivating or improving people's bodies and souls. These service providers think that they contribute to improving their guests' health by teaching them how to take care of themselves; enjoying oneself (for instance, by receiving skin treatment or a massage) is an important aspect of good health. According to the therapists, modern-day women, in particular, are often worn-out, and they deserve, and are entitled, to enjoy themselves. In these ways, the therapists use health to legitimize their services, and they challenge the current understanding of health.

  3. Army 2020: Generating Health & Discipline in the Force Ahead of the Strategic Reset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    effectively  promote  health  and discipline  ahead of the strategic reset.                 GEN Peter W. Chiarelli          i  Table of Contents  I...and demanding environments.  Early signs of these  effects  on Soldiers and Families  prompted the establishment of the Army  Health  Promotion and Risk...of the  effectiveness  of  health   and disciplinary policy and programs as well  as their implementation by leaders  throughout the Force.  This report

  4. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  5. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  6. THE CRITICAL CARE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND NURSE-REPORTED HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818

  7. The importance of work organization on workload and musculoskeletal health--Grocery store work as a model.

    PubMed

    Balogh, I; Ohlsson, K; Nordander, C; Björk, J; Hansson, G-Å

    2016-03-01

    We have evaluated the consequences of work organization on musculoskeletal health. Using a postal questionnaire, answered by 1600 female grocery store workers, their main work tasks were identified and four work groups were defined (cashier, picking, and delicatessen work, and a mixed group, who performed a mix of these tasks). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for neck/shoulder complaints were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2), 1.1 (0.7-1.5) and 1.6 (1.1-2.3), respectively, compared to mixed work. Adjusting for individual and psychosocial factors had no effect on these ORs. For elbows/hands, no significant differences were found. Technical measurements of the workload showed large differences between the work groups. Picking work was the most strenuous, while cashier work showed low loads. Quantitative measures of variation revealed for mixed work high between minutes variation and the highest between/within minutes variation. Combining work tasks with different physical exposure levels increases the variation and may reduce the risk of musculoskeletal complaints.

  8. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  9. Adaptation to Work: An Analysis of Employee Health, Withdrawal and Change. Working Paper 82-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosse, Joseph G.

    According to an employee withdrawal model suggested by Miller and Rosse (1982), workers engage in a variety of integrated behaviors that are intended to place physical and psychological distance between themselves and a noxious work environment. To investigate the relationship of job satisfaction and employee withdrawal behaviors, 48 newly hired,…

  10. The relationships between mothers' work pathways and physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Frech, Adrianne; Damaske, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    We contribute to research on the relationships between gender, work, and health by using longitudinal, theoretically driven models of mothers' diverse work pathways and adjusting for unequal selection into these pathways. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1979 (N = 2,540), we find full-time, continuous employment following a first birth is associated with significantly better health at age 40 than part-time work, paid work interrupted by unemployment, and unpaid work in the home. Part-time workers with little unemployment report significantly better health at age 40 than mothers experiencing persistent unemployment. These relationships remain after accounting for the unequal selection of more advantaged mothers into full-time, continuous employment, suggesting full-time workers benefit from cumulating advantages across the life course and reiterating the need to disentangle health benefits associated with work from those associated with pre-pregnancy characteristics.

  11. The Air Force Health Study Data and Specimens as a Resource for Researchers.

    PubMed

    Styka, Anne N; Butler, David A

    2015-10-01

    The Air Force Health Study (AFHS) is perhaps the most thorough longitudinal examination of both the health of military personnel and the health effects of herbicide exposure ever conducted. Data were collected through comprehensive physical examinations, questionnaires, and other records at six time points over a 20-year period; 2,758 subjects participated in at least one examination cycle. Data collected during physical examinations included indices of health status overall and specific endpoints for each organ system. Questionnaire data included sociodemographic information, marital and fertility history, health habits, recreation activities, toxic substances exposure, and military experience. Biospecimens were collected at each examination cycle; serum was collected at all six examinations while other biospecimens, such as semen and whole blood, were collected at one time. More than 200 clinical laboratory tests and measures were performed, with more than 60 of these measured at all six cycles. The vast amount of electronic data and the more than 91,000 unaliquoted biospecimens contained in the repository offer unique opportunities for new research on understanding determinants of health. The Institute of Medicine is the custodian of the AFHS materials and conducted a pilot research program to facilitate new research using the materials. An expert committee issued requests for proposals, created a Web-based form for submissions, reviewed and evaluated potential research studies, and made data and biospecimens available to qualified researchers. This article summarizes the experience of this initiative.

  12. Constrained choices? Linking employees' and spouses' work time to health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2015-02-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours-both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents-in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 h/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 h/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other.

  13. Constrained Choices? Linking Employees' and Spouses' Work Time to Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours—both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents—in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 hours/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 hours/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. PMID:25531550

  14. New frontiers for diagnostic testing: taking advantage of forces changing health care.

    PubMed

    Allawi, S J; Hill, B T; Shah, N R

    1998-01-01

    The transformation of the health-care industry holds great economic potential for laboratory diagnostic testing providers who understand the five market forces driving change and who are shaping their own roles in the emerging market. Because of these trends, provider-based laboratories (PBLs) are competing with independent laboratories (ILs) for the latter's traditional client base--outpatients and nonpatients. PBLs will continue to service acute care patients while becoming more IL-like in logistics, sales, customer service, and marketing. Forced to compete on price, ILs have engaged in mega-mergers and will try to break into acute care via joint ventures. The ILs will need to choose their markets carefully, solidly integrate with parent organizations, and find ways to be profit centers. Consumers' demands also are forcing change. Consumers want accurate, legible bills and simplified eligibility determination and registration. They want an emphasis on prevention and wellness, which means that diagnostic testing must address early identification and monitoring of high-risk groups. To realize cost-efficiencies under whole-life capitation, laboratory networks must be part of a completely integrated health-care system. The laboratory of the future will be multicentered, without walls, and with quick access to information through technology.

  15. Competing conceptualizations of decent work at the intersection of health, social and economic discourses.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work is critical to economic and social progress and well-being. The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). While the Agenda's existence may imply consensus about its meaning, we contend that several conceptualizations of decent work exist in the global policy arena. Different institutional perspectives must be negotiated, and political, economic, social and health considerations balanced in its pursuit. This paper reports findings from a critical discourse analysis of 10 policy texts that aimed to reveal different health, economic, and social claims about decent work and how these are shaped by the work policy agendas of the ILO, World Health Organization, and World Bank. Themes emerging from the discourse analysis include the: challenges and realities of promoting "one" agenda; complex intersection between decent work, health and health equity concepts; emphasis on economic and pro-market interests versus the social dimensions of work; and, relative emphasis on individual versus collective responsibility for decent work. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to contrast different conceptualizations of decent work involving these institutions. Our findings suggest that decent work is a contested notion, and that more than one "agenda" is operating in the face of vested institutional interests. Broader discourses are contributing to a reframing of decent work in economic, social and/or health terms and these are impacting which dimensions of work are taken up in policy texts over others. Results show how the language of economics acts as a disciplinary and regulatory power and its role as a normalizing discourse. We call for research that deepens understanding of how a social, economic and health phenomenon like work is discursively re-interpreted through different global

  16. Cellular Tug-of-War: Forces at Work and DNA Stretching in Mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brian; Kilfoil, Maria L.

    2013-03-01

    In the microscopic world of the cell dominated by thermal noise, a cell must be able to successfully segregate its DNA with high fidelity in order to pass its genetic information on to its progeny. In this process of mitosis in eukaryotes, driving forces act on the cytoskeleton-based architecture called the mitotic spindle to promote this division. Our preliminary data demonstrates that the dynamics of this process in yeast cells is universal. Moreover, the dynamics suggest an increasing load as the chromosomes are pulled apart. To investigate this, we use three-dimensional imaging to track the dynamics of the poles of this architecture and the points of attachment to chromosomes simultaneously and with high spatial resolution. We analyze the relative motions of chromosomes as they are organized before segregation and as they are pulled apart, using this data to investigate the force-response behavior of this cytoskeleton-chromosome polymer system.

  17. The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics, Work Conditions, and Level of "Mobbing" of Health Workers in Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Picakciefe, Metin; Acar, Gulcihan; Colak, Zehra; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-06-19

    Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91.5%; 83.2% of health workers are female, 42.9% are midwives, 27.7% are nurses, and 14.3% are doctors. In all, 31.1% of health workers have faced with "mobbing" in the last 1 year, and the frequency of experiencing "mobbing" of those 48.6% of them is 1 to 3 times per year. A total of 70.3% of those who apply "mobbing" are senior health workers, and 91.9% are female. The frequency of encountering with "mobbing" was found significantly in married health workers, in those 16 years and above according to examined total working time, in those who have psychosocial reactions, and in those who have counterproductive behaviors. It has been discovered that primary health care workers have high prevalence of "mobbing" exposure. To avoid "mobbing" at workplace, authorities and responsibilities of all employees have to be clearly determined.

  18. Deriving the Work Done by an Inverse Square Force in Non-Calculus-Based Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe a method of evaluating the integral of 1/r[superscript 2] with respect to r that uses only algebra and the concept of area underneath a curve, and which does not formally employ any calculus. This is useful for algebra-based introductory physics classes (where the use of calculus is forbidden) to derive the work done by the force of one…

  19. The mental health of the UK Armed Forces in the 21st century: resilience in the face of adversity.

    PubMed

    MacManus, Deirdre; Jones, N; Wessely, S; Fear, N T; Jones, E; Greenberg, N

    2014-06-01

    The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have attracted considerable political and media interest in the mental health of UK military personnel. As a result of the close operational collaboration between US and UK forces, there have inevitably been many comparisons drawn between the mental health status of the two forces. Considerable research activity suggests that the mental health of UK forces appear to have remained relatively resilient in spite of their considerable exposure to traumatic events; one stark exception to this is the high rates of alcohol misuse which seem to be related to deployment. This paper explores the recently published literature relating to UK military forces and attempts to draw conclusions about the reasons for the apparent resilience shown by the majority of the regular forces.

  20. Four principles for expanding PEPFAR's role as a vital force in US health diplomacy abroad.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris; Isbell, Michael; Sohn, Annette; Klindera, Kent

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the leading platform for US health diplomacy and a symbol of American capacity to achieve constructive and beneficial change. The program now faces an evolving context for its work that includes, on the one hand, domestic fiscal pressures in the United States, but on the other, the potential for substantial gains against the AIDS epidemic around the world. Continued success in advancing America's humanitarian and diplomatic interests through global health requires the United States to maintain robust investments in PEPFAR; implement a strategic plan to achieve an AIDS-free generation; use the program as a foundation to strengthen health systems generally and enable them to address broader health issues, such as chronic and noncommunicable diseases; carefully manage the transition to country "ownership" of the fight against HIV; and achieve greater coherence in US government health-related policy.

  1. Work, Family, and Mental Health in the Lives of Low Income Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbets, Ruth

    With the entry of more women into the labor force during the 1970's than in any other decade in this century, the effects of this phenomenon on women's mental health have become a great concern. The relationship between workforce participation and depressive symptomatology was examined in a survey of 82 low-income mothers with young children.…

  2. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms

  3. The effects of work on the health of nurses who work in clinical surgery departments at university hospitals 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rosângela Marion; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; de Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Prestes, Francine Cassol

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the effects of work on the health of nurses who work in clinical surgery departments at university hospitals in relation to physical, social and psychological suffering and pain. Methods: a quantitative transversal study was carried out between 2012 and 2013 in four institutions in a state located in the south of Brazil. We studied 65 nurses who responded to questions on their habits. We also obtained sociodemographical information on them as well as conducting an evaluation on work relational damage using an evaluation scale. Associations were checked through the use of the Chi-Sqaure and Fisher's exact test. Correlations were checked using the Spearmann test. Results: we found that physical ailments persisted and that there were connections between social and psychological pain/suffering and variable physical activities as well as connections with accidents in the work place and the option to work shifts. We noted correlations between social and psychological pain/suffering. Conclusion: nurses had their health compromised due to their work in clinical surgery departments. PMID:27508914

  4. Transforming consumer health informatics through a patient work framework: connecting patients to context.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Rupa S; Holden, Richard J; Novak, Laurie L; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2015-01-01

    Designing patient-centered consumer health informatics (CHI) applications requires understanding and creating alignment with patients' and their family members' health-related activities, referred to here as 'patient work'. A patient work approach to CHI draws on medical social science and human factors engineering models and simultaneously attends to patients, their family members, activities, and context. A patient work approach extends existing approaches to CHI design that are responsive to patients' biomedical realities and personal skills and behaviors. It focuses on the embeddedness of patients' health management in larger processes and contexts and prioritizes patients' perspectives on illness management. Future research is required to advance (1) theories of patient work, (2) methods for assessing patient work, and (3) techniques for translating knowledge of patient work into CHI application design. Advancing a patient work approach within CHI is integral to developing and deploying consumer-facing technologies that are integrated with patients' everyday lives.

  5. Faith Moves Mountains-Mountains Move Faith: Two Opposite Epidemiological Forces in Research on Religion and Health.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, N C; Hvidtjørn, D; Christensen, K; Nielsen, J B; Søndergaard, J

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests opposite epidemiological forces in religion and health: (1). Faith seems to move mountains in the sense that religion is associated with positive health outcomes. (2). Mountains of bad health seem to move faith. We reflected on these forces in a population of 3000 young Danish twins in which all religiosity measures were associated with severe disease. We believe the reason for this novel finding is that the sample presents as a particularly secular population-based study and that the second epidemiological force has gained the upper hand in this sample. We suggest that all cross-sectional research on religion and health should be interpreted in light of such opposite epidemiological forces potentially diluting each other.

  6. Empowerment in the field of health promotion: recognizing challenges in working toward equity.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nicole S; Murphy, Jill; Coser, Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 25 years, the language of empowerment has been woven into the guiding missions and descriptions of institutions, funding and projects globally. Although theoretical understandings of empowerment within the domain of health promotion remain contentious, we have little idea of how a shift toward an empowerment agenda has affected the daily work of those in the field of health promotion. A systematic examination of the implementation of the empowerment agenda is important as it can help us understand how redistributive agendas are received within the multiple institutional contexts in which health promotion work is carried out. The goal of this study, therefore, was to try to understand the empowerment agenda within the context of everyday health promotion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health promoters from a variety of geographical regions, institutional backgrounds, and job capacities. Essentially we found that empowerment remains conceptually dear to health promoters' understanding of their work, yet at the same time, mainstreaming empowerment is at odds with central trends and initiatives that govern this work. We argue that many of the stumbling blocks that have hindered this specific agenda are actually central stumbling blocks for the wider field of health promotion. We examine some of the barriers to implementing transformational change. Overcoming the primary limitations uncovered in this exploration of empowerment is actually crucial to progressive work in health promotion in general, particularly work that would seek to lessen inequities.

  7. Returning Social Security Beneficiaries to the Work Force: A Proactive Disability Management Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrey, Donald E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used multidisciplinary disability management model to assist Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries to return to work. The model, which emphasized multidisciplinary disability management, marketing and public relations, work incentives training, networking, and job-seeking skills training, facilitated 27 job placements out of the 107…

  8. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral

  9. The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As with the general population, a proportion of military personnel with mental health problems do not seek help. As the military is a profession at high risk of occupational psychiatric injury, understanding barriers to help-seeking is a priority. Method Participants were drawn from a large UK military health study. Participants undertook a telephone interview including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ); a short measure of PTSD (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD); a series of questions about service utilisation; and barriers to care. The response rate was 76% (821 participants). Results The most common barriers to care reported are those relating to the anticipated public stigma associated with consulting for a mental health problem. In addition, participants reported barriers in the practicalities of consulting such as scheduling an appointment and having time off for treatment. Barriers to care did not appear to be diminished after people leave the Armed Forces. Veterans report additional barriers to care of not knowing where to find help and a concern that their employer would blame them for their problems. Those with mental health problems, such as PTSD, report significantly more barriers to care than those who do not have a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Conclusions Despite recent efforts to de-stigmatise mental disorders in the military, anticipated stigma and practical barriers to consulting stand in the way of access to care for some Service personnel. Further interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring that Service personnel have access to high quality confidential assessment and treatment remain priorities for the UK Armed Forces. PMID:21310027

  10. A New Approach to Health Literacy: Working with Spanish Speaking Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Yamila M

    2017-01-01

    This case study describes the integration of pop culture, music, and scenarios into a consumer health curriculum for community health workers (CHW)/Promotoras De Salud of Hispanic/Latino decent. The class goal is to ensure that participants learn about reliable health resources and how to use them when reaching out to their clientele. This interactive approach to teaching consumer health information was something that evolved after teaching this topic for many years and finding the need to reach the CHW population and enhance their learning experience of health information.

  11. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  12. 75 FR 52751 - Office of Global Health Affairs; Trans-Atlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Global Health Affairs; Trans-Atlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance... public on the activities of the Trans-Atlantic Taskforce on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR). DATES: A... force to focus ``on urgent antimicrobial resistance issues focused on appropriate therapeutic use...

  13. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request for... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' by regulation be redundant, but it would also fail to add...

  14. An Exploration of the Working Alliance in Mental Health Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, David C.; Early, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The working alliance between clients and helpers has been identified as a common factor of treatment effectiveness, yet very little research has explored variables associated with working alliance between mental health case managers and their consumers. This study explored the potential covariates of working alliance within community mental health…

  15. Mental health/illness and prisons as place: frontline clinicians׳ perspectives of mental health work in a penal setting.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie

    2014-09-01

    This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally.

  16. The Association Between Shift Work and Health Behavior: Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Myung-Ji; Shin, Jin-Young; Choi, Bo-Young; Keum, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift workers are increasing worldwide, and various negative health effects of shift work have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between shift work and health behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 11,680 Korean adults (6,061 men and 5,619 women) aged ≥20 years old who participated in the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between shift work and health behavior after adjusting for covariates. Results In men, shift work was associated with an increased risk of inadequate sleep (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.40) compared to day work. In women, shift work was associated with an increased risk of smoking (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.22) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47) compared to day work. In an age-stratified subgroup analysis, female shift workers aged ≥50 years old demonstrated an increased risk of smoking (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 3.60 to 8.55), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.23), and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.05) compared to female day workers. Conclusion Shift work is associated with worse health behavior, and this is most evident in women aged ≥50 years. Targeted strategies to reduce the negative health effects of shift work should be implemented, with consideration of shift workers' demographic characteristics. PMID:28360984

  17. Motivation, overcommitment and psychological health at work: a path analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nagami, Makiko; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Kawakami, Norito

    2008-09-01

    Overcommitment is formulated in the Effort-Reward Imbalance occupational stress model as a critical coping pattern in individuals, and refers to a strong tendency to commit oneself to work activities. Motivation in working life is related to employees' productivity and good mental health. A total of 556 employees completed a questionnaire package relating to overcommitment and motivation in working life, as well as the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Path analysis revealed that motivation and overcommitment are positively related to each other but that the health consequences are different. It is justifiable to draw a distinction between overcommitment and high motivation at work, as modifying a coping pattern of overly committing to work on the one hand and enhancing motivation on the other may lead to improved mental health for employees.

  18. Health and Safety Modelling processes at work for the support of the Epidemiological Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hatzistavrou, Dimitris; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Health and safety at the work place is an important issue of the modern society, as there are a lot of factors and parameters which may influence health in the working environment. The aim of this research gives with a simple and comprehensible everything that is related with workers health and it also facilitate the developers computer work to create more advanced systems targeted in health informatics in the near future. Through bibliographic research risk factors were identified and categorized in order to be more functional. These types of categories include the natural, biological, chemical and transverse risk factors. Detailed information was also presented regarding the types of work, the Personal Protective Equipment the sex, the age, the education and the training at the work place. Based on the class diagram of Unified Modeling Language (UML), an object-oriented model was developed, in which every possible correlation of the above mentioned risk factors with the hygiene and safety of workers was presented.

  19. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  20. Labor market experience, work organization, gender inequalities and health status: results from a prospective analysis of US employed women.

    PubMed

    O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles

    2004-02-01

    Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women.