Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the
Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J
While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations.
Unfortunately, disasters occur. We cannot always know the effects ahead of time, but we do know that lives can be lost, property damaged, and public health and home care agencies may not be able to provide the normal standard of care. Studies have shown that disaster preparedness content is limited in U.S. nursing programs (). Given the magnitude of recent natural disasters, such as the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in 2011, these findings are alarming. The increasing demands on healthcare providers in response to emergencies force home healthcare clinicians to identify their roles and responsibilities in emergency preparedness. This article discusses 1 model of disaster response and the role of the home healthcare provider at each stage. It further guides home healthcare nurses in creating a personal and professional plan, enabling them to understand how to minimize the impact of disasters and address the needs of their patients and those close to them.
Amoroso, L A; Pollokoff, A M
Smart cards and optical memory cards are among the fastest growing technologies today. Though their use in healthcare is not yet widespread, they promise great potential benefits in several areas of healthcare delivery. Both cards are credit card-sized plastic devices that can store information. Embedded in smart cards are one or more computer chips which store and process information, and some cards provide as much computer power as a PC. Optical memory cards use laser technology to store and read information.
... ability to elect a SAFE Kit. This policy is applicable to all MHS personnel who provide or coordinate... provide the victim information regarding the availability of a SAFE Kit, which the victim has the option of refusing. If performed in the MTF, the healthcare provider shall use a SAFE Kit and the...
Richardson, Safiya; Khan, Sundas; McCullagh, Lauren; Kline, Myriam; Mann, Devin; McGinn, Thomas
To examine internal medicine and emergency medicine healthcare provider perceptions of usefulness of specific clinical prediction rules. The study took place in two academic medical centres. A web-based survey was distributed and completed by participants between 1 January and 31 May 2013. Medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy or nurse practitioners employed in the internal medicine or emergency medicine departments at either institution. The primary outcome was to identify the clinical prediction rules perceived as most useful by healthcare providers specialising in internal medicine and emergency medicine. Secondary outcomes included comparing usefulness scores of specific clinical prediction rules based on provider specialty, and evaluating associations between usefulness scores and perceived characteristics of these clinical prediction rules. Of the 401 healthcare providers asked to participate, a total of 263 (66%), completed the survey. The CHADS2 score was chosen by most internal medicine providers (72%), and Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria (PERC) score by most emergency medicine providers (45%), as one of the top three most useful from a list of 24 clinical prediction rules. Emergency medicine providers rated their top three significantly more positively, compared with internal medicine providers, as having a better fit into their workflow (p=0.004), helping more with decision-making (p=0.037), better fitting into their thought process when diagnosing patients (p=0.001) and overall, on a 10-point scale, more useful (p=0.009). For all providers, the perceived qualities of useful at point of care, helps with decision making, saves time diagnosing, fits into thought process, and should be the standard of clinical care correlated highly (≥0.65) with overall 10-point usefulness scores. Healthcare providers describe clear preferences for certain clinical prediction rules, based on medical specialty. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Richardson, Safiya; Khan, Sundas; McCullagh, Lauren; Kline, Myriam; Mann, Devin; McGinn, Thomas
Objectives To examine internal medicine and emergency medicine healthcare provider perceptions of usefulness of specific clinical prediction rules. Setting The study took place in two academic medical centres. A web-based survey was distributed and completed by participants between 1 January and 31 May 2013. Participants Medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy or nurse practitioners employed in the internal medicine or emergency medicine departments at either institution. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was to identify the clinical prediction rules perceived as most useful by healthcare providers specialising in internal medicine and emergency medicine. Secondary outcomes included comparing usefulness scores of specific clinical prediction rules based on provider specialty, and evaluating associations between usefulness scores and perceived characteristics of these clinical prediction rules. Results Of the 401 healthcare providers asked to participate, a total of 263 (66%), completed the survey. The CHADS2 score was chosen by most internal medicine providers (72%), and Pulmonary Embolism Rule-Out Criteria (PERC) score by most emergency medicine providers (45%), as one of the top three most useful from a list of 24 clinical prediction rules. Emergency medicine providers rated their top three significantly more positively, compared with internal medicine providers, as having a better fit into their workflow (p=0.004), helping more with decision-making (p=0.037), better fitting into their thought process when diagnosing patients (p=0.001) and overall, on a 10-point scale, more useful (p=0.009). For all providers, the perceived qualities of useful at point of care, helps with decision making, saves time diagnosing, fits into thought process, and should be the standard of clinical care correlated highly (≥0.65) with overall 10-point usefulness scores. Conclusions Healthcare providers describe clear preferences for certain clinical prediction
People with disabilities use various assistance devices to improve their capacity to lead independent and fulfilling lives. Service dogs can be crucial lifesaving companions for their owners. As the use of service dogs increases, nurses are more likely to encounter them in healthcare settings. Service dogs are often confused with therapy or emotional support dogs. While some of their roles overlap, service dogs have distinct protection under the American Disabilities Act (ADA). Knowing the laws and proper procedures regarding service dogs strengthens the abilities of healthcare providers to deliver holistic, patient-centered care. This article provides background information about use of dogs, and discusses benefits to patients and access challenges for providers. The author reviews ADA laws applicable to service dog use and potential challenges and risks in acute care settings. The role of the healthcare professional is illustrated with an exemplar, along with recommendations for future research and nursing implications related to care of patients with service dogs.
Newbold, K Bruce; Willinsky, Jacqueline
Cultural impacts on health experiences and behaviours are profound in the area of reproductive health and family planning. Explored through interviews with family planning healthcare professionals, this paper evaluates their experiences in providing family planning and reproductive healthcare to immigrants in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton area of Ontario, Canada. Results reveal the complexity of delivering care to members of this group, particularly when dealing with language barriers, situations when professional and non-professional interpreters are used, and instances where healthcare professionals realize that they themselves have misconceptions and misunderstandings about other cultures. The paper concludes by discussing future research options and implications for the delivery of reproductive health family planning services to this population.
Lin, Ying-Siou; Lin, Yen-Chun; Lou, Meei-Fang
To report an analysis of the concept of safety climate in healthcare providers. Compliance with safe work practices is essential to patient safety and care outcomes. Analysing the concept of safety climate from the perspective of healthcare providers could improve understanding of the correlations between safety climate and healthcare provider compliance with safe work practices, thus enhancing quality of patient care. Concept analysis. The electronic databases of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for literature published between 1995-2015. Searches used the keywords 'safety climate' or 'safety culture' with 'hospital' or 'healthcare'. The concept analysis method of Walker and Avant analysed safety climate from the perspective of healthcare providers. Three attributes defined how healthcare providers define safety climate: (1) creation of safe working environment by senior management in healthcare organisations; (2) shared perception of healthcare providers about safety of their work environment; and (3) the effective dissemination of safety information. Antecedents included the characteristics of healthcare providers and healthcare organisations as a whole, and the types of work in which they are engaged. Consequences consisted of safety performance and safety outcomes. Most studies developed and assessed the survey tools of safety climate or safety culture, with a minority consisting of interventional measures for improving safety climate. More prospective studies are needed to create interventional measures for improving safety climate of healthcare providers. This study is provided as a reference for use in developing multidimensional safety climate assessment tools and interventional measures. The values healthcare teams emphasise with regard to safety can serve to improve safety performance. Having an understanding of the concept of and interventional measures for safety climate allows healthcare providers to ensure the safety of their
Krautscheid, Lorretta C
Communication errors are identified by the Joint Commission as the primary root cause of sentinel events across all categories. In addition, improving the effectiveness of communication among healthcare providers is listed as one of the Joint Commission's 2008 National Patient Safety Goals. Nursing programs are expected to graduate practice-ready nurses who demonstrate quality and safety in patient care, which includes interdisciplinary communication. Through objectively structured clinical assessment simulations, faculty evaluate each nursing student's ability to perform many aspects of care, including the ability to communicate effectively with physicians via telephone in an emergent situation. This quality improvement project reports the results of a three-year review of undergraduate student nurse performance (n = 285) related to effective clinical communication. Changes in teaching-learning strategies, implementation of a standardized communication tool, and clinical enhancements which resulted in improved student competency, will be presented.
Trotochaud, Karen; Coleman, Joyce Ramsey; Krawiecki, Nicolas; McCracken, Courtney
Pediatric providers across professions and clinical settings experience moral distress. Higher moral distress correlates with intent to leave for all professionals. Physicians as professional group had the highest moral distress. Intensive care nurses had the highest moral distress for nurses. While all providers describe distressing scenarios as disturbing, physicians report situations as occurring more frequently. The most distressing situations include requests for aggressive treatments not in child's best interest, poor team communication and lack of provider continuity. Understanding moral distress as experienced by all pediatric providers is needed to create interventions with a goal of reducing provider turnover.
Zadik, Y; Galor, S; Lachmi, R; Proter, N
To evaluate the self-care level of dental and healthcare providers regarding prevention of oral diseases Healthcare providers (dental assistants and surgeons, laboratory personnel, biologists, medics, paramedics, corpsmen, nurses, pharmacists, physicians, physiotherapists, psychologists, social workers, speech therapists, X-ray technicians) and non-health care providing adults (the general population) were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding their routine measures for maintaining oral health. Three hundred and twenty-six healthcare providers and 95 non-healthcare providers participated in the study. Regarding toothbrushing, flossing, undergoing periodic dental examinations and professional scaling/polishing, dental practitioners have better, but not perfect, maintenance habits than other healthcare providers. Non-dental healthcare providers have better dental habits than the general population, and nurses and medical practitioners have better dental habits than medics, paramedics, corpsmen and para-medical professionals. Among non-dental healthcare providers, nurses have a relatively high frequency of toothbrushing and flossing but a low frequency of periodic examinations and scaling/polishing. Generally, females reported significantly higher frequencies of toothbrushing and flossing than males did. The toothpaste selection of the participants was primarily influenced by dentists' recommendations, the flavour of the toothpaste, and its anti-malodour effect were the most dominant factors. The compliance of health professionals, especially dental practitioners, with appropriate oral health measures is relatively high. However, the dental team cannot always assume that the dental patient, who also happens to be a healthcare provider, has meticulous oral habits. The dental hygienist and surgeon have to educate and motivate their patients, especially healthcare providers because of the influence of the latter on their own patients.
Luck, George R; Eggenberger, Terry; Newman, David; Cortizo, Jacqueline; Blankenship, Derek C; Hennekens, Charles H
On a daily basis, healthcare providers, especially those dealing with terminally ill patients, such as hospice workers, witness how advance directives help ensure the wishes of patients. They also witness the deleterious consequences when patients fail to document the care they desire at their end of life. To the best of our knowledge there are no data concerning the prevalence of advance directives among hospice healthcare providers. We therefore explored the prevalence and factors influencing completion rates in a survey of hospice healthcare providers. Surveys that included 32 items to explore completion rates, as well as barriers, knowledge, and demographics, were e-mailed to 2097 healthcare providers, including employees and volunteers, at a nonprofit hospice. Of 890 respondents, 44% reported having completed an advance directive. Ethnicity, age, relationship status, and perceived knowledge were all significant factors influencing the completion rates, whereas years of experience or working directly with patients had no effect. Procrastination, fear of the subject, and costs were common reasons reported as barriers. Upon completion of the survey, 43% said they will now complete an advance directive, and 45% will talk to patients and families about their wishes. The majority of hospice healthcare providers have not completed an advance directive. These results are very similar to those for other healthcare providers treating patients with terminal diseases, specifically oncologists. Because, at completion, 43% said that they would now complete an advance directive, such a survey of healthcare providers may help increase completion rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Branch, Carole; Klinkenberg, Dean
Compassion fatigue is a term used to describe the unique stressors affecting people in caregiving professions. For nurses and other direct care providers, the impact of compassion fatigue may result in stress-related symptoms, job dissatisfaction, decreased productivity, decreased patient satisfaction scores, safety issues, and job turnover. Those who care for seriously ill children and their families are at increased risk for compassion fatigue. Constant exposure to children who are suffering, in combination with work place stressors and personal issues, may contribute to the development of compassion fatigue. The Professional Quality of Life Scale Version 5 was used to determine the risk for compassion fatigue among 296 direct care providers at St. Louis Children's Hospital. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress scores did not differ by age, work category, level of education, or work experience. There were, however, significant differences in scores as a function of nursing unit. Nurses who work in the pediatric intensive care unit reported lower compassion satisfaction scores, and higher burnout and secondary traumatic stress scores. Results demonstrated the risk for compassion fatigue and provided data necessary to support development of a compassion fatigue program for direct care providers.
Ansel, D E; Berte, E R
With the healthcare reform process stalled, direct contracting between employers or business coalitions and regional behavioral healthcare providers remains an effective way for employers to offer enriched managed behavioral healthcare services. This article examines the successful contractual relationship between the Procter & Gamble Company of Cincinnati, OH, and Bethesda Behavioral Health Services, a division of Bethesda Hospital, Inc., a multiservice regional healthcare provider also based in Cincinnati. Although Procter & Gamble has been committed to employee assistance program (EAP) services for more than 15 years, it determined in 1989 that a comprehensive managed care/EAP gateway plan best fit its employee relations philosophy and its need to improve the quality and reduce the cost of behavioral healthcare without reducing benefits. This article describes how that idea evolved into today's successful direct contractual relationship between Procter & Gamble and Bethesda.
Lopez, Fanny Y.; DeMeester, Rachel H.; Jia, Justin L.; Peek, Monica E.; Vela, Monica B.
Abstract Effective shared decision making (SDM) between patients and healthcare providers has been positively associated with health outcomes. However, little is known about the SDM process between Latino patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), and their healthcare providers. Our review of the literature identified unique aspects of Latino LGBTQ persons’ culture, health beliefs, and experiences that may affect their ability to engage in SDM with their healthcare providers. Further research needs to examine Latino LGBTQ patient–provider experiences with SDM and develop tools that can better facilitate SDM in this patient population. PMID:27617356
Baig, Arshiya A; Lopez, Fanny Y; DeMeester, Rachel H; Jia, Justin L; Peek, Monica E; Vela, Monica B
Effective shared decision making (SDM) between patients and healthcare providers has been positively associated with health outcomes. However, little is known about the SDM process between Latino patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), and their healthcare providers. Our review of the literature identified unique aspects of Latino LGBTQ persons' culture, health beliefs, and experiences that may affect their ability to engage in SDM with their healthcare providers. Further research needs to examine Latino LGBTQ patient-provider experiences with SDM and develop tools that can better facilitate SDM in this patient population.
Bell, Sue Anne; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Williams, Garfee; Amarah, Patricia; Lori, Jody R
the purpose of this study was to explore healthcare providers' perceptions and reactions to the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic. a descriptive, qualitative study design was employed. Focus groups were conducted with Liberian healthcare providers who participated in care of patients with EVD. the study was conducted in Bong County, Liberia (population: 333,000), which was severely affected, with over 650 reported cases and close to 200 deaths by the end of 2015. the total sample of 58 participants, included 11 nurses, ten traditional birth attendants (TBAs), four midwives, 28 general community health volunteers, three physician assistants, one community member and one pharmacy dispenser. five core themes related to changes in healthcare practices and interactions since the EVD outbreak were identified based on the results of the focus groups; fear, stigma, resource constraints, lack of knowledge and training, and shifting cultural practices. this work represents a preliminary understanding of Liberian healthcare workers reactions to the EVD epidemic, and highlights the significant issues they faced as they attempted to care for patients and protect themselves. while the EVD epidemic has been declared over, preparedness activities for future disease outbreaks must continue. This study can inform future healthcare policy initiatives as well as preparedness activities targeted towards healthcare workers in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manganelli, Joe; Threatt, Anthony; Brooks, Johnell O; Smolentzov, Linnea; Mossey, Mary; Healy, Stan; Walker, Ian; Green, Keith
This exploratory study examined the preferences of healthcare providers and patients with respect to overbed table features and functions, as well as how the devices tend to be used. In order to improve the design of overbed tables, it is important to understand which features and functions of existing models are valued by healthcare providers and patients. A sample of overbed table models was presented to volunteers, who were asked to choose which models' implementation of specific features and functions they preferred. Structured interviews incorporating both forced choice and free response questions were administered to the volunteers-healthcare providers and patients at a rehabilitation hospital. While the overbed tabletop and extendable tray are heavily used, all other features of the overbed table models are rarely used. Usability of the models exhibits the potential for improvement. Healthcare providers' and patients' feature preferences differ and occasionally conflict. Existing overbed tables are valued primarily for the top surface. Other features and functions of the overbed table present opportunities for refinement of design, durability, and usability. There are strong patterns of agreement and disagreement in the preferences of healthcare providers and patients with respect to overbed table design, use, features, and functionality. There is potential to improve overbed table designs from both the perspectives of the staff and the patient. Evidence-based design, hospital, human factors, patient-centered care, quality care, technology.
Aaron, Eliana Marcus; Andrews, Caryn Scheinberg
Many countries around the world have integrated various types of Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) into their healthcare systems. The main motivating factors for recognizing and developing APPs worldwide include physician shortages and the need for improved access or delivery (US, France, Belgium, Scotland, Switzerland), reduced residency hours (US, UK), shortages in underserved regions (US, Canada, Finland, Australia), and cost containment (Germany, Netherlands, UK, US). Israel is experiencing a shortage of physicians in peripheral geographic regions and in critical medical specialties. Recent by-laws approved by the Knesset (Parliament), combined with Israel Ministry of Health (MOH) policies, have thus far been unable to fully address the shortages. To understand the potential contribution of APPs in Israel, we evaluated the international historical foundations and development of APP roles. We assessed how APPs have impacted healthcare in other countries by analyzing public data and published international research about APP education, safety, quality of care, motivators, barriers, and impact. We found that APPs are recognized in dozens of countries, and have similar scopes of practice, graduate level education requirements (in developed countries), and clinical training. At the same time, there is wide variability among countries in the actual function and independence of the advanced practice nurse (APN), particularly the nurse practitioner (NP). APPs have been established as cost effective, safe healthcare providers who improve healthcare access. Israel has begun to introduce APPs, specifically NPs, in a variety of fields, including geriatrics, palliative care and diabetic care. We recommend a rapid expansion of existing and new APP roles into the Israeli healthcare system based on evidence and the recommendations of international evaluations by non-government organizations. By shifting the education to a university setting, mirroring successful, evidence
Gan, Kang; Zhang, Yuhan; Jiang, Xiaomei; Meng, Yucui; Hou, Liyan; Cheng, Yimin
To evaluate Chinese healthcare providers' knowledge regarding medical abortion, to understand provider preferences for abortion methods, and to investigate the role of remuneration on providers' decision making. Between November 2009 and May 2010, 658 abortion service providers from family-planning service centers and hospitals in Shenzhen and Henan, China, were surveyed via self-administered questionnaires. The knowledge score (out of a maximum of 32) regarding medical abortion was 16-20 for 60.9% of the providers; 20.4% of the providers preferred medical abortion to surgical abortion, whereas 35.0% preferred surgical abortion. Overall, 72.2% of providers stated that they did not receive any commission for providing medical abortion or surgical abortion. Most healthcare providers believed that surgical abortion was preferable to medical abortion. Efforts should be made to overcome the perceived disadvantages of medical abortion. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saleh, Shadi; Khodor, Rawya; Alameddine, Mohamad; Baroud, Maysa
eHealth can positively impact the efficiency and quality of healthcare services. Its potential benefits extend to the patient, healthcare provider, and organization. Primary healthcare (PHC) settings may particularly benefit from eHealth. In these settings, healthcare provider readiness is key to successful eHealth implementation. Accordingly, it is necessary to explore the potential readiness of providers to use eHealth tools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of healthcare providers working in PHC centers in Lebanon to use eHealth tools. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants' socio-demographics, computer use, literacy, and access, and participants' readiness for eHealth implementation (appropriateness, management support, change efficacy, personal beneficence). The study included primary healthcare providers (physicians, nurses, other providers) working in 22 PHC centers distributed across Lebanon. Descriptive and bivariate analyses (ANOVA, independent t-test, Kruskal Wallis, Tamhane's T2) were used to compare participant characteristics to the level of readiness for the implementation of eHealth. Of the 541 questionnaires, 213 were completed (response rate: 39.4 %). The majority of participants were physicians (46.9 %), and nurses (26.8 %). Most physicians (54.0 %), nurses (61.4 %), and other providers (50.9 %) felt comfortable using computers, and had access to computers at their PHC center (physicians: 77.0 %, nurses: 87.7 %, others: 92.5 %). Frequency of computer use varied. The study found a significant difference for personal beneficence, management support, and change efficacy among different healthcare providers, and relative to participants' level of comfort using computers. There was a significant difference by level of comfort using computers and appropriateness. A significant difference was also found between those with access to computers in relation to personal beneficence and
Inamdar, Noorein; Kaplan, Robert S; Bower, Marvin
Several innovative healthcare executives have recently introduced a new business strategy implementation tool: the Balanced Scorecard. The scorecard's measurement and management system provides the following potential benefits to healthcare organizations: It aligns the organization around a more market-oriented, customer-focused strategy It facilitates, monitors, and assesses the implementation of the strategy It provides a communication and collaboration mechanism It assigns accountability for performance at all levels of the organization It provides continual feedback on the strategy and promotes adjustments to marketplace and regulatory changes. We surveyed executives in nine provider organizations that were implementing the Balanced Scorecard. We asked about the following issues relating to its implementation and effect: 1. The role of the Balanced Scorecard in relation to a well-defined vision, mission, and strategy 2. The motivation for adopting the Balanced Scorecard 3. The difference between the Balanced Scorecard and other measurement systems 4. The process followed to develop and implement the Balanced Scorecard 5. The challenges and barriers during the development and implementation process 6. The benefits gained by the organization from adoption and use. The executives reported that the Balanced Scorecard strategy implementation and performance management tool could be successfully applied in the healthcare sector, enabling organizations to improve their competitive market positioning, financial results, and customer satisfaction. This article concludes with guidelines for other healthcare provider organizations to capture the benefits of the Balanced Scorecard performance management system.
Makanjee, Chandra R; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A
Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor-patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers' and patients' perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. AIM AND SETTING: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider-patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included.
Background In several northwest European countries, a demand-driven healthcare system has been implemented that stresses the importance of patient healthcare provider choice. In this study, we are conducting a scoping review aiming to map out what is known about the determinants of patient choice of a wide range of healthcare providers. As far as we know, not many studies are currently available that attempt to draw a general picture of how patients choose a healthcare provider and of the status of research on this subject. This study is therefore a valuable contribution to the growing amount of literature about patient choice. Methods We carried out a specific type of literature review known as a scoping review. Scoping reviews try to examine the breadth of knowledge that is available about a particular topic and therefore do not make selections or apply quality constraints. Firstly, we defined our research questions and searched the literature in Embase, Medline and PubMed. Secondly, we selected the literature, and finally we analysed and summarized the information. Results Our review shows that patients’ choices are determined by a complex interplay between patient and provider characteristics. A variety of patient characteristics determines whether patients make choices, are willing and able to choose, and how they choose. Patients take account of a variety of structural, process and outcome characteristics of providers, differing in the relative importance they attach to these characteristics. Conclusions There is no such thing as the typical patient: different patients make different choices in different situations. Comparative information seems to have a relatively limited influence on the choices made by many patients and patients base their decisions on a variety of provider characteristics instead of solely on outcome characteristics. The assumptions made in health policy about patient choice may therefore be an oversimplification of reality. Several
POURHOSSEINI, Samira Sadat; ARDALAN, Ali; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossien
Abstract Background Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster. Method In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data. Results Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victims’ management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management. Conclusion Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management. PMID:26060782
Zhou, Wei-Jiao; Wan, Qiao-Qin; Liu, Cong-Ying; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Shang, Shao-Mei
Patient loyalty is key to business success for healthcare providers and also for patient health outcomes. This study aims to identify determinants influencing patient loyalty to healthcare providers and propose an integrative conceptual model of the influencing factors. PubMed, CINAHL, OVID, ProQuest and Elsevier Science Direct databases were searched. Publications about determinants of patient loyalty to health providers were screened, and 13 articles were included. Date of publication, location of the research, sample details, objectives and findings/conclusions were extracted for 13 articles. Thirteen studies explored eight determinants: satisfaction, quality, value, hospital brand image, trust, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and customer complaints. The integrated conceptual model comprising all the determinants demonstrated the significant positive direct impact of quality on satisfaction and value, satisfaction on trust and commitment, trust on commitment and loyalty, and brand image on quality and loyalty. This review identifies and models the determinants of patient loyalty to healthcare providers. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of trust, commitment, and switching barriers on patient loyalty.
Purpose The current Ebola epidemic that has devastated West Africa has infected and killed more healthcare providers than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. An improved understanding of pathogen transmission and the institution of strategies to protect infection healthcare providers are needed in infectious disease outbreak. This review connects what is known about Ebola virus transmission with personal protective equipment designed to arrest nosocomial transmission. Methods Articles pertaining to filovirus transmission and personal protective equipment in filovirus outbreaks were reviewed and are presented. Additionally, studies evaluating PPE as well as donning and doffing strategies are also presented. Findings Personal Protective equipment is one step in a comprehensive infection prevention and control strategy that is required to protect healthcare providers. Given that the Ebola virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact of mucous membranes and cuts in the skin with infected patients and/or their bodily fluids, it is necessary to cover these potential portals of infection with PPE as part of a structured and instructed donning and doffing procedure. Implications Current recommendations about PPE and the donning and doffing processes are based on anecdotal experience. However the use of non-human viruses can help provide evidence based guidelines on both PPE and processes. PMID:26452427
Keplar, Kristine E; Urbanski, Christopher J
To review some common medical applications available for personal digital assistants (PDAs), with brief discussion of the different PDA operating systems and memory requirements. Key search terms included handheld, PDA, personal digital assistants, and medical applications. The literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1999-August 2002). Other information was obtained through secondary sources such as Web sites describing common PDAs. Medical applications available on PDAs are numerous and include general drug references, specialized drug references (e.g., pediatrics, geriatrics, cardiology, infectious disease), diagnostic guides, medical calculators, herbal medication references, nursing references, toxicology references, and patient tracking databases. Costs and memory requirements for these programs can vary; consequently, the healthcare provider must limit the medication applications that are placed on the handheld computer. This article attempts to systematically describe the common medical applications available for the handheld computer along with cost, memory and download requirements, and Web site information. This review found many excellent PDA drug information applications offering many features which will aid the healthcare provider. Very likely, after using these PDA applications, the healthcare provider will find them indispensable, as their multifunctional capabilities can save time, improve accuracy, and allow for general business procedures as well as being a quick reference tool. To avoid the benefits of this technology might be a step backward.
Starzyk, Erin J; Kelley, Michele A; Caskey, Rachel N; Schwartz, Alan; Kennelly, Joan F; Bailey, Robert C
The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s) and guardian(s). The purpose of this study was to assess providers' level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics. An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey. Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1) overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2) knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item. Providers' knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions.
Westhoff, W W; Rodriguez, R; Cousins, C; McDermott, R J
Approximately 31,000 Cuban healthcare providers reside in Venezuela as part of an initiative to increase Venezuelans' access to health care. The concept began in 1999 as part of the new constitution, and has grown steadily to include 6000 clinics, health promotion and prevention programmes, an integrated healthcare system, and a vision to train and deploy community public health physicians selected from and trained within the neighbourhood. In the case study described herein, physician-patient consultations increased from 3.5 million to 17 million, and the numbers of primary care physicians, nurses and dentists increased dramatically. Furthermore, in Caracas, there has been a 30% reduction in the use of emergency rooms at public hospitals. Estimates are provided for preventive services and potential lives saved. As health care is a politically-laden issue in many countries, all approaches to reducing healthcare disparities are worth analysing for their potential contributions to population health improvement. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie
Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.
Starzyk, Erin J.; Kelley, Michele A.; Caskey, Rachel N.; Schwartz, Alan; Kennelly, Joan F.; Bailey, Robert C.
Background and Objectives The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s) and guardian(s). The purpose of this study was to assess providers’ level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics. Methods An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey. Results Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1) overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2) knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item. Conclusion Providers’ knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions. PMID:25635664
Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.
Background: Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor–patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers’ and patients’ perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. Aim and setting: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Results: Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Conclusion: Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider–patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included. PMID:26245604
Perrin, Eliana M.; Berry, Diane; Vu, Maihan B.; Pullen Davis, Lisa; Cai, Jianwen; Tzeng, Janice P.; Ammerman, Alice S.
Abstract Background To prevent childhood obesity, parents and their children's healthcare providers need to engage in effective dialogue. We know much about mothers' experiences, but very little about fathers' experiences. Methods We explored African-American, Caucasian, and Latino fathers' perceptions and experiences communicating with their children's provider during clinic visits regarding weight, diet, and physical activity. Focus groups (n=3), grouped by race/ethnicity, including a total of 24 fathers, were conducted. The men were asked open-ended questions; responses were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Results Findings revealed that these fathers were involved in their children's healthcare and found providers to be helpful partners in keeping their children healthy, yet they generally felt “left out” during clinic appointments. The quality of the relationship with their children's provider influenced how receptive fathers were to discussing their children's weight, diet, and physical activity behaviors. Fathers made suggestions to help improve communication between providers and fathers, such as personalizing the discussion. Conclusions These fathers expressed strong feelings about the provider–parent relationship when discussing weight, diet, and physical activity. PMID:23472966
Hoyt, K Sue; Gerhart, Ann E
The wildfires of October 2003 burned a total of 10% of the county of San Diego, California. Poor air quality contributed to an increased number of patients seeking emergency services, including healthcare providers affected by smoke and ash in hospital ventilation systems. Two large hospitals with special patient populations were threatened by rapidly approaching fires and had to plan for total evacuations in a very short time frame. A number of medical professionals were forced to prioritize responding to the hospital's call for increased staff during the disaster and the need to evacuate their own homes.
Benitez, Joseph; Coplan, Bettie; Dehn, Richard W; Hooker, Roderick S
Greater use of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) to meet growing demand for healthcare in the United States is an increasingly common strategy to improve access to care and control costs. Evidence suggests that payment for services differs depending on the type of provider. This study sought to determine if the source of payment for a medical visit varies based on whether care is provided by a physician, PA, or NP. Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2006 through 2010) were analyzed. Physicians were proportionally more likely than NPs or PAs to provide care for medical visits compensated by private insurance or Medicare. Conversely, PAs and NPs were more likely to serve as providers of care for services with other payment sources such as Medicaid and out-of-pocket.
Naghdi, Reza; Seto, Karen; Klassen, Carolyn; Emokpare, Didi; Conway, Brian; Kelley, Melissa; Yoshida, Eric; Shah, Hemant A
Background and Aim. Despite advances in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), it remains a major public health problem in Canada and globally. The knowledge of healthcare providers (HCPs) is critical to improve the care of CHC in Canada. To assess the current knowledge and educational needs of healthcare providers (HCPs) in the area of CHC management a national online survey was conducted. Method. An interprofessional steering committee designed a 29-question survey distributed through various direct and electronic routes. The survey assessed several domains (e.g., participant and practice demographics, access to resources, knowledge of new treatments, and educational preferences). Results. A total of 163 HCPs responded to the survey. All hepatologists and 8% of primary care providers (PCPs) reported involvement in treatment of CHC. Physicians most frequently screened patients who had abnormal liver enzymes, while nurses tended to screen based on lifestyle factors. More than 70% of PCPs were not aware of new medications and their mechanisms. Conclusion. Overall, the needs assessment demonstrated that there was a need for further education, particularly for primary care physicians, to maximize the role that they can play in screening, testing, and treatment of hepatitis C in Canada.
Seto, Karen; Klassen, Carolyn; Emokpare, Didi; Conway, Brian; Kelley, Melissa
Background and Aim. Despite advances in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), it remains a major public health problem in Canada and globally. The knowledge of healthcare providers (HCPs) is critical to improve the care of CHC in Canada. To assess the current knowledge and educational needs of healthcare providers (HCPs) in the area of CHC management a national online survey was conducted. Method. An interprofessional steering committee designed a 29-question survey distributed through various direct and electronic routes. The survey assessed several domains (e.g., participant and practice demographics, access to resources, knowledge of new treatments, and educational preferences). Results. A total of 163 HCPs responded to the survey. All hepatologists and 8% of primary care providers (PCPs) reported involvement in treatment of CHC. Physicians most frequently screened patients who had abnormal liver enzymes, while nurses tended to screen based on lifestyle factors. More than 70% of PCPs were not aware of new medications and their mechanisms. Conclusion. Overall, the needs assessment demonstrated that there was a need for further education, particularly for primary care physicians, to maximize the role that they can play in screening, testing, and treatment of hepatitis C in Canada. PMID:28396854
Morris, Zoë Slote; Clarkson, Peter John
We argue that social marketing can be used as a generic framework for analysing barriers to the take-up of clinical guidelines, and planning interventions which seek to enable this change. We reviewed the literature on take-up of clinical guidelines, in particular barriers and enablers to change; social marketing principles and social marketing applied to healthcare. We then applied the social marketing framework to analyse the literature and to consider implications for future guideline policy to assess its feasibility and accessibility. There is sizeable extant literature on healthcare practitioners' non-compliance with clinical guidelines. This is an international problem common to a number of settings. The reasons for poor levels of take up appear to be well understood, but not addressed adequately in practice. Applying a social marketing framework brings new insights to the problem." We show that a social marketing framework provides a useful solution-focused framework for systematically understanding barriers to individual behaviour change and designing interventions accordingly. Whether the social marketing framework provides an effective means of bringing about behaviour change remains an empirical question which has still to be tested in practice. The analysis presented here provides strong motivation to begin such testing.
Boudreaux, Edwin D; Waring, Molly E; Hayes, Rashelle B; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Mullen, Sean; Pagoto, Sherry
Mobile applications (apps) to improve health are proliferating, but before healthcare providers or organizations can recommend an app to the patients they serve, they need to be confident the app will be user-friendly and helpful for the target disease or behavior. This paper summarizes seven strategies for evaluating and selecting health-related apps: (1) Review the scientific literature, (2) Search app clearinghouse websites, (3) Search app stores, (4) Review app descriptions, user ratings, and reviews, (5) Conduct a social media query within professional and, if available, patient networks, (6) Pilot the apps, and (7) Elicit feedback from patients. The paper concludes with an illustrative case example. Because of the enormous range of quality among apps, strategies for evaluating them will be necessary for adoption to occur in a way that aligns with core values in healthcare, such as the Hippocratic principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence.
Rhineland leadership practices contrast sharply with the prevailing Anglo/US business model of short-term maximization of profitability, and are said to lead to greater corporate sustainability, at least in highly developed economies. However, the applicability of Rhineland leadership to less developed economies has not yet been demonstrated. This paper sets out to compare the business practices of a social enterprise that delivers healthcare services in Thailand and Avery's 19 sustainable leadership practices derived from Rhineland enterprises. Adopting a case study approach, multi-data collection methods included non-participant observations made during visits to the enterprise, and reference to internal and published documentation and information. Semi-structured interview sessions were held with many stakeholders, including top management, staff, patients and a former consultant. In the Thai healthcare organization studied, evidence was found for compliance with 15 of Avery's 19 sustainable leadership elements, but to varying degrees. The elements were grouped into six core sets of practices: adopting a long-term perspective, staff development, organizational culture, innovation, social responsibility, and ethical behavior. One element was found to be not applicable, and no evidence was found for conformity with Rhineland principles on the remaining three sustainable practices. The paper concludes that Avery's 19 Rhineland practices provide a useful framework for evaluating the corporate sustainability of this Thai enterprise. Healthcare enterprises in Thailand and possibly in other Asian countries that wish to sustain their organizational success could adopt Avery's 19 Sustainable Leadership Grid elements to examine their leadership practices, and adjust them to become more sustainable. The relevance of Rhineland sustainable leadership principles to enterprises in less developed economies remains to be investigated. This study attempts to uncover this unknown.
Arican, Bilal; Guney, Murat; Akbal, Nuseybe; Demiral, Bahadir Han; Nadir, Ahmet; Kokar, Ilknur Kavci; Dabak, Mustafa Resat; Sargin, Mehmet
OBJECTIVE: Due to increase in elderly population as result of longer life expectancy and the incidence of chronic disease, greater importance should be given to elderly care and the needs of primary caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine depression status of caregivers who were providing in-home healthcare services. METHODS: This study was conducted with caregivers for 63 home-dependent patients who benefited from the services provided by Kartal Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Training and Research Hospital Family Practice Clinic between May 15, 2013 and July 1, 2013 using a socio-demographic variables questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s-t test and chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the total, 87.3% of survey participants were women. Average age was 52.47 years; 73% were married, 17.5% were single, and 9.5% were widows. Monthly income of 50.8% of participants was between TL 1000 and 3000. Of all the patients, 77.8% were totally, and 22.2% were semi-dependent. Depression was detected in 61.1% of patient relatives who were responsible for patient healthcare and in 22.2% of paid professional caregivers (p=0.052). Depression was detected at rate of 37% in caregivers who had been providing nursing care for less than 1 year, 63% for those who had been caregivers for 1 to 5 years, and for those providing care for more than 5 years, rate was 63 %. Rate of depression in study participants overall was 55.6%. CONCLUSION: Duration of providing care, dependency level of patient, and level of intimacy affect caregivers. They need psychological support. PMID:28058398
Blatnik, Patricia; Bojnec, Štefan; Tušak, Matej
Abstract The chief aim of this study was to analyze secondary healthcare providers' efficiency, focusing on the efficiency analysis of Slovene general hospitals. We intended to present a complete picture of technical, allocative, and cost or economic efficiency of general hospitals. Methods We researched the aspects of efficiency with two econometric methods. First, we calculated the necessary quotients of efficiency with the stochastic frontier analyze (SFA), which are realized by econometric evaluation of stochastic frontier functions; then, with the data envelopment analyze (DEA), we calculated the necessary quotients that are based on the linear programming method. Results Results on measures of efficiency showed that the two chosen methods produced two different conclusions. The SFA method concluded Celje General Hospital is the most efficient general hospital, whereas the DEA method concluded Brežice General Hospital was the hospital to be declared as the most efficient hospital. Conclusion Our results are a useful tool that can aid managers, payers, and designers of healthcare policy to better understand how general hospitals operate. The participants can accordingly decide with less difficulty on any further business operations of general hospitals, having the best practices of general hospitals at their disposal. PMID:28730180
Paal, Piret; Helo, Yousef; Frick, Eckhard
This systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes of spiritual care training. It outlines the training outcomes based on participants' oral/written feedback, course evaluation and performance assessment. Intervention was defined as any form of spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals studying/working in an academic and/or clinical setting. An online search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CSA, ATLA and CENTRAL up to Week 27 of 2013 by two independent investigators to reduce errors in inclusion. Only peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on training outcomes were included. A primary keyword-driven search found 4912 articles; 46 articles were identified as relevant for final analysis. The narrative synthesis of findings outlines the following outcomes: (1) acknowledging spirituality on an individual level, (2) success in integrating spirituality in clinical practice, (3) positive changes in communication with patients. This study examines primarily pre/post-effects within a single cohort. Due to an average study quality, the reported findings in this review are to be seen as indicators at most. Nevertheless, this review makes evident that without attending to one'the repeliefs and needs, addressing spirituality in patients will not be forthcoming. It also demonstrates that spiritual care training may help to challenge the spiritual vacuum in healthcare institutions.
Fewster-Thuente, Lori; Batteson, Tamzin
Although interprofessional collaboration has been proven to reduce the number of errors, few programs have incorporated interprofessional training into their programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if attitudes and observed collaborative behaviors among an interprofessional group of students improved or increased following an intervention that included a didactic session on the process of collaboration, a low-fidelity simulation of interprofessional patient care rounds, and facilitated debriefing sessions. In this mixed-methods study, two scales from the TeamSTEPPS™ Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (TAQ) were used as a pre- and post-test to assess attitude and behavior changes in students. Qualitative data were also collected via semi-structured interviewing and observation. Students (n=515) from eight professional healthcare programs participated in the study. Statistical significance (p<0.001) was reached in 10 of the 12 TAQ questions, indicating that attitudes towards teamwork and collaboration improved substantially. All observed collaborative behaviors increased between 3 to 18% pre- to posttest. Students reported that the intervention taught them about other provider roles and gave them the language they needed to collaborate. Low-fidelity scripted simulation of patient care rounds is a cost-effective and time-efficient method to teach interprofessional collaboration simultaneously to large groups of students in diverse healthcare professional programs.
Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina
Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…
Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina
Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…
Donnelly, Tam Truong; McKellin, William
Understanding how healthcare responsibility is distributed will give insight on how health-care is delivered and how members of a society are expected to practice health-care. The raising cost of health-care has resulted in restructuring of the existing Canadian healthcare system toward a system that controls costs by placing more healthcare responsibility on the individual. This shift might create more difficulty for immigrants and refugees to obtain equitable health-care and put blame on them when they experience illness. This paper is drawn from the results of a larger qualitative study exploring Vietnamese Canadian women's breast cancer and cervical cancer screening practices. Interview data were gathered from 15 Vietnamese Canadian women and six healthcare providers. We will demonstrate that (a) despite the strong influence of individualism, Vietnamese women and their healthcare providers value both individual liberty and the interrelationship between individual and society; (b) limited funding and unequal distribution of healthcare resources impacted how immigrant and refugee women practice health-care. Thus, motivating and fostering immigrant and refugee women's healthcare practice require both individual and institutional effort. To foster immigrant and refugees' healthcare practices, healthcare policy makers and providers need to consider how to distribute healthcare resources that meet immigrants' and refugees' healthcare needs in the most equitable way.
Prentice, Trisha M; Gillam, Lynn; Davis, Peter G; Janvier, Annie
Current conceptualisations of moral distress largely portray a negative phenomenon that leads to burnout, reduced job satisfaction and poor patient care. To explore clinical experiences, perspectives and perceptions of moral distress in neonatology. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to medical and nursing providers within two tertiary level neonatal intensive care units (NICUs)-one surgical and one perinatal-seeking their understanding of the term and their experience of it. Open-ended questions were analysed using qualitative methodology. A total of 345 healthcare providers from two NICUs participated (80% response rate): 286 nurses and 59 medical providers. Moral distress was correctly identified as constrained moral judgement resulting in distress by 93% of participants. However, in practice the term moral distress was also used as an umbrella term to articulate different forms of distress. Moral distress was experienced by 72% of providers at least once a month. Yet despite the negative sequelae of moral distress, few (8% medical, 21% nursing providers) thought that moral distress should be eliminated from the NICU. Open-ended responses revealed that while interventions were desired to decrease the negative impacts of moral distress, moral distress was also viewed as an essential component of the caring profession that prompts robust discussion and acts as an impetus for medical decision-making. Moral distress remains prevalent within NICUs. While the harmful aspects of moral distress need to be mitigated, moral distress may have a positive role in advocating for and promoting the interests of the neonatal population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bhargava, Smriti; Hooja, Nupur; Nawal, Rajani; Kumawat, Bhomraj; Sharma, Avantika; Manish, Richa
Healthcare providers are an important link with the general public to impart knowledge regarding contraception. They are an important source of providing information regarding different methods of contraception, their proper use and removing the myths from the couple's mind. However, their own attitude and practice of contraception are often lacking. This study was conducted to assess the attitude and practice of contraception over the last 1 year of nurses in a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur. The study was conducted on 410 nurses in a tertiary care hospital. All were given a questionnaire that was duly filled by them, and the data obtained was analysed. All were aware of at least one family planning method. Only 84% knew that contraceptives could space the pregnancy. Very few had correct knowledge about the fertile period or lactational amenorrhoea. Few were aware of emergency contraception and its proper implication (6.83%) The commonest was the barrier method (70%) followed by natural method (41.46%). There was shifting from natural method to barrier method and OC pills for few cycles. Health workers have knowledge regarding contraception yet fail to use it regularly. Proper attitude and practice are essential to prevent unintended pregnancies and prevention of STDs. Their use will enhance counselling skills for general population.
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.
This report, provides detailed analyses and projections of occupations in healthcare fields, and wages earned. In addition, the important skills and work values associated with workers in those fields of healthcare are discussed. Finally, the authors analyze the implications of research findings for the racial, ethnic, and class diversity of the…
Although the use of embryonic stem cells to treat disease has caused much controversy, one type of stem cell treatment has slowly and steadily shown promise but has not engendered negative ethical media attention: the use of umbilical stem cells. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains stem cells that have already successfully treated a variety of diseases, including leukemias, lymphomas, hemoglobinopathies, immunodeficiencies, and disorders of metabolism; ongoing research continues to explore additional diseases for potential treatment. Cord blood can be stored in private banks or public banks. Private cord blood banks save cord blood for use by the family only, at a cost. Public cord blood banks accept donations and the cord blood is then used for the general public and/or research. A review of the literature finds that public banking is the preferred recommendation over private unless there is a known family member with a disease that can currently be treated with cord blood. This article discusses cord blood banking options as well as the ethical issues and barriers facing both healthcare providers and patients when dealing with cord blood banking.
Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O
The epidemiology of herpes labialis has been relatively neglected. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of self-reported herpes labialis among Nigerian dental health providers. This cross-sectional study of final year dental students and dentists undergoing postgraduate training at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria was conducted in June, 2014. The demographic information, lifetime and period (previous year) experience of the herpes labialis, perceived triggers and action taken during the last episode were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The annual prevalence of herpes labialis was 7.4% while the lifetime prevalence was 22.1%. The lifetime prevalence was significantly associated with marital status, professional status and family history of herpes labialis. However, in binary regression, it was only marital status and family history of herpes labialis that emerged as the determinants of this lifetime prevalence. The most common trigger factors reported by the participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were fever, malaria, fatigue and stress. The actions taken by participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were using drugs without prescription (14.3%), application of lubricant (23.8%), nothing (57.1%) and could not remember (4.8%). Data from this study revealed that one out of fourteen and one out of five every studied dental healthcare providers had experienced herpes labialis in the last 12 months and their lifetime respectively. The reduction of fever inducing infections, stress and fatigue which were major triggers will help decrease herpes labialis among this studied group.
Giacco, Domenico; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan
The article reviews recent evidence on improving access to mental healthcare for immigrants and best practice of care provision. Language barriers, different beliefs and explanatory models of illness, confidentiality concerns, stigma, reluctance to seek psychological help outside families, and social deprivation may prevent immigrants from accessing mental healthcare. Pathways are influenced by families, primary care practitioners, voluntary organizations, and social services. Interpreting services are often not available, and data documentation on immigrants' use of services is inconsistent. Nonmedical specific services for immigrants can be effective in outreach activities. Cultural training of staff can improve clinicians' attitudes and patients' satisfaction with care. Integrative approaches between primary and mental healthcare, psychoeducational programs, and technological innovations have been developed to improve access to care. Immigrants can face significant barriers in accessing mental healthcare. Strategies to overcome these barriers are as follows: increased coordination and communication between voluntary organizations, social services and mental health services; training of staff on cross-cultural issues; integration of mental healthcare with primary care; psychoeducational initiatives focused on families and broader social groups; and technology-based interventions.
Lee, David J; Fleming, Lora E; McCollister, Kathryn E; Caban, Alberto J; Arheart, Kristopher L; LeBlanc, William G; Chung‐Bridges, Katherine; Christ, Sharon L; Dietz, Noella; Clark, John D
Objective Among workers in dusty occupations, tobacco use is particularly detrimental to health because of the potential synergistic effects of occupational exposures (for example, asbestos) in causing disease. This study explored the prevalence of smoking and the reported smoking cessation discussion with a primary healthcare provider (HCP) among a representative sample of currently employed US worker groups. Methods Pooled data from the 1997–2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate occupation specific smoking rates (n = 135 412). The 2000 NHIS Cancer Control Module was used to determine (among employed smokers with HCP visits) the prevalence of being advised to quit smoking by occupation (n = 3454). Results The average annual prevalence of current smoking was 25% in all workers. In 2000, 84% of smokers reported visiting an HCP during the past 12 months; 53% reported being advised by their physician to quit smoking (range 42%–66% among 30 occupations). However, an estimated 10.5 million smokers were not advised to quit smoking by their HCP. Workers with potentially increased occupational exposure to dusty work environments (including asbestos, silica, particulates, etc), at high risk for occupational lung disease and with high smoking prevalence, had relatively low reported discussions with an HCP about smoking cessation, including farm workers (30% overall smoking prevalence; 42% told to quit), construction and extractive trades (39%; 46%), and machine operators/tenderers (34%; 44%). Conclusion The relatively low reported prevalence of HCP initiated smoking cessation discussion, particularly among currently employed workers with potentially synergistic occupational exposures and high current smoking prevalence, needs to be addressed through educational campaigns targeting physicians and other HCPs. PMID:17897991
Villacorta, Reginald; Sood, Neeraj
Objective Investigate determinants of receiving healthcare provider (HCP) recommendations for seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccinations. Methods Using a United States national sample of adults 18 + from the National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey, multivariate regression models estimated the likelihood of receiving a HCP recommendation. Covariates included demographics, socioeconomic status, and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) priority groups. Results Adults age 55–64 and 65 + were more likely to report a HCP recommendation when compared to adults age 18–34 (OR: 1.483, 95%CI: 1.237–1.778 and OR: 1.738, 95%CI: 1.427–2.116, respectively). Chronically ill adults had 58.0% (95%CI: 1.414–1.765) higher odds of receiving a HCP recommendation than non-chronically ill adults. Patients visiting a doctor once and twice had 28.7% (95%CI: 0.618–0.821) and 17.1% (95%CI: 0.721–0.952) lower odds of receiving a HCP recommendation when compared to adults visiting their doctor at least four times. And, compared to Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks had 28.4% (95%CI: 1.064–1.549) higher odds of receiving a recommendation. Conclusions ACIP priority groups experienced higher rates of recommendations compared to non-ACIP groups. Racial differences in HCP recommendations cannot explain racial disparities in flu vaccination rates. PMID:26844092
Under pressure to remain competitive in the rapidly changing healthcare industry, policy leaders and healthcare administrators face the challenge of resolving antitrust matters arising from the creation of innovative healthcare provider affiliations. Although guidance from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is available, development of new affiliations is hindered due to contradictory rulings and ambiguous guidelines. Provider associations are further disadvantaged by a federal act granting insurance companies antitrust exemption, which enables insurance companies to affiliate more easily. Current antitrust regulations create unequal market powers, resulting in the development of inefficient systems. Softening antitrust laws in favor of provider-sponsored healthcare affiliations will provide for the flexibility necessary for effective healthcare reform.
Donnelly, Tam Truong
Breast cancer and cervical cancer are major contributors to morbidity and mortality among Vietnamese Canadian women. Vietnamese women are at risk because of their low participation rate in cancer-preventative screening programmes. Drawing from the results of a larger qualitative study, this paper reports factors that influence Vietnamese women's participation in breast and cervical cancer screening from the healthcare providers' perspectives. The women participants' perspective was reported elsewhere. Semistructured interviews were conducted with six healthcare providers. Analysis of these interviews reveals several challenges which healthcare providers encountered in their clinical practice. These include the physicians' cultural awareness about the private body, patient's low socioeconomic status, the healthcare provider-patient relationship, and limited institutional support. This is the first Canadian study to identify the healthcare providers' perspective on giving breast and cervical cancer preventive care to the Vietnamese immigrant women. The insight gained from these healthcare providers' experiences are valuable and might be helpful to healthcare professionals caring for immigrant women of similar ethno-cultural backgrounds. Recommendations for the promotion of breast cancer and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women include: (i) effort should be made to recruit Vietnamese-speaking female healthcare professionals for breast and cervical health-promotion programmes; (ii) reduce woman-physicians hierarchical relationship and foster effective doctor-patient communication; (iii) healthcare providers must be aware of their own cultural beliefs, values and attitudes that they bring to their practice; and (iv) more institutional support and resources should be given to both Vietnamese Canadian women and their healthcare providers.
Mehrdad, R; Mazloumi, A; Arshi, S; Kazemi, Z
Work ability is an important issue from a social point of view, as it is essential for workers health and welfare. This study aimed to determine work ability among healthcare personnel and to investigate its relationship with demographic and lifestyle-related factors. Data were collected using the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire among 517 personnel of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Findings showed a mean WAI of 40.3 (±5.2) for the study population. Work ability was significantly lower in the older personnel and higher for men. A significant correlation was observed between BMI and exercise activity and WAI score. Moreover, employees with experience of less than five years had significant higher work ability than those with 16-20 years of service. Considering the young study population, it seems the mean WAI is not as desirable. The use of lifestyle promoting programs, besides workplace interventions, can be an effective strategy to increase work ability among healthcare workers.
Barbarito, Fulvio; Pinciroli, Francesco; Mason, John; Marceglia, Sara; Mazzola, Luca; Bonacina, Stefano
Information technologies (ITs) have now entered the everyday workflow in a variety of healthcare providers with a certain degree of independence. This independence may be the cause of difficulty in interoperability between information systems and it can be overcome through the implementation and adoption of standards. Here we present the case of the Lombardy Region, in Italy, that has been able, in the last 10 years, to set up the Regional Social and Healthcare Information System, connecting all the healthcare providers within the region, and providing full access to clinical and health-related documents independently from the healthcare organization that generated the document itself. This goal, in a region with almost 10 millions citizens, was achieved through a twofold approach: first, the political and operative push towards the adoption of the Health Level 7 (HL7) standard within single hospitals and, second, providing a technological infrastructure for data sharing based on interoperability specifications recognized at the regional level for messages transmitted from healthcare providers to the central domain. The adoption of such regional interoperability specifications enabled the communication among heterogeneous systems placed in different hospitals in Lombardy. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) integration profiles which refer to HL7 standards are adopted within hospitals for message exchange and for the definition of integration scenarios. The IHE patient administration management (PAM) profile with its different workflows is adopted for patient management, whereas the Scheduled Workflow (SWF), the Laboratory Testing Workflow (LTW), and the Ambulatory Testing Workflow (ATW) are adopted for order management. At present, the system manages 4,700,000 pharmacological e-prescriptions, and 1,700,000 e-prescriptions for laboratory exams per month. It produces, monthly, 490,000 laboratory medical reports, 180,000 radiology medical reports, 180
The level of burnout has been found to be high in medical students, alongside maladaptive coping behaviours such as heightened alcohol and drug intake and mental health issues in the US, Europe and other developed countries. While burnout and resilience in healthcare have been researched in the West, there is a paucity of data in Asia pertaining to these factors. In this article, we review stressors in medicine, specifically during medical school training, the consequences of burnout on physicians’ health and patient care, and the interventions that might expound resilience among students. Finally, we present potential solutions within an Asian context. PMID:28293600
Edwards, Elizabeth J; Stapleton, Peta; Williams, Kelly; Ball, Lauren
Obesity related health problems affect individuals, families, communities and the broader health care system, however few healthcare providers (e.g., doctors, nurses, social workers, psychologists, counselors) receive formal training in obesity prevention interventions. We examined the effectiveness of training healthcare providers in brief motivational interviewing (brief MI) targeting eating and exercise behavior change. 163 healthcare providers participated. 128 participants completed a one-day experiential brief MI training workshop followed by electronic peer-support and a further 35 matched controls did not receive the training. Participant's knowledge of brief MI and confidence in their ability to counsel patients using brief MI significantly improved following training (p<0.05) and remained at 3 and 6-month follow-up (p<0.05). Brief MI skills assessed during the simulated patient interactions indicated a significant improvement across two practical training blocks (p<0.05). Healthcare providers can learn brief MI skills and knowledge quickly and confidence in their counseling abilities improves and is sustained. Healthcare providers may consider brief MI as an obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Attaining appropriate levels of physical activity can have many potential physiological and psychological benefits in older adults with cardiovascular disease. However, these individuals often report low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior. Older adults encounter many potential “barriers” to physical activity, but numerous studies have demonstrated the ability to positively influence this important health behavior using well-established behavior change theories and models. The information provided in this review is directed at health-care providers who have the potential to impact physical activity behaviors during regular, often brief, clinical interactions. In addition to providing the latest physical activity recommendations, this update will provide a brief summary of some of the more widely used behavioral skills and strategies for promoting physical activity in older adults with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25396112
Hweissa, N Ab; Lim, J N W; Su, T T
In Libya, cervical cancer is ranked third as the most frequent cancer among women with early diagnosis being shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. Health-care providers can influence women's screening behaviours, and their lack of recommendations for screening can be one of the barriers that affect women's participation in screening programmes. This study aims to assess the health-care provider's perception around cervical cancer screening. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 health-care providers, from both public and private sectors in Az-Zawiya city, Libya, between February and July of 2014. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analysed using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that health-care providers did not provide sufficient information regarding cervical cancer screening for women who attend health-care facilities. The results highlight the role played by health-care professionals in motivating women to attend cervical cancer screening programs, and the need for health education of health-care providers to offer a precious advice regarding the screening. On the other hand, health-care providers highlighted that implementation of reminding system of cervical cancer screening will support them to improve screening attendance. In addition, health-care providers stressed the necessity for educational and awareness campaigns of cervical cancer screening among Libyan women.
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it can help to improve the
The challenges facing the healthcare industry have created a chasm between the focus on quality of care and financial survival. More than 46.5 million Americans are uninsured, and another 16 million are underinsured with health insurance plans that leave patients unable to afford their portion of hospital charges. There are literally hundreds of solutions to assist hospitals in solving payor, self-pay, billing, and charity issues. Examples of solutions that are available include advanced analytics and modeling, automated decisioning and business rules engines, automated insurance eligibility verification, work flow tools, collection services, patient payment calculators, and many others. As the industry becomes more self-regulated and proactive, the pressure concerning business operations hopefully will diminish and hospitals can focus more on the delivery of care.
Roig, Francesc; Saigí, Francesc
Despite the clear political will to promote telemedicine and the large number of initiatives, the incorporation of this modality in clinical practice remains limited. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers perceived by key professionals who actively participate in the design and implementation of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts. We performed a qualitative study based on data from semi-structured interviews with 17 key informants belonging to distinct Catalan health organizations. The barriers identified were grouped in four areas: technological, organizational, human and economic. The main barriers identified were changes in the healthcare model caused by telemedicine, problems with strategic alignment, resistance to change in the (re)definition of roles, responsibilities and new skills, and lack of a business model that incorporates telemedicine in the services portfolio to ensure its sustainability. In addition to suitable management of change and of the necessary strategic alignment, the definitive normalization of telemedicine in a mixed healthcare model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts requires a clear and stable business model that incorporates this modality in the services portfolio and allows healthcare organizations to obtain reimbursement from the payer. 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Perrier, Laure; Farrell, Ann; Ayala, A Patricia; Lightfoot, David; Kenny, Tim; Aaronson, Ellen; Allee, Nancy; Brigham, Tara; Connor, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Teodora; Muellenbach, Joanne; Epstein, Helen-Ann Brown; Weiss, Ardis
Objective To assess the effects of librarian-provided services in healthcare settings on patient, healthcare provider, and researcher outcomes. Materials and methods Medline, CINAHL, ERIC, LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to June 2013. Studies involving librarian-provided services for patients encountering the healthcare system, healthcare providers, or researchers were eligible for inclusion. All librarian-provided services in healthcare settings were considered as an intervention, including hospitals, primary care settings, or public health clinics. Results Twenty-five articles fulfilled our eligibility criteria, including 22 primary publications and three companion reports. The majority of studies (15/22 primary publications) examined librarians providing instruction in literature searching to healthcare trainees, and measured literature searching proficiency. Other studies analyzed librarian-provided literature searching services and instruction in question formulation as well as the impact of librarian-provided services on patient length of stay in hospital. No studies were found that investigated librarians providing direct services to researchers or patients in healthcare settings. Conclusions Librarian-provided services directed to participants in training programs (eg, students, residents) improve skills in searching the literature to facilitate the integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. Services provided to clinicians were shown to be effective in saving time for health professionals and providing relevant information for decision-making. Two studies indicated patient length of stay was reduced when clinicians requested literature searches related to a patient's case. PMID:24872341
EPA is soliciting applications from eligible organizations to manage up to two cooperative agreements to enhance the goals of the EPA’s National Strategies for Health Care Providers: Pesticides Initiative.
... victims shall recognize the high prevalence of pre-existing trauma (prior to present sexual assault... assault victim shall be provided with a hard copy of the completed DD Form 2911. Advise the victim to...
Graf, Anneke; Jones, Penelope; Cheng, Allen C; Leder, Karin
This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare providers regarding asplenic patients and to assess their satisfaction with the Victorian Spleen Registry (VSR) service. Survey forms were sent to 992 healthcare providers listed as caring for at least one patient registered on the VSR. A total of 223 completed questionnaires were returned. Healthcare providers heard about the VSR mainly from another healthcare professional or through a healthcare institution (31.7%), via online or printed resources (30.8%) or from their patients (24.4%). Most respondents valued the work of the VSR in providing information to healthcare professionals (71.4%), providing a reminder service for vaccinations (66.7%) and providing education to patients (60.5%). Most of those surveyed correctly identified high-risk infections for asplenic and hyposplenic patients with encapsulated organisms, but less than one-third identified a risk with malarial infections (32.9%). Providers always recommended influenza vaccinations, emergency standby antibiotics and an alert medallion or card in 92.8%, 63.6% and 36.4% of cases, respectively. Healthcare providers value and are satisfied with the service provided by the VSR. Patients can play a valuable role in communicating with their health providers. This survey may have been of value to healthcare providers by heightening awareness of the VSR website as well as knowledge of the registry. The results positively reflect the functioning of the VSR, although better promotion of the VSR among healthcare professionals and consideration of expansion is needed. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
This is a short commentary to the editorial issued by Marianna Fotaki, entitled: "Why and how is compassion necessary to provide good quality healthcare." It introduces the necessity of a more cognitive approach to explore further the determinants of behavior towards compassionate care. It raises questions about the importance of training towards a more patient-care and values driven healthcare system. PMID:26673339
Compton, David A.; Whitehead, Michael B.
Much is written about the availability of healthcare services among elements of the U.S. population, with a large proportion of the literature focusing on access. Although physical access is an overarching issue for many, educators must remember that a key factor in providing complete and competent healthcare is to understand the patient and any…
Compton, David A.; Whitehead, Michael B.
Much is written about the availability of healthcare services among elements of the U.S. population, with a large proportion of the literature focusing on access. Although physical access is an overarching issue for many, educators must remember that a key factor in providing complete and competent healthcare is to understand the patient and any…
Gilmartin, Heather; Goyal, Anupama; Hamati, Mary C; Mann, Jason; Saint, Sanjay; Chopra, Vineet
Mindfulness practice, where an individual maintains openness, patience, and acceptance while focusing attention on a situation in a nonjudgmental way, can improve symptoms of anxiety, burnout, and depression. The practice is relevant for health care providers; however, the time commitment is a barrier to practice. For this reason, brief mindfulness interventions (eg, ≤ 4 hours) are being introduced. We systematically reviewed the literature from inception to January 2017 about the effects of brief mindfulness interventions on provider well-being and behavior. Studies that tested a brief mindfulness intervention with hospital providers and measured change in well-being (eg, stress) or behavior (eg, tasks of attention or reduction of clinical or diagnostic errors) were selected for narrative synthesis. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria; 7 were randomized controlled trials. Nine of 14 studies reported positive changes in levels of stress, anxiety, mindfulness, resiliency, and burnout symptoms. No studies found an effect on provider behavior. Brief mindfulness interventions may be effective in improving provider well-being; however, larger studies are needed to assess an impact on clinical care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wall, Sarah; Austin, Wendy
Healthcare practitioners make many important ethical decisions in their day-to-day practices. Questions arising in daily practice require practitioners to make prudent, balanced and good decisions, which are most effectively made interpersonally and reflectively. It is commonly assumed that the team-based structure of healthcare delivery can provide practitioners with the support needed to address ethical questions in their practice, especially if the team involves multidisciplinary collaboration. A phenomenological study was conducted in which the impact of the team and the larger organization on practitioners' experiences of dealing with moral challenges was uncovered. Various mental healthcare professionals shared their experiences of ethically challenging situations in their practices and described the ways in which their teammates and supervisors affected how they faced these troubling situations. These findings allow us to see that there is considerable room for healthcare managers, many of whom are nurses, to facilitate supportive, ethical environments for healthcare professionals. An understanding of the essential experience of practising ethically allows for an appreciation of the significance of the team's role in supporting it and enables healthcare managers to target support for ethical healthcare work.
Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald
Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs’ performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds—more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795
Guess, Kimberly; Malek, Lenka; Anderson, Amanda; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao J
Little is known of healthcare providers' awareness and implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council's recommendation regarding iodine supplementation during pre-conception, pregnancy and lactation. To assess knowledge and practices of Australian healthcare providers in relation to the National Health and Medical Research Council's iodine supplement recommendation. Obstetricians, gynaecologists, general practitioners, dietitians and midwives were recruited through their relevant professional bodies to participate in an online survey. The survey was completed by 396 healthcare providers Australia-wide. While 71% of healthcare providers' were aware of the National Health and Medical Research Council's recommendation for iodine supplementation, fewer were aware of the recommended dose (38%) or duration (44%). Seventy-three percent of healthcare providers recommended iodine supplements in pregnancy, 56% when planning pregnancy and 52% during lactation. The main reasons for not recommending iodine supplements included belief there was no need for iodine supplements due to mandatory iodine fortification of food (28%) and unawareness of the recommendation (25%). Awareness of the recommendation was positively associated with recommending iodine supplements while length of practice, time spent per consultation, age or area of practice were not associated with recommending iodine supplements. There is a need to improve healthcare providers' knowledge of and adherence to the National Health and Medical Research Council's iodine supplement recommendation. Strategies within antenatal and postnatal services, as well as public health initiatives, are required to improve the knowledge and practices of healthcare providers. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
including: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, Kishinev, Yerevan, Alma Ata, Dushanbe, Ashkhabad, Baku, Tashkent, and Bishkek.27 Fifty-four additional...DoD Medical Excess Distributed by OPH41 Supported Country Dollar Value of Support Provided Number of Missions (Timeframe) Republic of Georgia ...More than 150,000 Georgians were displaced from their homes as a result of conflict between Georgia and Russia in August 2008 that saw Russian soldiers
Yip, Winnie Chi-Man; Hsiao, William; Meng, Qingyue; Chen, Wen; Sun, Xiaoming
Inappropriate incentives as part of China's fee-for-service payment system have resulted in rapid cost increase, inefficiencies, poor quality, unaffordable health care, and an erosion of medical ethics. To reverse these outcomes, a strategy of experimentation to realign incentives for providers with the social goals of improvement in quality and efficiency has been initiated in China. This Review shows how lessons that have been learned from international experiences have been improved further in China by realignment of the incentives for providers towards prevention and primary care, and incorporation of a treatment protocol for hospital services. Although many experiments are new, preliminary evidence suggests a potential to produce savings in costs. However, because these experiments have not been scientifically assessed in China, evidence of their effects on quality and health outcome is largely missing. Although a reform of the provider's payment can be an effective short-term strategy, professional ethics need to be re-established and incentives changed to alter the profit motives of Chinese hospitals and physicians alike. When hospitals are given incentives to achieve maximum profit, incentives for hospitals and physicians must be separated.
An estimated 550 to 650 surgical fires occur annually in the United States. Surgical fires may have severe consequences, including burns, disfigurement, long-term medical care, or death. This article introduces a potential certification program for the prevention of surgical fires. A pilot study was conducted with a convenience sample of 10 anesthesia providers who participated in the education module. The overall objective was to educate surgical team members and to prepare them to become certified in surgical fire prevention. On completion of the education module, participants completed the 50-question certification examination. The mean pretest score was 66%; none of the participants had enough correct responses (85%) to be considered competent in surgical fire prevention. The mean post- test score was 92.80%, with all participants answering at least 85% of questions correct. A paired-samples t test showed a statistically significant increase in knowledge: t (df = 9) = 11.40; P = .001. Results of the pilot study indicate that this course can remediate gaps in knowledge of surgical fire prevention for providers. Their poor performance on the pretest suggests that many providers may not receive sufficient instruction in surgical fire prevention.
Pearce, Kevin A.; Scutchfield, F. Douglas; Talbert, Jeffery C.; Bolt, W. David; Barron, Mary A.; Houlihan, Jessica M.; Dignan, Mark B.
Kentucky has among the highest rates of diabetes and obesity in the United States. The Kentucky Diabetes and Obesity Collaborative (KDOC) was designed to develop a novel research infrastructure that can be used by researchers focusing on obesity and diabetes among patients cared for by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) serving rural Kentucky. Focus groups were carried out to develop an understanding of the needs and interests of FQHC practitioners and staff regarding participation in KDOC. Focus groups were conducted with 6 FQHCs and included a total of 41 individuals including health care providers, administrative staff and clinical staff. The discussions ranged in time from 30 to 70 minutes and averaged 45 minutes. Analysis of the transcripts of the focus groups revealed 4 themes: 1) contextual factors, 2) infrastructure, 3) interpersonal relationships, and 4) clinical features. The participants also noted four requirements that should be met for a research project to be successful in rural primary care settings: 1) there must be a shared understanding of health priorities of rural communities between the researcher and the practices/providers; 2) the proposed research must be relevant to clinics and their communities; 3) research and recommendations for evidence-based interventions need to reflect the day-to-day challenges of rural primary care providers; and 4) there needs to be an understanding of community norms and resources. Although research-clinic partnerships were viewed favourably overall, challenges in data integration to support both research and clinical outcomes were identified. PMID:26457246
Caroni, Mariana Malheiros; Grossman, Eloisa
Nowadays, body art is widespread, especially among adolescents. This qualitative study seeks to assess whether the use of body art interferes with how nursing assistants care for hospitalized adolescents and to identify factors that influence the perceptions of these health care providers. Nursing assistants working in an adolescent-specific ward were interviewed. After the analysis, dominant themes emerged from the narratives, allowing for a better understanding of how nursing assistants perceive tattoos and piercing. Some themes were recurrent, especially the association of body art with deviant behavior, erotic appeal, consumerism, courage, health risks, and psychic disorders. Religion and family values prevail over professional knowledge in how body marks are perceived. It may thus be inferred that a negative attitude toward body art is directly related to quality of care. The number of marks, their location, their type, and the definite/temporary character of tattoos and piercing interfere with the providers' interpretation. However, piercing and tattoos are important semiological tools and must be included in the script for the evaluation of adolescents.
Plaisime, Marie V; Malebranche, David J; Davis, Andrea L; Taylor, Jennifer A
We explored health providers' formative personal and professional experiences with race and Black men as a way to assess their potential influence on interactions with Black male patients. Utilizing convenience sampling with snowballing techniques, we identified healthcare providers in two urban university hospitals. We compared Black and White providers' experiences based on race and level of training. We used the Gardener's Tale to conceptualize how racism may lead to racial health disparities. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct in-person interviews (n = 16). Using the grounded theory approach, we conducted three types of coding to examine data patterns. We found two themes reflective of personally mediated racism: (1) perception of Black males accompanied by two subthemes (a) biased care and (b) fear and discomfort and (2) cognitive dissonance. While this latter theme is more reflective of Jones's internalized racism level, we present its results because its novelty is compelling. Perception of Black males and cognitive dissonance appear to influence providers' approaches with Black male patients. This study suggests the need to develop initiatives and curricula in health professional schools that address provider racial bias. Understanding the dynamics operating in the patient-provider encounter enhances the ability to address and reduce health disparities.
Paradies, Yin; Truong, Mandy; Priest, Naomi
Although considered a key driver of racial disparities in healthcare, relatively little is known about the extent of interpersonal racism perpetrated by healthcare providers, nor is there a good understanding of how best to measure such racism. This paper reviews worldwide evidence (from 1995 onwards) for racism among healthcare providers; as well as comparing existing measurement approaches to emerging best practice, it focuses on the assessment of interpersonal racism, rather than internalized or systemic/institutional racism. The following databases and electronic journal collections were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2012: Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts. Included studies were published empirical studies of any design measuring and/or reporting on healthcare provider racism in the English language. Data on study design and objectives; method of measurement, constructs measured, type of tool; study population and healthcare setting; country and language of study; and study outcomes were extracted from each study. The 37 studies included in this review were almost solely conducted in the U.S. and with physicians. Statistically significant evidence of racist beliefs, emotions or practices among healthcare providers in relation to minority groups was evident in 26 of these studies. Although a number of measurement approaches were utilized, a limited range of constructs was assessed. Despite burgeoning interest in racism as a contributor to racial disparities in healthcare, we still know little about the extent of healthcare provider racism or how best to measure it. Studies using more sophisticated approaches to assess healthcare provider racism are required to inform interventions aimed at reducing racial disparities in health.
Mangione-Smith, R; McGlynn, E A
OBJECTIVE: To present a conceptual framework for evaluating quality of care for children and adolescents, summarize the key issues related to developing measures to assess pediatric quality of care, examine some existing measures, and present evidence about their current level of performance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Assessing the quality of care for children poses many challenges not encountered when making these measurements in the adult population. Children and adolescents (from this point forward referred to collectively as children unless differentiation is necessary) differ from adults in two clinically important ways (Jameson and Wehr 1993): (1) their normal developmental trajectory is characterized by change, and (2) they have differential morbidity. These factors contribute to the limitations encountered when developing measures to assess the quality of care for children. The movement of a child through the various stages of development makes it difficult to establish what constitutes a "normal" outcome and by extension what constitutes a poor outcome. Additionally, salient developmental outcomes that result from poor quality of care may not be observed for several years. This implies that poor outcomes may be observed when the child is receiving care from a delivery system other than the one that provided the low-quality care. Attributing the suboptimal outcome to the new delivery system would be inappropriate. Differential morbidity refers to the fact that the type, prevalence, and severity of illness experienced by children is measurably different from that observed in adults. Most children experience numerous self-limited illness of mild severity. A minority of children suffer from markedly more severe diseases. Thus, condition-specific measures in children are problematic to implement for routine assessments because of the extremely low incidence and prevalence of most severe pediatric diseases (Halfon 1996). However, children with these conditions are
Shaffner, Julie; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C
Surveillance of arboviruses depends on health-care providers' ability to diagnose and report human cases of disease. The purposes of this study were to assess Tennessee providers' 1) self-efficacy toward diagnosis and management, 2) clinical practices, and 3) variation in these measures by provider characteristics. A survey was e-mailed to 13,851 providers, of which 916 (7%) responded. Respondents diagnosed more arboviruses in the previous year than were recorded in surveillance records, an indication of underreporting. Respondents had low to moderate self-efficacy toward diagnosis and management of arboviruses. Although more than 70% (N = 589) used paired serology, only 46% (N = 396) asked patients to return for a convalescent specimen draw within the correct time frame. One of the most commonly reported barriers to testing was uncertainty about which tests to order. Providers working in family medicine and urgent care, nurse practitioners, and those at outpatient facilities had lower rates of high self-efficacy than their counterparts working in other settings and from other specialties. Clinical practices were influenced by specialty, designation, setting, and geography but not by years of experience. Education to improve arboviral surveillance in Tennessee is warranted. Topics could include proper diagnosis and management, appropriate testing and overcoming barriers to testing, and public health reporting. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Patten, Yvonne A; Ojeda, Maria M; Lindgren, Carolyn L
Research shows that healthcare providers' palliative care training and their misconceptions impact the delivery of care. As a result, the need for continuing education with adequate training is paramount to improve their knowledge and confidence in addressing the needs of patients and families facing serious illnesses. A pre-experimental static-group comparison design was used to determine if there was a significant difference in perceived competency and knowledge between healthcare providers who participated in a palliative care training programme and those who did not. A non-randomised sample of healthcare providers were administered a questionnaire to assess perceived competence and knowledge. Responses from 388 participants revealed a significant association between perceived competency and knowledge scores. The authors concluded that participation in a palliative care programme makes a significant difference in the healthcare provider's knowledge. However, further exploration is necessary to deduce the underlying reason for the negative association between perceived competency and knowledge.
When healthcare is fully compliant with the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act, U.S. health care providers lose their one inalienable American right, namely freedom, and can no longer fulfill their fiduciary responsibility to patients.
Perrier, Laure; Farrell, Ann; Ayala, A Patricia; Lightfoot, David; Kenny, Tim; Aaronson, Ellen; Allee, Nancy; Brigham, Tara; Connor, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Teodora; Muellenbach, Joanne; Epstein, Helen-Ann Brown; Weiss, Ardis
To assess the effects of librarian-provided services in healthcare settings on patient, healthcare provider, and researcher outcomes. Medline, CINAHL, ERIC, LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to June 2013. Studies involving librarian-provided services for patients encountering the healthcare system, healthcare providers, or researchers were eligible for inclusion. All librarian-provided services in healthcare settings were considered as an intervention, including hospitals, primary care settings, or public health clinics. Twenty-five articles fulfilled our eligibility criteria, including 22 primary publications and three companion reports. The majority of studies (15/22 primary publications) examined librarians providing instruction in literature searching to healthcare trainees, and measured literature searching proficiency. Other studies analyzed librarian-provided literature searching services and instruction in question formulation as well as the impact of librarian-provided services on patient length of stay in hospital. No studies were found that investigated librarians providing direct services to researchers or patients in healthcare settings. Librarian-provided services directed to participants in training programs (eg, students, residents) improve skills in searching the literature to facilitate the integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. Services provided to clinicians were shown to be effective in saving time for health professionals and providing relevant information for decision-making. Two studies indicated patient length of stay was reduced when clinicians requested literature searches related to a patient's case. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Tan, Ngiap Chuan
Singapore is facing an increasing noncommunicable disease burden due to its ageing population. Singapore’s primary healthcare services, provided by both polyclinic physicians and private general practitioners, are available to the public at differential fees for service. The resultant disproportionate patient loads lead to dissatisfaction for both healthcare providers and consumers. This article describes the ‘PAIR UP’ approach as a potential endeavour to facilitate primary care physicians (PCPs) in public and private sectors to collaborate to deliver enhanced primary care in Singapore. PAIR UP is an acronym referring to Policy, Academic development, Integration of healthcare information system, Research in primary care, Utility and safety evaluation, and Practice transformation. The current healthcare landscape is favourable to test out this multipronged approach. PCPs in both sectors can ride on it and work together synergistically to provide quality primary care in Singapore. PMID:24664374
Aboul-Fotouh, A M; Ismail, N A; Ez Elarab, H S; Wassif, G O
A previous study in Cairo, Egypt highlighted the need to improve the patient safety culture among health-care providers at Ain Shams University hospitals. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed healthcare providers' perceptions of patient safety culture within the organization and determined factors that played a role in patient safety culture. A representative sample of 510 physicians, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and labourers in different departments answered an Arabic version of the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality hospital survey for patient safety culture. The highest mean composite positive score among the 12 dimensions was for the organizational learning for continuous improvement (78.2%), followed by teamwork (58.1%). The lowest mean score was for the dimension of non-punitive response to error (19.5%). Patient safety culture still has many areas for improvement that need continuous evaluation and monitoring to attain a safe environment both for patients and health-care providers.
Kennedy, Betty M.; Jaligam, Vijayendra; Conish, Beverly K.; Johnson, William D.; Melancon, Brian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.
Background: Heart failure (HF) is an incurable and frequently progressive disease. Symptoms of HF may impair the ability of patients to perform daily living activities. As HF progresses, patients typically increase their reliance on caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine what roles patients and caregivers perceive and desire for themselves in managing HF and to compare and contrast these roles with those perceived by healthcare providers. Methods: A purposive sample (60 patients, 22 caregivers, and 11 healthcare providers) was enrolled in the study. Patients and caregivers individually participated in semistructured interviews, and healthcare providers participated in 1 of 2 focus groups. Results: Four key themes evolved from interviews with patients and caregivers—education on disease specifics, guidance to enhance quality of life, learning to cope with HF, and future outlook and care decisions—that may guide the development of caregiver interventions in HF. Healthcare providers in both structured focus groups regardless of rank order selected knowledge is powerful, adherence to treatment plan, and compliance with medication as the top 3 issues likely to have the greatest impact, and they identified education on the disease (knowledge is powerful) as the easiest strategy to implement for patients and caregivers in the management of HF. Conclusion: Interventions among caregivers of patients with HF are needed and should focus on education in family structures, family functioning, and skills training in family assessment and engagement. PMID:28331455
Wei, Holly; Roscigno, Cecelia I; Swanson, Kristen M
Parents of children with congenial heart disease (CHD) face frequent healthcare encounters due to their child's care trajectory. With an emphasis on assuring caring in healthcare, it is necessary to understand parents' perceptions of healthcare providers' actions when their child undergoes heart surgery. To describe parents' perceptions of healthcare providers' actions when their child is diagnosed with CHD and undergoes heart surgery. This is a qualitative study with in-depth interviews. Parents of children with CHD were interviewed twice after surgery. We analyzed data using directed content analysis guided by Swanson Caring Theory. Findings of the study indicate that parents perceive caring when providers seek to understand them (knowing); accompany them physically and emotionally (being with); help them (doing for); support them to be the best parents they can be (enabling); and trust them to care for their child (maintaining belief). Healthcare providers play an irreplaceable role in alleviating parents' emotional toll when their child undergoes cardiac surgery. Providers' caring is an integral component in healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Dempsey, Amanda F.
Introduction Healthcare provider recommendations are critical for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We sought to describe providers' HPV vaccine recommendation practices and explore their perceptions of parental hesitancy. Method A statewide sample (n=575) of Minnesota healthcare providers (20% pediatricians, 47% family medicine physicians, 33% nurse practitioners) completed our online survey in April 2013. Results Only 76% of healthcare providers reported routinely recommending HPV vaccine for girls ages 11-12, and far fewer (46%) did so for boys (p<.001). A majority of providers reported asking questions about parents' concerns (74%), but many lacked time to probe reasons (47%) or felt that they could not change parents' minds (55%). Higher levels of self-efficacy and outcome expectations were associated with routine recommendations (p<.05). Discussion Findings suggest that providers' perceptions of hesitancy may discourage them from routinely recommending HPV vaccine. Improving providers' self-efficacy to address hesitancy may be important for improving vaccination rates. PMID:25017939
Cagle, Carolyn Spence; Wolff, Elizabeth
To identify and categorize healthcare provider perceptions of the meaning of cancer to Mexican American female family caregivers, including comparisons to caregiver themes in previous research. Descriptive, qualitative. Three focus groups held in a publicly funded cancer clinic in the southwestern United States. 20 healthcare providers in diverse roles. Tape recording of focus group discussions and transcription of content produced textual data for individual and team analysis. Healthcare provider understanding, caregiver learning, and support needs. Five major themes emerged related to the meaning of cancer to Mexican American caregivers: Caregivers fear the cancer diagnosis, interpret cancer as punishment, value maintenance of hope, believe in God and the doctor, and selectively disclose medical information. Healthcare providers identified most themes defined by Mexican American caregivers in an earlier study. However, provider identification of additional themes supports a blending of voices and partnerships between Mexican American cancer caregivers and providers to address caregiver literacy and support needs during the cancer cycle. Understanding the cultural meaning of cancer to Mexican American caregivers provides a foundation for healthcare providers to define appropriate caregiver interventions in the cancer trajectory and to meet caregiver support and learning needs. Partnering of caregivers and providers also can ensure culturally sensitive care for Mexican American families experiencing cancer.
Whelan, Barbara; Thomas, Kate J; Van Cleemput, Patrice; Whitford, Heather; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Scott, Elaine; Relton, Clare
Despite a gradual increase in breastfeeding rates, overall in the UK there are wide variations, with a trend towards breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks remaining below 40% in less affluent areas. While financial incentives have been used with varying success to encourage positive health related behaviour change, there is little research on their use in encouraging breastfeeding. In this paper, we report on healthcare providers' views around whether using financial incentives in areas with low breastfeeding rates would be acceptable in principle. This research was part of a larger project looking at the development and feasibility testing of a financial incentive scheme for breastfeeding in preparation for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Fifty-three healthcare providers were interviewed about their views on financial incentives for breastfeeding. Participants were purposively sampled to include a wide range of experience and roles associated with supporting mothers with infant feeding. Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically drawing on the principles of Framework Analysis. The key theme emerging from healthcare providers' views on the acceptability of financial incentives for breastfeeding was their possible impact on 'facilitating or impeding relationships'. Within this theme several additional aspects were discussed: the mother's relationship with her healthcare provider and services, with her baby and her family, and with the wider community. In addition, a key priority for healthcare providers was that an incentive scheme should not impact negatively on their professional integrity and responsibility towards women. Healthcare providers believe that financial incentives could have both positive and negative impacts on a mother's relationship with her family, baby and healthcare provider. When designing a financial incentive scheme we must take care to minimise the potential negative impacts that have
Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van Dongen, Josephine; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan; Mostert, Saskia
Efficacy of childhood cancer treatment in low-income countries may be impacted by parents' and health-care providers' perspectives on chemotherapy-related side-effects. This study explores prevalence and severity of side-effects in childhood cancer, and compares health beliefs about side-effects between parents and health-care providers, and between nurses and doctors in Indonesia. Semi-structured questionnaires were filled in by 40 parents and 207 health-care providers in an academic hospital. Parents exporessed a desire to receive more information about side-effects (98%) and worried about this aspect of treatment (90%), although side-effects were less severe than expected (66%). The most frequent was behavior alteration (98%) and the most severe was hair loss. Only 26% of parents consulted doctors about side-effects. More parents, compared to health-care providers, believed that medicines work better when side-effects are more severe (p<0.001), and accepted severe side-effects (p=0.021). More health-care providers, compared to parents, believed that chemotherapy can be stopped or the dosage altered when there are side-effects (p=0.011). More nurses, compared to doctors, stated that side-effects were unbearable (p=0.004) and made them doubt efficacy of treatment (p<0.001). Behavior alteration is the most frequent and hair loss the most severe side-effect. Apparent discrepancies in health beliefs about side-effects exist between parents and health-care providers. A sustainable parental education program about side-effects is recommended. Health-care providers need to update and improve their knowledge and communication skills in order to give appropriate information. Such measures may improve outcome of childhood cancer treatment in low-income countries, where adherence to therapy is a major issue.
Mostert, S; Gunawan, S; van Dongen, J A P; van de Ven, P M; Sitaresmi, M N; Wolters, E E; Veerman, A J P; Mantik, M; Kaspers, G J L
Childhood cancer survival in low-income countries is low. Our study investigated health-care providers' perspectives on childhood cancer treatment in Indonesia. Their health beliefs and attitudes toward parental financial difficulties, protocol adherence, parental education, and communication were explored. A self-administered questionnaire was filled in by 222 health-care providers (156 doctors, 51 nurses, 6 social workers, 9 administrators) Health of children with cancer is beyond doctor's control and determined by luck, fate or God according to 35% of health-care providers, 30% were uncertain about this statement, and 35% disagreed. Combination of chemotherapy and alternative treatment is best to achieve cure according to 15% of health-care providers, 50% were uncertain, and 35% disagreed. Prosperous parents adhere better with treatment (67%). Doctors adhere better with cancer treatment for prosperous patients (55%). When dealing with poor families, less elaborate explanation is given (62%), more difficult vocabulary is used (49%), and less cooperation is offered (46%). Reasons for non-adherence with treatment protocol were as follows: financial difficulties parents (82%), side-effects (77%), lack of motivation parents (75%), and inadequate drugs supply at pharmacy (70%). Information about cancer and treatment makes parents more afraid or depressed about future, and parents prefer not to know according to 27% of health-care providers, 20% were uncertain, and 53% disagreed. Communication with parents is hindered by differences in status and social hierarchical structures (83%). Health-care providers' beliefs about childhood cancer treatment are characterized by much uncertainty and contradiction. This likely affects adherence of health-care providers, parents, and childhood cancer treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chaffee, Tonya; English, Abigail
Sex trafficking of adolescents and young adults is both a human rights violation and a public health problem, globally and in the United States. Healthcare providers, including obstetricians and gynecologists, interact with victims, often while they remain under their traffickers' control, but because of providers' lack of training in identification and response many victims go unrecognized and unaided. This review provides an overview of the definitions of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, contributing factors, health consequences, recruitment of victims, and identification and response by healthcare providers. The literature on definitions and risk factors associated with sex trafficking is growing; however, literature on healthcare providers' role in addressing sex trafficking remains more limited. It is increasingly recognized that healthcare providers have an important role in victim identification and response and as advocates, collaborating with national, regional, and local agencies to increase awareness of sex trafficking as a public health problem and to address the needs of adolescent and young adult victims and survivors globally and in the United States. As professionals who interact with adolescent and young adult victims of sex trafficking, healthcare providers have an important role: in collaboration with other professionals and agencies they can help to identify, respond to, extricate, protect, and advocate for victims and survivors.
Rossman, Beverly; Engstrom, Janet L; Meier, Paula P
In this qualitative descriptive study we examined the perceptions of 17 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) healthcare providers (nurses, neonatologists, lactation consultants, and dietitians) about the role of breastfeeding peer counselors who were mothers of former NICU infants and who provided primary lactation care in the NICU. Findings revealed that the healthcare providers respected the peer counselors' lactation expertise and identified three critical elements that contributed to the effectiveness of the peer counseling program: having a champion for the program, counselors being mothers of former NICU infants, and a NICU culture supportive of using human milk. Healthcare providers thought the peer counselors enhanced care of the infant by empowering mothers to provide milk and by facilitating and modeling positive patterns of maternal-infant interactions.
Zierold, Kristina M.; Sears, Clara G.
People living near environmental hazards may develop symptoms and health conditions that require specialized monitoring and treatment by healthcare providers. One emerging environmental hazard is coal ash. Coal ash is comprised of small particles containing heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive elements. The overall purpose of this study was to explore whether healthcare providers ask patients if they live near an environmental hazard like coal ash storage sites and to assess what health conditions prompt a provider inquiry. Focus groups were conducted in 2012 and a cross-sectional survey was administered in 2013. Overall, 61% of survey respondents reported that their healthcare providers never asked if they lived near an environmental hazard. One focus group member stated “No, they don't ask that. They just always blame stuff on you….” Respondents with asthma and other lung conditions were significantly more likely to be asked by a healthcare provider if they lived near an environmental hazard. Due to the unique exposures from environmental hazards and the low prevalence of patients being asked about environmental hazards, we recommend that healthcare providers take environmental health histories in order to understand patients' exposures, to monitor symptoms of exposure, and to assist with education about reducing exposure. PMID:26557853
The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…
The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…
Portrait, France R M; van der Galiën, Onno; Van den Berg, Bernard
The Dutch healthcare system is in transition towards managed competition. In theory, a system of managed competition involves incentives for quality and efficiency of provided care. This is mainly because health insurers contract on behalf of their clients with healthcare providers on, potentially, quality and costs. The paper develops a strategy to comprehensively analyse available multidimensional data on quality and costs to assess and report on the relative performance of healthcare providers within managed competition. We had access to individual information on 2409 clients of 19 Dutch diabetes care groups on a broad range of (outcome and process related) quality and cost indicators. We carried out a cost-consequences analysis and corrected for differences in case mix to reduce incentives for risk selection by healthcare providers. There is substantial heterogeneity between diabetes care groups' performances as measured using multidimensional indicators on quality and costs. Better quality diabetes care can be achieved with lower or higher costs. Routine monitoring using multidimensional data on quality and costs merged at the individual level would allow a systematic and comprehensive analysis of healthcare providers' performances within managed competition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kennedy, Betty M; Kennedy, Kathleen B; Sarpong, Daniel F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T
Primary care is a key component of medical care delivery and has a role to play in reducing obesity in the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes and perceptions about obesity in low-income primary care patients and to identify preferences for weight management interventions from the patient and healthcare provider perspectives. A convenience sample of 28 patients and 6 healthcare providers from across the state of Louisiana participated in 1 of 5 structured focus groups. Demographic information was collected from both the patients and healthcare providers using survey instruments. Patients and healthcare providers were more similar than dissimilar in their perceptions of obesity in that both groups selected referral to a nutritionist, use of medication, and prescribed exercise as the top 3 strategies that would have the greatest impact on losing weight. Referral to a nutritionist was selected as the easiest strategy to implement. Receiving feedback from both patients and healthcare providers gives researchers the opportunity to acquire useful knowledge that may be beneficial in designing and conducting interventions suitable for patients desiring to lose weight, especially those in primary care settings.
Ginossar, Tamar; Oetzel, John; Hill, Ricky; Avila, Magdalena; Archiopoli, Ashley; Wilcox, Bryan
One of the major challenges facing those working with people living with HIV (PLWH) is the increased potential for burnout, which results in increased turnover and reduces quality of care provided for PLWH. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship among HIV health-care providers' burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and organizational culture including teamwork, involvement in decision-making, and critical appraisal. Health-care providers for PLWH (N = 47) in federally funded clinics in a southwestern state completed a cross-sectional survey questionnaire about their perceptions of organizational culture and burnout. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that positive organizational culture (i.e., teamwork) was negatively related to emotional burnout (p < .005, R(2) = .18). Further negative organizational culture (i.e., critical appraisal) was positively related to depersonalization (p < .005, R(2) = .18). These findings suggest that effective organizational communication interventions might protect HIV health-care providers from burnout.
Crow, K; Matheson, L; Steed, A
As the United States becomes more diverse in the healthcare beliefs and practices of its residents, delivery of culturally competent healthcare in an ethical manner becomes increasingly complex. Nurse administrators, who are responsible for interpreting policy and organizational expectations to their employees as well as ensuring that providers maintain the American Nurses Association's code of ethics, are challenged when providing care for diverse populations. Critical to providing culturally sensitive care is an understanding of different approaches to truth-telling. The authors present Korean, Southeast Asian, and First Nations (American Indian) case studies illustrating concepts of truth-telling and informed consent related to issues that arise when group-oriented persons or families respond to their health-care providers' actions.
Jenkins, Randall C; Warren, Lindsay A; Gravenstein, Nikolaus
The Florida Patient Safety and Pre-Suit Mediation Program (FLPSMP) was implemented as a pilot program to provide patients of healthcare providers and facilities associated with the University of Florida Health Science Center with timely and fair compensation when injured and to combat rising healthcare legal liability expenses. Prior to filing a formal lawsuit, participants of the FLPSMP join in a confidential and nonbinding pre-suit mediation conducted by a neutral third-party mediator. The process fosters confidential and candid communication between doctors and patients, saving thousands of dollars in legal expenses for both patients and providers.
Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Saleem; Rashida, Gul; Mankani, Neha
The availability of properly trained and motivated providers is a prerequisite for provision of easily accessible healthcare. Pakistan has been listed by the World Health Organization in its World Health Report 2006 as one of 57 countries with a critical health workforce deficiency. This study examines the factors associated with the willingness of public sector healthcare providers to leave government service and recommends measures that can be adopted to attract and retain staff in the country's public healthcare system. A stratified, random sampling methodology was adopted to recruit a nationally representative sample of 1,296 public sector healthcare providers, including paramedics, medical doctors, and specialists. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview these providers. Logistic regressions measured the association with determinants of their willingness to leave the public health sector for better prospects elsewhere. A third of all healthcare providers who were interviewed were of the view that, provided the opportunity, they would leave government service. The odds of willingness to leave service were highest among providers from the region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.49-7.54) followed by the province of Balochistan (AOR = 4.21; 95% CI, 2.41-7.33), and the region of Gilgit Baltistan (AOR = 3.34; 95% CI, 1.67-6.67). Providers who expressed dissatisfaction in the manner their performance was evaluated and those who were dissatisfied with the current salary, each had higher odds of considering leaving government service (AOR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.40 and AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.47-2.81, respectively). Providers who reported experiencing interference in their work by influential politicians of the area were more inclined to leave (AOR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.98). This study clearly highlights the need to implement more focused strategies in the public healthcare system in Pakistan in
Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E; Warner, Teddy D; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Although it is commonly accepted that rural healthcare providers face demands that are both qualitatively and quantitatively different from those faced by urban providers, this conclusion is based largely on data from healthcare consumers and relies on qualitative work with small sample sizes, surveys with small sample sizes, theoretical reviews and anecdotal reports. To enhance our knowledge of the demands faced by rural healthcare providers and to gain the perspectives of healthcare providers themselves, this study explored the caseloads of rural providers compared with those of urban providers. An extensive survey of over 1500 licensed clinicians across eight physical and behavioural healthcare provider groups in Alaska and New Mexico was undertaken to explore differences in caseloads based on community size (small rural, rural, small urban, urban), state (Alaska, New Mexico) and discipline (health, behavioural). Findings indicated numerous caseload differences between community sizes that were consistent across both states, with complex case presentations being described most commonly by small rural and rural providers. Substance abuse, alcohol use, cultural diversity, economic disadvantage and age diversity were issues faced more often by providers in rural and small rural communities than by providers in small urban and urban communities. Rural, but not small rural, providers faced challenges around work with prisoners and individuals needing involuntary hospitalization. Although some state and discipline differences were noted, the most important findings were based on community size. The findings of this study have important implications for provider preparation and training, future research, tailored resource allocation, public health policy, and efforts to prevent 'burnout' of rural providers.
Tsui, Courtney Kwan-Yee; Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Jamnik, Veronica; Wu, Gilbert; Grace, Sherry L
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is significantly underutilized. However, physician endorsement promotes greater patient utilization. This study examined perceptions of provider endorsement by patients (1) of sociodemographic groups who are often less represented in CR and by clinical indication and (2) by type of healthcare provider and place of referral. Referred cardiac (N = 1156) inpatients from 11 hospitals across Ontario completed a sociodemographic survey inhospital and a mailed followup survey 1 year later. Respondents self-reported perceived healthcare provider endorsement of CR on a 5-point Likert scale, type of referring healthcare provider, and where the referral was initiated. The overall perceived strength of healthcare provider endorsement to CR was 3.75 ± 1.15. Patients who perceived greater endorsement were significantly more likely to enrol (OR = 2.07) and attend a greater percentage of CR sessions (P < .001). Student t tests showed that women (P < .01), those older than 65 years (P < .01), with lower annual family income (P < .001), less than high school education (P < .01), who were retired (P < .01), or had lower subjective social status (P < .01) reported significantly lower perceived healthcare provider endorsement of CR than their respective counterparts. Perception of CR endorsement did not differ significantly on the basis of location of referral initiation (P ≥ .05), but those who discussed CR with family doctors (P < .05), cardiologists (P < .05), or cardiac surgeons (P < .01) reported significantly greater endorsement than those discussing CR with nurses. Given the proven benefits of CR, all healthcare providers are recommended to universally and strongly encourage CR participation among their patients in order to optimize utilization and subsequent recovery.
Kudyba, Stephan; Gregorio, Thomas
Managing patients' length of stay is a critical task for healthcare organizations. In order to better manage the processes impacting this performance metric, providers can leverage data resources describing the network of activities that impact a patient's stay with analytic methods. Interdependencies between departmental activities exist within the patient treatment process, where inefficiency in one element of the patient care network of activities can adversely affect process outcomes.This work utilizes the method of neural networks to analyze data describing inpatient cases that incorporate radiology process variables to determine their effect on patient length of stay excesses for a major NJ based healthcare provider. The results indicate that inefficiencies at the radiology level can adversely extend a patient's length of stay beyond initial estimations. Proactive analysis of networks of activities in the patient treatment process can enhance organizational efficiencies of healthcare providers by enabling decision makers to better optimize resource allocations to increase throughput of activities.
Since 2012, the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) has also been collaborating with the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation, joining its "Choosing Wisely" campaign on two separate lists of Five Things Healthcare Providers and Patients Should Question. The campaign is designed to engage healthcare organizations and professionals, individuals, and family caregivers in discussions about the safety and appropriateness of medical tests, medications, and procedures. Participating healthcare providers are asked to identify five things-tests, medications, or procedures-that appear to harm rather than help. Providers then share this information in a published article about these things on the ABIM campaign's website (www.choosingwisely.org). The first AGS list was published in February 2013. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Sandefer, Ryan H; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M
The use of patient focused technology has been proclaimed as a means to improve patient satisfaction and improve care outcomes. The Center for Medicaid/Medicare Services, through its EHR Incentive Program, has required eligible hospitals and professionals to send and receive secure messages from patients in order to receive financial incentives and avoid reimbursement penalties. Secure messaging between providers and patients has the potential to improve communication and care outcomes. The purpose of this study was to use National Health Interview Series (NHIS) data to identify the patient characteristics associated with communicating with healthcare providers via email. Individual patient characteristics were analyzed to determine the likelihood of emailing healthcare providers. The use of email for this purpose is associated with educational attainment, having a usual place of receiving healthcare, income, and geography. Publicly available data such as the NHIS may be used to better understand trends in adoption and use of consumer health information technologies.
Colberg, Sheri R.; Walsh, John
Exercise can decrease insulin resistance. Insulin pumps deliver precise insulin adjustments that improve fuel availability and provide glycemic control to help people with diabetes overcome obstacles to exercise. Physicians, patients, and healthcare providers should be familiar with the features and nuances of specific pump models and follow basic…
Colberg, Sheri R.; Walsh, John
Exercise can decrease insulin resistance. Insulin pumps deliver precise insulin adjustments that improve fuel availability and provide glycemic control to help people with diabetes overcome obstacles to exercise. Physicians, patients, and healthcare providers should be familiar with the features and nuances of specific pump models and follow basic…
Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…
Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…
Duarte, André Luís de Castro Moura; Oliveira, Felippe de Medeiros; Santos, Anderson de Andrade; Santos, Bento Fortunato Cardoso Dos
Brazil's aging population and the rising number of people reliant upon the country's supplementary healthcare system have elicited the concern of public and private managers regarding the increase in healthcare costs. In this paper, the costs per gender, per type of medical expenses and per age group of a major Brazilian self-managed healthcare provider between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. This healthcare provider is of interest because, besides portraying a single condition of revenue growth restricted to the existing contributors, it also replicates the demographic profile expected for Brazil in 2050, when approximately one-third of its population will be over 60 years of age. The analyses confirm the current literature as they show an increase in healthcare plan usage by the elderly and the difference between admission rates by gender. They also reveal an increase in average length of stay in hospital and the increase in medical costs far above inflation, especially for materials and medicines. It is hoped that this study will help scholars and others interested in comparisons of medical expense trends, especially by age and sex, and that it encourages further collaboration on the sustainability of health insurance providers in Brazil.
Krakower, Douglas S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Purpose of Review To review the most recent studies assessing the preparedness of healthcare practitioners to provide anti-HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to suggest areas for future implementation research. Recent Findings As PrEP is a bio-behavioral intervention, healthcare providers are likely to play a critical role in implementing PrEP in care settings. Studies suggest that many specialized providers are aware of PrEP and support its provision as a public health intervention, though knowledge and acceptance are less among generalists. Therefore, utilization of PrEP by clinicians has been limited to a few early adopters. Concerns about the efficacy and long-term safety of PrEP, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP, could limit prescribing behaviors and intentions. Resistance to performing routine HIV risk assessments by clinicians is an additional barrier to implementing PrEP, though innovative tools to help clinicians routinely perform risk assessments are being developed. Summary Interventions are needed to engage a broader array of healthcare providers in PrEP provision. Utilizing a framework based on diffusion of innovation theory, this review proposes strategies that can be implemented and evaluated to increase PrEP prescribing by healthcare providers. If resources are invested in training clinicians to provide PrEP, then these stakeholders could enhance the use of PrEP as part of a prevention package by primary providers. PMID:26417953
Stenner, Paul; Cross, Vinnette; McCrum, Carol; McGowan, Janet; Defever, Emmanuel; Lloyd, Phil; Poole, Robert; Moore, Ann P
A move towards self-management is central to health strategy around chronic low back pain, but its concept and meaning for those involved are poorly understood. In the reported study, four distinct and shared viewpoints on self-management were identified among people with pain and healthcare providers using Q methodology. Each construes self-management in a distinctive manner and articulates a different vision of change. Identification of similarities and differences among the viewpoints holds potential for enhancing communication between patients and healthcare providers and for better understanding the complexities of self-management in practice. PMID:28070378
Falke, Stephanie I; Lawson, Lindsey
A collaborative health-care relationship is considered critical in managing chronic illness like diabetes. Poorly controlled diabetes can greatly diminish one's quality of life and lead to severe complications or even death. Understanding how to improve the relationship between patients and their providers supports improved diabetes health outcomes. We conducted a grounded theory study to examine the types of relationships that diabetic patients and their spouses prefer to form with their health-care providers. The analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 diabetic couples reveals four major relationship preferences that differ by the nature of caregiving and decision-making power demonstrated by the physician. Using illustrative examples, we show how the type of health-care relationship couples prefer is explained by their connection with one another and suggest implications for practitioners that expand current collaborative models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Catherine M; Hale, Leigh Anne; Olson, Karin; Baxter, G David; Schneiders, Anthony G
This study describes the experiences of four groups of healthcare providers who facilitate exercise interventions for people with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue. Fatigue is a complex symptom frequently experienced by people with MS, yet it is poorly understood by clinicians and clinical researchers. Historically, clinicians have recommended less physical activity in order to limit fatigue; however, recent experimental studies suggest that regular exercise provides health benefits with little increase in fatigue. We used interpretive description methodology to guide data collection and analysis. Four groups of healthcare providers participated in either focus group discussions or individual interviews. Transcripts were analyzed for key meanings. Healthcare providers described their perceptions of the "nature of fatigue" and how this raised "professional challenges," specifically "barriers to implementation" of interventions, "stirring conflict" among interdisciplinary members, and "modifying roles." The nature of fatigue and professional challenges influenced clinician practice by "demanding creativity" with regard to exercise prescription and advice. Healthcare providers are encouraged to consider strategies of active listening and careful observation when providing individualized exercise programs for people with MS-related fatigue. In addition, recognition and understanding of the complex nature of fatigue by the interdisciplinary team might facilitate more positive exercise experiences for this population.
Imes, Rebecca S; Bylund, Carma L; Sabee, Christina M; Routsong, Tracy R; Sanford, Amy Aldridge
This exploratory study examined factors that constrain patients from discussing Internet health information with their healthcare providers. Participants (N = 714) were asked to list reasons why they have not talked with their providers about Internet health information they had found. Factors (N = 767) included patient attributions about the information, systems or circumstances, fear of treading on the provider's turf, face-saving concerns, and patient perceptions of provider attributions about the information. Comparisons between those who had and those who had not talked to their healthcare providers about their Internet research revealed significant differences in types of constraining factors indicated. Issues concerning an increasingly Internet-savvy public and provider-patient relationships are considered in the discussion within the framework of the goals, planning, action theory. Continued efforts in provider and patient education can help to overcome barriers that restrict communication concerning Internet health research.
De Castro, Filipa; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Leyva-López, Ahideé
Objective Adolescents need sexual and reproductive health services but little is known about quality-of-care in lower- and middle-income countries where most of the world’s adolescents reside. Quality-of-care has important implications as lower quality may be linked to higher unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection rates. This study sought to generate evidence about quality-of-care in public sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study had a complex, probabilistic, stratified sampling design, representative at the national, regional and rural/urban level in Mexico, collecting provider questionnaires at 505 primary care units in 2012. A sexual and reproductive quality-of-healthcare index was defined and multinomial logistic regression was utilized in 2015. Results At the national level 13.9% (95%CI: 6.9–26.0) of healthcare units provide low quality, 68.6% (95%CI: 58.4–77.3) medium quality and 17.5% (95%CI: 11.9–25.0) high quality reproductive healthcare services to adolescents. Urban or metropolitan primary care units were at least 10 times more likely to provide high quality care than those in rural areas. Units with a space specifically for counseling adolescents were at least 8 times more likely to provide high quality care. Ministry of Health clinics provided the lowest quality of service, while those from Social Security for the Underserved provided the best. Conclusions The study indicates higher quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services are needed. In Mexico and other middle- to low-income countries where quality-of-care has been shown to be a problem, incorporating adolescent-friendly, gender-equity and rights-based perspectives could contribute to improvement. Setting and disseminating standards for care in guidelines and providing tools such as algorithms could help healthcare personnel provide higher quality care. PMID:28273129
Bergsten, Ulrika; Bergman, Stefan; Fridlund, Bengt; Arvidsson, Barbro
Rheumatic diseases are often chronic and involve a lifetime of suffering. The focus of rheumatology care is to support patients to manage their lives and master their disease. Healthcare providers and patients have different views on the consequences of living with rheumatic diseases and patients are reporting unmet healthcare needs. There is a need to integrate providers' perspective to develop the quality of rheumatology care. The aim was to explore healthcare providers' experiences of their interaction with patients in their management of RA. Interviews with 18 providers from different clinical settings were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. A core category; Delivering knowledge and advice was found to be the most important task and involved providing the patient with information about the disease and appropriate forms of treatment. Healthcare providers' attitudes and patients' responses influenced the outcome of the delivery of knowledge and advice and three dimensions emerged; completed delivery, adjusted delivery and failed delivery. There were differences in the providers' experiences in their interaction with patients as well as in reflections on their role as the delivering part. There could be difficulties in the interaction when patients' expectations and preferences were not taken into account when giving advice. These findings highlight the importance of developing rheumatology care, as no provider or patient benefits if the delivery of knowledge and advice becomes a failed delivery. The healthcare organization must acknowledge the difficulties involved in the interaction with patients in their management of RA and find methods to develop a more person-centred approach to care.
Villalobos, Aremis; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Salazar-Alberto, Javier; De Castro, Filipa; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Leyva-López, Ahideé; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba
Adolescents need sexual and reproductive health services but little is known about quality-of-care in lower- and middle-income countries where most of the world's adolescents reside. Quality-of-care has important implications as lower quality may be linked to higher unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection rates. This study sought to generate evidence about quality-of-care in public sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents. This cross-sectional study had a complex, probabilistic, stratified sampling design, representative at the national, regional and rural/urban level in Mexico, collecting provider questionnaires at 505 primary care units in 2012. A sexual and reproductive quality-of-healthcare index was defined and multinomial logistic regression was utilized in 2015. At the national level 13.9% (95%CI: 6.9-26.0) of healthcare units provide low quality, 68.6% (95%CI: 58.4-77.3) medium quality and 17.5% (95%CI: 11.9-25.0) high quality reproductive healthcare services to adolescents. Urban or metropolitan primary care units were at least 10 times more likely to provide high quality care than those in rural areas. Units with a space specifically for counseling adolescents were at least 8 times more likely to provide high quality care. Ministry of Health clinics provided the lowest quality of service, while those from Social Security for the Underserved provided the best. The study indicates higher quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services are needed. In Mexico and other middle- to low-income countries where quality-of-care has been shown to be a problem, incorporating adolescent-friendly, gender-equity and rights-based perspectives could contribute to improvement. Setting and disseminating standards for care in guidelines and providing tools such as algorithms could help healthcare personnel provide higher quality care.
Hassali, MA; Shafie, AA; Khan, TM
The current study aimed to explore the public views and expectation about a successful communication process between the healthcare providers/physicians and patients in Penang Island, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang Island using a 14-item questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0® were used to analyze the collected data. A nonparametric statistics was applied; the Chi-square test was applied to measure the association among the variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of N (500) respondents have shown willingness to participate in the study with a response rate of 83.3%. The majority 319 (63.9%) have disclosed to communicate with their healthcare providers in the Malay language and about 401 (80.4%) of the respondents were found satisfied with the information provided by the physician. It was a common expectation by the most of the sample to focus more on the patient history before prescribing any medicine. Moreover, about 60.0% of the respondents expected that the healthcare providers must show patience to the patient's queries. The level of satisfaction with the information shared by the healthcare providers was higher among the respondents with a higher education level. Furthermore, patients with higher level of education expect that physician shouldwell understand their views and medical history to prescribe a better therapeutic regimen. PMID:23112539
Lester, Melissa; Boateng, Samuel; Studeny, Jana; Coustasse, Alberto
Personal health records (PHRs) have been mandated to be made available to patients to provide increased access to medical care information, encourage participation in healthcare decision making, and enable correction of errors within medical records. The purpose of this study was to analyze the usefulness of PHRs from the perspectives of patients and providers. The methodology of this qualitative study was a literature review using 34 articles. PHRs are powerful tools for patients and healthcare providers. Better healthcare results and correction of medical records have been shown to be positive outcomes of the use of PHRs. PHRs have also been shown to be difficult for patients to use and understand, and providers had concerns about correct information transferring to the portals and patients eliminating information from the record. Concerns regarding patient understanding of medical records, legal liability, and the response time required of providers were also identified. For the PHR to succeed in the US healthcare system, assurance that the information will be protected, useful, and easily accessed is necessary. PMID:27134613
Hassali, Ma; Shafie, Aa; Khan, Tm
The current study aimed to explore the public views and expectation about a successful communication process between the healthcare providers/physicians and patients in Penang Island, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang Island using a 14-item questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0(®) were used to analyze the collected data. A nonparametric statistics was applied; the Chi-square test was applied to measure the association among the variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of N (500) respondents have shown willingness to participate in the study with a response rate of 83.3%. The majority 319 (63.9%) have disclosed to communicate with their healthcare providers in the Malay language and about 401 (80.4%) of the respondents were found satisfied with the information provided by the physician. It was a common expectation by the most of the sample to focus more on the patient history before prescribing any medicine. Moreover, about 60.0% of the respondents expected that the healthcare providers must show patience to the patient's queries. The level of satisfaction with the information shared by the healthcare providers was higher among the respondents with a higher education level. Furthermore, patients with higher level of education expect that physician shouldwell understand their views and medical history to prescribe a better therapeutic regimen.
Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office. PMID:27269662
Chiang, Kuei-Feng; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chien, I-Kuang; Liou, Jhao-Kun; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Huang, Chien-Min; Yang, Feng-Yueh
Telecare has not only brought down medical expenses, but has also become an important tool to address healthcare needs. In recent years, the Taiwanese government has been concerned about this healthcare issue. However, only a few hospitals provide telecare. This study aims at investigating the barriers that healthcare providers face while implementing home telecare in Taiwan. A qualitative research design was employed in this study, with semi-structured in-depth interviews. The sample was obtained from five hospitals, including three medical centers and two regional hospitals. A total of 31 healthcare providers were interviewed, including case managers (n=11), administrators (n=7), physicians (n=7), and nurses (n=6). The results were summarized into five themes, including: (1) unsuitable laws and vague policies, (2) the policy implementation fails to meet public needs, (3) lack of organizational support, (4) lack of quality and convenience of the system, and (5) inadequate public perception and attitudes. Obstacles in policy and regulations are the most fundamental difficulties for telecare implementation, therefore the government should provide a clear direction by planning policies, legislate appropriate regulations, and incorporate telecare into the scope of medical insurance, in order to improve the environment and stimulate the telecare service market. In order to improve the success rate of telecare, administrators should be able to identify an appropriate cost-benefit model to build a humane system to satisfy public needs and to provide staff with resources and support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
NIKBAKHT-NASRABADI, Alireza; SHABANY-HAMEDAN, Maryam
Background: Increasing hospital costs and its social and cultural problems has led to the idea of providing healthcare services at home. Because of infrastructural and implementation problems, providing healthcare at home in Iran has not been initiated yet. Therefore, this study set out to elaborate the need for a comprehensive system in order to provide this service in Iran. Methods: All articles published in indexing sites with the defined keywords in English or Farsi were gathered. The indexing websites included Iran Medex, PubMed Central, Elsevier journals, WHO publications and Google scholar from 1985 to 2014 were surveyed. Other documents included the related books and regulations. Results: Despite of having dominant religious values and constitution laws related to stability of family relations and establishment of clinical services and health care at home in Iran, providing health care services faces some harsh challenges including ignoring entrepreneurship and lack of required infrastructures such as lack of required insurance regulations, the inappropriate and indifferent performance of some activists home services and absence of registration and identification system in this domain. Conclusion: Because of the increasing number of elderly people in Iran and healthcare costs becoming more and more expensive, establishing a system for providing healthcare at home is inevitable. PMID:27516992
Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Shabany-Hamedan, Maryam
Increasing hospital costs and its social and cultural problems has led to the idea of providing healthcare services at home. Because of infrastructural and implementation problems, providing healthcare at home in Iran has not been initiated yet. Therefore, this study set out to elaborate the need for a comprehensive system in order to provide this service in Iran. All articles published in indexing sites with the defined keywords in English or Farsi were gathered. The indexing websites included Iran Medex, PubMed Central, Elsevier journals, WHO publications and Google scholar from 1985 to 2014 were surveyed. Other documents included the related books and regulations. Despite of having dominant religious values and constitution laws related to stability of family relations and establishment of clinical services and health care at home in Iran, providing health care services faces some harsh challenges including ignoring entrepreneurship and lack of required infrastructures such as lack of required insurance regulations, the inappropriate and indifferent performance of some activists home services and absence of registration and identification system in this domain. Because of the increasing number of elderly people in Iran and healthcare costs becoming more and more expensive, establishing a system for providing healthcare at home is inevitable.
Lester, Melissa; Boateng, Samuel; Studeny, Jana; Coustasse, Alberto
Personal health records (PHRs) have been mandated to be made available to patients to provide increased access to medical care information, encourage participation in healthcare decision making, and enable correction of errors within medical records. The purpose of this study was to analyze the usefulness of PHRs from the perspectives of patients and providers. The methodology of this qualitative study was a literature review using 34 articles. PHRs are powerful tools for patients and healthcare providers. Better healthcare results and correction of medical records have been shown to be positive outcomes of the use of PHRs. PHRs have also been shown to be difficult for patients to use and understand, and providers had concerns about correct information transferring to the portals and patients eliminating information from the record. Concerns regarding patient understanding of medical records, legal liability, and the response time required of providers were also identified. For the PHR to succeed in the US healthcare system, assurance that the information will be protected, useful, and easily accessed is necessary.
Wiysonge, Charles S; Abdullahi, Leila H; Ndze, Valantine N; Hussey, Gregory D
trial, 115 pharmacies: improvements in four of six pharmacy indicators; low-certainty evidence). The outcome in three multifaceted intervention studies was the quality of pharmacy practice; including the ability to ask questions, give advice, and provide appropriate treatment. The trials applied regulation, training, and peer influence in sequence; and the study design does not permit separation of the effects of the different interventions. Two trials conducted among 136 pharmacies in Vietnam found that the multifaceted intervention may improve the quality of pharmacy practice; but the third study, involving 146 pharmacies in Vietnam and Thailand, found that the intervention may have little or no effects on the quality of pharmacy practice (low-certainty evidence). Only two studies (both conducted in Vietnam) reported cost data, with no rigorous assessment of the economic implications of implementing the interventions in resource-constrained settings. No study reported data on equity, mortality, morbidity, adverse effects, satisfaction, or attitudes. Authors' conclusions Training probably improves quality of care (i.e. adherence to recommended practice), regulation may improve quality of care, and we are uncertain about the effects of co-ordination on quality of private for-profit healthcare services in LMICs. The likelihood that further research will find the effect of training to be substantially different from the results of this review is moderate; implying that monitoring of the impact is likely to be needed if training is implemented. The low certainty of the evidence for regulation implies that the likelihood of further research finding the effect of regulation to be substantially different from the results of this review is high. Therefore, an impact evaluation is warranted if government regulation of private for-profit providers is implemented in LMICs. Rigorous evaluations of these interventions should also assess other outcomes such as impacts on equity
Mantell, Joanne E.; West, Brooke S.; Sue, Kimberly; Hoffman, Susie; Exner, Theresa M.; Kelvin, Elizabeth; Stein, Zena A.
Healthcare providers can play a key role in influencing clients to initiate and maintain use of the female condom, an under-used method for HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention. In 2001-2002, based on semi-structured interviews with 78 healthcare providers from four types of settings in New York City, we found that most providers had seen the female condom, but they had not used it and did not propose the method to clients. They lacked details about the method – when to insert it, where it can be obtained, and its cost. Gender of provider, provider level of training, and setting appeared to influence their attitudes. Unless and until provider training on the female condom is greatly improved, broader acceptance of this significant public health contribution to preventing HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy will not be achieved. PMID:21341961
With each tick of the clock, healthcare leaders are coming face to face with a pressing quandary: How can they best guide their organizations to success and sustainability in a rocky and ever-changing healthcare environment? A new "model of sustainability," developed with input from nine CEOs of top medical institutions, may provide some guidance. The model includes six leadership imperatives that underscore critical approaches to supporting the hospital of the future: Build strong organization-wide leadership, become the employer of choice, generate financial strength, redesign structures and processes, develop productive physician relationships, and engage consumers.
McGowan, Jessie; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Hannes, Karin; Deane, Katherine; Labrecque, Michel; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter
Background The movement towards evidence-based practice makes explicit the need for access to current best evidence to improve health. Advances in electronic technologies have made health information more available, but does availability affect the rate of use of evidence in practice? Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions intended to provide electronic retrieval (access to information) to health information by healthcare providers to improve practice and patient care. Search methods We obtained studies from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases, supplemented by checking reference lists, and consultation with experts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster randomized trials (CRCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCT), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) of any language publication status examining interventions of effectiveness of electronic retrieval of health information by healthcare providers. Data collection and analysis Duplicate relevancy screening of searches, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment was undertaken. Main results We found two studies that examined this question. Neither study found any changes in professional behavior following an intervention that facilitated electronic retrieval of health information. There was some evidence of improvements in knowledge about the electronic sources of information reported in one study. Neither study assessed changes in patient outcomes or the costs of provision of the electronic resource and the implementation of the recommended evidence-based practices. Authors’ conclusions Overall there was insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of electronic retrieval of healthcare information by healthcare providers to improve practice and patient care. PMID:19588361
Paul, David L; McDaniel, Reuben R
Very few telemedicine projects in medically underserved areas have been sustained over time. This research furthers understanding of telemedicine service sustainability by examining teleconsultation projects from the perspective of healthcare providers. Drivers influencing healthcare providers' continued participation in teleconsultation projects and how projects can be designed to effectively and efficiently address these drivers is examined. Case studies of fourteen teleconsultation projects that were part of two health sciences center (HSC) based telemedicine networks was utilized. Semi-structured interviews of 60 key informants (clinicians, administrators, and IT professionals) involved in teleconsultation projects were the primary data collection method. Two key drivers influenced providers' continued participation. First was severe time constraints. Second was remote site healthcare providers' (RSHCPs) sense of professional isolation. Two design steps to address these were identified. One involved implementing relatively simple technology and process solutions to make participation convenient. The more critical and difficult design step focused on designing teleconsultation projects for collaborative, active learning. This learning empowered participating RSHCPs by leveraging HSC specialists' expertise. In order to increase sustainability the fundamental purpose of teleconsultation projects needs to be re-conceptualized. Doing so requires HSC specialists and RSHCPs to assume new roles and highlights the importance of trust. By implementing these design steps, healthcare delivery in medically underserved areas can be positively impacted.
Glasberg, Ronald; Hartmann, Michael; Tamm, Gerrit
We analyze risks and crises for healthcare providers and discuss the impact of cloud computing in such scenarios. The analysis is conducted in a holistic way, taking into account organizational and human aspects, clinical, IT-related, and utilities-related risks as well as incorporating the view of the overall risk management. PMID:24707207
Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Lanier, Anne P.; Dignan, Mark
Community Health Aides and Community Health Practitioners (CHA/Ps), the primary providers of healthcare in rural Alaska, share the importance of story as a culturally respectful way for creating meaning and broadening understanding. Story is woven into the fabric of cancer education courses for CHA/Ps. Between May 2004 and April 2007, 13 week-long…
Raffaeli, Genny; Orenti, Annalisa; Gambino, Monia; Peves Rios, Walter; Bosis, Samantha; Bianchini, Sonia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Esposito, Susanna
In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care providers (HCPs) responding to the survey (75.6%) included 144 primary care pediatricians (38.1%), 98 hospital pediatricians (25.9%), 62 pediatric residents (16.4%), and 71 pediatric nurses (19.6%); the 464 responding parents (92.8%) included 175 whose youngest (or only) child was ≤5 years old (37.7%), 175 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 6-10 years (37.7%), and 114 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 11-14 years (24.6%). There were gaps in the knowledge of both healthcare providers and parents. Global adherence to the guidelines was lower among the pediatric nurses than the other healthcare providers (odds ratio 0.875; 95% confidence interval 0.795-0.964). Among the parents, those of children aged 6-10 and 11-14 years old, those who were older, and those without a degree answered the questions correctly significantly less frequently than the others. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the dissemination of the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management among healthcare providers and parents in order to avoid mistaken and sometimes risky attitudes, common therapeutic errors, and the unnecessary overloading of emergency department resources. Pediatric nurses and parents with older children, those who are older, and those with a lower educational level should be the priority targets of educational programmes.
Presser, Brynne E; Katz, Mira L; Shoben, Abigail B; Moore, Deborah; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D; Reiter, Paul L
Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing is an emerging cervical cancer screening strategy, yet efforts to educate healthcare providers and staff about HPV self-testing are lacking. We report the findings of a brief education intervention about HPV self-testing for healthcare providers and staff. We conducted education sessions during 2015 with healthcare providers and staff (n = 33) from five federally qualified health centers located in Appalachian Ohio. Participants attended a one-time session and completed pre- and post-intervention surveys. Analyses for paired data assessed changes in knowledge and beliefs about HPV, HPV-related disease, and HPV self-testing. The intervention increased participants' knowledge and affected many of the beliefs examined. Participants answered an average of 4.67 of six knowledge items correctly on pre-intervention surveys and 5.82 items correctly on post-intervention surveys (p < 0.001). The proportion of participants who answered all six knowledge items correctly increased substantially (pre-intervention =9% vs. post-intervention =82%, p < 0.001). Compared to pre-intervention surveys, participants more strongly believed on post-intervention surveys that it is important to examine HPV self-testing as a potential cervical cancer screening strategy, that their female patients would be willing to use an HPV self-test at home by themselves, and that they have the knowledge to talk with their patients about HPV self-testing (all p < 0.05). A brief education intervention can be a viable approach for increasing knowledge and affecting beliefs about HPV self-testing among healthcare providers and staff. Findings will be valuable for planning and developing future HPV self-test interventions that include an education component for healthcare providers and staff.
Held, Rachel Forster; DePue, Judith; Rosen, Rochelle; Bereolos, Nicole; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Tuitele, John; Goldstein, Michael; House, Megan; McGarvey, Stephen
High type 2 diabetes prevalence, associated with recent cultural changes in diet and physical activity, characterizes the U.S. territory of American Samoa. Comorbid diabetes and depression rates are high worldwide and contribute to negative diabetes outcomes; these rates have not been assessed in American Samoa. In this study, six focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 39 American Samoan adults with diabetes; questions on perceptions of diabetes and depressive symptoms were included. Thirteen healthcare staff interviews were conducted to gain further insight into diabetes care in American Samoa. FGs and healthcare staff interviews were translated, transcribed, and entered into NVivo 8 to facilitate analysis. Thematic analysis showed that diabetes patients saw depressive symptoms as directly contributing to high blood sugar. However, these symptoms were rarely mentioned spontaneously, and providers reported they seldom assess them in patients. Many patients and healthcare staff believed the best ways to respond to feelings of depression involved relaxing, leaving difficult situations, or eating. Staff also discussed cultural stigma associated with depression and the importance of establishing rapport before discussing it. In conclusion, healthcare providers in American Samoa need training to increase their awareness of depressive symptoms' negative impact on diabetes management in patients who screen positive for depression. All providers must approach the subject in a supportive context after establishing rapport. This information will be used for cultural translation of a community health worker and primary care-coordinated intervention for adults with diabetes in American Samoa, with the goal of creating an effective and sustainable intervention. PMID:21058808
Almutairi, Khalid M; Alodhayani, Abdulaziz Alhomaidi; Moussa, Mahaman; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Tumala, Regie B; Vinluan, Jason M
As medical professionals on the front lines in the outbreaks of infectious disease like Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and best practices to protect themselves and the public from the disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the level of awareness, attitudes and practices among healthcare workers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD. A total of 177 physicians and 545 nurses participated in a descriptive cross-sectional study from a tertiary government hospital in Saudi Arabia. All subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire focusing on their level of awareness, concerns, and clinical practice related to EVD. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about the etiology, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, and treatment of EVD. All of the participants had high levels of concern about EVD (p=0.001) and about the implementation of strict standard infection control precautionary measures. The study found that greater infection control measures were taken by the participants including frequent hand washing, use of personal protective equipment, and avoiding normal activities such as going to work, school, travel, etc. if fever symptoms appear. A combination of evidence based knowledge about EVD and high levels of concern of healthcare providers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD are the main factors leading to strict compliance with the infection control measures recommended in this study. Additionally, healthcare providers must be trained in infection control and adhere to the universal infection control standard guidelines to facilitate prevention and precaution.
Midlöv, Patrik; Halling, Anders
Abstract Objective. To study the associations between active choice of primary care provider and healthcare utilization, multimorbidity, age, and sex, comparing data from primary care and all healthcare in a Swedish population. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional study using descriptive analyses including t-test, correlations, and logistic regression modelling in four separate models. Setting and subjects. The population (151 731) and all healthcare in Blekinge in 2007. Main outcome measure. Actively or passively listed in primary care, registered on 31 December 2007. Results. Number of consultations (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.30–1.32), multimorbidity level (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.67–1.70), age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.03–1.03), and sex (OR for men 0.67, 95% CI 0.65–0.68) were all associated with registered active listing in primary care. Active listing was more strongly associated with number of consultations and multimorbidity level using primary care data (OR 2.11, 95% CI 2.08–2.15 and OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.11–2.17, respectively) than using data from all healthcare. Number of consultations and multimorbidity level were correlated and had similar associations with active listing in primary care. Modelling number of consultations, multimorbidity level, age, and sex gave four separate models with about 70% explanatory power for active listing in primary care. Combining number of consultations and multimorbidity did not improve the models. Conclusions. Number of consultations and multimorbidity level were associated with active listing in primary care. These factors were also associated with each other differently in primary care than in all healthcare. More complex models including non-health-related individual characteristics and healthcare-related factors are needed to increase explanatory power. PMID:24939741
Morgan, Stephen A; Agee, Nancy Howell
Mobile technology's presence in healthcare has exploded over the past five years. The increased use of mobile devices by all segments of the US population has driven healthcare systems, providers, and payers to accept this new form of communication and to develop strategies to implement and leverage the use of mobile healthcare (mHealth) within their organizations and practices. As healthcare systems move toward a more value-driven model of care, patient centeredness and engagement are the keys to success. Mobile healthcare will provide the medium to allow patients to participate more in their care. Financially, mHealth brings to providers the ability to improve efficiency and deliver savings to both them and the healthcare consumer. However, mHealth is not without challenges. Healthcare IT departments have been reluctant to embrace this shift in technology without fully addressing security and privacy concerns. Providers have been hesitant to adopt mHealth as a form of communication with patients because it breaks with traditional models. Our healthcare system has just started the journey toward the development of mHealth. We offer an overview of the mobile healthcare environment and our approach to solving the challenges it brings to healthcare organizations.
Alkabba, Abdulaziz F.; Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.; Albar, Adnan A.; Bahnassy, Ahmad A.; Qadi, Mahdi
Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: “What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?” The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts’ meeting. Results: The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1) Patients’ Rights, (2) Equity of resources, (3) Confidentiality of the patients, (4) Patient Safety, (5) Conflict of Interests, (6) Ethics of privatization, (7) Informed Consent, (8) Dealing with the opposite sex, (9) Beginning and end of life, and (10) Healthcare team ethics. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges. PMID:22518351
Hex, Nick; Setters, Jo; Little, Stuart
“Non-delivery” home oxygen technologies that allow self-filling of ambulatory oxygen cylinders are emerging. They can offer a relatively unlimited supply of ambulatory oxygen in suitably assessed people who require long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), providing they can use these systems safely and effectively. This allows users to be self-sufficient and facilitates longer periods of time away from home. The evolution and evidence base of this technology is reported with the experience of a national service review in Scotland (UK). Given that domiciliary oxygen services represent a significant cost to healthcare providers globally, these systems offer potential cost savings, are appealing to remote and rural regions due to the avoidance of cylinder delivery and have additional lower environmental impact due to reduced fossil fuel consumption and subsequently reduced carbon emissions. Evidence is emerging that self-fill/non-delivery oxygen systems can meet the ambulatory oxygen needs of many patients using LTOT and can have a positive impact on quality of life, increase time spent away from home and offer significant financial savings to healthcare providers. Educational aims Provide update for oxygen prescribers on options for home oxygen provision. Provide update on the evidence base for available self-fill oxygen technologies. Provide and update for healthcare commissioners on the potential cost-effective and environmental benefits of increased utilisation of self-fill oxygen systems. PMID:27408629
Ramirez, Ivan I; Arellano, Daniel H; Adasme, Rodrigo S; Landeros, Jose M; Salinas, Francisco A; Vargas, Alvaro G; Vasquez, Francisco J; Lobos, Ignacio A; Oyarzun, Magdalena L; Restrepo, Ruben D
Waveform analysis by visual inspection can be a reliable, noninvasive, and useful tool for detecting patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, it is a skill that requires a properly trained professional. This observational study was conducted in 17 urban ICUs. Health-care professionals (HCPs) working in these ICUs were asked to recognize different types of asynchrony shown in 3 evaluation videos. The health-care professionals were categorized according to years of experience, prior training in mechanical ventilation, profession, and number of asynchronies identified correctly. A total of 366 HCPs were evaluated. Statistically significant differences were found when HCPs with and without prior training in mechanical ventilation (trained vs non-trained HCPs) were compared according to the number of asynchronies detected correctly (of the HCPs who identified 3 asynchronies, 63 [81%] trained vs 15 [19%] non-trained, P < .001; 2 asynchronies, 72 [65%] trained vs 39 [35%] non-trained, P = .034; 1 asynchrony, 55 [47%] trained vs 61 [53%] non-trained, P = .02; 0 asynchronies, 17 [28%] trained vs 44 [72%] non-trained, P < .001). HCPs who had prior training in mechanical ventilation also increased, nearly 4-fold, their odds of identifying ≥2 asynchronies correctly (odds ratio 3.67, 95% CI 1.93-6.96, P < .001). However, neither years of experience nor profession were associated with the ability of HCPs to identify asynchrony. HCPs who have specific training in mechanical ventilation increase their ability to identify asynchrony using waveform analysis. Neither experience nor profession proved to be a relevant factor to identify asynchrony correctly using waveform analysis. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Putthasri, Weerasak; Prakongsai, Phusit
In recent years, cross-border migration has gained significant attention in high-level policy dialogues in numerous countries. While there exists some literature describing the health status of migrants, and exploring migrants' perceptions of service utilisation in receiving countries, there is still little evidence that examines the issue of health services for migrants through the lens of providers. This study therefore aims to systematically review the latest literature, which investigated perceptions and attitudes of healthcare providers in managing care for migrants, as well as examining the challenges and barriers faced in their practices. A systematic review was performed by gathering evidence from three main online databases: Medline, Embase and Scopus, plus a purposive search from the World Health Organization's website and grey literature sources. The articles, published in English since 2000, were reviewed according to the following topics: (1) how healthcare providers interacted with individual migrant patients, (2) how workplace factors shaped services for migrants, and (3) how the external environment, specifically laws and professional norms influenced their practices. Key message of the articles were analysed by thematic analysis. Thirty seven articles were recruited for the final review. Key findings of the selected articles were synthesised and presented in the data extraction form. Quality of retrieved articles varied substantially. Almost all the selected articles had congruent findings regarding language andcultural challenges, and a lack of knowledge of a host country's health system amongst migrant patients. Most respondents expressed concerns over in-house constraints resulting from heavy workloads and the inadequacy of human resources. Professional norms strongly influenced the behaviours and attitudes of healthcare providers despite conflicting with laws that limited right to health services access for illegal migrants. The perceptions
Sale, Joanna E M; Hawker, Gillian; Cameron, Cathy; Bogoch, Earl; Jain, Ravi; Beaton, Dorcas; Jaglal, Susan; Funnell, Larry
To examine messages perceived by members of an osteoporosis (OP) patient group from various healthcare providers regarding bone health. We conducted a phenomenological (qualitative) study in members of an OP patient group who resided in Canada, had sustained a fragility fracture at 50+ years old, and were not taking antiresorptive medication at the time of that fracture. Participants were interviewed for approximately 1 h by telephone and responded to questions about visits to healthcare providers for their bone health and what was discussed during those visits. We analyzed the data guided by Giorgi's methodology. We interviewed 28 members (2 males, 26 females; 78 % response rate), aged 51-89 years old. Most participants perceived that their specialist was more interested than their primary care physician in bone health and took the time to discuss issues with them. Participants perceived very few messages from the fracture clinic and other providers. We found many instances where perceived messages within and across various healthcare providers were inconsistent, suggesting there is a need to raise awareness of bone health management guidelines to providers who treat fracture patients.
Norton-Westwood, Deborah; Pearson, Alan; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne
Background Children's' hospitals are by definition hospitals specialized in all aspects of children's care, but are they and if so, how is that achieved? Are healthcare facilities more than a 'space' in which to ask medical questions, seek answers and obtain treatment? Some suggest that the very design of a space can positively or negatively impact healing, hence the term referred to by those in the architectural community as 'healing spaces'. To date empirical studies to provide evidence to this effect, although growing in number, are still few. What is known is that hospitals, doctor's offices and dental offices alike unintentionally create an atmosphere, particularly for children, that add to an already heightened level of anxiety and fear. Designing a children's hospital, unlike a generalist facility, presents a unique and significant challenge. Those involved in designing such hospitals are faced with the opportunity and responsibility to care for and respond to the needs of children across the age spectrum; infants to toddlers, school aged children to adolescents. As healthcare professionals and architects, it is our responsibility to create healthcare facilities that are of purposeful design; anticipating and alleviating children's anxiety and fear wherever possible.Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of environmental design strategies in healthcare institutions such as hospitals and dental offices on event-related anxiety in the paediatric population.Inclusion Criteria This comprehensive systematic review involved children from the age of 1 to 18 years of age admitted to a healthcare facility with the primary outcomes of interest being four key design strategies: positive distraction; elimination of environmental stressors; access to social support and choice (control); and connection to nature.Search Strategy Using the Joanna Briggs defined three step search strategy, both published and unpublished studies were
Silver, Julie K; Binder, David S; Zubcevik, Nevena; Zafonte, Ross D
Physicians and other healthcare professionals are often the end users of medical innovation; however, they are rarely involved in the beginning design stages. This often results in ineffective healthcare solutions with poor adoption rates. At the early design stage, innovation would benefit from input from healthcare professionals. This report describes the first-ever rehabilitation hackathon-an interdisciplinary and competitive team event aimed at accelerating and improving healthcare solutions and providing an educational experience for participants. Hackathons are gaining traction as a way to accelerate innovation by bringing together a diverse group of interdisciplinary professionals from different industries who work collaboratively in teams and learn from each other, focus on a specific problem ("pain point"), develop a solution using design thinking techniques, pitch the solution to participants, gather fast feedback and quickly alter the prototype design ("pivoting"). 102 hackers including 19 (18.6 %) physicians and other professionals participated, and over the course of 2 days worked in teams, pitched ideas and developed design prototypes. Three awards were given for prototypes that may improve function in persons with disabilities. 43 hackers were women (42.2 %) and 59 men (57.8 %); they ranged in age from 16 to 79 years old; and, of the 75 hackers who reported their age, 63 (84 %) were less than 40 years old and 12 (16 %) were 40 years or older. This report contributes to the emerging literature on healthcare hackathons as a means of providing interdisciplinary education and training and supporting innovation.
McShea, Michael; Holl, Randy; Badawi, Omar; Riker, Richard R; Silfen, Eric
As the volume of data that is electronically available promliferates, the health-care industry is identifying better ways to use this data for patient care. Ideally, these data are collected in real time, can support point-of-care clinical decisions, and, by providing instantaneous quality metrics, can create the opportunities to improve clinical practice as the patient is being cared for. The business-world technology supporting these activities is referred to as business intelligence, which offers competitive advantage, increased quality, and operational efficiencies. The health-care industry is plagued by many challenges that have made it a latecomer to business intelligence and data-mining technology, including delayed adoption of electronic medical records, poor integration between information systems, a lack of uniform technical standards, poor interoperability between complex devices, and the mandate to rigorously protect patient privacy. Efforts at developing a health care equivalent of business intelligence (which we will refer to as clinical intelligence) remains in its infancy. Until basic technology infrastructure and mature clinical applications are developed and implemented throughout the health-care system, data aggregation and interpretation cannot effectively progress. The need for this approach in health care is undisputed. As regional and national health information networks emerge, we need to develop cost-effective systems that reduce time and effort spent documenting health-care data while increasing the application of knowledge derived from that data.
Stringer, Kristi L.; Turan, Bulent; McCormick, Lisa; Durojaiye, Modupeoluwa; Nyblade, Laura; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Turan, Janet M.
Stigma towards people living with HIV (PLWH) in healthcare settings is a barrier to optimal treatment. However, our understanding of attitudes towards PLWH from healthcare providers’ perspective in the United States is limited and out-of-date. We assessed HIV-related stigma among healthcare staff in Alabama and Mississippi, using online questionnaires. Participants included 651 health workers (60% White race; 83% female). Multivariate regression suggests that several factors independently predict stigmatizing attitudes: Protestant compared to other religions (β = 0.129, p≤0.05), White race compared to other races (β = 0.162, p ≤0.001), type of clinic (HIV/STI clinic: β = 0.112, p≤0.01), availability of post-exposure prophylaxis (yes: β = −.107, p≤0.05), and perceptions of policy enforcement (policies not enforced: β = 0.058, p = p≤0.05). These findings may assist providers wishing to improve the quality care for PLWH. Enforcement of policies prohibiting discrimination may be a useful strategy for reducing HIV-related stigma among healthcare workers. PMID:26650383
By paying attention to our personal individuation process, our inner work, we can better deal with whatever the world presents. Much of the chaos healthcare is experiencing today is because we are currently trying to become more conscious both individually and organizationally. The future of Catholic healthcare is in recognizing the call, the challenge, the moral imperative to facilitate the creation of healthy communities. We must reflect on and understand health not as a commodity, but rather as both a process and a state of being that is at once personal and collective. In indigenous cultures there has always been an understanding of the deep connection between personal and community health and between spiritual, mental, and physical health. The current synchronistic shift from professional-directed, acute care to an awareness of how the individual psyche and society in general influence health and well-being is spurring Americans to focus on mind-body and healthy-community concepts. If we can "stay present" to the mission of healthcare-keep people well, prevent disease, deal with the causes and symptoms of illness, create healthy communities-we will have a future in healthcare delivery. We can do this by being healthy ourselves, recognizing our global responsibility for health, and providing direct services.
Jensen, Megan E.; Hartenbach, Ellen; McElroy, Jane A.; Faerber, Adrienne; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Bailey, Howard H.
Objective Evaluate regional healthcare practitioners’ views of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendations for adolescent patients through a mailed survey. Methods A 16-question self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 518 physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners in Dane County, WI working in family medicine, pediatrics, or gynecology in September 2006. The survey addressed providers’ willingness to recommend the HPV vaccine, as well as targeted patient populations to recommend the vaccine to in their own practices and justifications provided to patients regarding the benefits of HPV vaccination. Results We had a 39% response rate. The majority (95%) of providers were willing to recommend the HPV vaccine to their adolescent patients. Most practitioners (67%) are planning to recommend the vaccine to their female patients only and are most comfortable vaccinating patients >10 years of age. Healthcare providers are looking to their own health professional organizations for vaccination recommendations. Conclusion Healthcare providers in family medicine, pediatrics, and gynecology in Dane County, WI have positive attitudes regarding HPV vaccine recommendation in their adolescent patients. PMID:19753828
Background Infection causes neonatal mortality in both high and low income countries. While simple interventions to prevent neonatal infection are available, they are often poorly understood and implemented by clinicians. A basic understanding of healthcare providers' perceptions of infection control provides a platform for improving current practices. Our aim was to explore the views of healthcare providers in provincial hospitals in south and south central Vietnam to inform the design of programmes to improve neonatal infection prevention and control. Methods All fifty-four participants who attended a workshop on infection prevention and control were asked to complete an anonymous, written questionnaire identifying their priorities for improving neonatal infection prevention and control in provincial hospitals in south and south central Vietnam. Results Hand washing, exclusive breastfeeding and safe disposal of medical waste were nominated by most participants as priorities for preventing neonatal infections. Education through instructional posters and written guidelines, family contact, kangaroo-mother-care, limitation of invasive procedures and screening for maternal GBS infection were advocated by a smaller proportion of participants. Conclusions The opinions of neonatal healthcare providers at the workshop accurately reflect some of the current international recommendations for infection prevention. However, other important recommendations were not commonly identified by participants and need to be reinforced. Our results will be used to design interventions to improve infection prevention in Vietnam, and may be relevant to other low-resource countries. PMID:23570330
Legere, Laura E; Wallace, Katherine; Bowen, Angela; McQueen, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Evans, Marilyn
Perinatal depression is the most common mental illness experienced by pregnant and postpartum women, yet it is often under-detected and under-treated. Some researchers suggest this may be partly influenced by a lack of education and professional development on perinatal depression among health-care providers, which can negatively affect care and contribute to stigmatization of women experiencing altered mood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of educational and professional development needs and strategies for health-care providers in perinatal depression. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in seven academic health databases using selected keywords. The search was limited to primary studies and reviews published in English between January 2006 and May/June 2015, with a focus on perinatal depression education and professional development for health-care providers. Studies were screened for inclusion by two reviewers and tie-broken by a third. Studies that met inclusion criteria were quality appraised and data extracted. Results from the studies are reported through narrative synthesis. Two thousand one hundred five studies were returned from the search, with 1790 remaining after duplicate removal. Ultimately, 12 studies of moderate and weak quality met inclusion criteria. The studies encompassed quantitative (n = 11) and qualitative (n = 1) designs, none of which were reviews, and addressed educational needs identified by health-care providers (n = 5) and strategies for professional development in perinatal mental health (n = 7). Consistently, providers identified a lack of formal education in perinatal mental health and the need for further professional development. Although the professional development interventions were diverse, the majority focused on promoting identification of perinatal depression and demonstrated modest effectiveness in improving various outcomes. This systematic review reveals a
Frerichs, Wiebke; Hahlweg, Pola; Müller, Evamaria; Adis, Christine; Scholl, Isabelle
Despite an increased awareness of shared decision-making (SDM) and its prominent position on the health policy agenda, its implementation in routine care remains a challenge in Germany. In order to overcome this challenge, it is important to understand healthcare providers' views regarding SDM and to take their perspectives and opinions into account in the development of an implementation program. The present study aimed at exploring a) the attitudes of different healthcare providers regarding SDM in oncology and b) their experiences with treatment decisions in daily practice. A qualitative study was conducted using focus groups and individual interviews with different healthcare providers at the University Cancer Center Hamburg, Germany. Focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis and descriptive statistics. N = 4 focus groups with a total of N = 25 participants and N = 17 individual interviews were conducted. Attitudes regarding SDM varied greatly between the different participants, especially concerning the definition of SDM, the attitude towards the degree of patient involvement in decision-making and assumptions about when SDM should take place. Experiences on how treatment decisions are currently made varied. Negative experiences included time and structural constraints, and a lack of (multidisciplinary) communication. Positive experiences comprised informed patients, involvement of relatives and a good physician-patient relationship. The results show that German healthcare providers in oncology have a range of attitudes that currently function as barriers towards the implementation of SDM. Also, their experiences on how decision-making is currently done reveal difficulties in actively involving patients in decision-making processes. It will be crucial to take these attitudes and experiences seriously and to subsequently disentangle existing misconceptions in future implementation programs.
Militello, Lisa K; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Aldrich, Heather; Kamal, Rabah
Healthcare providers use continuing education (CE) to meet professional development requirements and to ensure optimal patient care. There has been a dramatic increase in computer-mediated CE (CMCE) programs. To synthesize the literature regarding the current state of the science on the efficacy of CMCE for healthcare professionals, particularly as it relates to provider learning and patient outcomes. Specifically, this review assesses the methodological quality of existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A literature search was conducted using Cochrane Library, PubMed, and CINAHL. Review articles evaluating the efficacy of CMCE for healthcare providers were included. Publications were searched between 2002 and 2013 and limited to those printed in English. An objective measurement tool, AMSTAR, was used to assess the methodological quality of each review. AMSTAR is an 11-item instrument, in which individual criteria were evaluated and a composite score of all 11 components was determined for each review. Outcomes of each review were also categorized based on Kirkpatrick's levels for summative evaluation: (i) Learner satisfaction, (ii) Learning outcomes, (iii) Performance improvement, (iv) Patient/health outcomes. Starting with 231 articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria for this evaluation. AMSTAR quality scores of the reviews ranged from 7 to 11, with 11 indicating the strongest quality. Although weak research design of many studies and heterogeneous topics covered make summative evaluations difficult, there were some common themes covered in the articles reviewed. Healthcare providers were largely satisfied with using CMCE programs. Overall, the studies comparing CMCE to traditional CE methods found the impact on learning outcomes to be comparable, with neither method necessarily superior. Additionally, all reviews lacked evaluation of practice outcomes. While results of this review show promise for CMCE, further evaluation and more rigorously conducted
Renner, Daniel M; Westfall, John M; Wilroy, Lou Ann; Ginde, Adit A
There is an ongoing shortage of rural healthcare providers relative to urban healthcare providers worldwide. Many strategies have been implemented to increase the distribution of rural healthcare providers, and financial incentives such as loan repayment programs have become popular means to both recruit and retain healthcare providers in rural communities. Studies detailing the effects of such programs on rural provider recruitment and retention are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of loan repayment and other factors on the recruitment and retention of healthcare providers in rural Colorado, USA, and to compare the motivations and attitudes of these rural providers with their urban counterparts. A survey was sent to 122 healthcare providers who had participated in one of three loan repayment programs in Colorado between the years of 1992 and 2007: the Colorado Health Professional Loan Repayment Program; the Colorado Rural Outreach Program; and the Dental Loan Repayment Program of Colorado. Differentiation between rural and urban communities was accomplished by using the Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes developed by the University of Washington's Rural Health Research Center and Economic Research Service. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA from StataCorp. Of the 93 respondents included in the study, 57 worked in rural communities and 36 worked in urban communities during their programs. Of the rural participants, 74% were already working in or intending to work in an eligible community when they were made aware of the loan repayment program. Of those planning to work in a rural community regardless of any loan repayment option, 42% reported that the loan repayment program had an important influence on the specific community in which they chose to practice. Of the rural participants already working in a rural community, 38% reported loan repayment as being an important factor in their retention. The most important factors
Bsoul, Samer A; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T
North Americans in 2004 were projected to die from oral and pharyngeal cancer at a rate of 1.2 per hour. Oral healthcare providers can be instrumental in reducing the incidence of oral and pharyngeal premalignant and malignant lesions by identifying patients with high-risk behavior, educating their patients about the consequences of their high-risk behavior, and by early detection of premalignant and malignant conditions. The fact only 34% of the cancers of the oral cavity and larynx are localized at the time of diagnosis and evidence that at least one third of the patients diagnosed with an oral or pharyngeal malignancy have undergone oral cancer screening within the past three years suggests the current protocol for the early detection of pre-malignant or malignant changes appears to be deficient. To facilitate early diagnosis, oral healthcare providers must take into consideration the capriciousness of oral cancer and must be familiar with the availability and application of diagnostic modalities beyond conventional visual inspection and palpation of oral soft tissues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the disease for healthcare professionals.
Gortzis, Lefteris G
The selection of a new healthcare information system (HIS) has always been a daunting process for clinicians, health care providers and policy makers. The objective of this study is to present the lessons learned and the main findings from several relevant case studies to support this process. Data were collected by retrospectively reviewing the summative results of three well-established systems, acquiring feedback from two E.U. projects, and conducting semi-structured interviews with a number of collaborators involved in electronic healthcare interventions. Selection issues were identified and classified into the following five categories: (i) data creation, (ii) data management, (iii) data sharing, (iv) data presentation and (v) modules management. A mind map was also structured to provide a more manageable list of issues concerning the most common electronic clinical technologies (e-CT). The vendor manual is intended as an overview of the merchandise e-CT and therefore has limited potential in supporting effectively the selection process of a new HIS. The present classification and the mind map - based on lessons learned - provide a ready-to-use toolkit for supporting the HIS selection process when healthcare organisations are unable to employ research development groups to lay the groundwork for building a new HIS from scratch.
Chawla, P. Cheena; Chawla, Anil; Chaudhary, Seema
Background & objectives: Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Results: Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country. PMID:28361828
Gomes, Ludmila Mourão Xavier; Reis, Tatiana Carvalho; Vieira, Magda Mendes; de Andrade-Barbosa, Thiago Luis; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
Objective To evaluate the quality of healthcare provided to sickle cell disease children by primary healthcare services in a region of high prevalence. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed by interviewing members of families with sickle cell disease children. The children had been identified from the Neonatal Screening Program in Minas Gerais state over the last 12 years in towns of the Montes Claros-Bocaiuva microregion. A structured questionnaire specially developed for this study and based on three axes was used: indicators of the child's health (immunization, growth and development, prophylaxis antibiotic therapy), perception of care by the family (health education and accessibility) and knowledge of the family about the disease. Results Sixty-three of 71 families with children identified as having sickle cell disease were interviewed. The predominant genotypes were Hb SS (44.4%) and Hb SC (41.2%). Adequate monitoring of growth and development was recorded for the first year of life in 23 children (36.6%) and for the second year of life in 18 children (28.6%). The basic vaccination schedule was completed by 44 children (69.8%) but 62 vaccination record cards (98.4%) identified delays of special vaccines. Regular use of prophylactic penicillin was reported by 55 caregivers (87.3%). The family's perception of the care provided suggests poor accessibility to health services and lack of opportunities to answer doubts. The average performance of families in knowledge testing was 59.8%. Conclusion The quality of healthcare is unsatisfactory. The care provided to children with sickle cell disease in primary healthcare services needs improvements. PMID:23049319
Chawla, P Cheena; Chawla, Anil; Chaudhary, Seema
Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.
Padela, Aasim I
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes. In this essay I reflect on a state's moral obligation to provide healthcare from the perspective of Islamic moral theology and law. I examine how Islamic ethico-legal conceptual analogues for human rights and communal responsibility, ḥuqūq al-'ibād and farḍ al-kifāyah and other related constructs might be used to advance a moral argument for healthcare provision by the state. Moving from theory to application, I next illustrate how notions of human rights and social responsibility were used by Muslim stakeholders to buttress moral arguments to support American healthcare reform. In this way, the paper advance discourses on a universal bioethics and common morality by bringing into view the concordances and discordances between Islamic ethico-legal constructs and moral arguments advanced by transnational health policy advocates. It also provides insight into applied Islamic bioethics by demonstrating how Islamic ethico-legal values might inform the discursive outputs of Muslim organizations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
St Pierre, Melissa
Under what conditions do lesbians disclose their sexual orientation to primary healthcare providers? A review of the literature was undertaken to answer this question and to provide insight into the ways healthcare professionals can play an active role assisting their lesbian patients in "coming out." Thirty empirical studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Collectively, these separate studies have found that a myriad of internal (patient attributes) and external (healthcare context, patient-provider relationship) factors influence disclosure. The discussion highlights the critical role of healthcare professionals in supporting disclosure. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Celestin, Michael D.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Horswell, Ronald
Background Although smoking rates in the United States (US) are high, healthcare systems and clinicians can increase cessation rates through application of the US Public Health Service tobacco treatment guideline (2000, 2008). In primary care settings, however, guideline implementation remains low. This report presents the results from an assessment of patient tobacco use, quit attempts, and perceptions of provider treatment before (2004) and after (2010) guideline implementation. Methods By use of a systems approach, the Louisiana Tobacco Control Initiative integrated evidence-based treatment of tobacco use into patient care practices in Louisiana's public hospital system. This prospective study, designed to collect data at 2 time points for the purpose of evaluating the effect of the 5A protocol (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange), included 571 and 889 adult patients selected from primary care clinics in 2004 and 2010, respectively. Chi-square analyses determined differences between survey administrations, along with direct standardization of weighted rates to control for confounding factors. Results Patient reports indicated that provider adherence to the 5A clinical protocol increased from 2004 to 2010. Significant (P<0.001) improvements were observed for the assess (39% vs 72%), assist (24% vs 76%), and arrange (8% vs 31%) treatment variables. Patient-reported quit attempts increased, along with awareness of cessation services (from 19% to 70%, P<0.001), while use of cessation medications decreased (from 23% to 5%, P<0.002). Conclusion Following implementation of the guideline, significant improvements were noted in patient reports of provider treatment and awareness of cessation services. PMID:24052766
Henrikson, Nora B; Tuzzio, Leah; Gilkey, Melissa B; McRee, Annie-Laurie
Healthcare providers have a strong influence on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination decisions, yet they often fail to recommend the vaccine to the 11- and 12-year-olds who are targeted by practice guidelines. We sought to understand how providers interpret and value age-based guidelines. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from two qualitative studies of healthcare providers' HPV vaccination attitudes and practices. Participants were physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants in Minnesota (n = 27) and in Washington (n = 17) interviewed in 2012 and 2014 respectively. Verbatim transcripts from each study were analyzed independently using content analysis, and collective findings were then jointly analyzed. The research team worked via consensus to derive codes and describe representative themes. A high proportion of providers reported either a lack of concern about HPV vaccine completion, or concern beginning several years past the recommended target age. Many providers perceived a gradient of HPV vaccination timeliness ranging from age 12 to 26. Instead of age-based recommendations, providers timed recommendations based on perceptions of access to care and patient risk. They often offered "gentle" recommendations and deferred vaccination discussions as a tool to building trust with families. Interventions aimed at helping providers deliver effective recommendations for timely HPV vaccination are needed. Our findings suggest that changing the norm of provider culture to one in which "catch-up" schedules are seen as a suboptimal way to achieve vaccine uptake may be an important goal.
Haishan, Huang; Hongjuan, Liu; Tieying, Zeng; Xuemei, Pu
The aim of this study is to find and compare the current situation between common people and healthcare providers' preferences for a good death in the context of Chinese culture. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey covering 190 ordinary Chinese people and 323 healthcare providers was conducted. An inventory of the good death was translated and the subjects were surveyed about their attitude toward it. Permission to conduct the study was granted by department chiefs, nurse managers and the participants themselves. The participants were informed that they took part on a voluntary and anonymous basis, that they could withdraw at any time, that they had the right to ignore questions they did not wish to answer, and that whatever they chose to do would not jeopardize their employment conditions. The attributes that were perceived as important by major respondents for a good death were maintaining hope and pleasure, good relationship with medical staff, good relationship with family, independence, environment comfort, being respected as an individual, preparation for death, physical and psychological comfort, dying in a favorite place, and not being a burden to others. And some relatively less important characteristics were life completion, receiving enough treatment, natural death, controlling over the future, unawareness of death, pride and beauty, feeling that one's life is worth living, and religious and spiritual comfort. We also found that healthcare providers were more likely than general out-patients to perceive "physical and psychological comfort," "dying in a favorite place," "good relationship with medical staff," and "natural death" as important for a good death. This study offers healthcare providers in China a fundamental understanding of the normal expectations of the general public for a good death. It is believed that these findings in our study are valuable to improve palliative care in China. We compared the attitudes of Chinese and
Cutter-Wilson, Elizabeth; Richmond, Tracy
Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious and potentially lethal form of relationship violence in adolescence. TDV is highly correlated with several outcomes related to poor physical and mental health. Although incidence and prevalence data indicate high rates of exposure to TDV among adolescents throughout the United States, significant confusion remains in healthcare communities concerning the definition and implications of TDV. Additionally, healthcare providers are uncertain about effective screening and intervention methods. The article will review the definition and epidemiology of TDV and discuss possible screening and intervention strategies. TDV research is a relatively new addition to the field of relationship violence. Although some confusion remains, the definition and epidemiology of TDV are better understood, which has greatly led to effective ways in which to screen and intervene when such violence is detected. Universal screening with a focus on high-risk subgroups combined with referrals to local and national support services are key steps in reducing both primary and secondary exposure. TDV is a widespread public health crisis with serious short-term and long-term implications. It is necessary for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers to be aware of TDV and its potential repercussions, as well as possible methods for screening and intervention. More research is needed to better understand TDV as well as to further define effective screening and intervention protocol for the clinical environment.
Cutter-Wilson, Elizabeth; Richmond, Tracy
Purpose of Review Teen Dating Violence (TDV) is a serious and potentially lethal form of relationship violence in adolescence. TDV is highly correlated with several outcomes related to poor physical and mental health. Although incidence and prevalence data indicates high rates of exposure to TDV among adolescents throughout the United States, significant confusion remains in healthcare communities concerning the definition and implications of TDV. Additionally, healthcare providers are uncertain about effective screening and intervention methods. The article will review the definition and epidemiology of TDV and discuss possible screening and intervention strategies. Recent Findings TDV research is a relatively new addition to the field of relationship violence. Although some confusion remains, the definition and epidemiology of TDV is better understood which has greatly lead to effective ways in which to screen and intervene when such violence is detected. Universal screening with a focus on high risk subgroups combined with referrals to local and national support services are key steps in reducing both primary and secondary exposure. Summary TDV is a widespread public health crisis with serious short and long-term implications. It is necessary for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers to be aware of TDV, its potential repercussions, as well as possible methods for screening and intervention. More research is needed to better understand TDV as well as to further define effective screening and intervention protocol for the clinical environment. PMID:21670679
Dell'Aversana, Giuseppina; Bruno, Andreina
Cultural competence (CC) for professionals and organizations has been recognized as a key strategy to reduce health care inequalities for migrants and to promote responsiveness to diversity. For decades its main aim has been matching health services to the cultural needs of migrant users. Otherwise literature highlighted the need to find a pragmatic middle way between the 'static' and the 'dynamic' views of culture that are recognizable in CC approaches. A pragmatic middle way to CC will be proposed as the way to respect diversity, even responding to cultural issues, without stereotyping or discriminating. To understand conditions that favor this pragmatic middle way this study aims to explore: (1) perceptions of healthcare providers in managing diversity; (2) strategies used to meet health needs at a professional and organizational level. A qualitative case study was conducted in a healthcare service renowned for its engagement in migrant sensitive care. Four different professional figures involved in CC strategies at different levels, both managerial and non-managerial, were interviewed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings indicated that dealing with diversity poses challenges for healthcare providers, by confronting them with multilevel barriers to quality of care. A pragmatic middle way to CC seems to rely on complex understanding of the interaction between patients social conditions and the capacity of the institutional system to promote equity. Professional and organizational strategies, such as inter-professional and intersectional collaboration, cultural food adaptation and professional training can enhance quality of care, patient compliance responding to social and cultural needs.
AZIZAM, Nor Azmaniza; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadija
Background: There is growing interest in research on patient satisfaction with healthcare provider (HCP) communication as a measure of healthcare quality and HCPs’ communication competency. This study aimed to determine the levels of patient satisfaction with healthcare provider-patient communication (HCP-PC) and its associated factors at the outpatient clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample in July 2012 using self-administered questionnaires for the data collection. Both overall and domain-specific satisfaction were measured, with the three domains being exchanging information (EI), socio-emotional behaviour (SB), and communication style (CS). Results: The findings show that 92.8% of the 283 respondents were satisfied with overall HCP-PC, 89.5% with EI, 91.3% with SB, and 72.2% with CS. Satisfaction was statistically higher among Malays for CS and higher among those with low education and poor health for EI, SB and CS. EI and overall communication satisfaction were also higher among patients who reported short wait times, and patients who were in gender concordance with their HCPs showed higher SB satisfaction. Conclusion: Basic and continuous communication skills training and patient activation programs should be established to increase patient satisfaction. Health information technology use should be actively promoted to allow for structured and standardised information exchange between HCPs and patients. PMID:26715897
Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly
Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.
Lindén, Maria; Björkman, Mats
Wearable, embedded sensor systems for health applications are foreseen to be enablers in the future healthcare. They will provide ubiquitous monitoring of multiple parameters without restricting the person to stay at home or in the hospital. By following trend changes in the health status, early deteriorations will be detected and treatment can start earlier. Also health prevention will be supported. Such future healthcare requires technology development, including miniaturized sensors, smart textiles and wireless communication. The tremendous amount of data generated by these systems calls for both signal processing and decision support to guarantee the quality of data and avoid overflow of information. Safe and secure communications have to protect the integrity of the persons monitored.
MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, Li; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A
Objectives Vaccine coverage for recommended vaccines is low among adults. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of adults and healthcare providers related to four vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, zoster, pneumococcus and influenza). Design We undertook a survey and focus groups of Canadian adults and healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, pharmacists). A total of 4023 adults completed the survey and 62 participated in the focus groups; 1167 providers completed the survey and 45 participated in the focus groups. Results Only 46.3% of adults thought they were up-to-date on their vaccines; 30% did not know. In contrast, 75.6% of providers reported being up-to-date. Only 57.5% of adults thought it was important to receive all recommended vaccines (compared to 87.1–91.5% of providers). Positive attitudes towards vaccines paralleled concern about the burden of illness and confidence in the vaccines, with providers being more aware of disease burden and confident in vaccine effectiveness than the public. Between 55.0% and 59.7% of adults reported willingness to be vaccinated if recommended by their healthcare provider. However, such recommendations were variable; while 77.4% of the public reported being offered and 52.8% reported being recommended the influenza vaccine by their provider, only 10.8% were offered and 5.6% recommended pertussis vaccine. Barriers and facilitators to improved vaccine coverage in adults, such as trust-mistrust of health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and national recommendations, autonomy versus the public good and logistical issues (such as insufficient time and lack of vaccination status tracking), were identified by both the public and providers. Conclusions Despite guidelines for adult vaccination, there are substantial gaps in knowledge and attitudes and beliefs among both the public and healthcare providers that lead to low vaccine
MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, Li; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A
Vaccine coverage for recommended vaccines is low among adults. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of adults and healthcare providers related to four vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, zoster, pneumococcus and influenza). We undertook a survey and focus groups of Canadian adults and healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, pharmacists). A total of 4023 adults completed the survey and 62 participated in the focus groups; 1167 providers completed the survey and 45 participated in the focus groups. Only 46.3% of adults thought they were up-to-date on their vaccines; 30% did not know. In contrast, 75.6% of providers reported being up-to-date. Only 57.5% of adults thought it was important to receive all recommended vaccines (compared to 87.1-91.5% of providers). Positive attitudes towards vaccines paralleled concern about the burden of illness and confidence in the vaccines, with providers being more aware of disease burden and confident in vaccine effectiveness than the public. Between 55.0% and 59.7% of adults reported willingness to be vaccinated if recommended by their healthcare provider. However, such recommendations were variable; while 77.4% of the public reported being offered and 52.8% reported being recommended the influenza vaccine by their provider, only 10.8% were offered and 5.6% recommended pertussis vaccine. Barriers and facilitators to improved vaccine coverage in adults, such as trust-mistrust of health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and national recommendations, autonomy versus the public good and logistical issues (such as insufficient time and lack of vaccination status tracking), were identified by both the public and providers. Despite guidelines for adult vaccination, there are substantial gaps in knowledge and attitudes and beliefs among both the public and healthcare providers that lead to low vaccine coverage. A systematic approach that involves
Pozo-Cano, MD; Castillo, RF; Guillen, J Francisco; Florido, J; García García, I
ABSTRACT Introduction: Prenatal care is a key strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The aims of this work were to ascertain the level of satisfaction of new mothers with their pregnancy monitoring and with the medical professionals who provided prenatal care. Subject and methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 265 new mothers, 18-43 years of age, who had given birth at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital and the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) in April and May 2012. The data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of 28 items that elicited information from the subjects about their pregnancy, prenatal care activities, the healthcare professionals that provided the care, and those that they would like to monitor future pregnancies. There were also two open questions. The first was about the perceived needs of the participants and the second asked them to suggest ways that prenatal care could be improved. Results: The majority of the subjects (59.6%) had given birth for the first time. The midwife was the healthcare professional who performed most of the monitoring activities and resolved their doubts and problems (32.74%), gave the subjects tranquillity and security (37.86%) and listened to their worries (34.53%). The subjects' satisfaction with the healthcare professionals was generally high. This was particularly true of the midwife (90.75%). Half of the subjects surveyed said that they wanted the midwife, obstetrician and general practitioner to monitor their pregnancy. They also underlined the need for longer and more visits with the midwife as well as more consultations with the obstetrician and higher number of ultrasounds. Conclusions: The subjects were very satisfied with the work of the healthcare professionals that monitored their pregnancy, particularly with the midwife. However, they also highlighted expectations and needs that, if met, would increase their satisfaction. PMID:25867581
Pozo-Cano, M D; Castillo, R F; Francisco Guillen, J; Florido, J; García-García, I
Prenatal care is a key strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The aims of this work were to ascertain the level of satisfaction of new mothers with their pregnancy monitoring and with the medical professionals who provided prenatal care. A descriptive study was conducted on 265 new mothers, 18-43 years of age, who had given birth at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital and the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) in April and May 2012. The data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of 28 items that elicited information from the subjects about their pregnancy, prenatal care activities, the healthcare professionals that provided the care, and those that they would like to monitor future pregnancies. There were also two open questions. The first was about the perceived needs of the participants and the second asked them to suggest ways that prenatal care could be improved. The majority of the subjects (59.6%) had given birth for the first time. The midwife was the healthcare professional who performed most of the monitoring activities and resolved their doubts and problems (32.74%), gave the subjects tranquility and security (37.86%) and listened to their worries (34.53%). The subjects' satisfaction with the healthcare professionals was generally high. This was particularly true of the midwife (90.75%). Half of the subjects surveyed said that they wanted the midwife, obstetrician and general practitioner to monitor their pregnancy. They also underlined the need for longer and more visits with the midwife as well as more consultations with the obstetrician and higher number of ultrasounds. The subjects were very satisfied with the work of the healthcare professionals that monitored their pregnancy, particularly with the midwife. However, they also highlighted expectations and needs that, if met, would increase their satisfaction.
Gibbons, Susanne W; Hickling, Edward J; Barnett, Scott D; Herbig-Wall, Pamela L; Watts, Dorraine D
Despite their growing numbers in the United States military, little has been published on healthcare providers (HCP) or female service members from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel was to determine gender differences in reaction to the impact of operational stress in deployed military healthcare providers. The unweighted study sample selected for this data analysis included results from female and male active duty military personnel over the age of 18 years (n=16,146) deployed at least once to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) within the past 3 years (n=1,425), for a final sample consisting of either officer (healthcare officer) or enlisted (healthcare specialist) personnel (n=455) (weighted n=23,440). Indices of psychologic distress and social relations were explored and compared. Enlisted female HCPs were more likely to be African American (42.3%) and single (63.0%) and represented the greater percentage with significant psychologic difficulties, as shown by serious psychologic distress endorsement (11.3%) and positive screen results for depression (32.2%). More harmful drinking patterns (Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test [AUDIT] score 8-15) were found in more female HCPs (enlisted 61.8%, officers 76.4%) compared with males (enlisted 41.1%, officers 67.1%). Female HCPs serving in the current military conflicts are reporting significant psychologic distress that may adversely impact their performance within the military, in theaters of operations, and in their lives at home. Implications for clinical care of female service members and veterans of current wars are addressed.
Hickling, Edward J.; Barnett, Scott D.; Herbig-Wall, Pamela L.; Watts, Dorraine D.
Abstract Background Despite their growing numbers in the United States military, little has been published on healthcare providers (HCP) or female service members from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel was to determine gender differences in reaction to the impact of operational stress in deployed military healthcare providers. Methods The unweighted study sample selected for this data analysis included results from female and male active duty military personnel over the age of 18 years (n=16,146) deployed at least once to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) within the past 3 years (n=1,425), for a final sample consisting of either officer (healthcare officer) or enlisted (healthcare specialist) personnel (n=455) (weighted n=23,440). Indices of psychologic distress and social relations were explored and compared. Results Enlisted female HCPs were more likely to be African American (42.3%) and single (63.0%) and represented the greater percentage with significant psychologic difficulties, as shown by serious psychologic distress endorsement (11.3%) and positive screen results for depression (32.2%). More harmful drinking patterns (Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test [AUDIT] score 8–15) were found in more female HCPs (enlisted 61.8%, officers 76.4%) compared with males (enlisted 41.1%, officers 67.1%). Conclusions Female HCPs serving in the current military conflicts are reporting significant psychologic distress that may adversely impact their performance within the military, in theaters of operations, and in their lives at home. Implications for clinical care of female service members and veterans of current wars are addressed. PMID:22224844
Negulescu, Raluca-Anca; Catarino, Rosa; De Vuyst, Hugo; Undurraga-Malinverno, Manuela; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Alec, Milena; Campana, Aldo; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick
To validate a web-based instrument for assessing healthcare providers' skills in visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol iodine (VIA/VILI) for the diagnosis and management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. An observational cross-sectional study enrolled healthcare providers in a web-based assessment of VIA/VILI skills between August and November 2014. Participants participated in a four-module training course, followed by a multiple-choice test with 70 questions based on cervical photographs of HPV-positive women participating in cervical screening. Logistic regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and success on the test. Overall, 255 participants completed the test and 99 (38.8%) passed. No correlation was found between age or sex and test performance. Compared with other healthcare workers, physicians (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.63; P=0.048), and participants with more colposcopy experience (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.91-6.85; P<0.001) and postgraduate VIA/VILI training (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.29; P=0.012) were more likely to pass the test. Participants who repeated the test (31/255 [12.2%]) were five times more likely to succeed on their second repeat (OR 5.89, 95% CI 1.46-23.73; P=0.013). Web-based training for VIA/VILI is feasible and can identify healthcare workers who are proficient in this technique. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warnock, Carla Jean Pease
All US governmental, public, and private healthcare facilities and their staff fall under some form of regulatory requirement to provide opportunities for spiritual health assessment and care as a component of holistic healthcare. As often the case with regulations, these facilities face the predicament of funding un-reimbursable care. However, chaplains and nurses who provide most patient spiritual care are paid using funds the facility obtains from patients, private, and public sources. Furthermore, Veteran healthcare services, under the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are provided with taxpayer funds from local, state, and federal governments. With the recent legal action by the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. (FFRF) against the Veterans Administration, the ethical dilemma surfaces between taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state.
Pepper, Jessica K; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gilkey, Melissa B
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery systems that may serve as a "gateway" to tobacco use by adolescents. Use of e-cigarettes by U.S. adolescents rose from 3% in 2011 to 7% in 2012. We sought to describe healthcare providers' awareness of e-cigarettes and to assess their comfort with and attitudes toward discussing e-cigarettes with adolescent patients and their parents. A statewide sample (n = 561) of Minnesota healthcare providers (46% family medicine physicians, 20% pediatricians, and 34% nurse practitioners) who treat adolescents completed an online survey in April 2013. Nearly all providers (92%) were aware of e-cigarettes, and 11% reported having treated an adolescent patient who had used them. The most frequently cited sources of information about e-cigarettes were patients, news stories, and advertisements, rather than professional sources. Providers expressed considerable concern that e-cigarettes could be a gateway to tobacco use but had moderately low levels of knowledge about and comfort discussing e-cigarettes with adolescent patients and their parents. Compared with pediatricians and nurse practitioners, family medicine physicians reported knowing more about e-cigarettes and being more comfortable discussing them with patients (both p < .05). Nearly all respondents (92%) wanted to learn more about e-cigarettes. Healthcare providers who treat adolescents may need to incorporate screening and counseling about e-cigarettes into routine preventive services, particularly if the prevalence of use continues to increase in this population. Education about e-cigarettes could help providers deliver comprehensive preventive services to adolescents at risk of tobacco use. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiysonge, Charles S; Abdullahi, Leila H; Ndze, Valantine N; Hussey, Gregory D
).The outcome in three multifaceted intervention studies was the quality of pharmacy practice; including the ability to ask questions, give advice, and provide appropriate treatment. The trials applied regulation, training, and peer influence in sequence; and the study design does not permit separation of the effects of the different interventions. Two trials conducted among 136 pharmacies in Vietnam found that the multifaceted intervention may improve the quality of pharmacy practice; but the third study, involving 146 pharmacies in Vietnam and Thailand, found that the intervention may have little or no effects on the quality of pharmacy practice (low-certainty evidence).Only two studies (both conducted in Vietnam) reported cost data, with no rigorous assessment of the economic implications of implementing the interventions in resource-constrained settings. No study reported data on equity, mortality, morbidity, adverse effects, satisfaction, or attitudes. Training probably improves quality of care (i.e. adherence to recommended practice), regulation may improve quality of care, and we are uncertain about the effects of co-ordination on quality of private for-profit healthcare services in LMICs. The likelihood that further research will find the effect of training to be substantially different from the results of this review is moderate; implying that monitoring of the impact is likely to be needed if training is implemented. The low certainty of the evidence for regulation implies that the likelihood of further research finding the effect of regulation to be substantially different from the results of this review is high. Therefore, an impact evaluation is warranted if government regulation of private for-profit providers is implemented in LMICs. Rigorous evaluations of these interventions should also assess other outcomes such as impacts on equity, cost implications, mortality, morbidity, and adverse effects.
Harris, Cornelia A.
This research project examined the views and perceptions of healthcare provider staff regarding HIV testing and the implementation of HIV testing as a routine part of medical practice in a university student health center at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). This study further explored whether healthcare provider staff promoted…
Willis, Jeffrey R; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Mohanty, Saroj; Kumar, Aarti; Singh, Jai V; Ahuja, Ramesh C; Misra, Rajendra P; Singh, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Baqui, Abdullah H; Sidhu, Sharleen; Santosham, Mathuram; Darmstadt, Gary L
To describe the utilization and perceptions of existing neonatal health services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. A prospective observational study. The study was located in Shivgarh, a rural block of Uttar Pradesh, India. One hundred and fifty-three households that utilized a healthcare provider for their sick neonates. None. Perceived neonatal health improvement after utilization of neonatal health services; satisfaction with aspects of neonatal health services: 'overall care', 'interaction with provider', 'waiting time' and 'explanations of immediate care and follow-up care'. Unqualified allopathically oriented providers (UAOPs) were utilized by 110 households (71.8%), while qualified allopathically oriented providers (QAOPs) by 43 households (28.2%). The odds of perceived neonatal health improvement were significantly higher among households utilizing UAOPs (n = 88/110, 80.0%) than those using QAOPs (n = 23/43, 53.5%) [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-7.5]. The median healthcare fee charged was higher for UAOPs (Rs. 25) than those for QAOPs (Rs. 1). Household satisfaction with 'overall care' of neonatal health service was significantly higher among households that utilized UAOPs compared with those that used QAOPs (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0). Households that utilized UAOPs reported better perceived neonatal health outcomes and higher satisfaction levels than those that used QAOPs, despite higher costs for the former. Future research should assess what dimensions of neonatal care are important to households and identify incentive structures that promote healthcare providers to deliver better perceived care in high-mortality settings such as rural Uttar Pradesh, India.
Duckett, Jane; Hunt, Kate; Munro, Neil; Sutton, Matt
How trust affects health-care utilization is not well-understood, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article focuses on China, a middle-income country where low trust in health-care settings has become a prominent issue, but actual levels of distrust and their implications for utilization are unknown. We conducted a nationally representative survey of the Chinese population (November 2012 to January 2013), which resulted in a sample of 3680 adult men and women. Respondents rated their trust in different types of health-care providers. Using multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models, we estimated the association between distrust in clinics and respondents’ hospital visits in the last year; whether they had sought hospital treatment first for two common symptoms (headache, cold) in the last 2 months; and whether they said they would go first to a hospital if they had a minor or major illness. We analysed these associations before and after adjusting for performance evaluations of clinics and hospitals, controlling for sex, age, education, income, insurance status, household registration and self-assessed health. We found that distrust in hospitals is low, but distrust in clinics is high and strongly associated with increased hospital utilization, especially for minor symptoms and illnesses. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for distrust in clinics because its effects are not fully accounted for by poor evaluations of their competence. PMID:27117483
Rizzo, Albert A; Lange, Belinda; Buckwalter, John G; Forbell, Eric; Kim, Julia; Sagae, Kenji; Williams, Josh; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Difede, JoAnn; Reger, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick
Over the last 15 years, a virtual revolution has taken place in the use of Virtual Reality simulation technology for clinical purposes. Shifts in the social and scientific landscape have now set the stage for the next major movement in Clinical Virtual Reality with the "birth" of intelligent virtual humans. Seminal research and development has appeared in the creation of highly interactive, artificially intelligent and natural language capable virtual human agents that can engage real human users in a credible fashion. No longer at the level of a prop to add context or minimal faux interaction in a virtual world, virtual humans can be designed to perceive and act in a 3D virtual world, engage in spoken dialogues with real users and can be capable of exhibiting human-like emotional reactions. This paper will present an overview of the SimCoach project that aims to develop virtual human support agents to serve as online guides for promoting access to psychological healthcare information and for assisting military personnel and family members in breaking down barriers to initiating care. The SimCoach experience is being designed to attract and engage military Service Members, Veterans and their significant others who might not otherwise seek help with a live healthcare provider. It is expected that this experience will motivate users to take the first step--to empower themselves to seek advice and information regarding their healthcare and general personal welfare and encourage them to take the next step towards seeking more formal resources if needed.
Lacey, Steven E.; Vesper, Benjamin J.; Paradise, William A.; Radosevich, James A.; Colvard, Michael D.
Abstract Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a medical treatment for cancers is an increasing practice in clinical settings, as new photosensitizing chemicals and light source technologies are developed and applied. PDT involves dosing patients with photosensitizing drugs, and then exposing them to light using a directed energy device in order to manifest a therapeutic effect. Healthcare professionals providing PDT should be aware of potential occupational health and safety hazards posed by these treatment devices and photosensitizing agents administered to patients. Materials and methods: Here we outline and identify pertinent health and safety considerations to be taken by healthcare staff during PDT procedures. Results: Physical hazards (for example, non-ionizing radiation generated by the light-emitting device, with potential for skin and eye exposure) and chemical hazards (including the photosensitizing agents administered to patients that have the potential for exposure via skin, subcutaneous, ingestion, or inhalation routes) must be considered for safe use of PDT by the healthcare professional. Conclusions: Engineering, administrative, and personal protective equipment controls are recommendations for the safe use and handling of PDT agents and light-emitting technologies. PMID:23859750
Webster, J; Pritchard, M A; Linnane, J W; Roberts, J A; Hinson, J K; Starrenburg, S E
The objective of this study was to compare health-care use and satisfaction with health-care providers between depressed and non-depressed women in the first 4 months after childbirth. Sixteen weeks after delivery a questionnaire, which included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and items about health-care use and satisfaction, was mailed to women who attended the antenatal clinic, Royal Women's Hospital, Brisbane. Completed questionnaires were returned by 574 (86.4%) of the 664 women surveyed. During the study period most women (91%) visited a general practitioner at least once and 117 (12%) saw their doctor on five or more occasions. A total of 118 (20.7%) scored above 12 on the EPDS. Depressed women were more likely to visit a psychiatrist (OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 4.3-19.6), social worker (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.3-11.1), postnatal depression group (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3-12.6), paediatrician (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-3.9), or a general practitioner (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2) than non-depressed women. Twenty-two (18.5%) of the depressed women had contact with a psychiatrist. Compared with non-depressed women, those scoring above 12 on the EPDS were less satisfied with the services of general practitioners (P=< 0.000), paediatricians (P=0.002), Nursing Mothers' Associations of Australia (P=0.043) and obstetricians (P=0.045). Postpartum depression leads to an increase use of health-care services and has a negative effect on satisfaction with some services.
Dyer, Karen E; Quinn, Gwendolyn P
This study aims to examine healthcare provider perceptions of cancer-related infertility and fertility preservation (FP) in an underserved population and to highlight cognitive and structural barriers to use. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 healthcare providers participating in a larger ethnographic study on cancer survivorship and cancer-related infertility in Puerto Rico, an unincorporated US territory. Interviews were conducted in-person, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the constant comparative method. Providers identified several barriers to FP in Puerto Rico: high cost in relation to income levels, lack of insurance coverage, gaps in provider knowledge of fertility clinics and financial assistance, lower prioritization of quality-of-life needs leading to inconsistent physician disclosure of fertility risks, geographical location of fertility clinics, and logistical challenges to maintaining FP offerings. Two factors act as facilitators: a high value placed on patient-provider communication and relationships and the formation of local alliances between the oncology and reproductive medicine fields, potentially leading to increased cross-specialty communication and referral. Infertility is a continuing source of distress for cancer patients and survivors, and barriers to FP vary cross-culturally. In Puerto Rico, context-specific factors indicate potential areas of intervention. Greater awareness of fertility risks and options can be fostered through physician training in conjunction with organizational measures targeting cost barriers.
Dyer, Karen E.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.
Purpose To examine healthcare provider perceptions of cancer-related infertility and fertility preservation (FP) in an underserved population, and to highlight cognitive and structural barriers to use. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 healthcare providers participating in a larger ethnographic study on cancer survivorship and cancer-related infertility in Puerto Rico, an unincorporated U.S. territory. Interviews were conducted in-person, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the constant comparative method. Results Providers identified several barriers to FP in Puerto Rico: high cost in relation to income levels; lack of insurance coverage; gaps in provider knowledge of fertility clinics and financial assistance; lower prioritization of quality-of-life needs leading to inconsistent physician disclosure of fertility risks; geographical location of fertility clinics; and logistical challenges to maintaining FP offerings. Two factors act as facilitators: a high value placed on patient-provider communication and relationship, and the formation of local alliances between the oncology and reproductive medicine fields, potentially leading to increased cross-specialty communication and referral. Conclusions Infertility is a continuing source of distress for cancer patients and survivors, and barriers to FP vary cross-culturally. In Puerto Rico, context-specific factors indicate potential areas of intervention. Greater awareness of fertility risks and options can be fostered through physician training in conjunction with organizational measures targeting cost barriers. PMID:26980331
Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Results Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores) were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be non-religious were negative
The goal of this paper is both modest and ambitious. The modest goal is to show that intercountry adoption should be considered by ethicists and healthcare providers. The more ambitious goal is to introduce the many ethical issues that intercountry adoption raises. Intercountry adoption is an alternative to medical, assisted reproduction option such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, third party egg and sperm donation and surrogacy. Health care providers working with assisted reproduction are in a unique position to introduce their clients to intercountry adoption; however, providers should only do so if intercountry adoption is ethically equal or superior to the alternatives. This paper first presents a brief history of intercountry adoption. The second section compares intercountry adoption with medical alternatives. The third section examines the unique ethical challenges that are not shared by other medical alternatives. The final section concludes that it is simplistic for a healthcare provider to promote intercountry adoption unconditionally; however, in situation where intercountry adoption is practiced conscientiously it poses no greater ethical concern than several medical alternatives. This conclusion is preliminary and is intended as a start for further discussion.
Miller, Stephania T; Beech, Bettina M
To evaluate rural healthcare providers (HCP) physical activity (PA) counseling experiences and perceptions of motivational interviewing (MI), a behavioral counseling style, prior to MI training. Four moderator-led focus groups were conducted among rural HCPs providing care to rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Questions about experiences with PA counseling in this patient population were asked. Following a DVD demonstration of a MI patient/provider consultation, MI impressions were solicited. Focus groups data were transcribed verbatim. Content-based analysis was conducted using qualitative data analysis software, Atlas.ti., and thematic coding by two analysts. Thirty-three HCPs (64% nurses) participated. Fifty-five percent reported little or no PA counseling comfort due to either the lack of knowledge of PA recommendations or individual challenges in being physically active. MI was viewed as a potentially effective communication approach (positive impression theme). However, HCPs voiced concern about the limited input of the provider during the MI consultation (disadvantage theme) and the feasibility of implementing MI in healthcare settings (disadvantage theme). Future studies should evaluate whether integrating, into MI training, information about previous PA counseling experiences and impressions of MI from rural HCPs truly increases the effectiveness of MI training and subsequent PA interventions.
Dorton, LeighAnne H; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Evans, Adele K
We performed this study to evaluate the competency of health-care providers managing patients with tracheotomies, and assess the need for, and efficacy of, a multidisciplinary educational program incorporating patient simulation. The prospective observational study included 87 subjects who manage patients with tracheotomies within a tertiary-care hospital. The subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires and objective multiple-choice tests before and after attending a comprehensive educational course using patient simulation. The outcome measurements included pre-course and post-course questionnaire and test scores, as well as observational data collected during recorded patient simulation sessions. Before the education and simulation, the subjects reported an average comfort level of 3.3 on a 5-point Likert scale across 10 categories in the questionnaire, which improved to 4.4 after the training (p < 0.0001). The subjects' mean scores improved from 56% on the pre-course test to 91% on the post-course test (p < 0.0001). The specific deficiencies observed during patient simulation scenarios included unfamiliarity with different tracheotomy tube types, misunderstanding of speaking valve physiology, and delayed recognition and treatment of a plugged or dislodged tracheotomy tube. There is a significant need for improved tracheotomy education among primary health-care providers. Incorporating patient simulation into a comprehensive tracheotomy educational program was effective in improving provider confidence, increasing provider knowledge, and teaching the skills necessary for managing patients with a tracheotomy.
Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle T
Objectives To (1) quantify levels of subjective health literacy in people with long-term health conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, cancer and mental disorders) and compare these to levels in the general population and (2) examine the association between health literacy, socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidity in each long-term condition group. Design Population-based survey in the Central Denmark Region (n=29 473). Main outcome measures Health literacy was measured using two scales from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ): (1) Ability to understand health information and (2) Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers. Results People with long-term conditions reported more difficulties than the general population in understanding health information and actively engaging with healthcare providers. Wide variation was found between disease groups, with people with cancer having fewer difficulties and people with mental health disorders having more difficulties in actively engaging with healthcare providers than other long-term condition groups. Having more than one long-term condition was associated with more difficulty in engaging with healthcare providers and understanding health information. People with low levels of education had lower health literacy than people with high levels of education. Conclusions Compared with the general population, people with long-term conditions report more difficulties in understanding health information and engaging with healthcare providers. These two dimensions are critical to the provision of patient-centred healthcare and for optimising health outcomes. More effort should be made to respond to the health literacy needs among individuals with long-term conditions, multiple comorbidities and low education levels, to improve health outcomes and to reduce social inequality in health. PMID:26769783
Sariah, Adellah; Rugemalila, Joan; Somba, Magreat; Minja, Anna; Makuchilo, Margareth; Tarimo, Edith; Urassa, David; Siril, Helen
The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child. A qualitative study involving 20 health care providers who attend HIV-positive children was conducted in September, 2014 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were selected from ten HIV care and treatment clinics (CTC) by purposive sampling. An interview guide, translated into participants' national language (Kiswahili) was used during in-depth interviews. Sampling followed the principle of data saturation. The interviews focused on perspectives of health-care providers regarding their experience with paediatric HIV disclosure. Data from in-depth interviews were transcribed into text; data analysis followed qualitative content analysis. The results show how complex the process of disclosure to children living with HIV can be to healthcare providers. Confusion was noted among healthcare providers about their role and responsibility in the process of disclosing to the HIV infected child. This was reported to be largely due to unclear guidelines and lack of standardized training in paediatric HIV disclosure. Furthermore, healthcare providers were concerned about parental hesitancy to disclose early to the child due to lack of disclosure skills and fear of stigma. In order to improve the disclosure process in HIV infected children, healthcare providers recommended further standardized training on paediatric HIV disclosure with more emphasis on practical skills and inclusion of disclosure
Lu, Li-Ching; Hsieh, Pei-Ling
To describe healthcare providers' views on depression and its prevention in older people. There is an urgent need to develop public health approaches to depression prevention in older adults because of the growing older population and the high rate of depression among community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan. Prior studies have focused on the prevalence of and risk factors for depression in Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults. Research from the viewpoints of prevention and healthcare providers is needed to guide these approaches. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews. A purposive sample of 25 healthcare providers was recruited from a city in northern Taiwan. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Results were embedded within four major themes: lack of children's support, maladaptation to distressing life circumstances in late life, innate vulnerability in the individuals and being unaware of or reluctant to accept an illness. Participants' accounts of depression and its prevention were conceptualised within the family and socio-cultural contexts older adults lived in. Lack of children's support was reported as a main contributor to depression in older adults. Society was reported as the main context in which depression prevention intervention should take place. Communal activities were described as important for mental wellness and depression prevention. Study findings show how family, Chinese culture and socio-economic circumstances influence accounts of depression and its prevention in older adults. Attention to the cultural construction of meanings may help extend our vision beyond a focus on the biomedical discourse and promote innovative ways of tackling depression that match the policy goals with the needs of older adults and community. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sudhinaraset, May; Ingram, Matthew; Lofthouse, Heather Kinlaw; Montagu, Dominic
Informal health care providers (IPs) comprise a significant component of health systems in developing nations. Yet little is known about the most basic characteristics of performance, cost, quality, utilization, and size of this sector. To address this gap we conducted a comprehensive literature review on the informal health care sector in developing countries. We searched for studies published since 2000 through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and relevant grey literature from The New York Academy of Medicine, The World Bank, The Center for Global Development, USAID, SHOPS (formerly PSP-One), The World Health Organization, DFID, Human Resources for Health Global Resource Center. In total, 334 articles were retrieved, and 122 met inclusion criteria and chosen for data abstraction. Results indicate that IPs make up a significant portion of the healthcare sector globally, with almost half of studies (48%) from Sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization estimates from 24 studies in the literature of IP for healthcare services ranged from 9% to 90% of all healthcare interactions, depending on the country, the disease in question, and methods of measurement. IPs operate in a variety of health areas, although baseline information on quality is notably incomplete and poor quality of care is generally assumed. There was a wide variation in how quality of care is measured. The review found that IPs reported inadequate drug provision, poor adherence to clinical national guidelines, and that there were gaps in knowledge and provider practice; however, studies also found that the formal sector also reported poor provider practices. Reasons for using IPs included convenience, affordability, and social and cultural effects. Recommendations from the literature amount to a call for more engagement with the IP sector. IPs are a large component of nearly all developing country health systems. Research and policies of engagement are needed. PMID:23405101
Turner, Kathleen E; Fuller, Sherrilynne
Though improvements in infant and maternal mortality rates have occurred over time, women and children still die every hour from preventable causes. Various regional, social and economic factors are involved in the ability of women and children to receive adequate care and prevention services. Patient-held maternal and/or child health records have been used for a number of years in many countries to help track health risks, vaccinations and other preventative health measures performed. Though these records are primarily designed to record patient histories and healthcare information and guide healthcare workers providing care, because the records are patient-held, they also allow families a greater ability to track their own health and prevention strategies. A LITERATURE SEARCH WAS PERFORMED TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS: (1) What are maternal information needs regarding pregnancy, post-natal and infant healthcare, especially in developing countries? (2) What is known about maternal information seeking behavior in developing countries? (3) What is the history and current state of maternal and/or child patient-held healthcare records, do they provide for the information needs of the healthcare provider and what are the effects and outcomes of patient-held records in general and for maternal and/or child health in particular? Specific information needs of pregnant women and mothers are rarely studied. The small numbers of maternal information behavior results available indicate that mothers, in general, prefer to receive health information directly from their healthcare provider as opposed to from other sources (written, etc.) Overall, in developing countries, patient-held maternal and/or child healthcare records have a mostly positive effect for both patient and care provider. Mothers and children with records tend to have better outcomes in healthcare and preventative measures. Further research into the information behaviors of pregnant women and mothers to determine
Turner, Kathleen E.; Fuller, Sherrilynne
Though improvements in infant and maternal mortality rates have occurred over time, women and children still die every hour from preventable causes. Various regional, social and economic factors are involved in the ability of women and children to receive adequate care and prevention services. Patient-held maternal and/or child health records have been used for a number of years in many countries to help track health risks, vaccinations and other preventative health measures performed. Though these records are primarily designed to record patient histories and healthcare information and guide healthcare workers providing care, because the records are patient-held, they also allow families a greater ability to track their own health and prevention strategies. A literature search was performed to answer these questions: (1) What are maternal information needs regarding pregnancy, post-natal and infant healthcare, especially in developing countries? (2) What is known about maternal information seeking behavior in developing countries? (3) What is the history and current state of maternal and/or child patient-held healthcare records, do they provide for the information needs of the healthcare provider and what are the effects and outcomes of patient-held records in general and for maternal and/or child health in particular? Specific information needs of pregnant women and mothers are rarely studied. The small numbers of maternal information behavior results available indicate that mothers, in general, prefer to receive health information directly from their healthcare provider as opposed to from other sources (written, etc.) Overall, in developing countries, patient-held maternal and/or child healthcare records have a mostly positive effect for both patient and care provider. Mothers and children with records tend to have better outcomes in healthcare and preventative measures. Further research into the information behaviors of pregnant women and mothers to determine
Schwarz, Joshua L; Witte, Raymond; Sellers, Sherrill L; Luzadis, Rebecca A; Weiner, Judith L; Domingo-Snyder, Eloiza; Page, James E
This study presents the measurement properties of 5 scales used in the Healthcare Provider Cultural Competence Instrument (HPCCI). The HPCCI measures a health care provider's cultural competence along 5 primary dimensions: (1) awareness/sensitivity, (2) behaviors, (3) patient-centered communication, (4) practice orientation, and (5) self-assessment. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the 5 scales were distinct, and within each scale items loaded as expected. Reliability statistics indicated a high level of internal consistency within each scale. The results indicate that the HPCCI effectively measures the cultural competence of health care providers and can provide useful professional feedback for practitioners and organizations seeking to increase a practitioner's cultural competence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shin, Somi; Schumacher, Christoph; Feess, Eberhard
One of the main concerns about capitation-based reimbursement systems is that tertiary institutions may be underfunded due to insufficient reimbursements of more complicated cases. We test this hypothesis with a data set from New Zealand that, in 2003, introduced a capitation system where public healthcare provider funding is primarily based on the characteristics of the regional population. Investigating the funding for all cases from 2003 to 2011, we find evidence that tertiary providers are at a disadvantage compared with secondary providers. The reasons are that tertiary providers not only attract the most complicated, but also the highest number of cases. Our findings suggest that accurate risk adjustment is crucial to the success of a capitation-based reimbursement system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Koenig, Kristi L.; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J.
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel. PMID:27625709
Davies, Rhian; Lehman, Erik; Perry, Amanda; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S
The association of physical and nonphysical intimate partner violence (IPV) with obesity was examined. Women (N = 1,179) were surveyed regarding demographics, obesity, and IPV exposure using humiliate-afraid-rape-kick (HARK), an IPV screening tool. A three-level lifetime IPV exposure variable measured physical, nonphysical or no IPV. Health-care provider-identified obesity was defined if participants were told by a medical provider within the past 5 years that they were obese. Bivariate analyses examined obesity by IPV and demographics. Multivariable logistic regression assessed odds of obesity by IPV type, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Among participants, 44% reported lifetime IPV (25% physical, 19% nonphysical), and 24% reported health-care provider-identified obesity. In unadjusted analyses, obesity was more prevalent among women exposed to physical IPV (30%) and nonphysical IPV (27%), compared to women without IPV (20%, p = .002). In multivariable models, women reporting physical IPV had 1.67 times greater odds of obesity (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20, 2.33), and women reporting nonphysical IPV had 1.46 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI 1.01, 2.10), compared to women reporting no exposure. This study extends prior data by showing, not only an association between physical IPV and obesity, but also an association between obesity and nonphysical IPV.
Koenig, Kristi L; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel.
Carle, Adam C; Weech-Maldonado, Robert
The English and Spanish versions of the Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Cultural Competence Survey (CAHPS-CC) assess patients' experiences with culturally competent care. The possibility exists that even when Spanish and English speakers experience the same levels of culturally competent care, responses describing their care may differ. This is called measurement bias. To deliver reliable and valid information across language, responses must provide equivalent measurement across both versions. In this study, we examined whether measurement bias on the CAHPS-CC impedes valid measurement across the English and Spanish versions. We used multiple group (MG) confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine measurement bias across English (n=851) and Spanish (n=113) speakers. Participants came from a 2008 sample of 2 Medicaid managed care plans in New York and California. MG-CFA provided general support for the equivalence of the CAHPS-CC in measuring doctor communication-positive behaviors, doctor communication-negative behaviors, doctor communication-preventative care, equitable treatment, and trust. We did observe statistically significant differences in the thresholds associated with the item asking whether a doctor gave easier to understand instructions. However, analyses indicated that bias did not meaningfully influence conclusions about average experiences using the English and Spanish versions of the CAHPS-CC. Our results support the use of the English and Spanish versions of the CAHPS-CC. Though we found some bias, analyses demonstrated that it did not substantively impact conclusions for the studied domains. Health providers can place confidence in the 2 different CAHPS-CC translations.
Devkota, Hridaya Raj; Murray, Emily; Kett, Maria; Groce, Nora
Women with disabilities are less likely to receive maternal healthcare services compared to women without disabilities. While few studies have reviewed healthcare experience of women with disabilities, no studies have been conducted to understand provider's attitude towards disability in Nepal, yet the attitude and behaviour of healthcare providers may have a significant influence on aspects of care and the use of service by women with disabilities. This study examines healthcare provider's attitudes towards disability and explores the experience of women with disabilities in maternal healthcare service utilization during pregnancy and childbirth. The study used mixed method approach. An attitude survey was conducted among 396 healthcare providers currently working in public health facilities in Rupandehi district of Nepal. For additional insight, eighteen in-depth interviews with women with disabilities who used maternal healthcare services in a healthcare facility within the study district in their last pregnancy were undertaken. The Attitude Towards Disabled Persons (ATDP) scale score was used to measure the attitudes of healthcare providers. For quantitative data, univariate and multivariate analysis using ANOVA was used to understand the association between outcome and independent variables and qualitative analysis generated and described themes. Mean ATDP score among healthcare providers (78.52; SD = 14.75), was low compared to the normative score of 100 or higher. Nurses/auxiliary nurse midwives obtained the highest mean score (85.59, SD = 13.45), followed by general clinical health workers (Mean score = 82.64, SD 15.10). The lowest score was obtained by Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHV) (Score = 73.75, SD = 13.40) (P < 0.001). Younger providers were more positive compared to older age groups (P < 0.001). Similarly, providers working in urban health facilities compared to those working in rural health facilities, and non
Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R
Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.
Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L. Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J.; Ngo, Tue H.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R.
Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF. PMID:23243110
Tong, Allison; Jan, Stephen; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Chadban, Steven; Cass, Alan; Howard, Kirsten
Ongoing debate about how to maximize the benefit of scarce organs while maintaining equity of access to transplantation exists. This study aims to synthesize healthcare provider perspectives on wait-listing and organ allocation. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched till February 21, 2011. Quantitative data were extracted, and a qualitative synthesis of the studies was conducted. Twenty studies involving 4254 respondents were included. We identified two goals underpinning healthcare provider preferences for organ allocation: (i) maximize clinical benefit (quality of life gains, patient survival, treatment adherence, and graft survival) and social outcomes (social support, productivity, and valuation); (ii) achieve equity (waiting time, patient preferences, access to live donation, and medical urgency). Maximizing clinical or social outcomes meant organs would be preferentially given to patients expected to achieve good transplant outcomes or wider social gain. Achieving equity meant all patients should have an equal chance of transplant, or patients deemed more urgent receive higher priority. A tension between equity and efficiency is apparent. Balanced against dimensions of efficiency were considerations to instill a degree of perceived fairness in organ allocation. Ongoing engagement with stakeholders is needed to enhance transparency, a reasonable balance between efficiency and equity, and avoid discrimination against specific populations.
Miller, Wendy R; Young, Neicole; Friedman, Daniel; Buelow, Janice M; Devinsky, Orrin
There is a lack of consensus regarding how health-care providers should address SUDEP with patients. The purpose of this study was to describe various health-care providers' practices regarding discussion of SUDEP with patients. Separate focus groups were conducted with epileptologists, neurologists, and advanced practice nurses. Across all disciplines, reasons for discussing SUDEP included Practical Accountability, Moral Accountability, Proactivity, and Reactivity. For nurses only, an additional reason was Patient Advocacy. In terms of when not to discuss SUDEP, for all disciplines, and especially the physicians, the theme Not at First emerged. Additional themes that emerged for this question included, in the case of neurologists and epileptologists, Moral Accountability and Out of Options. Ways in which SUDEP is discussed included, in all groups, Discussion and Written Materials. In addition, prevalent in all groups was the finding that procedures for discussing SUDEP with patients and families need to be somewhat standardized. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kastelein, Arnoud W; Dicker, Maarten F A; Opmeer, Brent C; Angles, Sonia S; Raatikainen, Kaisa E; Alonso, Joan F; Tăut, Diana; Airaksinen, Olavi; Cardozo, Linda D; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R
Urinary incontinence is a common condition in women, with a reported prevalence ranging from 25% to 51%. Of these women, an estimated 38% suffer from stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A European research consortium is investigating an innovative system based on information and communication technology for the conservative treatment of women with SUI. When introducing a new intervention, implementation barriers arise and need to be identified. Therefore, we investigated healthcare providers' experience with and attitude towards innovative care options. We performed an online survey to assess (1) the characteristics and practice of healthcare providers, (2) current protocols for SUI, (3) current use of biofeedback, and (4) knowledge about serious gaming. The survey was sent to members of professional societies in Europe (EUGA), UK (BSUG) and The Netherlands (DPFS). Of 341 questionnaires analyzed (response rate between 18% and 30%), 64% of the respondents had access to a protocol for the treatment of SUI, and 31% used biofeedback when treating patients with SUI. However, 92% considered that biofeedback has a clear or probable added value, and 97% of those who did not use biofeedback would change their practice if research evidence supported its use. Finally, 89% of respondents indicated that they had no experience of serious gaming, but 92% considered that it could be useful. Although inexperienced, European urogynecologists and physical therapists welcome innovative treatment options for the conservative treatment of SUI such as portable wireless biofeedback and serious gaming. Scientific evidence is considered a prerequisite to incorporate such innovations into clinical practice.
Lehman, Cheryl A
Women with disabilities require the same gynecological and reproductive healthcare services as women without disabilities, yet they often experience difficulty obtaining them. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) increasingly provide primary care services that include women's health care, yet their influence on this population has not been systematically examined. This study examined the practices, environments, knowledge, and self-efficacy of APNs in Texas regarding provision of women's health care to women with disabilities. The study's respondents are 744 women who replied to a mailed survey. The results reveal that while nurses do not lack knowledge, work environments do not support competent care of women with disabilities and practices do not always follow national guidelines. Predictors of self-efficacy in provision of health care to women with disabilities were status as a women's health nurse practitioner, previous rehabilitation experience, high knowledge scores, and a working environment perceived as accessible. Until changes are made in APN education and environmental barriers are addressed, APNs may not be able to provide optimal women's healthcare services to women with disabilities.
Griswold, Sharon; Fralliccardi, Alise; Boulet, John; Moadel, Tiffany; Franzen, Douglas; Auerbach, Marc; Hart, Danielle; Goswami, Varsha; Hui, Joshua; Gordon, James A
The acquisition and maintenance of individual competency is a critical component of effective emergency care systems. This article summarizes consensus working group deliberations and recommendations focusing on the topic: "Simulation-based education to ensure provider competency within the healthcare system." The authors presented this work for discussion and feedback at the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on ''Catalyzing System Change through Healthcare Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes,'' held on May 16, 2017, in Orlando, FL. Although simulation-based training is a quality and safety imperative in other high-reliability professions such as aviation, nuclear power, and the military, health care professions still lag behind in applying simulation more broadly. This is likely a result of a number of factors, including cost, assessment challenges, and resistance to change. This consensus subgroup focused on identifying current gaps in knowledge and process related to the use of simulation for developing, enhancing, maintaining individual provider competency. The resulting product is a research agenda informed by expert consensus and literature review. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Boachie, Micheal Kofi
Background: In early 2012, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) members in Ashanti Region were allowed to choose their own primary healthcare providers. This paper investigates the factors that enrolees in the Ashanti Region considered in choosing preferred primary healthcare providers (PPPs) and direction of association of such factors with the choice of PPP. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, the study sampled 600 NHIS enrolees in Kumasi Metro area and Kwabre East district. The sampling methods were a combination of simple random and systematic sampling techniques at different stages. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic information and the criteria for selecting PPP. Multinomial logistic regression technique was used to ascertain the direction of association of the factors and the choice of PPP using mission PPPs as the base outcome. Results: Out of the 600 questionnaires administered, 496 were retained for further analysis. The results show that availability of essential drugs (53.63%) and doctors (39.92%), distance or proximity (49.60%), provider reputation (39.52%), waiting time (39.92), additional charges (37.10%), and recommendations (48.79%) were the main criteria adopted by enrolees in selecting PPPs. In the regression, income (-0.0027), availability of doctors (-1.82), additional charges (-2.14) and reputation (-2.09) were statistically significant at 1% in influencing the choice of government PPPs. On the part of private PPPs, availability of drugs (2.59), waiting time (1.45), residence (-2.62), gender (-2.89), and reputation (-2.69) were statistically significant at 1% level. Presence of additional charges (-1.29) was statistically significant at 5% level. Conclusion: Enrolees select their PPPs based on such factors as availability of doctors and essential drugs, reputation, waiting time, income, and their residence. Based on these findings, there is the need for healthcare providers to improve on their quality levels
Boachie, Micheal Kofi
In early 2012, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) members in Ashanti Region were allowed to choose their own primary healthcare providers. This paper investigates the factors that enrolees in the Ashanti Region considered in choosing preferred primary healthcare providers (PPPs) and direction of association of such factors with the choice of PPP. Using a cross-sectional study design, the study sampled 600 NHIS enrolees in Kumasi Metro area and Kwabre East district. The sampling methods were a combination of simple random and systematic sampling techniques at different stages. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic information and the criteria for selecting PPP. Multinomial logistic regression technique was used to ascertain the direction of association of the factors and the choice of PPP using mission PPPs as the base outcome. Out of the 600 questionnaires administered, 496 were retained for further analysis. The results show that availability of essential drugs (53.63%) and doctors (39.92%), distance or proximity (49.60%), provider reputation (39.52%), waiting time (39.92), additional charges (37.10%), and recommendations (48.79%) were the main criteria adopted by enrolees in selecting PPPs. In the regression, income (-0.0027), availability of doctors (-1.82), additional charges (-2.14) and reputation (-2.09) were statistically significant at 1% in influencing the choice of government PPPs. On the part of private PPPs, availability of drugs (2.59), waiting time (1.45), residence (-2.62), gender (-2.89), and reputation (-2.69) were statistically significant at 1% level. Presence of additional charges (-1.29) was statistically significant at 5% level. Enrolees select their PPPs based on such factors as availability of doctors and essential drugs, reputation, waiting time, income, and their residence. Based on these findings, there is the need for healthcare providers to improve on their quality levels by ensuring constant availability of
For many years, hospitals and other institutional healthcare providers used fund accounting as a basis for presenting their financial statements. Recently, authoritative literature has placed less emphasis on separate fund reporting. This is evidenced by the reduction of fund classifications specified in the literature. This trend seems to follow the recognition that institutional healthcare activities should be reported in a manner comparable to other businesses. The Principles and Practices Board (P&P Board) of the Healthcare Financial management Association believes that general purpose financial statements of institutional healthcare providers should be comparable to reporting by other businesses. That is, all assets, liabilities, and equity are presented in a single aggregated balance sheet without differentiation by fund. This form of presentation, referred to in this statement as single fund reporting, should be used by all institutional healthcare providers including those that are part of HMOs, universities, municipalities, and other larger entities when separate reports of the provider are issued. The P&P Board is studying other significant issues concerning the reporting of revenues and components of equity and changes therein. The conclusion in this statement can be implemented even though conclusions on these related subjects are not yet complete. The P&P Board recognizes that certain circumstances may require detailed records and reports for special purposes. This statement deals only with those general purpose financial statements on which an independent accountant's opinion is expressed.
Mannion, Russell; Goddard, Maria; Kuhn, Michael; Bate, Angela
This article examines the incentive effects of delegating operational and financial decision making from central government to local healthcare providers. It addresses the economic consequences of a contemporary policy initiative in the English National Health Service (NHS)-earned autonomy. This policy entails awarding operational autonomy to 'front-line' organisations that are assessed to be meeting national performance targets. In doing so, it introduces new types of incentives into the healthcare system, changes the nature of established agency relationships and represents a novel approach to performance management. Theoretical elements of a principal-agent model are used to examine the impact of decentralization in the context of the results of an empirical study that elicited the perceptions of senior hospital managers regarding the incentive effects of earned autonomy. A multi-method approach was adopted. In order to capture the breadth of policy impact, we conducted a national postal questionnaire survey of all Chief Executives in acute-care hospital Trusts in England (n = 173). To provide added depth and richness to our understanding of the impact and incentive effects of earned autonomy at an organisational level, we interviewed senior managers in a purposeful sample of eight acute-care hospital Trusts. This theoretical framework and our empirical work suggest that some aspects of the earned autonomy as currently implemented in the NHS serve to weaken the potential incentive effect of decentralization. In particular, the nature of the freedoms is such that many senior managers do not view autonomy as a particularly valuable prize. This suggests that incentives associated with the policy will be insufficiently powerful to motivate providers to deliver better performance. We also found that principal commitment may be a problem in the NHS. Some hospital managers reported that they already enjoyed a large degree of autonomy, regardless of their current
Mehta, Pooja; Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Kelly, Sarah L; Buchanan, Cindy; Rawlinson, Alana Resmini
The aim of this study was to assess healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to medication adherence and to discover recommendations for interventions among providers of pediatric solid-organ transplant patients. An anonymous online survey was administered to a multidisciplinary pool of pediatric transplant providers from February 2015 to March 2016. It consisted of 15 questions regarding transplant providers' attitudes, clinical practice, and beliefs pertaining to medication adherence among teenage solid-organ transplant recipients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were coded and categorized into themes. One hundred ten surveys were completed by providers specializing in pediatric heart, kidney, liver, lung, and/or intestinal transplantation. Commonly cited reasons for poor adherence were forgetting/poor planning (94%), the desire to be normal (86%), lack of support (86%), and poor parental monitoring (79%). Suggestions to improve adherence included increasing peer and family support, providing education, and incorporating technology into adherence regimens. Barriers to adherence in transplant patients are recognized by providers and are both similar to and disparate from patient and family identified barriers published in the literature. Providers recognize the importance of education, social support, and technologically driven interventions on improving outcomes in the transplant population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis
The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Maltezou, Helena C.; Poland, Gregory A.
Health-care providers (HCPs) are at increased risk for exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the workplace. The rationale for immunization of HCPs relies on the need to protect them and, indirectly, their patients from health-care-associated VPDs. Published evidence indicates significant immunity gaps for VPDs of HCPs globally. Deficits in knowledge and false perceptions about VPDs and vaccines are the most common barriers for vaccine uptake and may also influence communication about vaccines between HCPs and their patients. Most countries have immunization recommendations for HCPs; however, there are no universal policies and significant heterogeneity exists between countries in terms of vaccines, schedules, frame of implementation (recommendation or mandatory), and target categories of HCPs. Mandatory influenza immunization policies for HCPs have been implemented with high vaccine uptake rates. Stronger recommendations for HCP immunization and commitment at the level of the health-care facility are critical in order to achieve high vaccine coverage rates. Given the importance to health, mandatory immunization policies for VPDs that can cause serious morbidity and mortality to vulnerable patients should be considered. PMID:27490580
Carpenter, Kelly M.; Cohn, Leslie G.; Glynn, Lisa H.; Stoner, Susan A.
One fifth of Americans smoke; many have no plans to quit. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an effective approach to intervention with precontemplative smokers, yet a substantial number of healthcare practitioners lack training in this approach. Two interactive online tutorials were developed to teach practitioners to deliver brief tobacco cessation interventions grounded in the MI approach. The tutorials emphasized the unique aspects of working with precontemplative smokers, incorporating audio and video examples of best practices, interactive exercises, targeted feedback, and practice opportunities. One hundred and fifty-two healthcare providers-in-training were randomly assigned to use the online tutorials or to read training material that was matched for content. A virtual standardized patient evaluation was given before and after the training. Both groups improved their scores from pre- to posttest; however, the tutorial group scored significantly better than the reading group at posttest. The results of this study demonstrate the promise of interactive online tutorials as an efficient and effective way to deliver clinical education. PMID:22096413
This article discusses practices of parental support in the maternity healthcare provided by the welfare state. Drawing on ethnographic material from clinics in Finland, I discuss maternity healthcare practices and processes as the specific contexts of subjectification to parenthood in the Nordic welfare state. The analysis shows that in both nurses' (work) experience-based knowledge and population-statistical knowledge, parental competence is achieved largely through the 'natural' process of experiencing pregnant life. Care practices can be seen as enabling parenthood through respect for this process. Clinics encourage parents-to-be to self-reflect and be self-reliant. Emphasis on self-reflection and self-reliance has previously been interpreted as the state adoption of therapy culture, and as a response to market demands for the welfare state to offer to and require of its citizens more autonomy and choice. I argue, however, that the parental subject emerging from the practices of this welfare service cannot be reduced to a neoliberal reflexive individual for whom parenthood is an individual project and who is to blame for individual shortcomings. Equally, they are no mere disciplined product of governmentality being pushed to conform to an idealised parent figure derived from collective ideas of good parenthood. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Purcărea, T; Purcărea, LV; Raţiu, M
Life is changing dramatically, market position as part of life is becoming more and more important, and marketing, considered a key cultural architect of nowadays that involves voluntary relation exchanges between the communicating partners, is placing the patient in the center of most adequate action towards the medical future which represents his life quality. We think that the moment has come to resort to marketing as a new method to identify innovation opportunities in healthcare services' delivery, considering that the high quality of healthcare services, answering to demands of healthcare systems' consumers, represents a well recognized priority for the European citizens. Consequently, the model of ‘healthcare business’ has to rely on the value for patient by creating competition concerning the results at medical condition level. PMID:20108474
Popa, Florian; Purcărea, Theodor; Purcărea, Victor Lorin; Raţiu, Monica
Life is changing dramatically, market position as part of life is becoming more and more important, and marketing, considered a key cultural architect of nowadays that involves voluntary relation exchanges between the communicating partners, is placing the patient in the center of most adequate action towards the medical future which represents his life quality. We think that the moment has come to resort to marketing as a new method to identify innovation opportunities in healthcare services' delivery, considering that the high quality of healthcare services, answering to demands of healthcare systems' consumers, represents a well recognized priority for the European citizens. Consequently, the model of "healthcare business" has to rely on the value for patient by creating competition concerning the results at medical condition level.
Lyles, Courtney R.; Karter, Andrew J.; Young, Bessie A.; Spigner, Clarence; Grembowski, David; Schillinger, Dean; Adler, Nancy
Objective We examined provider-level factors and reported discrimination in the healthcare setting. Methods With data from the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)—a race-stratified survey of diabetes patients in Kaiser Permanente Northern California—we analyzed patient-reported racial/ethnic discrimination from providers. Primary exposures were characteristics of the primary care provider (PCP, who coordinates care in this system), including specialty/type, and patient-provider relationship variables including racial concordance. Results Subjects (n=12,151) included 20% black, 20% Latino, 23% Asian, 30% white, and 6% other patients, with 2% to 8% reporting discrimination by racial/ethnic group. Patients seeing nurse practitioners as their PCP (OR=0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.67), those rating their provider higher on communication (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.66–0.74) were less likely to report discrimination, while those with more visits (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.03–1.18) were more likely to report discrimination. Racial concordance was not significant once adjusting for patient race/ethnicity. Conclusions Among diverse diabetes patients in managed care, provider type and communication were significantly related to patient-reported discrimination. Practice Implications Given potential negative impacts on patient satisfaction and treatment decisions, future studies should investigate which interpersonal aspects of the provider-patient relationship reduce patient perceptions of unfair treatment. PMID:21605956
Flores, Glenn; Lin, Hua; Walker, Candice; Lee, Michael; Currie, Janet M; Allgeyer, Rick; Portillo, Alberto; Henry, Monica; Fierro, Marco; Massey, Kenneth
Of the 4.8 million uninsured children in America, 62-72% are eligible for but not enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP. Not enough is known, however, about the impact of health insurance on outcomes and costs for previously uninsured children, which has never been examined prospectively. This prospective observational study of uninsured Medicaid/CHIP-eligible minority children compared children obtaining coverage vs. those remaining uninsured. Subjects were recruited at 97 community sites, and 11 outcomes monitored monthly for 1 year. In this sample of 237 children, those obtaining coverage were significantly (P < .05) less likely than the uninsured to have suboptimal health (27% vs. 46%); no PCP (7% vs. 40%); experienced never/sometimes getting immediate care from the PCP (7% vs. 40%); no usual source of preventive (1% vs. 20%) or sick (3% vs. 12%) care; and unmet medical (13% vs. 48%), preventive (6% vs. 50%), and dental (18% vs. 62%) care needs. The uninsured had higher out-of-pocket doctor-visit costs (mean = $70 vs. $29), and proportions of parents not recommending the child's healthcare provider to friends (24% vs. 8%) and reporting the child's health caused family financial problems (29% vs. 5%), and lower well-child-care-visit quality ratings. In bivariate analyses, older age, birth outside of the US, and lacking health insurance for >6 months at baseline were associated with remaining uninsured for the entire year. In multivariable analysis, children who had been uninsured for >6 months at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-10.3) and African-American children (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3) had significantly higher odds of remaining uninsured for the entire year. Insurance saved $2886/insured child/year, with mean healthcare costs = $5155/uninsured vs. $2269/insured child (P = .04). Providing health insurance to Medicaid/CHIP-eligible uninsured children improves health, healthcare access and quality, and parental satisfaction
Fleming, Lila C; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred; Alejandre, Joel; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Waters, Nigel; Baghi, Heibatollah; Stenger, David; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
Introduction Bypassing refers to a person's decision to seek care at a healthcare facility that is not the nearest one of its type to the person's home. Methods This study examined inpatient care facility bypassing in urban Bo, Sierra Leone using data from 1,980 women with children 15 years of age and younger who were interviewed in 2010-2011. The locations of residential structures and hospitals were identified using a geographic information system (GIS), and the road distances from participating households to the nearest and preferred inpatient care facilities were measured. Results Nine inpatient care facilities serve Bo residents, but more than 70% of the participating women reported that the city's main public hospital (Bo Government Hospital), located in the city center, was their preferred inpatient care provider. Participants resided within a median distance of 0.9 km (Interquartile range (IQR): 0.6, 1.8) from their closest inpatient facility, but they would travel a median distance of 2.4 km (IQR: 1.0, 3.3) to reach their preferred providers. About 87% of the women would bypass their nearest inpatient care facility to access care at a preferred provider. Bypassing rates were similar for various demographic and socioeconomic groups, but higher for women living farther from the city center. Conclusion Although Bo has a diverse healthcare marketplace, access to affordable advanced care options is limited. Most women in Bo would choose to bypass facilities nearer to their homes to seek the low-cost and comprehensive care offered by Bo Government Hospital. PMID:27279971
Nwali, Silas Alegu; Amah, Christopher Chim; Nwankwo, Theophilus Ogochukwu; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma
Introduction Prenatal diagnosis comprises all diagnostic modalities aimed at gaining information about the embryo or fetal wellbeing. It enables antenatal care tailored to the individual need(s) of the fetus. Aim To determine the knowledge, practice and prospect of prenatal diagnosis among reproductive health care providers in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which completely filled self-administered semi-structured questionnaires were retrieved from 182 reproductive healthcare providers at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA). The questionnaires contained 17 items covering the socio-demographic data, knowledge, practice and prospects of prenatal diagnosis among the respondents. Result A total of 179 respondents (98.4%) were aware of the prenatal diagnosis. One hundred and sixty four (90.1%) of the respondents agreed that, prenatal diagnostic services is offered in the study centre and 97% of these respondents cited ultrasound scan as the prenatal diagnostic investigation. While 133 respondents (73.1%) would allow parents to decide the next line of action after due counseling for the diagnosis of a condition not compatible with extrauterine life was made, 23(12.6%) of the respondents would offer termination of the pregnancy. Among the respondents, 173(95.1%) would encourage prenatal diagnosis at the study centre and 153(88.4%) of the 173 respondents would do so by educating the populace on the benefits of the procedure. However, 2(1.1%) of the respondent would not encourage the practice of prenatal diagnosis in FETHA citing adverse effects on the woman and her fetus. Conclusion Reproductive healthcare providers in Abakaliki have a high level of awareness and favorable disposition to prenatal diagnosis. However, prenatal diagnosis is still rudimentary in this environment. PMID:28384937
Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Nwali, Silas Alegu; Amah, Christopher Chim; Nwankwo, Theophilus Ogochukwu; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma
Prenatal diagnosis comprises all diagnostic modalities aimed at gaining information about the embryo or fetal wellbeing. It enables antenatal care tailored to the individual need(s) of the fetus. To determine the knowledge, practice and prospect of prenatal diagnosis among reproductive health care providers in Abakaliki, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which completely filled self-administered semi-structured questionnaires were retrieved from 182 reproductive healthcare providers at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA). The questionnaires contained 17 items covering the socio-demographic data, knowledge, practice and prospects of prenatal diagnosis among the respondents. A total of 179 respondents (98.4%) were aware of the prenatal diagnosis. One hundred and sixty four (90.1%) of the respondents agreed that, prenatal diagnostic services is offered in the study centre and 97% of these respondents cited ultrasound scan as the prenatal diagnostic investigation. While 133 respondents (73.1%) would allow parents to decide the next line of action after due counseling for the diagnosis of a condition not compatible with extrauterine life was made, 23(12.6%) of the respondents would offer termination of the pregnancy. Among the respondents, 173(95.1%) would encourage prenatal diagnosis at the study centre and 153(88.4%) of the 173 respondents would do so by educating the populace on the benefits of the procedure. However, 2(1.1%) of the respondent would not encourage the practice of prenatal diagnosis in FETHA citing adverse effects on the woman and her fetus. Reproductive healthcare providers in Abakaliki have a high level of awareness and favorable disposition to prenatal diagnosis. However, prenatal diagnosis is still rudimentary in this environment.
Buccoliero, Luca; Bellio, Elena; Mazzola, Maria; Solinas, Elisa
The study aims at investigating the characteristics and the satisfaction determinants of the emerging patient profile. This profile appears to be more demanding and "empowered" compared to the ones traditionally conceived, asking for unconventional healthcare services and for a closer relationship with providers. Both qualitative (semi-structured interviews and focus groups) and quantitative (survey) analyses were performed on a random sample of 2808 Italian citizens-patients. Analyses entailed descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and linear regressions. Four relevant dimensions of patient 2.0 experience were identified through a literature review on experiential marketing in healthcare. Beta coefficients exhibited the effect that different healthcare experiential elements have on patient 2.0 satisfaction. Results allow to state that a new marketing approach, based on patient 2.0 characteristics and value drivers, should be adopted in the healthcare sector. Critical satisfaction drivers and new technological healthcare guidelines are identified in order to match the new patient profile needs.
Haberman, Shelby J.
In item-response theory, if a latent-structure model has an ability variable, then elementary information theory may be employed to provide a criterion for evaluation of the information the test provides concerning ability. This criterion may be considered even in cases in which the latent-structure model is not valid, although interpretation of…
Mensah, Sylvanus Brenya; Anderson, Joel G
Healthcare providers may experience a high level of stress, fatigue, and anxiety originating from different factors. Mind-body therapies, which include many interventions, have been proposed to alleviate these conditions. These interventions have been reported to decrease the level of stress, and the negative outcomes associated with these factors: high burnout rate, and poor quality of care for patients. Although research validating the effectiveness of healthcare providers' use of mind-body therapies to care for themselves is emerging, there is little focus on barriers and facilitators that healthcare providers encounter with these mind-body practices, thereby questioning the feasibility and sustainability of these interventions. As such, this systematic review examined the barriers preventing healthcare providers from using mind-body interventions to care for themselves and ways that it has been facilitated. Overall, 12 studies addressed the research question with a limited focus on the facilitators and barriers of the use of mind-body therapies.
The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations
Muglia, Victor O.
The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…
The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations
Muglia, Victor O.
The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…
Shetty, Gina; Sanchez, Julian A; Lancaster, Johnathan M; Wilson, Lauren E; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Schabath, Matthew B
There are limited data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) healthcare experiences and interactions with the providers. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of oncology providers regarding LGBT health. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. 108 providers participated in the survey (28% response rate). <50% answered knowledge questions correctly. 94% stated they were comfortable treating this population. 26% actively inquired about a patient's sexual orientation when taking a history. 36% felt the need for mandatory education on LGBT cultural competency at the institution. Results from the open comments section identified multiple misconceptions. This study revealed knowledge gaps about LGBT health risks. Cultural competency training may aid oncology providers to understand the need to inquire about patients' gender identity and sexual orientation. Health care providers who incorporate the routine collection of gender identity and sexual orientation (SOGI) in their patient history taking may improve patient care by offering tailored education and referrals. While identifying as LGBT does not in itself increase risk for adverse health outcomes, this population tends to have increased risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paddock, Susan M.; Louis, Thomas A.
Summary Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. PMID:21918583
Paddock, Susan M; Louis, Thomas A
Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates.
Environmental factors that influence communication between people with communication disability and their healthcare providers in hospital: a review of the literature within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework.
O'Halloran, Robyn; Hickson, Louise; Worrall, Linda
The importance of effective healthcare communication between healthcare providers and people needing healthcare is well established. People with communication disabilities are at risk of not being able to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers and this might directly compromise their health, healthcare and their right to participate actively in decisions about their healthcare. This paper reviews the literature on the environmental factors that influence communication between adults with communication disabilities and their healthcare providers in the acute hospital setting within the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (2001). It focuses in particular on the environmental factors that facilitate or create barriers for people with communication disabilities because environmental factors can be modified so that acute care hospitals can become more accessible communicative environments for all people. The paper describes the particular environmental factors that have been identified in acute hospitals that influence the ability of people with specific types of communication disabilities and their healthcare providers to communicate. It then goes on to describe the common environmental factors that have been identified across people with different types of communication disabilities when they are communicating with their healthcare providers. This paper concludes with suggestions for directions of future research.
John, Ime Akpan; Lawoko, Stephen
There has been increased advocacy to involve healthcare providers in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) through screening for it in healthcare. Yet, only one in ten providers screen for IPV, suggesting barriers. Understanding the readiness of healthcare providers to screen for IPV is therefore paramount. The Domestic Violence Healthcare Provider Survey Scales (DVHPSS) is a previously validated, comprehensive scale to study readiness of healthcare providers to screen for IPV. However, an understanding of its usefulness in the Sub-Saharan African context remains elusive. The current study undertook to examine the structural validity of the DVHPSS in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's Alpha were run to reveal the factorial structure and reliability of the instrument/subscales respectively. Established thresholds were used to determine significant factor loadings and alphas coefficient. A six factor model emerged, with 2 factors similar to the original scale, another two differing slightly and a further two factors resulting from a splitting up of the original combination of victim/provider safety to having distinct victim and provider safety subscales. With slight modifications, the DVHPSS can be use to study IPV screening among Nigerian healthcare professionals. Introducing screening protocols could promote better understanding of crucial questions that were lost in the analysis.
De Padova, Silvia; Rosti, Giovanni; Scarpi, Emanuela; Salvioni, Roberto; Amadori, Dino; De Giorgi, Ugo
We compared expectations of testicular cancer survivors and their caregivers with those of healthcare providers for testicular cancer survivorship care and quality of life to identify experiences and potential expectations in which there was disagreement. In a meeting with testicular cancer survivors, their caregivers, and care providers with an interest in testicular cancer, we distributed a structured questionnaire with 24 questions divided into 3 sections: personal information, information on the quality of life of survivors, information on the role of care providers, general practitioners and health-related internet sources in the expectations of survivors. The overall response rate was 91% (29 of 32) for patients and 100% (14 of 14) for caregivers with all questionnaires evaluable, while among 60 care providers, 42 (70%) responded with 41 (68%) evaluable. Between patients/caregivers and care providers, expectations were most incongruent for the role of primary care physicians in testicular cancer follow-up: important/fundamental for 58% of patients/caregivers and 88% of care providers (P = 0.010). Comparing patients/caregivers with care providers in their views of the experience of testicular cancer survivorship, we found several discrepancies: the fear of recurrence was high/very high for 18 of 43 (42%) patients/caregivers and in the perception of 40 of 41 (98%) care providers (P <0.001), and psychological distress was considered as highly relevant by 35% of patients/caregivers and 93% of care providers (P <0.001). Patients/caregivers and care providers have different perceptions of survivors' experiences and discordant expectations with respect to the roles of primary care providers in testicular cancer survivorship care. Uncertainties about the roles and responsibilities of physicians can lead to deficiencies in care, supporting the need to make survivorship care planning a standard component in cancer management.
de Paula, Elaine Amaral; Costa, Mônica Barros; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Bastos, Rita Maria Rodrigues; Vanelli, Chislene Pereira; Leite, Christiane Chaves Augusto; Caminhas, Márcio Santos; de Paula, Rogério Baumgratz
ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the structure and results obtained by the "Chronic Renal Patients Care Program" in a Brazilian city. Method: epidemiological, cross-sectional study conducted in 14 PHC units and a secondary center from 2010 to 2013. The Donabedian Model was the methodological framework used. A total of 14 physicians, 13 supervisors, and 11 community health agents from primary healthcare were interviewed for the assessment of structure and process and 1,534 medical files from primary healthcare and 282 from secondary care were consulted to assess outcomes. Results: most units lacked sufficient offices for physicians and nurses to provide consultations, had incomplete staffing, and most professionals had not received proper qualification to provide care for chronic renal disease. Physicians from PHC units classified as capable more frequently referred patients to the secondary care service in the early stages of chronic renal disease (stage 3B) when compared to physicians of units considered not capable (58% vs. 36%) (p=0.049). Capable PHC units also more frequently presented stabilized glomerular filtration rates (51%) when compared to partially capable units (36%) and not capable units (44%) (p=0.046). Conclusion: patients cared for by primary healthcare units that scored higher in structure and process criteria presented better clinical outcomes. Objective: to identify the coping strategies of family members of patients with mental disorders and relate them to family member sociodemographic variables and to the patient's clinical variables. Method: this was a descriptive study conducted at a psychiatric hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 40 family members of hospitalized patients over the age of 18, and who followed the patient before and during hospitalization. We used tools to characterize the subjects and the Folkman and Lazarus Inventory of Coping Strategies. Results: the coping strategies most often used by family members
Chew, Ginger L.; Horner, W. Elliott; Kennedy, Kevin; Grimes, Carl; Barnes, Charles S.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Miller, J. David
Drawing from evidence from epidemiology and exposure assessment studies and recommendations from expert practice, we describe a process to guide healthcare providers helping their patients who present with symptoms that might be associated with living in damp housing. We present the procedure in the form of a guided two-part interview. The first part has five questions that triage the patient towards a more detailed questionnaire that reflects features of housing conditions known to be reliably associated with exposures to mold and dampness contaminants. We chose the questions based upon conditions associated with moisture problems in homes across the United States and Canada. The goal is to facilitate the clinician’s effort to help patients reduce exposure to environmental triggers that elicit symptoms in order to better manage their disease. PMID:27021632
Uebelacker, Lisa A; Broughton, Monica K
There is increasing interest in the use of yoga as way to manage or treat depression and anxiety. Yoga is afford- able, appealing, and accessible for many people, and there are plausible cognitive/affective and biologic mechanisms by which yoga could have a positive impact on depression and anxiety. There is indeed preliminary evidence that yoga may be helpful for these problems, and there are several ongoing larger-scale randomized clinical trials. The current evidence base is strongest for yoga as efficacious in reducing symptoms of unipolar depression. However, there may be risks to engaging in yoga as well. Healthcare providers can help patients evaluate whether a particular community-based yoga class is helpful and safe for them.
Piper, Llewellyn E; Tallman, Erin
This article examines the parameters and the dynamics of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) that create an ethical leadership dilemma to satisfy patients in the hospital setting while still ensuring appropriate care for quality clinical outcomes. Under the Affordable Care Act, hospitals and health care systems are in a high-stakes struggle of winners and losers based on HCAHPS scores. This high-stakes struggle creates unintended consequences of an ethical dilemma of doing what is right for the patient versus doing whatever it takes to please the patient in order to achieve high scores of satisfaction that are tied to better reimbursements. This article also reports the results of a national survey of 500 chief executive officers by the authors about the attitudes and frustrations of chief executive officers confronting the wild unrest caused by HCAHPS.
Recent disclosures of failures of care in the National Health Service (NHS) in England have led to debates about compassion deficits disallowing health professionals to provide high quality responsive care. While the link between high quality care and compassion is often taken for granted, it is less obvious how compassion – often originating in the individual’s emotional response – can become a moral sentiment and lead to developing a system of norms and values underpinning ethics of care. In this editorial, I argue why and how compassion might become a foundation of ethics guiding health professionals and a basis for ethics of care in health service organisations. I conclude by discussing a recent case of prominent healthcare failure in the NHS to highlight the relationship between compassion as an aspect of professional ethics on the one hand, and values and norms that institutions and specific policies promote on the other hand. PMID:25844380
Jonas, Kim; Crutzen, Rik; van den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla
Healthcare workers may affect the utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH) services, and quality of care thereof, for example by their behaviours or attitudes they hold. This can become a hindrance to accessing and utilizing SRH services, particularly by young people, and thus a better understanding of these behaviours and associated factors is needed to improve access to and utilization of SRH services. A systematic review of literature was conducted to identify studies focusing on healthcare workers' behaviors and personal determinants associated with providing adequate SRH services in sub-Saharan Africa (January 1990 - October 2015). Five databases were searched until 30th October 2015, using a search strategy that was adapted based on the technical requirements of each specific database. Articles were independently screened for eligibility by two researchers. Of the 125-screened full-text articles, 35 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Negative behaviours and attitudes of healthcare workers, as well as other personal determinants, such as poor knowledge and skills of SRH services, and related factors, like availability of essential drugs and equipment are associated with provision of inadequate SRH services. Some healthcare workers still have negative attitudes towards young people using contraceptives and are more likely to limit access to and utilization of SRH by adolescents especially. Knowledge of and implementation of specific SRH components are below optimum levels according to the WHO recommended guidelines. Healthcare workers' negative behaviours and attitudes are unlikely to encourage women in general to access and utilize SRH services, but more specifically young women. Knowledge of SRH services, including basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is insufficient among healthcare workers in SSA. A protocol for this systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and the registration number is: CRD42015017509 .
Sahay, Seema; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Mehendale, Sanjay; Deb, Sibnath; Gupta, Abhilasha; Bharat, Shalini; Bhatt, Shripad; Kumar, Athokpam Bijesh; Kanthe, Vidisha; Sinha, Anju; Chandhiok, Nomita
Background Although male circumcision (MC) is recommended as an HIV prevention option, the religious, cultural and biomedical dimensions of its feasibility, acceptability and practice in India have not been explored till date. This study explores beliefs, experiences and understanding of the community and healthcare providers (HCPs) about adult MC as an HIV prevention option in India. Methods This qualitative study covered 134 in-depth interviews from Belgaum, Kolkata, Meerut and Mumbai cities of India. Of these, 62 respondents were the members of circumcising (CC)/non-circumcising communities (NCC); including medically and traditionally circumcised men, parents of circumcised children, spouses of circumcised men, and religious clerics. Additionally, 58 registered healthcare providers (RHCPs) such as general and pediatric surgeons, pediatricians, skin and venereal disease specialists, general practitioners, and operation theatre nurses were interviewed. Fourteen traditional circumcisers were also interviewed. The data were coded and analyzed in QSR NUD*IST ver. 6.0. The study has not explored the participants' views about neonatal versus adult circumcision. Results Members of CC/NCC, traditional circumcisers and RCHPs expressed sharp religious sensitivities around the issue of MC. Six themes emerged: Male circumcision as the religious rite; Multiple meanings of MC: MC for ‘religious identity/privilege/sacrifice’ or ‘hygiene’; MC inflicts pain and cost; Medical indications outweigh faith; Hesitation exists in accepting ‘foreign’ evidence supporting MC; and communication is the key for acceptance of MCs. Medical indications could make members of NCC accept MC following appropriate counseling. Majority of the RHCPs demanded local in-country evidence. Conclusion HCPs must educate high-risk groups regarding the preventive and therapeutic role of MC. Communities need to discuss and create new social norms about male circumcision for better societal acceptance
Mathew, Anitha E; Houry, Debra; Dente, Christopher J; Salomone, Jeffrey P
This study assessed whether Georgia Senate Bill 360, a statewide law passed in August 2010, that prohibits text messaging while driving, resulted in a decrease in this behavior among emergency medicine (EM) and general surgery (GS) healthcare providers. Using SurveyMonkey®, we created a web-based survey containing up to 28 multiple choice and free-text questions about driving behaviors. EM and GS healthcare providers at a southeastern medical school and its affiliate county hospital received an email inviting them to complete this survey in February 2011. We conducted all analyses in SPSS (version 19.0, Chicago, IL, 2010), using chi-squared tests and logistic regression models. The primary outcome of interest was a change in participant texting or emailing while driving after passage of the texting ban in Georgia. Two hundred and twenty-six providers completed the entire survey (response rate 46.8%). Participants ranged in age from 23 to 71 years, with an average age of 38 (SD=10.2; median=35). Only three-quarters of providers (n=173, 76.6%) were aware of a texting ban in the state. Out of these, 60 providers (36.6%) reported never or rarely sending texts while driving (0 to 2 times per year), and 30 engaged in this behavior almost daily (18.9%). Almost two-thirds of this group reported no change in texting while driving following passage of the texting ban (n=110, 68%), while 53 respondents texted less (31.8%). Respondents younger than 40 were more than twice as likely to report no change in texting post-ban compared to older participants (OR=2.31, p=0.014). Providers who had been pulled over for speeding in the previous 5 years were about 2.5 times as likely to not change their texting-while-driving behavior following legislation passage compared to those without a history of police stops for speeding (OR=2.55, p=0.011). Each additional ticket received in the past 5 years for a moving violation lessened the odds of reporting a decrease in texting by 45%. (OR=0
Mathew, Anitha E.; Houry, Debra; Dente, Christopher J.; Salomone, Jeffrey P.
Introduction: This study assessed whether Georgia Senate Bill 360, a statewide law passed in August 2010, that prohibits text messaging while driving, resulted in a decrease in this behavior among emergency medicine (EM) and general surgery (GS) healthcare providers. Methods: Using SurveyMonkey®, we created a web-based survey containing up to 28 multiple choice and free-text questions about driving behaviors. EM and GS healthcare providers at a southeastern medical school and its affiliate county hospital received an email inviting them to complete this survey in February 2011. We conducted all analyses in SPSS (version 19.0, Chicago, IL, 2010), using chi-squared tests and logistic regression models. The primary outcome of interest was a change in participant texting or emailing while driving after passage of the texting ban in Georgia. Results: Two hundred and twenty-six providers completed the entire survey (response rate 46.8%). Participants ranged in age from 23 to 71 years, with an average age of 38 (SD=10.2; median=35). Only three-quarters of providers (n=173, 76.6%) were aware of a texting ban in the state. Out of these, 60 providers (36.6%) reported never or rarely sending texts while driving (0 to 2 times per year), and 30 engaged in this behavior almost daily (18.9%). Almost two-thirds of this group reported no change in texting while driving following passage of the texting ban (n=110, 68%), while 53 respondents texted less (31.8%). Respondents younger than 40 were more than twice as likely to report no change in texting post-ban compared to older participants (OR=2.31, p=0.014). Providers who had been pulled over for speeding in the previous 5 years were about 2.5 times as likely to not change their texting-while-driving behavior following legislation passage compared to those without a history of police stops for speeding (OR=2.55, p=0.011). Each additional ticket received in the past 5 years for a moving violation lessened the odds of reporting a
How to instill compassion in a healthcare organization? In this article, I respond to Marianna Fotaki's proposals in her piece, 'Why and how is compassion necessary to provide good quality healthcare?' by drawing on insights from organization studies. Following Fotaki, I argue that to instill targets and formal measures for assessing compassion would be problematic. I conclude by drawing on psychoanalytic and feminist theories to introduce alternatives, specifically proposing an approach that is grounded in a shared sense of a common, embodied precarity, which necessitates our commitment to preserving the conditions in which life might flouris.
Schwartz Communications, LLC, executes a successful PR campaign to position Subimo, a provider of online healthcare decision tools, as a leader in the industry that touts names such as WebMD.com and HealthGrades.com. Through a three-pronged media relations strategy, Schwartz and Subimo together branded the company as an industry thought-leader.
Epstein, Dana R; Babcock-Parziale, Judith L; Haynes, Patricia L; Herb, Christine A
Sleep difficulty is a prevalent problem among returning Veterans. Although there is strong evidence for the efficacy and durability of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) in the general population, the interventions require motivation, attention, and adherence from patients to achieve successful outcomes. Given the unique characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans who have experienced blast-related injuries and other trauma, CBT-I for these patients may require modification, including alternative delivery methods, to ensure effective implementation and positive outcomes. We interviewed 18 OIF/OEF Veterans who screened positive for mild traumatic brain injury and 19 healthcare providers to determine the acceptability of insomnia treatments and preferences for the interventions and treatment delivery. Veterans and providers had distinct preferences for insomnia treatment and its delivery. The treatments the Veterans found most acceptable were also the ones they preferred: relaxation treatment and pharmacotherapy. The providers identified relaxation therapy as the most acceptable treatment. Veterans preferred the individual treatment format as well as electronic methods of treatment delivery. Despite some differences between patients and providers, a compromise through modification of empirically supported behavioral treatments is feasible, and implications for preference-based insomnia intervention development and testing are discussed.
Talley, Brenda; Mary Gee, Rose; Allen, Deborah; Marshall, Elaine S; Encinas, Kendall; Lim, Sokny
Following a simple descriptive research design, we examined how and to what extent primary healthcare providers in rural southern regions of the United States ask patients about the use of smokeless tobacco as indicated in the document used for the patient history. Copies of blank history and physical forms used in offices of primary care providers in Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee were examined to identify items related specifically to tobacco use. Twenty-nine providers returned history and physical forms, which revealed 24% showed no item related to tobacco use. Others included questions related to smoking, but only 7% mentioned any sort of smokeless tobacco use. Although a few studies have suggested the use of smokeless tobacco to be less harmful than smoking, all forms of smokeless tobacco are recognized carcinogens and dangerous for health. It is not sufficient to simply ask patients about smoking behaviors. Primary care providers, especially nurse practitioners, have the unique opportunity to assess use of smokeless tobacco and to offer treatment and counsel to help patients to stop the behavior. 2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Bardsley, M; Spiegelhalter, D J; Blunt, I; Chitnis, X; Roberts, A; Bharania, S
The Healthcare Commission, the national regulator for the National Health Service in England, has to assess providers (NHS trusts) on compliance with core standards in a way that targets appropriate local inspection resources. To develop and evaluate a system for targeting inspections in 2006 of 44 standards in 567 healthcare organisations. A wide range of available information was structured as a series of indicators (called items) that mapped to the standards. Each item was scored on a common scale (a modified Z-score), and these scores were aggregated to indicate risks of undeclared non-compliance for all trusts and standards. In addition, local qualitative intelligence was coded and scored. The information sets used comprised 463 875 observations structured in 1689 specific items, drawn from 83 different data streams. Follow-up inspections were undertaken on the 10% of trusts with the highest-risk scores (where the trust had declared compliance with a standard) and an additional 10% of trusts randomly selected from the remainder. The success of the targeting was measured by the number of trust declarations that were "qualified" following inspection. In the risk-based sample, the proportion of inspected standards that were qualified (26%) was significantly higher than in the random sample (13%). The success rate for targeting varied between standards and care sectors. This innovative approach to using information to target inspection activity achieved its overall aims. The method worked better for some standards and in some settings than for others, and is being improved in the light of experience gained. Such applications are increasingly important as modern regulators strive to be targeted and proportionate in their activities.
DuVall, Scott L; Fraser, Alison M; Rowe, Kerry; Thomas, Alun
Objective Electronically linked datasets have become an important part of clinical research. Information from multiple sources can be used to identify comorbid conditions and patient outcomes, measure use of healthcare services, and enrich demographic and clinical variables of interest. Innovative approaches for creating research infrastructure beyond a traditional data system are necessary. Materials and methods Records from a large healthcare system's enterprise data warehouse (EDW) were linked to a statewide population database, and a master subject index was created. The authors evaluate the linkage, along with the impact of missing information in EDW records and the coverage of the population database. The makeup of the EDW and population database provides a subset of cancer records that exist in both resources, which allows a cancer-specific evaluation of the linkage. Results About 3.4 million records (60.8%) in the EDW were linked to the population database with a minimum accuracy of 96.3%. It was estimated that approximately 24.8% of target records were absent from the population database, which enabled the effect of the amount and type of information missing from a record on the linkage to be estimated. However, 99% of the records from the oncology data mart linked; they had fewer missing fields and this correlated positively with the number of patient visits. Discussion and conclusion A general-purpose research infrastructure was created which allows disease-specific cohorts to be identified. The usefulness of creating an index between institutions is that it allows each institution to maintain control and confidentiality of their own information. PMID:21926112
Fu, Linda Y; Zimet, Gregory D; Latkin, Carl A; Joseph, Jill G
Healthcare providers (HCPs) are advised to give all parents a strong recommendation for HPV vaccination. However, it is possible that strong recommendations could be less effective at promoting vaccination among African Americans who on average have greater mistrust in the healthcare system. This study examines the associations of parental trust in HCPs and strength of HCP vaccination recommendation on HPV vaccine acceptance among African American parents. Participants were recruited from an urban, academic medical center between July 2012 and July 2014. We surveyed 400 African American parents of children ages 10-12years who were offered HPV vaccine by their HCPs to assess sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, trust in HCPs, and the HPV vaccine recommendation received. Medical records were reviewed to determine vaccination receipt. In multivariable analysis, children whose parents were "very strongly" recommended the HPV vaccine had over four times higher odds of vaccine receipt compared with those whose parents were "not very strongly" recommended the vaccine. Having a parent with "a lot of" versus "none" or only "some" trust in HCPs was associated with over twice the odds of receiving HPV vaccine. Very strong HCP recommendations were associated with higher odds of vaccination among all subgroups, including those with more negative baseline attitudes toward HPV vaccine and those with lower levels of trust. Adding the variables strength of HCP recommendation and parental trust in HCPs to a multivariable model already adjusted for sociodemographic factors and parental vaccine beliefs improved the pseudo R(2) from 0.52 to 0.55. Among participants, receiving a strong vaccine recommendation and having a higher level of trust in HCPs were associated with higher odds of HPV vaccination, but did not add much to the predictive value of a model that already adjusted for baseline personal beliefs and sociodemographic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Rajah, Retha; Ahmad Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Jou, Lim Ching; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar
Health literacy (HL) is a multifaceted concept, thus understanding the perspective of healthcare providers, patients, and the system is vital. This systematic review examines and synthesises the available studies on HL-related knowledge, attitude, practice, and perceived barriers. CINAHL and Medline (via EBSCOhost), Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest, Sage Journals, and Science Direct were searched. Both quantitative and/or qualitative studies in the English language were included. Intervention studies and studies focusing on HL assessment tools and prevalence of low HL were excluded. The risk of biasness reduced with the involvement of two reviewers independently assessing study eligibility and quality. A total of 30 studies were included, which consist of 19 quantitative, 9 qualitative, and 2 mixed-method studies. Out of 17 studies, 13 reported deficiency of HL-related knowledge among healthcare providers and 1 among patients. Three studies showed a positive attitude of healthcare providers towards learning about HL. Another three studies demonstrated patients feel shame exposing their literacy and undergoing HL assessment. Common HL communication techniques reported practiced by healthcare providers were the use of everyday language, teach-back method, and providing patients with reading materials and aids, while time constraint was the most reported HL perceived barriers by both healthcare providers and patients. Significant gaps exists in HL knowledge among healthcare providers and patients that needs immediate intervention. Such as, greater effort placed in creating a health system that provides an opportunity for healthcare providers to learn about HL and patients to access health information with taking consideration of their perceived barriers.
Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.
Rauh-Benoit, Lisa A; Tepper, Naomi K; Zapata, Lauren B; Whiteman, Maura K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Mandel, Michele G; Marchbanks, Polly A; Jamieson, Denise J
Immediate postpartum intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been underutilized in the United States despite their known safety. Understanding how providers' attitudes contribute to underutilization is important in improving access. Our objective was to examine healthcare providers' perceptions of the safety of immediate postpartum IUDs before publication of United States contraceptive guidelines. We analyzed survey data collected from December 2009 to March 2010 from 635 office-based physicians and 1368 Title X clinic providers (overall response rate of 64.8%). Providers were asked how safe they thought copper and levonorgestrel (LNG) IUDs were in postpartum women (very safe, safe, unsafe, very unsafe, and unsure). Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for characteristics associated with considering immediate and delayed postpartum IUDs to be safe. Less than 40% of respondents considered immediate or delayed IUD insertion to be safe. Providers with <1 day of family planning training had decreased odds of considering immediate postpartum IUD insertion to be safe compared with unsafe/unsure (aOR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.84 for copper IUD and aOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.81 for LNG-IUD). Providers without training in postpartum or interval copper IUD insertion had decreased odds of considering immediate postpartum copper IUD insertion (aOR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.79) and delayed postpartum insertion for both IUD types to be safe (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18-0.66 for copper IUD and aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.77 for LNG-IUD). Before United States contraceptive guidelines, a majority of providers perceived immediate postpartum IUDs to be unsafe.
Revere, Debra; Painter, Ian; Oberle, Mark
Objective The Rapid Emergency Alert Communication in Health (REACH) Trial was a randomized control trial to systematically compare and evaluate the effectiveness of traditional and mobile communication modalities for public health agencies to disseminate time-sensitive information to health-care providers (HCPs). We conducted a sub-study to identify the communication channels by which HCPs preferred receiving public health alerts and advisories. Methods Enrolled HCPs were blindly randomized into four message delivery groups to receive time-sensitive public health messages by e-mail, fax, or short message service (SMS) or to a no-message control group. Follow-up interviews were conducted 5–10 days after the message. In the final interview, additional questions were asked regarding HCP preferences for receiving public health alerts and advisories. We examined the relationship between key covariates and preferred method of receiving public health alert and advisory messages. Results Gender, age, provider type, and study site showed statistically significant associations with delivery method preference. Older providers were more likely than younger providers to prefer e-mail or fax, while younger providers were more likely than older providers to prefer receiving messages via SMS. Conclusions There is currently no evidence-based research to guide or improve communication between public health agencies and HCPs. Understanding the preferences of providers for receiving alerts and advisories may improve the effectiveness of vital public health communications systems and, in turn, may enhance disease surveillance, aid in early detection, and improve case finding and situational awareness for public health emergencies. PMID:25355977
Lucisano, Karen E; Talbot, Laura A
We studied the current literature on human patient simulation for preparing anesthesia and other healthcare providers for advanced airway management. A systematic review was conducted of articles published between 1990 and 2009 on advanced airway management for patients undergoing anesthesia and patients who are not. The search used 4 electronic databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We included 34 articles in the analysis; 15 were experimental or quasi-experimental designs, 8 descriptive studies and reports, and 11 analyses of equipment or technique evaluations using simulation. The majority of the studies included simulation education evaluation for a variety of medical, nursing, and allied health providers and students. Only 6 studies addressed the use of simulation as an educational or evaluation tool to enhance training of anesthesia providers in difficult airway management. Those studies included analyses of different types of training and the perceived value of simulated training, and evaluations of equipment. Few studies have analyzed the effects of this modality on trainer skills and patient safety. There is a clear need for well-designed studies to examine these effects.
Ekundayo, O James; Jones, Gennifer; Brown, Angela; Aliyu, Muktar; Levine, Robert; Goldzweig, Irwin
Introduction. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among US children aged 4-14 years. In theory, health provider counseling about Child Passenger Safety (CPS) could be a useful deterrent. The data about the effectiveness of CPS dissemination is sparse, but existing results suggest that providers are not well informed. Moreover, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether provider counseling about CPS is effective. Methods. We therefore assessed CPS best practice knowledge among 217 healthcare workers at hospitals in seven cities throughout the USA and evaluated the impact of a brief, lunch and learn educational intervention with a five-item questionnaire. Attendees were comprised of physicians, nurses, social workers, pediatric residents, and pediatric trauma response teams. Results. Pre-post survey completion was nearly 100% (216 of 217 attendees). Participation was fairly evenly distributed according to age (18-29, 30-44, and 45+ years). More than 80% of attendees were women. Before intervention, only 4% of respondents (9/216) answered all five questions correctly; this rose to 77% (167/216) (P < 0.001, using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test) after intervention. Conclusion. Future research should consider implementation and controlled testing of comparable educational programs to determine if they improve dissemination of CPS best practice recommendations in the long term.
Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L
Imbalance between individual resources and work demands can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on work ability among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, work ability index [WAI]: 43.1) from 18 departments at three Danish hospitals participated (Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug 2013-Jan 2014). Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: 1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed during working hours for 5x10 min per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or 2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5x10 min per week. Both groups received ergonomic counseling on patient handling and use of lifting aides. The main outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in WAI. Significant group by time interaction was observed for WAI (p < 0.05). WAI at follow-up was 1.1 (0.3 to 1.8) higher in WORK compared with HOME corresponding to a small effect size (Cohens'd = 0.24). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in HOME. Of the seven items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 5 (sickness absence during the past year) were improved in WORK compared with HOME (P < 0.05). Performing physical exercise together with colleagues at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among female healthcare workers. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01921764 . Registered 10 August 2013.
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the world. Article 14 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) states that countries should promote cessation of tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Health-care providers asking all patients about their tobacco use and advising tobacco users to quit are evidence-based strategies that increase tobacco abstinence. This report examines the proportion of tobacco smokers in 17 countries responding to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) who saw a health-care provider in the past year and who reported that a health-care provider asked them about smoking and advised them to quit. Respondents were tobacco smokers aged ≥15 years surveyed during 2008-2011 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The proportion of smokers who had visited a health-care provider during the previous 12 months ranged from 21.6% in Egypt to 62.3% in Poland. Among these, the proportion reporting that a health-care provider asked if they smoked ranged from 34.9% in Vietnam to 82.1% in Romania. Among those screened for tobacco use, those who reported their health-care providers advised them to quit ranged from 17.3% in Mexico to 67.3% in Romania. In most countries, persons aged ≥45 years were more likely to report being screened and advised to quit than were persons aged ≤24 years. Health-care providers should identify smokers and provide advice and assistance in quitting at each visit as an adjunct to effective community interventions (e.g., increased price of tobacco products; smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, and tobacco quitlines).
Gifford, V; Niles, B; Rivkin, I; Koverola, C; Polaha, J
Telehealth allows behavioral health care and specialty services to be extended to rural residents. Telehealth is an important resource for the Alaskan healthcare system, which is tasked with providing services to culturally diverse populations living in remote areas. Training competent providers to deliver telehealth services is vital for the implementation of successful telehealth programs. Yet, the literature is lacking in the area of provider behavioral telehealth competency training. This study assessed the impact of a Behavioral Telehealth Ethical Competencies Training program on 16 behavioral health providers' development of behavioral telehealth competency. A total of 14 competencies were developed, which required participants to understand the roles and responsibilities of a behavioral telehealth coordinator working at the distal site as well as the roles and responsibilities of the therapist. Video vignettes evaluating the 14 competencies, self-reported competence surveys and follow-up surveys of progress on telehealth goals were utilized to assess effects of the training. Results indicated participants' behavioral telehealth competencies increased following training. Participants reported positive perceptions regarding their competency, and achieved progress on the majority of behavioral telehealth goals set during the training. This study provides a baseline for developing a best practice model for behavioral telehealth service delivery by identifying specific provider competencies for administering effective behavioral telehealth services. A unique continuing education training model, led by content experts including university professors and Alaska Native Elders, incorporating behavioral telehealth, rural ethics, cultural competency and vicarious trauma training is described. Lastly, this study details the use of an innovative video vignette assessment instrument for evaluating the effectiveness of continuing education training.
Koga, Masatoshi; Uehara, Toshiyuki; Yasui, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Okada, Yasushi; Minematsu, Kazuo
Community-based stroke care in Japan is currently provided in acute hospitals, convalescent rehabilitation units, general practices, sanatorium-type wards, nursing care facilities, and in-home/commuting care services. We conducted a nationwide survey to identify factors influencing cooperation among the various providers of community-based stroke care. We sent questionnaires to 11,178 facilities and assessed the independent variables of excellent and fair cooperation among the care providers. Of the providers that responded, 66% were engaged in medical practice or long-term care for stroke patients. The following independent variables were inversely associated with excellent or fair cooperation in the community: area with the higher population density among 3 groups divided by tertile threshold (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.69), facilities covered by long-term care insurance (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.34), and insufficient communication with local government (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.14-0.24). Positive independent variables of excellent or fair cooperation were the sharing of patient information in the community (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.78-3.66), use of a scale for assessing activities of daily living (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.42-2.63), appropriate utilization of care support managers (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.43-2.55), and adequate comprehension of the long-term care insurance system (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.92). Our findings suggest that improved communication between healthcare providers and local government, along with appropriate attention to the problems facing providers covered by long-term care insurance, may improve community-based stroke care in Japan. Copyright © 2011 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dale, Katie D; Tay, Ee Laine; Trauer, James M; Trevan, Peter G; Denholm, Justin T
Private healthcare providers are important to tuberculosis (TB) management globally, although internationally there are reports of suboptimal management and disparities in treatment commencement in the private sector. We compared the management of TB patients receiving private versus public healthcare in Victoria, an industrialised setting with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Retrospective cohort study: 2002-2015. Private healthcare provision was included as an independent variable in several multivariate logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models that assessed a range of outcome variables, encompassing treatment commencement delays, management and treatment outcomes. Of 5106 patients, 275 (5.4%) exclusively saw private providers, and 4714 (92.32%) public. Private care was associated with a shorter delay to presentation (HR 1.36, p = 0.065, 95% CI 1.02-2.00). Private patients were less likely to have genotypic testing (OR 0.66, p = 0.009, 95% CI 0.48-0.90), those with pulmonary involvement were less likely to have a sputum smear (OR 0.52, p = 0.011, 95% CI 0.31-0.86) and provided samples were less likely to be positive (OR 0.54, p = 0.070, 95% CI 0.27-1.05). Private patients with extrapulmonary TB were less likely to have a smear sample (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.48-0.90, p = 0.009) and radiological abnormalities (OR 0.71, p = 0.070, 95% CI 0.27-1.05). Treatment commencement delays from presentation were comparable for cases with pulmonary involvement and extrapulmonary TB, although public extrapulmonary TB patients received radiological examinations slightly earlier than private patients (HR 0.79, p = 0.043, 95% CI 0.63-0.99) and public patients with pulmonary involvement from high burden settings commenced treatment following an abnormal CXR more promptly than their private counterparts (HR 0.41, p = 0.011, 95% CI 0.21-0.81). Private patients were more likely to receive <4 first-line medications (OR 2.17, p = 0.001, 95% CI 1.36-3.46), but
McCauley, Mary; Head, Jennifer; Lambert, Jaki; Zafar, Shamsa; van den Broek, Nynke
Violence against women is an international public health concern and a violation of women's rights. Domestic violence can first occur, and increase in frequency and severity, during and after pregnancy. Healthcare providers have the potential to identify and support women who experience domestic violence. We sought to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of domestic violence among doctors who provide routine antenatal and postnatal care at healthcare facilities in Pakistan. In addition, we explored possible management options from policy makers, and enabling factors of and barriers to the routine screening of domestic violence. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with doctors (n = 25) working in public and private hospitals and with officials involved in domestic violence policy development (n = 5) in Islamabad, Pakistan. Transcribed interviews were coded and codes grouped into categories. Thematic framework analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes. Most doctors have a good awareness of domestic violence and a desire to help women who report domestic violence during and after pregnancy. Enabling factors included doctors' ability to build rapport and trust with women and their suggestion that further education of both healthcare providers and women would be beneficial. However, domestic violence is often perceived as a "family issue" that is not routinely discussed by healthcare providers. Lack of resources, lack of consultation time and lack of effective referral pathways or support were identified as the main barriers to the provision of quality care. Doctors and policy advisors are aware of the problem and open to screening for domestic violence during and after pregnancy. It is suggested that the provision of a speciality trained family liaison officer or healthcare provider would be beneficial. Clear referral pathways need to be established to provide quality care for these vulnerable women in Pakistan.
Dolce, Maria C
To describe the experiences of cancer survivors and caregivers with healthcare providers in the context of the Internet as a source of health information. Qualitative description. Online cancer communities hosted by the Association of Cancer Online Resources. Purposive sample of 488 cancer survivors, with varying cancer types and survivorship stages, and caregivers. Secondary data analysis using Krippendorff's thematic clustering technique of qualitative content analysis. Survivorship, healthcare relationships, and the Internet. Disenchantment with healthcare relationships was associated with failed expectations related to evidence-based practice, clinical expertise, informational support, and therapeutic interpersonal communication. Survivors and caregivers exercised power in healthcare relationships through collaboration, direct confrontation, becoming expert, and endorsement to influence and control care decisions. Disenchantment propelled cancer survivors and caregivers to search the Internet for health information and resources. Conversely, Internet information-seeking precipitated the experience of disenchantment. Through online health information and resources, concealed failures in healthcare relationships were revealed and cancer survivors and caregivers were empowered to influence and control care decisions. The findings highlight failures in cancer survivorship care and underscore the importance of novel interdisciplinary programs and models of care that support evidence-informed decision making, self-management, and improved quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to receive education on survivors' use of the Internet as a source of health information and its impact on healthcare relationships. Future research should include studies examining the relationship between disenchantment and survivorship outcomes.
Donaldson, Abigail A; Lindberg, Laura D; Ellen, Jonathan M; Marcell, Arik V
To describe the extent to which sexually experienced adolescents in the United States receive sexual health information (SHI) from multiple of three sources: parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. Descriptive analysis. 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Heterosexually experienced, unmarried/non-cohabiting females (n = 875) and males (n = 1,026) ages 15-19 years. Self-reported receipt of birth control, sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV), and condom information from parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. Parent and teacher SHI sources were reported by 55% and 43% of sexually experienced female and male adolescents, respectively, for birth control information; and by 59% and 66%, respectively, for STI/HIV information. For sexually experienced adolescents reporting both parent and teacher sources, about one-third also reported healthcare provider as a source of birth control information, and one-quarter of females and one-third of males reported a healthcare provider as a source of STI/HIV information, respectively. For sexually experienced adolescents reporting no SHI from either parent or teacher sources, only one in ten reported healthcare providers as a source of birth control information, with a similar proportion reporting healthcare providers as a source of STI/HIV information. SHI receipt was found to vary by gender with more females than males reporting birth control information receipt from parents and teachers, and about one in six males reporting no birth control or condom information receipt from either source. Study findings highlight gaps in sexual health information receipt from parents, teachers, and healthcare providers among sexually experienced adolescents, as well as gender differences across information sources. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donaldson, Abigail A.; Lindberg, Laura D.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Marcell, Arik V.
Objective To describe the extent to which sexually experienced adolescents in the United States receive sexual health information (SHI) from multiple of three sources: parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. Design Descriptive analysis. Setting 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Participants Heterosexually experienced, unmarried/non-cohabiting females (n = 875) and males (n = 1,026) ages 15–19 years. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported receipt of birth control, sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV), and condom information from parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. Results Parent and teacher SHI sources were reported by 55% and 43% of sexually experienced female and male adolescents, respectively, for birth control information; and by 59% and 66%, respectively, for STI/HIV information. For sexually experienced adolescents reporting both parent and teacher sources, about one-third also reported healthcare provider as a source of birth control information, and one-quarter of females and one-third of males reported a healthcare provider as a source of STI/HIV information, respectively. For sexually experienced adolescents reporting no SHI from either parent or teacher sources, only one in ten reported healthcare providers as a source of birth control information, with a similar proportion reporting healthcare providers as a source of STI/HIV information. SHI receipt was found to vary by gender with more females than males reporting birth control information receipt from parents and teachers, and about one in six males reporting no birth control or condom information receipt from either source. Conclusions Study findings highlight gaps in sexual health information receipt from parents, teachers, and healthcare providers among sexually experienced adolescents, as well as gender differences across information sources. PMID:23743003
Coll, Michel-Pierre; Grégoire, Mathieu; Eugène, Fanny; Jackson, Philip L
Pain perceived in others can be a stressful signal that elicits personal distress and discomfort that can interfere with prosocial behaviors. Healthcare providers (HCPs) have to be able to regulate these self-oriented feelings to offer optimal help to patients in pain. However, previous studies have documented a tendency in HCPs to underestimate the pain of patients that could interfere with optimal help to these patients. The aim of this study was to compare HCP and control (CTL) participants' prosocial behavior towards persons in pain and their associated brain responses. HCPs and CTL participants took part in a newly developed prosocial task during which they were asked to choose how much time they wanted to offer to help patients in pain. It was shown that compared to CTL participants, HCPs offered more help to persons in pain and reported less trait personal distress when facing suffering in others. Additional evidence was provided by the fMRI results, which indicated that compared to CTL participants, HCP participants showed different pattern of activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex during the prosocial task, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the difference in prosocial behaviors could vary according to the degree to which processes such as mentalizing and cognitive control are solicited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Torrey, Carrie; Blount, Ronald; McLaren, Christine; Chen, Wen-Pin; Kain, Zeev
Background To date, no study has evaluated the impact of specific healthcare provider and parent behaviors on children’s distress during anesthesia induction. Method Extensive digital video data were collected on 293, 2 to 10 year old children undergoing anesthesia induction with a parent present. Anesthesiologist, nurse, and parent behavior and children’s distress and coping were coded using the Revised Preoperative Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale administered using specialized coding software. Results Anesthesiologists and parents engaged in higher rates of most behaviors than nurses. Overall, adult emotion-focused behavior such as Empathy and Reassurance was significantly positively related to children’s distress and negatively related to children’s coping behaviors. Adult distracting behavior such as humor and distracting talk showed the opposite pattern. Medical reinterpretation by anesthesiologists was significantly positively related to children’s coping behaviors, but the same behavior by parents was significantly positively related to children’s distress. Conclusions The data presented here provide evidence for a relation between adult behaviors and children’s distress and coping at anesthesia induction. These behaviors are trainable and hence it is possible to test if modifying physician behavior can influence child behavior in future studies. PMID:19934874
Gauri, Aliyah; Rodriguez, Xeniamaria; Gaona, Patricia; Maestri, Stephanie; Dietz, Noella; Stoutenberg, Mark
U.S. Hispanics disproportionately show health burdens that may be decreased by discussing physical activity (PA) and healthy eating with their healthcare providers (HCPs). We examined the perceptions of both HCPs and low-income Hispanic patients regarding the dynamics of these communications. We surveyed 295 low-income Hispanic patients and interviewed 14 HCPs at three community health clinics. Patients were asked about their comfort level with HCPs, how often their HCP discussed PA and healthy eating, and the likelihood of following advice on PA and healthy eating. HCPs were asked about their delivery (frequency/duration) and perceived effectiveness in providing such advice. Patients reported feeling "most comfortable" with their physicians (57%) with a lower proportion (19%) feeling "most comfortable" with nurses. Nearly all patients (95%) reported being very likely to follow the advice of their physician. On average, HCPs (physicians and nurses) reported discussing PA and healthy eating with 85% and 80% of their patients, respectively. In contrast, a fewer proportion of patients (65.8%) reported that their physician discussed PA and healthy eating "some" or "a lot" of the time. Overall, physicians reported discussing PA and healthy eating for an average of 5 and 6 min, respectively; whereas nurses reported discussing PA and healthy eating for an average of 12 and 19 min, respectively. Further study on the content and delivery of conversations between HCPs and their low-income Hispanic patients regarding PA and healthy eating could be vital to optimally impact health behaviors.
Chevalier, Lydia; Goldfarb, Elizabeth; Miller, Jessica; Hoeppner, Bettina; Gorrindo, Tristan; Birnbaum, Robert J
To elucidate gaps in the preparedness of clergy and healthcare providers to care for service members (SM) with deployment-related mental health needs. Participants identified clinically relevant symptoms in a standardized video role play of a veteran with deployment-related mental health needs and discussed their preparedness to deal with SM. Clergy members identified suicide and depression most often, while providers identified difficulty sleeping, low energy, nightmares and irritability. Neither clergy nor providers felt prepared to minister to or treat SM with traumatic brain injury. Through a mixed methods approach, we identified gaps in preparedness of clergy and healthcare providers in dealing with the mental health needs of SM.
Keshvari, Mahrokh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali
Background: Primary healthcare (PHC) providers play a major role in provision of public health in rural areas in Iran. They are considered as the key elements of health development in rural population. There is limited research on clarification of their experiences from provision of health services in their working conditions. This study aimed to clarify the experience of PHC providers from working conditions in giving primary health services in health houses (district branches of rural health care centers). Materials and Methods: This is a content analysis qualitative study, conducted through personal and group interviews with 12 health workers working in health care centers in rural areas in Isfahan province, 2010. Sampling continued until data saturation. Data were analyzed through conventional content analysis and constant comparative method. Results: Data analysis led to extraction of 11 categories, and finally, four themes of “ignoring the rights,” “causing tension in working climate,” “pressure or overload of expectations beyond the power,” and “occupational worn out” were yielded from the categories. These themes reveal the concepts and nature of PHC providers’ experiences from giving health care at health houses as the first level of PHC centers. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the PHC providers work in a tense condition in health houses. Although they devote themselves to the health of society members, their own health is neglected. Policy makers and authorities should amend working conditions of PHC providers through modification of resources and making supportive and collaborative strategies to improve the quality of services and promote the health level of the service receivers. PMID:27512699
Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers’ knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40–49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues. PMID:26789844
Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem
Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural
Lang'at, Evaline; Mwanri, Lillian
Globally, there are increasing efforts to improve maternal health outcomes including the reduction in maternal mortality rates. Improved access to skilled care utilisation during pregnancy and delivery has been one of the strategies employed to improve maternal health outcomes. In Kenya, more than half of the women deliver without the assistance of a skilled attendant and this has contributed to high maternal mortality rates. The free maternal healthcare services policy in all public facilities was initiated as a strategy to improve access to skilled care and reduce poor maternal health outcomes. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of the service providers and facility administrators of the free maternal health care service policy that was introduced in Kenya in 2013. A qualitative inquiry using semi-structured one-on-one interviews was conducted in Malindi District, Kenya. The participants included maternal health service providers and facility administrators recruited from five different healthcare facilities. Data were analysed using a thematic framework analysis. Free maternal healthcare service provision was perceived to boost skilled care utilisation during pregnancy and delivery. However, challenges including; delays in the reimbursement of funds by the government to the facilities, stock outs of essential commodities in the facilities to facilitate service provision, increased workload amidst staff shortage and lack of consultation and sensitisation of key stakeholders were perceived as barriers to effective implementation of this policy. Free maternal healthcare services can be one of the strategies to improve a range of maternal health outcomes. However, the implementation of this policy would be more effective if; the healthcare facilities were upgraded, equipped with adequate supplies, funds and staff; the community are continually sensitized on the importance of seeking skilled care during pregnancy and delivery; and inclusivity and
Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J
Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products.
Winning, Adrien M; Merandi, Jenna M; Lewe, Dorcas; Stepney, Lois M C; Liao, Nancy N; Fortney, Christine A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A
To examine the impact of errors or adverse events on emotional distress and professional quality of life in healthcare providers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and the moderating role of coworker support. Errors or adverse events can result in negative outcomes for healthcare providers. However, the role of coworker support in improving emotional and professional outcomes has not been examined. A cross-sectional online survey from a quality improvement initiative to train peer supporters in a neonatal intensive care unit. During 2015, 463 healthcare providers in a neonatal intensive care unit completed a survey assessing their experiences with an error or adverse event, anxiety, depression, professional quality of life and coworker support. Compared with those who did not experience an error or adverse event (58%), healthcare providers who observed (23%) or were involved (19%) in an incident reported higher levels of anxiety and secondary traumatic stress. Those who were involved in an event reported higher levels of depression and burnout. Differences between the three groups (no event, observation and involvement) for compassion satisfaction were non-significant. Perceived coworker support moderated the association between experiencing an event and both anxiety and depression. Specifically, experiencing an event was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression when coworkers were perceived as low in supportiveness, but not when they were viewed as highly supportive. Findings suggest that errors or adverse events can have a harmful impact on healthcare providers and that coworker support may reduce emotional distress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
O'Connor, Mary E; Brown, Emil W; Lewin, Linda Orkin
Breastfeeding rates in the United States remain below the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 goals. Encouragement of breastfeeding and education by maternal-child healthcare (MCH) providers (physicians, residents, and midlevel providers) improves breastfeeding initiation and duration. Surveys of MCH providers show lack of knowledge about breastfeeding. This study evaluated the effect of usage of "BreastfeedingBasics," a free Internet-based educational course, on the knowledge of MCH providers and evaluation of the baseline knowledge of course users. A before and after intervention study was done of MCH providers using the "BreastfeedingBasics" website between 1999 and 2008. Baseline knowledge and change in knowledge were assessed by computer-scored pretests and posttests. Of 3,456 MCH providers enrolled, 2,237 (65%) completed one or more pretest. Total mean pretest/posttest scores were as follows: midlevel providers, 81%/89%; residents, 84%/93%; and physicians, 85%/92% (p < 0.001 among groups and between pretests and posttests). Mean pretest/posttest scores of the modules were as follows: Anatomy/Physiology, 79%/93%; Growth/Development, 72%/91%; Mother-Infant Couple (normal newborn), 82%/92%; and Breastfed Infant with Problems, 77%/91% (p < 0.001 for all). Specific topics with the lowest pretest scores and subsequent posttest scores were as follows (pretest/posttest): supplementation with vitamin D, 61%/93%; breastfeeding physiology, 38%/65%; growth of breastfed infants at 10 days, 80%/95%, 14 days, 72%/91%, and 3-4 months, 39%/84%; and stopping breastfeeding for maternal problems when not indicated, 69%/93% (p < 0.001 for all). Use of an Internet-based educational program improved knowledge of MCH providers as measured by pretest and posttest scores. Knowledge of the growth of breastfed infants is particularly poor. Increasing knowledge is the first step in improving clinical practice that is necessary for increasing breastfeeding rates and duration.
Pratt, Michael A.; Chu, Henry
Performance of healthcare providers such as hospitals varies from one locale to another. Our goal is to study whether there is a geographical pattern of performance using metrics reported from over 3,000 hospitals distributed across the U.S. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an effective analysis tool for nonlinear and non-stationary signals. It decomposes a data sequence into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) along with a residue sequence that represents the trend. Each IMF has zero local mean and has exactly one zero crossing between any two consecutive local extrema. An IMF can be used to assess the instantaneous frequency. Reconstruction of a signal using the residue and those IMFs of the lower frequency can reveal the underlying pattern of the signal without undue influence of the higher frequency fluctuations of the data. We used a space-filling curve to turn a set of performance metrics distributed irregularly across the two-dimensional planar surface into a one-dimensional sequence. The EMD decomposed a set of hospital emergency department median waiting times into 9 IMFs along with a residue. We used the residue and the lower frequency IMFs to reconstruct a sequence with fewer fluctuations. The sequence was transformed back to a two-dimensional map to reveal the geographical variations.
Landis-Lewis, Zach; Douglas, Gerald P; Hochheiser, Harry; Kam, Matthew; Gadabu, Oliver; Bwanali, Mwatha; Jacobson, Rebecca S
Although performance feedback has the potential to help clinicians improve the quality and safety of care, healthcare organizations generally lack knowledge about how this guidance is best provided. In low-resource settings, tools for theory-informed feedback tailoring may enhance limited clinical supervision resources. Our objectives were to establish proof-of-concept for computer-supported feedback message tailoring in Malawi, Africa. We conducted this research in five stages: clinical performance measurement, modeling the influence of feedback on antiretroviral therapy (ART) performance, creating a rule-based message tailoring process, generating tailored messages for recipients, and finally analysis of performance and message tailoring data. We retrospectively generated tailored messages for 7,448 monthly performance reports from 11 ART clinics. We found that tailored feedback could be routinely generated for four guideline-based performance indicators, with 35% of reports having messages prioritized to optimize the effect of feedback. This research establishes proof-of-concept for a novel approach to improving the use of clinical performance feedback in low-resource settings and suggests possible directions for prospective evaluations comparing alternative designs of feedback messages.
Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira
The involvement of traditional healthcare providers (THPs) has been suggested among strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection. Burkina Faso has embarked on such an attempt. This study is a preliminary assessment of that model. Qualitative data were collected using unstructured key informant interviews with policy makers, group interviews with THPs and health workers, and field visits to THPs. Quantitative data were collected from program reports and the national tuberculosis (TB) control database. The distribution of tasks among THPs, intermediary organizations and clinicians is appealing, especially the focus on active referral. THPs are offered incentives based on numbers of suspected cases confirmed by health workers at the clinic, based on microscopy results or clinical assessment. The positivity rate was 23% and 9% for 2006 and 2007, respectively. The contribution of the program to national case detection was estimated at 2% for 2006. Because it relied totally on donor funding, the program suffered from irregular disbursements, resulting in periodic decreases in activities and outcomes. The study shows that single interventions require a broader positive policy environment to be sustainable. Even if the active referral approach seems effective in enhancing TB case detection, more complex policy work and direction, domestic financial contribution and additional evidence for cost-effectiveness are needed before the approach can be established as a national policy. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.
Steele, Amii Corbisiero; Kaal, Julia; Thompson, Amanda L.; Barrera, Maru; Compas, Bruce E.; Davies, Betty; Fairclough, Diane L.; Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Hogan, Nancy; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.
Objective To determine how to improve care for families by obtaining their advice to healthcare providers and researchers after a child’s death from cancer. Design Families with a surviving sibling (ages 8-17) were recruited from cancer registries at three hospitals in the United States and Canada 3-12 months (M = 10.4, SD = 3.5) after the child’s death. Setting Data were collected in the home. Participants Participants (N = 99) included 36 mothers, 24 fathers, and 39 siblings from 40 families. Outcome Measures Each participant completed a qualitative interview that was audio recorded, transcribed, and coded for thematic content. Findings Five major themes included the need for: (a) improved communication with the medical team, (b) more compassionate care, (c) increased access to resources, (d) ongoing research, as well as (e) offering praise. Interwoven within the five themes was a subtheme of continuity of care. Conclusions Many participants were pleased with the care the child with cancer received, but others noted areas in need of improvement, particularly medical communication and continuity of care. Additional research is needed to inform interventions to improve services for families of children with life-limiting conditions. PMID:23612375
Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira
Background and objective: The involvement of traditional healthcare providers (THPs) has been suggested among strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection. Burkina Faso has embarked on such an attempt. This study is a preliminary assessment of that model. Methods: Qualitative data were collected using unstructured key informant interviews with policy makers, group interviews with THPs and health workers, and field visits to THPs. Quantitative data were collected from program reports and the national tuberculosis (TB) control database. Results and analysis: The distribution of tasks among THPs, intermediary organizations and clinicians is appealing, especially the focus on active referral. THPs are offered incentives based on numbers of suspected cases confirmed by health workers at the clinic, based on microscopy results or clinical assessment. The positivity rate was 23% and 9% for 2006 and 2007, respectively. The contribution of the program to national case detection was estimated at 2% for 2006. Because it relied totally on donor funding, the program suffered from irregular disbursements, resulting in periodic decreases in activities and outcomes. Conclusions: The study shows that single interventions require a broader positive policy environment to be sustainable. Even if the active referral approach seems effective in enhancing TB case detection, more complex policy work and direction, domestic financial contribution and additional evidence for cost-effectiveness are needed before the approach can be established as a national policy. PMID:24359717
Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C
Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri; Weaver, Nancy; Wilson, Kristin
Background Integrating health literacy into primary care institutional policy and practice is critical to effective, patient centered health care. While attributes of health literate organizations have been proposed, approaches for strengthening them in healthcare systems with limited resources have not been fully detailed. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with individuals from 11 low resourced health care organizations serving uninsured, underinsured, and government-insured patients across Missouri. The qualitative inquiry explored concepts of impetus to transform, leadership commitment, engaging staff, alignment to organization wide goals, and integration of health literacy with current practices. Findings Several health care organizations reported carrying out health literacy related activities including implementing patient portals, selecting easy to read patient materials, offering community education and outreach programs, and improving discharge and medication distribution processes. The need for change presented itself through data or anecdotal staff experience. For any change to be undertaken, administrators and medical directors had to be supportive; most often a champion facilitated these changes in the organization. Staff and providers were often resistant to change and worried they would be saddled with additional work. Lack of time and funding were the most common barriers reported for integration and sustainability. To overcome these barriers, managers supported changes by working one on one with staff, seeking external funding, utilizing existing resources, planning for stepwise implementation, including members from all staff levels and clear communication. Conclusion Even though barriers exist, resource scarce clinical settings can successfully plan, implement, and sustain organizational changes to support health literacy.
Di Battista, Ashley; Hancock, Kelly; Cataudella, Danielle; Johnston, Donna; Cassidy, Marilyn; Punnett, Angela; Shama, Wendy; Barrera, Maru
To examine the perceptions of healthcare providers (HCPs) regarding the utility of two psychosocial screening tools designed for pediatric oncology, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Revised (PATrev) and the Psychosocial Care Checklist (PCCL). Repeated measures comparative study. Four pediatric health centers in Ontario, Canada. 15 oncologists, 14 nurses, and 8 social workers. Using a visual analog scale (VAS), participants were asked to rate how useful they found (a) the psychosocial summary derived from the parent-completed PATrev, used to assess family psychosocial risk, and (b) the HCP-completed PCCL, used to identify family psychosocial needs. Measures were completed soon after diagnosis and six months later. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for analyses. VAS scores. Pediatric oncology HCPs differ in their acceptance of the psychosocial screening tools tested. The highest utility ratings for both instruments were from nurses, and the lowest utility ratings were from social workers; moderate ratings were obtained from oncologists. Psychosocial screening tools can identify the psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families throughout the cancer trajectory. Consequently, these tools could foster communication among colleagues (medical and nonmedical) who are caring for children with cancer about the psychosocial needs of this population and the allocation of resources to address those needs. Nurses seem to value these tools more than other HCPs, which may have positive implications for their clinical practice.
Ameh, Charles A; van den Broek, Nynke
An estimated 289,000 maternal deaths, 2.6 million stillbirths and 2.4 million newborn deaths occur globally each year, with the majority occurring around the time of childbirth. The medical and surgical interventions to prevent this loss of life are known, and most maternal and newborn deaths are in principle preventable. There is a need to build the capacity of health-care providers to recognize and manage complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Skills-and-drills competency-based training in skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care and early newborn care (EmONC) is an approach that is successful in improving knowledge and skills. There is emerging evidence of this resulting in improved availability and quality of care. To evaluate the effectiveness of EmONC training, operational research using an adapted Kirkpatrick framework and a theory of change approach is needed. The Making It Happen programme is an example of this. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps) on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the understanding of the
O'Reilly-Shah, Vikas N
Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps) on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the understanding of the respondent characteristics that may have higher
Seale, Holly; Sitaresmi, Mei Neni; Atthobari, Jarir; Heywood, Anita E; Kaur, Rajneesh; MacIntyre, Raina C; Soenarto, Yati; Padmawati, Retna Siwi
Rotavirus has been identified as the most common pathogen associated with severe diarrhoea. Two effective vaccines against the pathogen have been licensed. However, many countries including Indonesia have yet to introduce the vaccine into their national immunisation programs. This study aimed to examine the attitudes of healthcare providers (HCPs) and other health stakeholders towards the pathogen and the vaccine. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were undertaken in two districts of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia with nurses, midwives, primary care providers, pediatricians and other health stakeholders. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Fourteen interviews were conducted between August and October 2013. We identified that while participants do not consider diarrhea to be an important problem in Indonesia, they do acknowledge that it can be serious if not properly treated. While the majority had some level of knowledge about rotavirus, not all participants knew that a vaccine was available. There were mixed feelings towards the need for the vaccine. Some felt that the vaccine is not ranked as a priority as it is not listed on the national program. However, others agreed there is a rationale for its use in Indonesia. The cost of the vaccine (when sold in the private sector) was perceived to be the primary barrier impacting on its use. The high cost and the low priority given to this vaccine by the public health authorities are the biggest obstacles impacting on the acceptance of this vaccine in Indonesia. HCPs need to be reminded of the burden of disease associated with rotavirus. In addition, reminding providers about the costs associated with treating severe cases versus the costs associated with prevention may assist with improving the acceptance of HCPs towards the vaccine. Promotion campaigns need to target the range of HCPs involved in the provision of care to infants and pregnant women.
Ghazanfarpour, Masoumeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mehdi Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad
The aim of this study was to explore issues that challenge menopausal women in discussions of their sexual problems with a physician. This was done from the perspective of healthcare providers. In a descriptive exploratory qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview and purposive sampling, a sample set of 12 midwives and 13 general practitioners aged 25-70 years were selected in order to elicit meaning behind their experiences about the subject under study. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. Results were used to identify a number of obstacles that hindered women from seeking help for sexual problems from GPs and midwives. These obstacles included the following: (1) traditional and cultural beliefs; (2) religious belief; (3) individuals' beliefs and (4) access to services. More research is needed to explore effective strategies to overcome these problems. Impact statement Current knowledge on the subject: In the literature, many reasons have been identified for the unwillingness of Iranian women to discuss their sexual problems with health providers. These include lack of time, feelings of shame and an expectation that a doctor cannot help. However, no qualitative study has addressed barriers held by menopausal women for seeking treatment for sexual problems. The contribution made by the results of this study: The results of this study add to the growing body of research on reasons that determine why most postmenopausal women rarely visit a doctor unless they were in tremendous physical or emotional pain. Also, menopausal women thought that an unmarried health provider would be less understanding about sexual and marital problems and they felt guilty about sharing such issues with them. Patients' opinions on the nature of menopause (a pathological vs. physiological process) affect the way in which the symptoms of menopause and sexual problems are handled by patient. The implications are of these findings for clinical
Al-Ali, N M; Ibaid, A H Abu
This survey in primary health-care centres in north Jordan aimed to assess health-care providers' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management. A multistage random sample was used to recruit nurses and physicians from 57 health centres. A total of 207 participants completed the Arabic version of the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants perceived themselves as having moderate preparation for disaster management [mean score 74.9 (SD 21.6)], moderate knowledge [mean 49.9 (SD 12.3)] and moderate to weak skills in disaster management [mean 35.3 (SD 12.7)]. Significant differences were revealed in participants' perceptions of their disaster preparedness, knowledge and skills according to their sex, specialty and exposure to a real disaster situation. Further education and training courses are needed to enhance providers' preparedness for disaster management in Jordan.
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Carle, Adam; Weidmer, Beverly; Hurtado, Margarita; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Hays, Ron D.
Background There is a need for reliable and valid measures of cultural competence from the patient’s perspective. Objective This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) Cultural Competence (CC) item set. Research Design Using 2008 survey data, we assessed the internal consistency of the CAHPS CC scales using Cronbach alphas, and examined the validity of the measures using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, multitrait scaling analysis, and regression analysis. Subjects A random stratified sample (based on race/ethnicity and language) of 991 enrollees, less than 65 years old, from two Medicaid managed care plans in California and New York. Measures CAHPS CC item set after excluding screener items and ratings. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFI= 0.98; TLI= 0.98; RMSEA= 0.06) provided support for a seven-factor structure: Doctor Communication-Positive Behaviors; Doctor Communication-Negative Behaviors; Doctor Communication-Health Promotion; Doctor Communication-Alternative Medicine; Shared Decision Making; Equitable Treatment; and Trust. Item--total correlations (corrected for item overlap) for the 7 scales exceeded 0.40. Exploratory factor analysis showed support for one additional factor: Access to Interpreter Services. Internal consistency reliability estimates ranged from 0.58 (Alternative Medicine) to 0.92 (Positive Behaviors), and was 0.70 or higher for four of the eight composites. All composites were positively and significantly associated with the overall doctor rating. Conclusions The CAHPS CC 26-item set demonstrates adequate measurement properties, and can be used as a supplemental item set to the CAHPS Clinician and Group Surveys in assessing culturally competent care from the patient’s perspective. PMID:22895226
Alabid, Alamin Hassan M. A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi
Background: Malaysia, a South East Asian country, legally permits general medical practitioners in private clinics to dispense medicines. This possibly can dilute the pharmacist role in the provision of healthcare and pharmaceutical care and deprive patients to benefit from these services. Objective: This study explored, assessed and compared the current status of medicines labeling, patient’s counseling, and symptomatic diagnosis by general practitioners and community pharmacists. Material and Methods: This study used trained Simulated Patients (SP), who participated in a scenario of common cold symptoms at private clinics and community pharmacies. SPs explored medication labeling, patients counseling and symptomatic diagnosis undertaken by general practitioners and community pharmacists. Later, study authors assessed and compared these practices. The study was conducted during June 2011 in Penang, Malaysia. Results: The study used descriptive statistics and Fisher-exact test to analyze data. Regarding patients counseling standard, among 100 visits by simulated patients, 64 (64%) from community pharmacists provided information about the medicine name, its indication, dosage and route of administration versus 17 (42.5%) general practitioners during 40 visits (p=0.024). Concerning adherence to labeling standard, for instance, only in one pharmacy visit, (1%) the pharmacist wrote the name of the patient on the medication label versus in 32 (80%) of doctors’ visits, the doctors adhered to this labeling standard (p<0.001). In all doctors’ visits (n=40, 100%), SPs were asked about symptoms, whereas in 87 (87%) CPs’ visits, pharmacists fulfilled this counseling standard (p=0.02). Conclusion: Although pharmacists showed less compliance to medicine labeling and symptomatic diagnosis compared to doctors, their counseling of patients was better. Separation will definitely contribute to more concentration of each provider on his/her roles and improve and direct the
Alabid, Alamin Hassan M A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi
Malaysia, a South East Asian country, legally permits general medical practitioners in private clinics to dispense medicines. This possibly can dilute the pharmacist role in the provision of healthcare and pharmaceutical care and deprive patients to benefit from these services. This study explored, assessed and compared the current status of medicines labeling, patient's counseling, and symptomatic diagnosis by general practitioners and community pharmacists. This study used trained Simulated Patients (SP), who participated in a scenario of common cold symptoms at private clinics and community pharmacies. SPs explored medication labeling, patients counseling and symptomatic diagnosis undertaken by general practitioners and community pharmacists. Later, study authors assessed and compared these practices. The study was conducted during June 2011 in Penang, Malaysia. The study used descriptive statistics and Fisher-exact test to analyze data. Regarding patients counseling standard, among 100 visits by simulated patients, 64 (64%) from community pharmacists provided information about the medicine name, its indication, dosage and route of administration versus 17 (42.5%) general practitioners during 40 visits (p=0.024). Concerning adherence to labeling standard, for instance, only in one pharmacy visit, (1%) the pharmacist wrote the name of the patient on the medication label versus in 32 (80%) of doctors' visits, the doctors adhered to this labeling standard (p<0.001). In all doctors' visits (n=40, 100%), SPs were asked about symptoms, whereas in 87 (87%) CPs' visits, pharmacists fulfilled this counseling standard (p=0.02). Although pharmacists showed less compliance to medicine labeling and symptomatic diagnosis compared to doctors, their counseling of patients was better. Separation will definitely contribute to more concentration of each provider on his/her roles and improve and direct the experiences and skills towards being more patient oriented.
Avey, Jaedon P; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Beans, Julie A; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Tyndale, Rachel F; Robinson, Renee F
Aim: Describe patients,’ providers’ and healthcare system leaders’ perceptions of pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation treatment in an American Indian/Alaska Native primary care setting. Materials & methods: This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with 20 American Indian/Alaska Native current or former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers and nine healthcare system leaders. Results: Participants supported pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation treatment provided that a community-based participatory research approach be employed, research closely coordinate with existing tobacco cessation services and access to pharmacogenetic test results be restricted to providers involved in tobacco cessation. Conclusion: Despite a history of mistrust toward genetic research in tribal communities, participants expressed willingness to support pharmacogenetic research to guide tobacco cessation treatment. PMID:26871371
Escarrabill, Joan; Clèries, Xavier; Sarrado, Joan Josep
To determine the relevance level of non-technical skills of those professionals dedicated to the healthcare of patients with chronic diseases, from an analysis of home care professionals. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted in 2 phases: 1.st from November 2010 to March 2011 and 2.nd from December 2012 to August 2013. Health Region of Barcelona city. During the 1.st phase, 30 professionals from homecare teams (3 from Primary Care and 3 from Hospitals). In 2.nd phase, 218 professionals from 50 Primary Healthcare Centres and 7 home care programmes. Purposive sampling in was used in the1st phase, and randomized sampling in the 2.nd phase. Likert scales and focus group were used. A total of 19 skill categories were identified in the 1.st phase. In the 2.nd phase 3 metacategories were established: comprehensive patient-centered care, interprofessional organization, and inter-health care fields and interpersonal skills. It is necessary to improve and secure the professionals relationships between levels of healthcare, continuity of healthcare, biopsychosocial model and holistic attention to patients and relatives, looking at emotions, expectations, feelings, beliefs and values. It is essential to design and implement continuing training in transferable skills in every healthcare centre, through active methodologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Goldstein, Carol L; Susman, Ellen; Lockwood, Suzy; Medlin, Erin E; Behbakht, Kian
Awareness of ovarian cancer among women and healthcare providers is understudied. An early awareness of ovarian cancer may lead to early detection and treatment of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of that awareness among a sample of women and providers. Written surveys were developed by the authors based on available literature and were administered to women (n = 857) and healthcare providers (n = 188) attending or volunteering at a community health fair. Chi-square tests for independence and z tests were used for analysis. Healthcare providers were significantly more likely to identify the symptoms and risk factors for ovarian cancer. Forty percent of women reported being at least slightly familiar with the symptoms of ovarian cancer. Women who were familiar with symptoms were significantly more likely to identify symptoms and risk factors correctly and to report symptoms immediately to a provider. Identification of symptoms among healthcare providers ranged from 59%-93%. Identification of ovarian cancer symptoms and risk factors is poor among women, and knowledge deficits are present in providers. Increasing familiarity and awareness could lead to improvements in early diagnosis.
Desai, Tejas; Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming
Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this PageRank is far fewer than that needed by
Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming
Introduction Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. Methods We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. Results We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). Conclusion The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this Page
Davidson, Karina W; Shaffer, Jonathan; Ye, Siqin; Falzon, Louise; Emeruwa, Iheanacho O; Sundquist, Kevin; Inneh, Ifeoma A; Mascitelli, Susan L; Manzano, Wilhelmina M; Vawdrey, David K; Ting, Henry H
Many hospital systems seek to improve patient satisfaction as assessed by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. A systematic review of the current experimental evidence could inform these efforts and does not yet exist. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, the six databases of the Cochrane Library and grey literature databases. We included studies involving hospital patients with interventions targeting at least 1 of the 11 HCAHPS domains, and that met our quality filter score on the 27-item Downs and Black coding scale. We calculated post hoc power when appropriate. A total of 59 studies met inclusion criteria, out of these 44 did not meet the quality filter of 50% (average quality rating 27.8%±10.9%). Of the 15 studies that met the quality filter (average quality rating 67.3%±10.7%), 8 targeted the Communication with Doctors HCAHPS domain, 6 targeted Overall Hospital Rating, 5 targeted Communication with Nurses, 5 targeted Pain Management, 5 targeted Communication about Medicines, 5 targeted Recommend the Hospital, 3 targeted Quietness of the Hospital Environment, 3 targeted Cleanliness of the Hospital Environment and 3 targeted Discharge Information. Significant HCAHPS improvements were reported by eight interventions, but their generalisability may be limited by narrowly focused patient populations, heterogeneity of approach and other methodological concerns. Although there are a few studies that show some improvement in HCAHPS score through various interventions, we conclude that more rigorous research is needed to identify effective and generalisable interventions to improve patient satisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Amyai, N; Darling, Kea; D'Acremont, V; Castro, E; Ebert, S; Monnat Diserens, M; Perdrix, J; Hérard Fossati, A; Bodenmann, P; Cavassini, M
Rapid HIV testing may circumvent the practical barriers to HIV testing in several settings. User preference of the testing kits available has been relatively underexplored. We examined healthcare provider (HCP) ratings of two validated rapid testing kits in clinical practice. From 1 July to 1 December 2012 we prospectively recruited HCPs (clinic nurses) from three outpatient clinics linked to Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. The HCPs had experience in taking blood samples but varying experience in rapid HIV testing. Participating HCPs performed rapid HIV testing using Determine™ Combo (DETE) or INSTI™ (INSTI), according to a predefined randomization sequence, and rated practical aspects of each test using a Likert scale. Seventeen HCPs of 23 approached (74%) were eligible and agreed to participate, performing a total of 336 HIV tests. Globally, the testing procedure was rated as easy or very easy by 97% (DETE) to 99% (INSTI) of tests performed. Among experienced HCPs, DETE was rated easier than INSTI for kit storage (p < 0.001) and blood collection ( P = 0.012) while INSTI was rated easier than DETE for blood application ( P = 0.001) and test interpretation ( P = 0.005). Among less experienced HCPs, both tests performed equally with the exception of test interpretation ( P < 0.001) and overall ease of use ( P = 0.05) in favour of INSTI. Of all HCPs, 94% stated they would recommend INSTI over DETE based on the time to result, ease of test interpretation and overall ease of use. Rapid HIV testing was considered easy to perform, even by inexperienced nursing staff. Whilst both tests were considered easy to use, the HCPs in this study preferred INSTI to DETE overall, due to rapid time to result, ease of test interpretation and general ease of use.
Karl, Katherine A; Peluchette, Joy V; Harland, Lynn
This study examines the role of personality (the Big Five dimensions) in attitudes towards fun and levels of experienced fun in the healthcare environment. Our results show that extraversion and agreeableness were positively related to attitudes toward fun. Extraversion and emotional stability (low neuroticism) were positively related to the level of experienced fun. In general, our sample expressed positive attitudes regarding the appropriateness, salience, and consequences of having fun at work. Additionally, those who reported experiencing greater levels of workplace fun had significantly lower emotional exhaustion and emotional dissonance, as well as higher job satisfaction. Implications for healthcare institutions are discussed.
Berry, Stephen A.; Fleishman, John A.; Yehia, Baligh R.; Cheever, Laura W.; Hauck, Heather; Korthuis, P. Todd; Mathews, W. Christopher; Keruly, Jeanne; Nijhawan, Ank E.; Agwu, Allison L.; Somboonwit, Charurut; Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A.
Background. Before implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014, 100 000 persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) lacked healthcare coverage and relied on a safety net of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program support, local charities, or uncompensated care (RWHAP/Uncomp) to cover visits to HIV providers. We compared HIV provider coverage before (2011–2013) versus after (first half of 2014) ACA implementation among a total of 28 374 PLWH followed up in 4 sites in Medicaid expansion states (California, Oregon, and Maryland), 4 in a state (New York) that expanded Medicaid in 2001, and 2 in nonexpansion states (Texas and Florida). Methods. Multivariate multinomial logistic models were used to assess changes in RWHAP/Uncomp, Medicaid, and private insurance coverage, using Medicare as a referent. Results. In expansion state sites, RWHAP/Uncomp coverage decreased (unadjusted, 28% before and 13% after ACA; adjusted relative risk ratio [ARRR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], .40–.48). Medicaid coverage increased (23% and 38%; ARRR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.70–1.94), and private coverage was unchanged (21% and 19%; 0.96; .89–1.03). In New York sites, both RWHAP/Uncomp (20% and 19%) and Medicaid (50% and 50%) coverage were unchanged, while private coverage decreased (13% and 12%; ARRR, 0.86; 95% CI, .80–.92). In nonexpansion state sites, RWHAP/Uncomp (57% and 52%) and Medicaid (18% and 18%) coverage were unchanged, while private coverage increased (4% and 7%; ARRR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.62–1.99). Conclusions. In expansion state sites, half of PLWH relying on RWHAP/Uncomp coverage shifted to Medicaid, while in New York and nonexpansion state sites, reliance on RWHAP/Uncomp remained constant. In the first half of 2014, the ACA did not eliminate the need for RWHAP safety net provider visit coverage. PMID:27143660
Given the American Geriatrics Society's (AGS) commitment to improving health care for older adults by, among other means, educating older people and their caregivers about their health and healthcare choices, the AGS was delighted when, in late 2011, the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation invited the Society to join its "Choosing Wisely(®) " campaign. Choosing Wisely is designed to engage patients, healthcare professionals, and family caregivers in discussions about the safety and appropriateness of medical tests, medications, and procedures. Ideally, these discussions should examine whether the tests and procedures are evidence-based, whether any risks they pose might overshadow their potential benefits, whether they are redundant, and whether they are truly necessary. In addition to improving the quality of care, the initiative aims to rein in unneeded healthcare spending. According to a 2008 Congressional Budget Office report, as much as 30% of healthcare spending in the United States may be unnecessary. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S
Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers.
Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S.
Introducton: Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. Methods: We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. Results: A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Conclusions: Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers. PMID:25485006
Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140), Laos (136), Senegal (100) and Tanzania (121). Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497) across Ghana (107/140), Laos (136/136), Senegal (51/100) and Tanzania (78/121). Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13%) or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%). Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1) training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73); and 2) ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70). Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1) reading scientific journals from their own country (OR 1.67, 95% CI
Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.
An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…
Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.
An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…
When hope is discussed in bioethics' literature, it is most often in the context of 'false hopes' and/or how to maintain hope while breaking bad news to patients. Little or no time is generally devoted to the description of hope that supports these analyses. In this paper, I present a detailed description of hope, one designed primarily for the healthcare context. Noting that hope is an emotional attitude, four key aspects are explored. In particular, the function of imagination in hope is discussed in depth. Through an examination of the relationship between hope and vulnerability, I demonstrate how adequately describing hope can broaden the normative inquiry into the role of hope in healthcare. Three ways in which persons with hope can be vulnerable are illustrated, and the challenge of how healthcare providers can attend in moral ways to the hopes of patients is identified.
Nicpon, Megan Foley; Pfeiffer, Steven I.
Psychologists working in the schools have an opportunity to affect in new and exciting ways the services they provide to high-ability students. A talent development framework offers a unique lens through which gifted services is conceptualized. The framework moves school psychologists beyond viewing giftedness and high IQ as synonymous to…
Nicpon, Megan Foley; Pfeiffer, Steven I.
Psychologists working in the schools have an opportunity to affect in new and exciting ways the services they provide to high-ability students. A talent development framework offers a unique lens through which gifted services is conceptualized. The framework moves school psychologists beyond viewing giftedness and high IQ as synonymous to…
Paula, Elaine Amaral de; Costa, Mônica Barros; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Bastos, Rita Maria Rodrigues; Vanelli, Chislene Pereira; Leite, Christiane Chaves Augusto; Caminhas, Márcio Santos; Paula, Rogério Baumgratz de
to assess the structure and results obtained by the "Chronic Renal Patients Care Program" in a Brazilian city. epidemiological, cross-sectional study conducted in 14 PHC units and a secondary center from 2010 to 2013. The Donabedian Model was the methodological framework used. A total of 14 physicians, 13 supervisors, and 11 community health agents from primary healthcare were interviewed for the assessment of structure and process and 1,534 medical files from primary healthcare and 282 from secondary care were consulted to assess outcomes. most units lacked sufficient offices for physicians and nurses to provide consultations, had incomplete staffing, and most professionals had not received proper qualification to provide care for chronic renal disease. Physicians from PHC units classified as capable more frequently referred patients to the secondary care service in the early stages of chronic renal disease (stage 3B) when compared to physicians of units considered not capable (58% vs. 36%) (p=0.049). Capable PHC units also more frequently presented stabilized glomerular filtration rates (51%) when compared to partially capable units (36%) and not capable units (44%) (p=0.046). patients cared for by primary healthcare units that scored higher in structure and process criteria presented better clinical outcomes. to identify the coping strategies of family members of patients with mental disorders and relate them to family member sociodemographic variables and to the patient's clinical variables. this was a descriptive study conducted at a psychiatric hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 40 family members of hospitalized patients over the age of 18, and who followed the patient before and during hospitalization. We used tools to characterize the subjects and the Folkman and Lazarus Inventory of Coping Strategies. the coping strategies most often used by family members were social support and problem solving. Mothers and fathers used more
Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Meehan, Kate A; Jimmy, David H; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu J; Stenger, David A
The factors that influence the selection of a healthcare provider once the decision to seek care has been made can be summarized using a triad of cost, location and reputation. The goal of this study was to identify which of these factors is the primary consideration when women in urban Bo, Sierra Leone, select a healthcare provider for themselves or their children. We interviewed 1091 mothers during a household census of two neighbourhoods of Bo in April 2010. Reputation was the top consideration for about half of the women, cost was the second most common priority, and the location of the healthcare facility was the primary consideration for less than 7% of the participants. The majority of women said they would select a new provider if cost was not a barrier. Socioeconomic characteristics were not significant predictors of whether cost, location or reputation was selected as the highest-ranked consideration. This evidence for the importance of reputation in healthcare decision-making even in low-resource areas highlights the need for health systems to address issues of quality and responsiveness, and not just cost, in order to increase access to and utilization of health services.
Westra, Daan; Angeli, Federica; Carree, Martin; Ruwaard, Dirk
Pro-competitive policy reforms have been introduced in several countries, attempting to contain increasing healthcare costs. Yet, research proves ambiguous when it comes to the effect of competition in healthcare, with a number of studies highlighting unintended and unwanted effects. We argue that current empirical work overlooks the role of inter-organizational relations as well as the interplay between policy at macro level, inter-organizational networks at meso level, and outcomes at micro level. To bridge this gap and stimulate a more detailed understanding of the effect of competition in health care, this article introduces a cross-level conceptual framework which emphasizes the intermediary role of cooperative inter-organizational relations at meso level. We discuss how patient transfers, specialist affiliations, and interlocking directorates constitute three forms of inter-organizational relations in health care which can be used within this framework. The paper concludes by deriving several propositions from the framework which can guide future research.
Ponce, Allison N; Clayton, Ashley; Gambino, Matthew; Rowe, Michael
Citizenship is a theoretical framework regarding social inclusion and community participation of people with mental illnesses. It is defined by a person's connection to rights, responsibilities, roles, resources, and relationships. The application of this framework in public mental health settings is in its early stages. This study was an exploration of mental health providers' views of the potential contribution of this framework. Eight focus groups were conducted with 77 providers on teams in a large mental health center. A 12-item brief version of a 46-item measure of citizenship was a starting point for discussion of the relevance of the framework and citizenship supports in public mental health care. Two themes were presented: social, including relatedness, stigma, and meaningful choices, and clinical, including client empowerment and barriers to citizenship work in clinical settings. These themes are discussed in relation to the introduction of citizenship-oriented practices in mental health care. Participant comments reflect openness to the concept of citizenship and the need for greater access to normative community life for clients, but also skepticism regarding the ability of providers and mental health centers to incorporate citizenship approaches in current care models. Findings suggest there are challenges to developing and implementing citizenship supports in public mental health settings based on social and clinical factors and limitations. However, it is also noted that efforts to address challenges through consultation and education of providers can support the goal of a life in the community for persons with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ahmed, Ashir; Kabir, Lutfe; Kai, Eiko; Inoue, Sozo
Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a "portable clinic" and a software tool, "GramHealth" for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of "GramHealth". We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support.
Davis, Janis; Foley, Amy; Crigger, Nancy; Brannigan, Michael C.
The optimal relationship between healthcare provider and patient is one of trust. This therapeutic relationship is dependent on the ability of the healthcare provider to communicate effectively with the patient. Research indicates that when healthcare providers listen to patients, there is more compliance with medical regimens, patient…
Davis, Janis; Foley, Amy; Crigger, Nancy; Brannigan, Michael C.
The optimal relationship between healthcare provider and patient is one of trust. This therapeutic relationship is dependent on the ability of the healthcare provider to communicate effectively with the patient. Research indicates that when healthcare providers listen to patients, there is more compliance with medical regimens, patient…
Bustamante, Arturo Vargas
This study investigates household out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures (OPH) and preventive care utilization (PHU) to compare federal and state healthcare provider performance in villages targeted by conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes in poor rural areas of Mexico. Lower OPH and higher PHU are indicative of better performance in the study setting. Log-linear and probit regression models were used to compare outcomes in households from treatment and control villages reached by federal and state healthcare providers. In treatment villages, eligible households receive cash grants from the CCT programme. In control villages, eligible households do not receive cash grants from the CCT programme at the time of the survey. Families who live in treatment villages reported lower OPH (-52.5% for federal and -46.2% for state clinics) and higher PHU (21% for federal and 20% for state clinics) regardless of clinic setting. As the reduction in OPH is higher in areas reached by the federal clinics, it implies better performance from this healthcare delivery system. Additionally, federal clinic outcomes were also more homogeneous because OPH are not significantly different between treatment and control villages. Alternative measures such as drug and physician expenditures, diabetes and hypertension tests and nutritional-supplement receipt confirmed these findings. Mexico has two healthcare delivery systems that cater to identical rural populations. The better-funded and more centralized federal system is more effective at providing health care in poor rural villages of Mexico regardless of CCT participation. State clinics in villages targeted by the CCT programme, however, perform significantly better. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Alameddine, Mohamad; Saleh, Shadi; Natafgi, Nabil
Successful endorsement of quality indicators hinges on the readiness and acceptability of care providers for those measures. This paper aims to assess the readiness of care providers in the primary health-care sector in Lebanon for the implementation of quality and patient safety indicators. A cross-sectional survey methodology was utilized to gather information from 943 clinical care providers working at 123 primary health-care centres in Lebanon. The questionnaire included two sections: the first assessed four readiness dimensions (appropriateness, management support, efficacy, and personal valence) of clinical providers to use quality and safety indicators using the Readiness for Organization Change (ROC) scale, and the second section assessed the safety attitude at the primary care centre utilizing the Agency of Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ)-Ambulatory version. Although two thirds (66%) of respondents indicated readiness for implementation of quality and patient safety indicators in their centres, there appear to be differences by professional group. Physicians displayed the lowest scores on all readiness dimensions except for personal valence which was the lowest among nurses (60%). In contrast, allied health professionals displayed the highest scores across all readiness dimensions. Generally, respondents reflected a positive safety attitude climate in the centres. Yet, there remain a few areas of concern related to punitive culture (only 12.8% agree that staff should not be punished for reported errors/incidents), continuity of care (41.1% believe in the negative consequences of lack in continuity of care process), and resources (48.1% believe that the medical equipment they have are adequate). Providers with the highest SAQ score had 2.7, 1.7, 7 and 2.4 times the odds to report a higher readiness on the appropriateness, efficacy, management and personal valence ROC subscales, respectively (P value <0.01). Nurses
Zelingher, Julian; Ash, Nachman
The IsraeLi healthcare system has undergone major processes for the adoption of health information technologies (HIT), and enjoys high Levels of utilization in hospital and ambulatory care. Coding is an essential infrastructure component of HIT, and ts purpose is to represent data in a simplified and common format, enhancing its manipulation by digital systems. Proper coding of data enables efficient identification, storage, retrieval and communication of data. UtiLization of uniform coding systems by different organizations enables data interoperability between them, facilitating communication and integrating data elements originating in different information systems from various organizations. Current needs in Israel for heaLth data coding include recording and reporting of diagnoses for hospitalized patients, outpatients and visitors of the Emergency Department, coding of procedures and operations, coding of pathology findings, reporting of discharge diagnoses and causes of death, billing codes, organizational data warehouses and national registries. New national projects for cLinicaL data integration, obligatory reporting of quality indicators and new Ministry of Health (MOH) requirements for HIT necessitate a high Level of interoperability that can be achieved only through the adoption of uniform coding. Additional pressures were introduced by the USA decision to stop the maintenance of the ICD-9-CM codes that are also used by Israeli healthcare, and the adoption of ICD-10-C and ICD-10-PCS as the main coding system for billing purpose. The USA has also mandated utilization of SNOMED-CT as the coding terminology for the ELectronic Health Record problem list, and for reporting quality indicators to the CMS. Hence, the Israeli MOH has recently decided that discharge diagnoses will be reported using ICD-10-CM codes, and SNOMED-CT will be used to code the cLinical information in the EHR. We reviewed the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these two coding
Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Salima; Rahman, Monjur; Alam, Nazmul; Martens, Monika; Somrongthong, Ratana
Objectives This study aimed to identify the barriers female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh face with regard to accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, and assess the satisfaction with the healthcare received. Methods Data were collected from coverage areas of four community-based drop-in-centers (DICs) in Dhaka where sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunovirus (HIV) prevention interventions have been implemented for FSWs. A total of 731 FSWs aged 15–49 years were surveyed. In addition, in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 14 FSWs and 9 service providers. Respondent satisfaction was measured based on recorded scores on dignity, privacy, autonomy, confidentiality, prompt attention, access to social support networks during care, basic amenities, and choice of institution/care provider. Results Of 731 FSWs, 353 (51%) reported facing barriers when seeking sexual and reproductive healthcare. Financial problems (72%), shame about receiving care (52.3%), unwillingness of service providers to provide care (39.9%), unfriendly behavior of the provider (24.4%), and distance to care (16.9%) were mentioned as barriers. Only one-third of the respondents reported an overall satisfaction score of more than fifty percent (a score of between 9 and16) with formal healthcare. Inadequacy or lack of SRH services and referral problems (e.g., financial charge at referral centers, unsustainable referral provision, or unknown location of referral) were reported by the qualitative FSWs as the major barriers to accessing and utilizing SRH care. Conclusions These findings are useful for program implementers and policy makers to take the necessary steps to reduce or remove the barriers in the health system that are preventing FSWs from accessing SRH care, and ultimately meet the unmet healthcare needs of FSWs. PMID:28759575
Han, Ke; Dou, Feng-man; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping
To evaluate the compliance on hand-hygiene and related factors among healthcare providers working at secondary and tertiary hospitals in Chengdu. On-site observations regarding hand-hygiene compliance and facilities were conducted in 6 hospitals in Chengdu. Doctors and nurses were asked and recorded about their knowledge regarding hand-hygiene. Of 1535 activities where hand-hygiene was deemed necessary, under observating healthcare providers would perform hand-hygiene procedures 17.8% of the time (12.8% of the time before touching a patient, 21.0% of the time before touching objects around a patient, 27.3% of the time after touching a patient, and 31.5% of the time after removing gloves). Only 2.2% of the treating rooms were equipped with foot-operated or automatic faucets;of these only 24.5% had soap or alcohol-based hand-sanitizer, and 6.3% had paper towel or other hand-drying equipment. 92.8% of the healthcare providers knew of the six-step method on hand-washing. More than 90.0% of the healthcare providers knew that both palm and back of the hands as well as the front and back of the fingers should be washed. However, only 22.8% knew that the hand-washing procedure should last ≥ 15 seconds. Rates on hand hygiene among chief or more senior physicians (14.6%), attending physicians (9.2%) and junior doctors (15.6%), nurses in chief (25.0%), senior nurses (26.3%) and junior nurses (20.5%) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Similarly, scores on related knowledge between chief or senior physicians (12.4 ± 3.2), attending physicians (13.6 ± 3.3) and junior doctors (13.4 ± 2.9), nurses in charge (15.2 ± 2.0), senior nurses (14.8 ± 2.1) and junior nurses (14.3 ± 2.6) also showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Rate on hand hygiene among nurses (22.7%) was significantly higher than that of the doctors (13.6%). Rate of hand hygiene among 50 - 59 years old healthcare providers (7.4%) was significantly lower than those of all the other age groups
This report updates the 1991 CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected health-care providers and students to reduce risk for transmitting HBV to patients during the conduct of exposure-prone invasive procedures (CDC. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. MMWR 1991;40[No. RR-8]). This update reflects changes in the epidemiology of HBV infection in the United States and advances in the medical management of chronic HBV infection and policy directives issued by health authorities since 1991. The primary goal of this report is to promote patient safety while providing risk management and practice guidance to HBV-infected health-care providers and students, particularly those performing exposure-prone procedures such as certain types of surgery. Because percutaneous injuries sustained by health-care personnel during certain surgical, obstetrical, and dental procedures provide a potential route of HBV transmission to patients as well as providers, this report emphasizes prevention of operator injuries and blood exposures during exposure-prone surgical, obstetrical, and dental procedures. These updated recommendations reaffirm the 1991 CDC recommendation that HBV infection alone should not disqualify infected persons from the practice or study of surgery, dentistry, medicine, or allied health fields. The previous recommendations have been updated to include the following changes: no prenotification of patients of a health-care provider's or student's HBV status; use of HBV DNA serum levels rather than hepatitis B e-antigen status to monitor infectivity; and, for those health-care professionals requiring oversight, specific suggestions for composition of expert review panels and threshold value of serum HBV DNA considered "safe" for practice (<1,000 IU/ml). These recommendations also explicitly address the issue of medical and
Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM. PMID:26324078
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L
Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM.
NP) were included in this study. Exclusion Hypertension 28 criteria included pregnant women with hypertension, those less than 40 years of age, and...mls) of ethanol per day for women and lighter weight people). 3. To what extent do Military Healthcare Providers adhere to the JNC VI recommendations...humanitarian missions, the deployment of military personnel is inevitable. Healthy Airmen will therefore deploy physically able, fit men and women
Background To develop and evaluate a continuing medical education (CME) course aimed at improving healthcare provider knowledge about breast cancer health disparities and the importance of cross-cultural communication in provider-patient interactions about breast cancer screening. Methods An interactive web-based CME course was developed and contained information about breast cancer disparities, the role of culture in healthcare decision making, and demonstrated a model of cross-cultural communication. A single group pre-/post-test design was used to assess knowledge changes. Data on user satisfaction was also collected. Results In all, 132 participants registered for the CME with 103 completing both assessments. Differences between pre-/post-test show a significant increase in knowledge (70% vs. 94%; p < .001). Ninety-five percent of participants agreed that the web based training was an appropriate tool to train healthcare providers about cultural competency and health disparities. Conclusion There was an overall high level of satisfaction among all users. Users felt that learning objectives were met and the web-based format was appropriate and easy to use and suggests that web-based CME formats are an appropriate tool to teach cultural competency skills. However, more information is needed to understand how the CME impacted practice behaviors. PMID:21843344
Regular physical activity reduces the risk for heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure; helps in the control of weight; and maintains muscles, joints, and bone strength. Physical activity also might afford additional benefits for adults aged > or = 50 years by increasing coordination and balance, preventing falls, and maintaining independence. Despite these findings, the prevalence of inactivity increases with age, and approximately one third of older U.S. adults are not active during their leisure time. The national health objectives for 2010 include recommendations to increase the proportion of adults who engage in regular, preferably daily, moderate physical activity for > or = 30 minutes per day and vigorous physical activity > or = 3 days per week for > or = 20 minutes per occasion. To evaluate whether health-care providers ask about physical activity among older adults, CDC analyzed data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate that approximately half of older adults who attended a routine check-up during the previous year reported being asked about physical activity by their health-care providers. To help older adults make lifestyle changes, health-care providers should ask older adults during routine check-ups about their physical activity levels.
Environmental Factors that Influence Communication between People with Communication Disability and Their Healthcare Providers in Hospital: A Review of the Literature within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Framework
O'Halloran, Robyn; Hickson, Louise; Worrall, Linda
The importance of effective healthcare communication between healthcare providers and people needing healthcare is well established. People with communication disabilities are at risk of not being able to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers and this might directly compromise their health, healthcare and their right to…
Environmental Factors that Influence Communication between People with Communication Disability and Their Healthcare Providers in Hospital: A Review of the Literature within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Framework
O'Halloran, Robyn; Hickson, Louise; Worrall, Linda
The importance of effective healthcare communication between healthcare providers and people needing healthcare is well established. People with communication disabilities are at risk of not being able to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers and this might directly compromise their health, healthcare and their right to…
Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A.; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T.; Heuer, Loretta J.; Mee Lee, Sang; Solomon, Marla C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.
Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76–100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients. PMID:24858866
Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H
Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.
Rogers, S J; Tureski, K; Cushnie, A; Brown, A; Bailey, A; Palmer, Q
While considerable research has documented stigma toward key populations affected by HIV and AIDS - men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SWs) - it provided limited empirical evidence on the presence of layered stigma among health-care professionals providing services for these populations. C-Change conducted a survey among 332 staff of health-care and social service agencies in Jamaica and The Bahamas to understand the levels of stigma toward people living with HIV (PLHIV), including MSM and SWs and factors associated with stigma. While most health-care professionals responding to the survey said that PLHIV, MSM, and SWs deserved quality care, they expressed high levels of blame and negative judgments, especially toward MSM and SWs. Across a stigma assessment involving eight vignette characters, the highest levels of stigma were expressed toward PLHIV who were also MSM or SWs, followed by PLHIV, MSM, and SWs. Differences were assessed by gender, country, type of staff, type of agency, and exposure to relevant training. Findings indicate higher reported stigma among nonclinical vs. clinical staff, staff who worked in general vs. MSM/SW-friendly health facilities, and among untrained vs. training staff. This implies the need for targeted staff capacity strengthening as well as improved facility environments that are MSM/SW-friendly.
Sinclair, Shane; Kondejewski, Jane; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Singh, Pavneet
This meta-narrative review, conducted according to the RAMESES (Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) standards, critically examines the construct of self-compassion to determine if it is an accurate target variable to mitigate work-related stress and promote compassionate caregiving in healthcare providers. PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies were coded as referring to: (1) conceptualisation of self-compassion; (2) measures of self-compassion; (3) self-compassion and affect; and (4) self-compassion interventions. A narrative approach was used to evaluate self-compassion as a paradigm. Sixty-nine studies were included. The construct of self-compassion in healthcare has significant limitations. Self-compassion has been related to the definition of compassion, but includes limited facets of compassion and adds elements of uncompassionate behavior. Empirical studies use the Self-Compassion Scale, which is criticised for its psychometric and theoretical validity. Therapeutic interventions purported to cultivate self-compassion may have a broader effect on general affective states. An alleged outcome of self-compassion is compassionate care; however, we found no studies that included patient reports on this primary outcome. We critically examine and delineate self-compassion in healthcare providers as a composite of common facets of self-care, healthy self-attitude, and self-awareness rather than a construct in and of itself. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Vanlaere, Linus; Timmermann, Madeleine; Stevens, Marleen; Gastmans, Chris
In recent approaches to ethics, the personal involvement of health care providers and their empathy are perceived as important elements of an overall ethical ability. Experiential working methods are used in ethics education to foster, inter alia, empathy. In 2008, the care-ethics lab 'sTimul' was founded in Flanders, Belgium, to provide training that focuses on improving care providers' ethical abilities through experiential working simulations. The curriculum of sTimul focuses on empathy sessions, aimed at care providers' empathic skills. The present study provides better insight into how experiential learning specifically targets the empathic abilities of care providers. Providing contrasting experiences that affect the care providers' self-reflection seems a crucial element in this study. Further research is needed to provide more insight into how empathy leads to long-term changes in behaviour.
Benini, Franca; Vecchi, Roberta; Lazzarin, Pierina; Jankovic, Momcilo; Orsi, Luciano; Manfredini, Luca; Drigo, Paola; Sellaroli, Valentina; Gangemi, Michele; Spizzichino, Marco; Orzalesi, Marcello
The death of a child is a devastating and tragic event for all those involved. This charter aims to help healthcare workers and people assisting terminally ill children to recognize some important rights of the child, with some related suggestions. We consider it important to have a trace of this process, based on the skillfulness of long-lasting experts. In September 2012, a group of professionals working with children affected by incurable illness in Italy launched a project to formulate the charter. Trieste is the city where the group of professionals first met to start the project. The first step was a detailed literature search on the topic, the second step was an extensive discussion among the professionals (writing committee) to prepare a first draft; later (third step) the draft was revised by 38 experts in different areas, including patient and family representatives, and lastly (fourth step) the final version of the charter was prepared. We developed a document containing 10 rights and corresponding duties that could be applied to any clinical situation or circumstances and used as a guide by professionals and families caring for children in the terminal stages of an illness. The Trieste Charter proposes fundamental rights for children who are approaching the end of their lives. The charter will have achieved its purpose when every person caring for a dying child is capable of staying near the child until the last moments of his or her life, prepared to accept his or her death, ensuring both respect and dignity.
DiGiovanni, Lisa Marie
The American Heart Association's HeartCode[TM] Healthcare Provider (HCP) Basic Life Support (BLS) e-learning program with voice-advisory manikins was implemented in an acute care hospital as the only teaching method offered for BLS certification. On course evaluations, healthcare provider staff commented that the VAM technology for skills practice…
DiGiovanni, Lisa Marie
The American Heart Association's HeartCode[TM] Healthcare Provider (HCP) Basic Life Support (BLS) e-learning program with voice-advisory manikins was implemented in an acute care hospital as the only teaching method offered for BLS certification. On course evaluations, healthcare provider staff commented that the VAM technology for skills practice…
Saddiqi, H.A.; Jabbar, A.; Babar, W.; Sarwar, M.; Iqbal, Z.; Cabaret, J.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the worm control practices and anthelmintic usage of 150 key respondents involved in sheep and goat production in the arid Thal area of Pakistan. The information was collected by visiting farms, and interviewing the key respondents which included veterinary officers (n = 15), veterinary assistants (n = 51), traditional practitioners (n = 24), and small and large scale sheep/goat farm herders and owners (n = 60). Among all interviewed animal healthcare providers, the veterinary officers had the highest level of awareness of parasitic infection and advocated the use of modern available anthelmintics according to the predefined schedule. The farmers on the other hand, had the lowest level of knowledge about parasitic infections. They used modern anthelmintics at low frequencies (every six months) following an unusual practice of diluting the medicine. Veterinary assistants had a medium level of awareness about the parasitic infections using anthelmintic treatments when they deemed necessary rather than following a predefined treatment schedule. Traditional practitioners were also aware of parasitic infections and used traditional anthelmintics or a combination of the traditional and modern anthelmintics. The animal health providers had a different awareness and knowledge of parasitic infections which resulted in contrasting proposals for its control. The farmers used worm control measures in accordance with their own views and those of animal healthcare advisors, combining modern and traditional treatments. This study provides the first insight into the differing views of those animal healthcare providers who form the basis for effective parasitic control within the sheep and goat industry of an arid region. PMID:22314240
Blanchette, Marc-André; Rivard, Michèle; Dionne, Clermont E; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Steenstra, Ivan
Objective To compare the duration of financial compensation and the occurrence of a second episode of compensation of workers with occupational back pain who first sought three types of healthcare providers. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 5511 workers who received compensation from the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board for back pain in 2005. Multivariable Cox models controlling for relevant covariables were performed to compare the duration of financial compensation for the patients of each of the three types of first healthcare providers. Logistic regression was used to compare the occurrence of a second episode of compensation over the 2-year follow-up period. Results Compared with the workers who first saw a physician (reference), those who first saw a chiropractor experienced shorter first episodes of 100 % wage compensation (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20 [1.10-1.31], P value < 0.001), and the workers who first saw a physiotherapist experienced a longer episode of 100 % compensation (adjusted HR = 0.84 [0.71-0.98], P value = 0.028) during the first 149 days of compensation. The odds of having a second episode of financial compensation were higher among the workers who first consulted a physiotherapist (OR = 1.49 [1.02-2.19], P value = 0.040) rather than a physician (reference). Conclusion The type of healthcare provider first visited for back pain is a determinant of the duration of financial compensation during the first 5 months. Chiropractic patients experience the shortest duration of compensation, and physiotherapy patients experience the longest. These differences raise concerns regarding the use of physiotherapists as gatekeepers for the worker's compensation system. Further investigation is required to understand the between-provider differences.
Saddiqi, H A; Jabbar, A; Babar, W; Sarwar, M; Iqbal, Z; Cabaret, J
A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the worm control practices and anthelmintic usage of 150 key respondents involved in sheep and goat production in the arid Thal area of Pakistan. The information was collected by visiting farms, and interviewing the key respondents which included veterinary officers (n = 15), veterinary assistants (n = 51), traditional practitioners (n = 24), and small and large scale sheep/goat farm herders and owners (n = 60). Among all interviewed animal healthcare providers, the veterinary officers had the highest level of awareness of parasitic infection and advocated the use of modern available anthelmintics according to the predefined schedule. The farmers on the other hand, had the lowest level of knowledge about parasitic infections. They used modern anthelmintics at low frequencies (every six months) following an unusual practice of diluting the medicine. Veterinary assistants had a medium level of awareness about the parasitic infections using anthelmintic treatments when they deemed necessary rather than following a predefined treatment schedule. Traditional practitioners were also aware of parasitic infections and used traditional anthelmintics or a combination of the traditional and modern anthelmintics. The animal health providers had a different awareness and knowledge of parasitic infections which resulted in contrasting proposals for its' control. The farmers used worm control measures in accordance with their own views and those of animal healthcare advisors, combining modern and traditional treatments. This study provides the first insight into the differing views of those animal healthcare providers who form the basis for effective parasitic control within the sheep and goat industry of an arid region.
Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.; Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R.
Heliospheric remote sensing, in particular those using Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) observations, allow the 3-D reconstruction of solar wind parameters globally. These parameters include velocity, density, and by extrapolation from solar surface magnetogram observations, vector magnetic field components. Since the year 2000, the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STELab), Nagoya University, Japan, has provided a source of IPS data with short-enough latency to enable forecasts of these solar wind parameters throughout the inner heliosphere. Over time these techniques have been improved upon with data from other radio sites (Ootacamund - Ooty - India; and the European Incoherent SCATter - EISCAT - radio telescopes based across Northern Scandinavia). Here we review the improvements, limitations, and the potential future of these techniques. In particular in one new development, the ability to measure polarization from radio sources allows the possibility to use Faraday rotation inputs to reconstruct heliospheric vector magnetic fields without a reliance on solar surface magnetic field extrapolation.
Starkey, L Jay; Maeda, Shoichi
In Japan, medical error leading to patient death is often handled through the criminal rather than civil justice system. However, the number of cases handled through the criminal system and how this has changed in recent years has not previously been described. Our aim was to determine the trend in reports of patient death to the police and the trend in the resulting prosecution of healthcare providers for medical error leading to patient death from 1998 to 2008. We collected data regarding the number of police reports of patient death made by physicians, next-of-kin, and other sources between 1998 and 2008. We also collected data regarding the number of resulting criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers between 1998 and 2008. Reporting and prosecution trends were analyzed using annual linear regression models. The number physician reports of patient deaths to the police increased significantly during the study period (slope 18.68, R2 = 0.78, P < 0.001) while reports made by next-of-kin and others did not. Mean annual reporting rates by group were physicians 130.1 (+/- 70.1), next-of-kin 29.3 (+/- 12.5), and others 10.4 (+/- 6.0). Prosecutions: The number of resulting criminal prosecutions increased significantly during the study period (slope 9.21, R2 = 0.83, P < 0.001). The mean annual prosecution rate was 61.0 (+/- 33.6). The reporting of patient deaths to the police by physicians increased significantly from 1998 to 2008 while those made by next-of-kin and others did not. The resulting criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers increased significantly during the same time period. The reasons for these increases are unclear and should be the focus of future research.
Chew, Boon-How; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Ismail, Mastura; Hamzah, Zuhra; A-Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan; Md-Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Ali, Norsiah; Mohd-Salleh, Noridah; Bashah, Baizury
To examine impressions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) who are working closely with family medicine specialists (FMSs) at public health clinics. Cross-sectional study. This study is part of a larger national study on the perception of Malaysian public healthcare professionals on FMSs (PERMFAMS). PHCPs from three categories of health facility: hospitals, health clinics and health offices. Qualitative analyses of written comments of respondents' general impression of FMSs. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345), with almost equal proportions from each public healthcare facility. A total of 23 categories for each of the 648 impression comments were identified. The six emerging themes were: (1) importance of FMSs; (2) roles of FMSs; (3) clinical performance of FMSs; (4) attributes of FMSs; (5) FMS practice challenges; (6) misconception of FMS roles. Overall, FMS practice was perceived to be safe and able to provide effective treatments in a challenging medical discipline that was in line with the current standards of medical care and ethical and professional values. The areas of concern were in clinical performance expressed by PHCPs from some hospitals and the lack of personal attributes and professionalism among FMSs mentioned by PHCPs from health clinics and offices. FMSs were perceived to be capable of providing effective treatment and were considered to be important primary care physicians. There were a few negative impressions in some areas of FMS practice, which demanded attention by the FMSs themselves and the relevant authorities in order to improve efficiency and safeguard the fraternity's reputation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Beals, Janette
Cultural competence models assume that culture affects medical encounters, yet little research uses objective measures to examine how this may be true. Do providers and racial/ethnic minority patients interpret the same interactions similarly or differently? How might patterns of provider-patient concordance and discordance vary for patients with different cultural characteristics? We collected survey data from 115 medical visits with American Indian older adults at a clinic operated by the Cherokee Nation (in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA), asking providers and patients to evaluate 9 affective and instrumental interactions. Examining data from the full sample, we found that provider and patient ratings were significantly discordant for all interactions (Wilcoxon test p ≤ .02). However, discordance typically reflected a trend in which providers were more critical of their own behaviors than were patients. These findings suggest that providers serving American Indian patients often create greater satisfaction than they believe. We then distinguished cultural subgroups of patients, comparing magnitude of provider-patient discordance on specific interactions for patients at different levels of American Indian and White American cultural identity. Patients who affiliated strongly with American Indian cultural identity more closely shared providers' reduced evaluation for several variables related to information exchange, as compared to patients who identified weakly. These results flag interactions that providers and their most culturally distinctive patients both experience as challenging. PMID:18524443
Muskat, Barbara; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Nicholas, David B; Roberts, Wendy; Stoddart, Kevin P; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Youth with autism spectrum disorder are a vulnerable, often poorly understood patient group, who may experience periodic and chronic health challenges, in addition to their primary developmental social and communication problems. Developmental and behavioural challenges can complicate management of acute health-care needs. To date, there is an absence of empirical research exploring the hospital experiences of children and youth with autism spectrum disorder, their families and their health-care providers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand these experiences in order to inform hospital-based care. A total of 42 participants were interviewed (youth with autism spectrum disorder, their parents and health-care providers) at one of two Canadian paediatric hospitals, representing 20 distinct cases of patients with autism spectrum disorder. Results from the qualitative analyses indicated that patients with autism spectrum disorder faced several challenges in the context of health-care delivery in the hospital setting, as did their families and health-care provider team. Problems identified included communication and sensory challenges, and the degree of flexibility of health-care providers and the hospital organization. Supportive health-care providers were those who acknowledged parents as experts, inquired about the requirements of patients with autism spectrum disorder and implemented strategies that accommodated the unique clinical presentation of the individual patient. These recommendations have wide-reaching utility for hospital and health-care practices involving this patient group.
Hogan, Michael V
An adaptation of a childhood game as a means of providing flawless service to customers will allow security departments to increase their scope and quality of service, the author points out. Teaching our officers the concept of playing "tag, " embracing being "it" and finishing the game will provide a significant return on investment by expanding the value of our departments, he says.
Atchison, C. `; Stredney, D.; Hittle, B.; Irving, K.; Toomey, R. S., III; Lemon, N. N.; Price, A.; Kerwin, T.
Based on an identified need to accommodate students with mobility impairments in field-based instructional experiences, this presentation will discuss current efforts to promote participation, broaden diversity, and impart a historical perspective in the geosciences through the use of an interactive virtual environment. Developed through the integration of emerging simulation technologies, this prototypical virtual environment is created from LIDAR data of the Historic Tour route of Mammoth Cave National Park. The educational objectives of the simulation focus on four primary locations within the tour route that provide evidence of the hydrologic impact on the cave and karst formation. The overall objective is to provide a rich experience of a geological field-based learning for all students, regardless of their physical abilities. Employing a virtual environment that interchangeably uses two and three-dimensional representation of geoscience content, this synthetic field-based cave and karst module will provide an opportunity to assess the effectiveness in engaging the student community, and its efficacy in the curriculum when used as an alternative representation of a traditional field experience. The expected outcome is that based on the level of interactivity, the simulated environment will provide adequate pedagogical representation for content transfer without the need for physical experience in the uncontrolled field environment. Additionally, creating such an environment will impact all able-bodied students by providing supplemental resources that can both precede a traditional field experience and allow for students to re-examine a field site long after a the field experience, in both current formal and informal educational settings.
Nguyen, T; Henderson, D; Stewart, D; Hlyva, O; Punthakee, Z; Gorter, J W
Recent evidence suggests that fostering strategies to enable youth with chronic health conditions to work towards gradual self-management of their health is key in successful transition to adult healthcare. To date, there is limited research on self-management promotion for youth. The purpose of this study is to explore self-management from the perspectives of youth, parents and healthcare providers in transition to adult healthcare. Part of a larger longitudinal transition (TRACE-2009-2013) study, interpretive phenomenology was used to explore the meaning of the lived experiences and perceptions of youth, parents, and healthcare providers about transition to adult healthcare. Purposeful sampling was utilized to select youth with a range of chronic health conditions from the TRACE cohort (spanning 20 diagnoses including developmental disabilities and chronic conditions), their parents and healthcare providers. The emerging three themes were: increasing independence of youth; parents as safety nets and healthcare providers as enablers and collaborators. The findings indicate that the experiences of transitioning youth, parents and service providers are interconnected and interdependent. Results support a dynamic and developmentally appropriate approach when working with transitioning youth and parents in practice. As youth depend on parents and healthcare providers for support in taking charge of their own health, parents and healthcare providers must work together to enable youth for self-management. At a policy level, adequate funding, institutional support and accreditation incentives are recommended to allow for designated time for healthcare providers to foster self-management skills in transitioning youth and parents. © 2016 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kasting, Monica L; Wilson, Shannon; Dixon, Brian E; Downs, Stephen M; Kulkarni, Amit; Zimet, Gregory D
Provider recommendation is a significant predictor of HPV vaccine uptake. Prior research suggests that concerns regarding risk compensation could cause some providers to hesitate recommending the HPV vaccine. During 15-30 minute semi-structured interviews in early 2015, 22 U.S. pediatric providers were asked about their beliefs regarding sexual risk compensation and cervical cancer screening following HPV vaccination. Providers were asked if these beliefs result in reservations recommending the vaccine. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using inductive content analysis. None of the providers believed the HPV vaccine would result in risky sexual behavior. Half indicated it was better to start vaccination early, before sexual activity was a worry. Others noted that patients' risky behavior decisions happen independently of vaccination. When providers were asked if they were concerned about decreased cervical cancer screening, half said they did not know and some stated they had never thought about it before. The main themes addressed were the significant time lapse between vaccination and screening and that women tend to get over-screened as opposed to under-screened. Providers were generally in favor of HPV vaccination and do not perceive risk compensation as a barrier to HPV recommendation.
Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Rose, Adam J; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Wiener, Renda S; Gifford, Allen L; Berlowitz, Dan R
Testosterone prescribing rates have increased substantially in the past decade. However, little is known about the context within which such prescriptions occur. We evaluated provider- and site-level determinants of receipt of testosterone and of guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. This study was cross-sectional in design. This study was conducted at the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Study participants were a national cohort of male patients who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the VA during fiscal year (FY) 2008 to FY 2012. A total of 38,648 providers and 130 stations were associated with these patients. This study measured receipt of testosterone and guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. Providers ranging in age from 31 to 60 years, with less experience in the VA [all adjusted odds ratio (AOR), <2; P < 0.01] and credentialed as medical doctors in endocrinology (AOR, 3.88; P < 0.01) and urology (AOR, 1.48; P < 0.01) were more likely to prescribe testosterone compared with older providers, providers of longer VA tenure, and primary care providers, respectively. Sites located in the West compared with the Northeast [AOR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-2.11] and care received at a community-based outpatient clinic compared with a medical center (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.20-1.24) also predicted testosterone use. Although they were more likely to prescribe testosterone, endocrinologists were also more likely to obtain an appropriate workup before prescribing compared with primary care providers (AOR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.54-2.97). Our results highlight the opportunity to intervene at both the provider and the site levels to improve testosterone prescribing. This study also provides a useful example of how to examine contributions to prescribing variation at different levels of the health care system.
Alanazi, Mohammed R; Alamry, Ahmed; Alsurmi, Khaled
One of the main purposes of healthcare organizations is to serve patients by providing safe and high-quality patient-centered care. Patients are considered the most appropriate source to assess the quality level of healthcare services. The objectives of this paper were to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey for Arabic speaking populations, examine the degree of equivalence between the original English version and the Arabic translated version, and estimate and report the validity and reliability of the translated Arabic HCAHPS version. The translation process had four main steps: (1) qualified bilingual translators translated the HCAHPS from English to Arabic; (2) the Arabic version was translated back to English and reviewed by experts to ensure content accuracy (content equivalence); (3) both Arabic and English versions were verified for accuracy and validity of the translation, checking for the similarities and differences (semantic equivalence); (4) finally, two independent bilinguals reviewed and made the final revision of both the Arabic and English versions separately and agreed on one final version that is similar and equivalent to the original English version in terms of content and meaning. The study findings showed that the overall Cronbach's α for the Arabic HCAHPS version was 0.90, showing good internal consistency across the 9 separate domains, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.97 Cronbach's α. The correlation coefficient between each statement for each separate domain revealed a highly positive significant correlation ranging from 0.72 to 0.89. The results of the study show empirical evidence of validity and reliability of HCAHPS in its Arabic version. Moreover, the Arabic version of HCAHPS in our study presented good internal consistency and it is highly recommended to be replicated and applied in the context of other Arab countries.
Tyree, Tammy L; Long, Carol O; Greenberg, Edward A
As nurse practitioners become more vital to primary care, they are also more apt to play a role in end-of-life care. In order to be proficient providers, NPs must familiarize themselves with issues surrounding EOL care.
Hudson, Sharon M; Rondinelli, June; Glenn, Beth A; Preciado, Melissa; Chao, Chun
This qualitative study aimed to identify doctors' and nurses' perceptions of patient-, provider-, and system-level factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion that may be targets for intervention. We analyzed data from 61 qualitative interviews with pediatricians, family medicine physicians, and immunization nurses at medical centers that had the highest and lowest HPV vaccine completion rates within the same health care system. In both groups, almost all providers reported strong support for the HPV vaccine. In detailing how they talk to parents and patients about the vaccine, more of the providers working at higher completion centers described using effective communication techniques, including engaging parents and patients in two-way conversation and demonstrating awareness of cultural and practical barriers to completion that families may face. Providers at higher completion centers were also more likely to depict a local medical culture supportive of and committed to HPV vaccine completion, with greater levels of proactivity and teamwork. In contrast, providers working at lower completion medical centers described a lack of proactivity, and the strategies they suggested to improve HPV vaccine completion tended to be approaches that someone other than medical providers would implement. The comments made by these providers sometimes reflected a level of negativity and judgment absent from the comments of providers at higher completion centers. Interventions to improve HPV vaccination completion rates should address both individual- and system-level factors. Improving communication skills, encouraging a supportive medical culture, and addressing resource issues is likely to improve vaccine adherence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
DeVoe, JE; Stenger, R
Background The United States (US) is reforming primary care delivery systems, including the implementation of ‘patient-centered medical homes.’ Alignment of provider incentives with desired outcomes will likely be important to the success of these delivery system reforms. Methods This critical review uses a theoretical framework from game-theory models to discuss some of the dominant primary care provider payment models and how they create ‘prisoner’s dilemmas’ that have stalled past reform efforts. It then uses this framework to illustrate, hypothetically, how advantages from different models could be blended together to encourage cooperation and improve the quality of primary care services delivered, thus providing an escape from current prisoner’s dilemmas faced by providers. Findings Improvements in primary care delivery will largely hinge on blended payment mechanisms that can effectively combine the advantageous elements of fee-for-service, capitation, and incentive payments into a balanced equation that enables providers to escape the perverse financial incentives of current payment mechanisms and overcome collective action problems. Conclusions If balanced appropriately, a blend of guaranteed payment and selective incentives designed to encourage primary care providers to deliver high quality care, efficient and equitable care and to eliminate incentives towards over-servicing could reach outcomes leading to shared benefits for everyone involved. PMID:27942388
de Melo Ghisi, Gabriela Lima; Grace, Sherry L; Thomas, Scott; Evans, Michael F; Sawula, Heather; Oh, Paul
To (1) describe cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participant information needs, (2) investigate whether CR providers are cognizant of patient's information needs and preferred delivery formats, and (3) investigate whether patient information needs change over the course of CR. In this cross-sectional study, 306 CR patients and 28 CR providers completed a survey. The survey consisted of the Information Needs in CR (INCR) questionnaire, and items about preferred education delivery formats. Low-income CR participants had significantly greater information needs than high-income participants. CR providers were cognizant of patient information needs, except patients did desire more information on diagnosis and treatment than providers perceived (p<0.01). Books, lectures and discussion were identified as the preferred delivery formats by both patients and providers. There were some significant differences in patient information needs over the course of the program, particularly in relation to concerns and risk factors. CR patients desire information in many areas, particularly regarding emergency/safety and diagnosis/treatment. CR providers were highly cognizant of patient information needs; however, these do change over time. These findings could inform evaluation and improvement of CR education programming, to ensure programs are meeting patient information needs across all stages of recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wyman, Joshua; Foster, Ida; Talwar, Victoria
A considerable amount of research has evaluated children's lie-telling behaviors and skills(1-2); however, limitations with the tasks used for eliciting false testimonies and interviewing children have restricted the generalizability of the findings. The primary aim of the current study is to provide an easy-to-administer and ecologically valid method for measuring the veracity and quality of school-aged children's (ages 6-11) testimonies when they are asked to provide different types of true and false reports. Moreover, the methodology enables researchers to examine the social and developmental factors that could influence the credibility of a child's testimony. In the current study, children will witness a theft, and are then asked to either falsely deny the transgression, falsely accuse a researcher of the theft, or tell the truth. Afterwards, children are to be interviewed by a second researcher using a thorough and ecologically valid interview protocol that requires children to provide closed-ended and free-recall responses about the events with the instigator (E1). Coders then evaluate the length and number of theft-related details the children give throughout the interview, as well as their ability to maintain their true and false reports. The representative results indicate that the truth and lie-telling conditions elicit the intended behaviors from the children. The open-ended interview questions encouraged children to provide free-recall information about their experiences with E1. Moreover, findings from the closed-ended questions suggest that children are significantly better at maintaining their lies with age, and when producing a false denial compared to a false accusation. Results from the current study can be used to develop a greater understanding of the characteristics of children's true and false testimonies about crime, which can potentially benefit law enforcement, legal staff and professionals who interview children.
Devine, Christopher A; Yu, Amy; Kasdin, Rachel G; Bogart, Laura M; Davis, Aileen M; Alcántara Abreu, Luis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Thornhill, Thomas S; Katz, Jeffrey N
U.S. practitioners have prescribed opioid analgesics increasingly in recent years, contributing to what has been declared an opioid epidemic by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Opioids are used frequently in the preoperative and postoperative periods for patients undergoing total joint replacement in developed countries, but cross-cultural comparisons of this practice are limited. An international medical mission such as Operation Walk Boston, which provides total joint replacement to financially vulnerable patients in the Dominican Republic, offers a unique opportunity to compare postoperative pain management approaches in a developed nation and a developing nation. We interviewed American and Dominican surgeons and nurses (n = 22) during Operation Walk Boston 2015. We used a moderator's guide with open-ended questions to inquire about postoperative pain management and factors influencing prescribing practices. Interviews were recorded and transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Providers highlighted differences in the patient-provider relationship, pain medication prescribing variability, and access to medications. Dominican surgeons emphasized adherence to standardized pain protocols and employed a paternalistic model of care, and American surgeons reported prescribing variability and described shared decision-making with patients. Dominican providers described limited availability of potent opioid preparations in the Dominican Republic, in contrast to American providers, who discussed opioid accessibility in the United States. Our findings suggest that cross-cultural comparisons provide insight into how opioid prescribing practices, approaches to the patient-provider relationship, and medication access inform distinct pain management strategies in American and Dominican surgical settings. Integrating lessons from cross-cultural pain management studies may yield more effective pain management strategies for surgical procedures
Whitten, Pamela; Buis, Lorraine
In Michigan, the use of telemedicine for dialysis patients began in three centres in 2005. A total of 747 clinical consultations was conducted in the following 22 months. Telephone surveys were conducted with 34 patients and four providers. The patients and providers all had positive perceptions of the telemedicine system and the care that was delivered. Most of the clinical measures of the patients met or exceeded the recommendations made by Renal Network 11. In addition to the clinical work, the telemedicine equipment was used for educational events. Twenty-six professional educational events were provided with a total audience of 105 individuals, and 35 administrative meetings were provided with 286 staff members in attendance. The study showed that patients and providers could participate in educational events that might not be available locally. Despite the success of dialysis telemedicine, the Marquette General Health System discontinued its use in 2007 when the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services re-affirmed that dialysis centres were not approved sites for telemedicine.
Salwen, Jessica K; Gray, Anthea; Mona, Linda R
Our objective was to provide evidence-based guidance for health care providers to engage in brief and extensive assessment of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to initiate appropriate safety precautions and referrals, all within the context of disability. Research Method/Design: This article is a review of the literature on prevalence and risk factors for IPV in nondisabled couples and in couples where a partner has a disability, on various assessment tools, and on the impact of personal assistance on relationships. When an individual has a disability, it is often her or his partner who provides personal assistance. While providing this assistance can produce individual and/or interrelational benefits, it is also associated with a number of mental and physical health problems, including anxiety, depression, anger, drug abuse, and relationship discord and dissatisfaction. In addition, IPV is not uncommon among couples, and risk for partner violence may include depression, drug abuse, and relationship dissatisfaction, among others. It is likely that health care providers will encounter individuals with disabilities who are both receiving care from their partners and who are also the victims of partner violence. Thus, they will need to be prepared to assess and triage patients who are in or may be at risk for abusive relationships and to ensure patient safety in the context of these relationships. However, it is also critically important that this assessment occurs within a culturally inclusive and disability-affirming context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini
Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01). Age and education level of health care providers don’t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi. PMID:24479088
Tomasone, Jennifer R; Brouwers, Melissa C; Vukmirovic, Marija; Grunfeld, Eva; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Urquhart, Robin; Walker, Melanie; Webster, Fiona; Fitch, Margaret
Coordination of patient care between primary care and oncology care providers is vital to care quality and outcomes across the cancer continuum, yet it is known to be challenging. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate current or new models of care and/or interventions aimed at improving coordination between primary care and oncology care providers for patients with adult breast and/or colorectal cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were searched for existing English language studies published between January 2000 and 15 May 2015. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies were included if they evaluated a specific model/intervention that was designed to improve care coordination between primary care and oncology care providers, for any stage of the cancer continuum, for patients with adult breast and/or colorectal cancer. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Twenty-two studies (5 systematic reviews, 6 RCTs and 11 non-randomised studies) were included and varied with respect to the targeted phase of the cancer continuum, type of model or intervention tested, and outcome measures. The majority of studies showed no statistically significant changes in any patient, provider or system outcomes. Owing to conceptual and methodological limitations in this field, the review is unable to provide specific conclusions about the most effective or preferred model/intervention to improve care coordination. Imprecise results that lack generalisability and definitiveness provide limited evidence to base the development of future interventions and policies. Trial registration number CRD42015025006. PMID:27843639
Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali
Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media.
Mosack, Katie E.; Wandrey, Rachael L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how HIV-positive patients and infectious disease healthcare providers think about death, dying, and end-of-life care planning. We conducted separate in-depth qualitative interviews with 47 patients and 11 providers. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed using a secondary comparative method. Patients and providers demonstrated profound differences in their perspectives on patient empowerment and attributions of control related to disease progression, imminence of death, and end-of-life care decision-making. Notably, patients described fears related to life-extending interventions that generally went unaddressed within the clinical context. We argue for the routinization of end-of-life care discussions and suggest novel research approaches to improve patient empowerment and medical engagement. PMID:24316681
Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Evans, T Alun
There is an increasing use of statistical methods, such as funnel plots, to identify poorly performing healthcare providers. Funnel plots comprise the construction of control limits around a benchmark and providers with outcomes falling outside the limits are investigated as potential outliers. The benchmark is usually estimated from observed data but uncertainty in this estimate is usually ignored when constructing control limits. In this paper, the use of funnel plots in the presence of uncertainty in the value of the benchmark is reviewed for outcomes from a Binomial distribution. Two methods to derive the control limits are shown: (i) prediction intervals; (ii) tolerance intervals Tolerance intervals formally include the uncertainty in the value of the benchmark while prediction intervals do not. The probability properties of 95% control limits derived using each method were investigated through hypothesised scenarios. Neither prediction intervals nor tolerance intervals produce funnel plot control limits that satisfy the nominal probability characteristics when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark. This is not necessarily to say that funnel plots have no role to play in healthcare, but that without the development of intervals satisfying the nominal probability characteristics they must be interpreted with care.
Stenov, Vibeke; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Reventlow, Susanne; Wind, Gitte
To investigate approaches among healthcare providers (HCPs) that support or hinder person-centredness in group-based diabetes education programmes targeting persons with type 2 diabetes. Ethnographic fieldwork in a municipal and a hospital setting in Denmark. The two programmes included 21 participants and 10 HCPs and were observed over 5 weeks. Additionally, 10 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (n = 7) and HCPs (n = 3). Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Hindering approaches included a teacher-centred focus on delivering disease-specific information. Communication was dialog based, but HCPs primarily asked closed-ended questions with one correct answer. Additional hindering approaches included ignoring participants with suboptimal health behaviours and a tendency to moralize that resulted in feelings of guilt among participants. Supporting approaches included letting participants set the agenda using broad, open-ended questions. Healthcare providers are often socialized into a biomedical approach and trained to be experts. However, person-centredness involves redefined roles and responsibilities. Applying person-centredness in practice requires continuous training and supervision, but HCPs often have minimum support for developing person-centred communication skills. Techniques based on motivational communication, psychosocial methods and facilitating group processes are effective person-centred approaches in a group context. Teacher-centredness undermined person-centredness because HCPs primarily delivered disease-specific recommendations, leading to biomedical information overload for participants. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
In the United Arab Emirates, neuropsychiatric disorders are estimated to contribute to one-fifth of the global burden of disease. Studies show that the UAE citizens' apathy towards seeking professional mental health services is associated with the 'religious viewpoints' on the issue, societal stigma, lack of awareness of mental health and lack of confidence in mental health-care providers. Mental health expenditures by the UAE government health ministry are not available exclusively. The majority of primary health-care doctors and nurses have not received official in-service training on mental health within the last 5 years. Efforts are to be made at deconstructing the position of mental illness and its treatments in the light of Islamic Jurisprudence; drafting culturally sensitive and relevant models of mental health care for Emirati citizens; liaising between Imams of mosques and professional mental health service providers; launching small-scale pilot programs in collaboration with specialist institutions; facilitating mentoring in line with Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) outreach programmes for senior school Emirati students concerning mental health; and promoting mental health awareness in the wider community through participation in events open to public.
Afek, Arnon; Meilik, Ahuva; Rotstein, Zeev
Today, medical organizations have to contend with a highly competitive environment, an atmosphere saturated with a multitude of innovative new technologies and ever-increasing costs. The ability of these organizations to survive and to develop and expand their services mandates adoption of management guidelines based on the world of finance/commerce, adapted to make them relevant to the world of medical service. In this article the authors chose to present a management administration assessment which is a process that ensures that the management will effectively administer the organization's resources, and meet the goals set by the organization. The system demands that hospital "centers of responsibility" be defined, a management information system be set up, activities be priced, budget be defined and the expenses assessed. These processes make it possible to formulate a budget and assess any possible deviation between the budget and the actual running costs. An assessment of deviations will reveal any possible deviation of the most significant factor--efficiency. Medical organization managers, with the cooperation of the directors of the "centers of responsibility", can assess subunit activities and gain an understanding of the significance of management decisions and thus improve the quality of management, and the medical organization. The goal of this management system is not only to Lower costs and to meet the financial goals that were set; it is a tool that ensures quality. Decreasing expenditure is important in this case, but is only secondary in importance and will be a result of reducing the costs incurred by services lacking in quality.
Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; And Others
Examined the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home caretakers toward elderly sexuality, looking at certain sociodemographic and institutional factors. The more knowledge providers possessed, the more restrictive their attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Education, religiosity, position, nursing education, time in current…
Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Vaidya, Neha; Shaheen, Reshma; Philpott, Sean; Fisher, Celia
In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India's National AIDS Control Organization. While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV.
Andrews, B C; Kaye, J; Bowcutt, M; Campbell, J
This study examines the consequences of adding a geriatric subacute unit to the traditional health care mix offered by a nonprofit hospital. Historically, geriatric health care offerings have been limited to either acute care units or long-term care facilities. The study's findings demonstrate that the addition of a subacute unit that is operated by an interdisciplinary team is a competitively rational move for two reasons. First, it provides a continuum of care that integrates services and departments, thereby reducing costs. Second, it provides a supportive environment for patients and their families. As a consequence patients have a higher probability of returning home than patients who are assigned to more traditional modes of care.
Froedtert & Medical College, an academic medical center, has adopted a proactive approach to providing consumers with reliable sources of information. The Milwaukee institution has redesigned its Web site, which first opened in 1995. The new version has simplified the navigation process and added new content. Small Stones, a health resource center, also a brick-and-mortar shop, went online Feb. 1. Online bill paying was launched in May. Pharmacy refill functions are expected to be online this summer.
NONE Do you have Bleeding Between Periods? Do you have Bleeding After Intercourse? NO NO YES YES Any Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)? NO...recumbent position. This exam should be done monthly by the patient, approximately 4-5 days after menses. The exam should be observed by a provider at the...1991; Colditz, Willet, Hunter, Stampfer, Mason, Hennekens & Rosner, 1993). 13 Nulliparity; first pregnancy after 30 years of age; menarche before
Gordon, Adam J; Harding, John Daniel
Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging. In this issue of the Substance Abuse journal, we examine the science and evidence base of educational interventions and public initiatives addressing opioid use and addiction. These initiatives include naloxone rescue awareness and programs, community-based training initiatives, and system or public health approaches to improve student, trainee, and clinician education/training revolving around opioid misuse and opioid use disorder. We call on stakeholders to fund more research to investigate and implement the proven means to educate undergraduate students, graduate trainees, and clinicians regarding pain and addiction. We also recognize the 2016 peer reviewers of our journal who have performed meritorious, volunteer service to advance the science of addiction.
Pearce, Kevin A; Jarrett, Traci D; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Talbert, Jeffery C; Bolt, W David; Barron, Mary A; Houlihan, Jessica M; Dignan, Mark B
Kentucky has among the highest rates of diabetes and obesity in the United States. The Kentucky Diabetes and Obesity Collaborative (KDOC) was designed to develop a novel research infrastructure that can be used by researchers focusing on obesity and diabetes among patients cared for by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) serving rural Kentucky. Focus groups were carried out to develop an understanding of the needs and interests of FQHC practitioners and staff regarding participation in KDOC. Focus groups were conducted with 6 FQHCs and included a total of 41 individuals including health care providers, administrative staff and clinical staff. The discussions ranged in time from 30 to 70 minutes and averaged 45 minutes. Analysis of the transcripts of the focus groups revealed 4 themes: 1) contextual factors, 2) infrastructure, 3) interpersonal relationships, and 4) clinical features. The participants also noted four requirements that should be met for a research project to be successful in rural primary care settings: 1) there must be a shared understanding of health priorities of rural communities between the researcher and the practices/providers; 2) the proposed research must be relevant to clinics and their communities; 3) research and recommendations for evidence-based interventions need to reflect the day-to-day challenges of rural primary care providers; and 4) there needs to be an understanding of community norms and resources. Although research-clinic partnerships were viewed favourably overall, challenges in data integration to support both research and clinical outcomes were identified.
Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn
To identify factors associated with initiation of the human papillomavirus vaccine series and parental report of a healthcare provider recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine in adolescent females. Cross-sectional analysis of 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Parents of 12-17 year-old US adolescent females. Associations of sociodemographic and healthcare factors with initiation of the human papillomavirus vaccine series and parental report of a healthcare provider recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Data were analyzed for 16,139 adolescent females. Almost 20% of adolescent females initiated the HPV vaccine series. Significantly higher proportions of adolescent females who initiated the human papillomavirus vaccine series vs. those who did not initiate the human papillomavirus vaccine series had a parental report of their healthcare provider recommending the human papillomavirus vaccine (84% vs. 20%). In multivariable analyses, adolescent females who were American Indian/Alaska Native, were multiracial, received the meningococcal vaccine, received the tetanus/tetanus-diphtheria/tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine, or were poor had higher adjusted odds of initiating the human papillomavirus vaccine series; parental report of a healthcare provider recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine was associated with about 18 times the adjusted odds of initiating the human papillomavirus vaccine series. In separate multivariable analyses, adolescent females who were African-American and uninsured had lower adjusted odds of a parental report of a healthcare provider recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Parental report of a healthcare provider recommendation is significantly associated with human papillomavirus vaccine-series initiation. African-American race/ethnicity and uninsurance were associated with lower odds of a parental report of a healthcare provider recommendation of the human papillomavirus
Jackson, Veronica E; Muckerman, Alexander
This article presents the findings of a collaborative effort between the Georgetown University Student Consulting Team and Booz Allen Hamilton to interview healthcare providers undergoing the transition to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification/Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS). The goals of this study were to extract a common set of trends, challenges, and lessons learned surrounding the implementation of the ICD-10-CM/PCS code set and to produce actionable information that might serve as a resource for organizations navigating the transition to ICD-10-CM/PCS. The selected survey sample focused on a subset of large hospitals, integrated health systems, and other national industry leaders who are likely to have initiated the implementation process far in advance of the October 2013 deadline. Guided by a uniform survey tool, the team conducted a series of one-on-one provider interviews with department heads, senior staff members, and project managers leading ICD-10-CM/PCS conversion efforts from six diverse health systems. As expected, the integrated health systems surveyed seem to be on or ahead of schedule for the ICD-10-CM/PCS coding transition. However, results show that as of April 2010 most providers were still in the planning stages of implementation and were working to raise awareness within their organizations. Although individual levels of preparation varied widely among respondents, the study identified several trends, challenges, and lessons learned that will enable healthcare providers to assess their own status with respect to the industry and will provide useful insight into best practices for the ICD-10-CM/PCS transition. PMID:22548022
Robert, Glenn; Waite, Richard; Cornwell, Jocelyn; Morrow, Elizabeth; Maben, Jill
Understanding and improving 'patient experience' is essential to delivering high quality healthcare. However, little is known about the provision of education and training to healthcare staff in this increasingly important area. This study aims to ascertain the extent and nature of such provision in England and to identify how it might be developed in the future. An on-line survey was designed to explore training provision relating to patient experiences. To ensure that respondents thought about patient experience in the same way we defined patient experience training as that which aims to teach staff: 'How to measure or monitor the experience, preferences and priorities of patients and use that knowledge to improve their experience'. Survey questions (n=15) were devised to cover nine consistently reported key aspects of patient experience; identified from the research literature and recommendations put forward by professional bodies. The survey was administered to (i) all 180 providers of Higher Education (HE) to student/qualified doctors, nurses and allied health professionals, and (ii) all 390 National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England. In addition, we added a single question to the NHS 2010 Staff Survey (n=306,000) relating to the training staff had received to deliver a good patient experience. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals responded to the on-line survey representing a total of 159 different organizations from the HE and healthcare sectors. Respondents most commonly identified 'relationships' as an 'essential' aspect of patient experience education and training. The biggest perceived gaps in current provision related to the 'physical' and 'measurement' aspects of our conceptualization of patient experience. Of the 148,657 staff who responded to the Staff Survey 41% said they had not received patient experience training and 22% said it was not applicable to them. While some relevant education courses are in place in England, the results suggest
In the complex health arena, a key proposition is that no person acting alone is as effective as a team to drive best practices and outcomes. Another key factor supporting best outcomes is access to the best information to support best choices. Currently, stakeholders suffer from a paucity of real-world knowledge of actual practices and outcomes that allows care gaps to go undiscovered. A body of evidence indicates that measurement and timely feedback of actual practices can decrease the gaps between usual and best care. This is driven by the stakeholders' desire to be the best they can be, and it is enabled by the measured knowledge of where practices fall short of gold standards. The addition of patient partners to such communities of care offers promise of further acceleration and broader impact of knowledge translation and associated beneficial outcomes. For example, in the Improving Cardiac Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) community-based heart disease project, there was a marked decrease in rates of re-hospitalization over the five-year course of the project. This improvement was only very weakly, or not at all, related to traditional risk factors, such as the presence of multiple illnesses or older age, or to the use of efficacious medical therapies. However, ICONS provided an extensive and repeated multimedia communication among patients, families and providers of project goals, strategy and general news, as well as repeated measurements of practices and outcomes. One outcome of this shared knowledge may have been the reduced need for re-hospitalization. While exact cause-and-effect relationship remain uncertain, patient-provider integrated health networks appear feasible and offer promise for efficient knowledge creation and its population-effective translation. The model and its implementation may be improved by testing further locally responsive initiatives in innovative partnership clusters and by training more personnel resources in inter
Background The National Institutes of Health reported in 2007 that approximately 38% of United States adults have used at least one type of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). There are no studies available that assess general CAM use in US pregnant women. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence and type of CAM use during pregnancy at one medical center; understand who is using CAM and why they are using it; and assess the state of patients’ CAM use disclosure to their obstetrical providers. Methods A cross-sectional survey study of post-partum women was done to assess self-reported CAM use during pregnancy. Results of this survey were compared to results from a previous survey performed by this research team in 2006. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results In 2013, 153 women completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 74.3%. Seventy-two percent and 68.5% of participants reported CAM use during their pregnancies in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The percentage of participants who reported discussing CAM use with their obstetrical providers was less than 1% in 2006 and 50% in 2013. Increased use of different CAM therapies was associated with increased maternal age, primagravida, being US-born, and having a college education (p ≤ 0.05). However, these factors were poor predictors of CAM use. Conclusions Given the frequency of CAM use and the difficulty in predicting who is using it, obstetrical providers should consider being informed about CAM and incorporating discussions about its use into routine patient assessments. PMID:24592860
Payyappallimana, Unnikrishnan; Venkatasubramanian, Padma
Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over three millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one’s self (svasthya) but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles, such as the tridosa (three humors) theory, provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day-to-day practice. Classical Ayurveda texts cover an array of themes on food ranging from diversity of natural sources, their properties in relation to seasons and places and to their specific function both in physiological and pathological states. The epistemic perspective on health and nutrition in Ayurveda is very different from that of biomedicine and modern nutrition. However, contemporary knowledge is reinventing and advancing several of these concepts in an era of systems biology, personalized medicine, and the broader context of a more holistic transition in sciences in general. Trans-disciplinary research could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and health sciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary health conditions. This article briefly reviews the parallels in Ayurveda and biomedicine and draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with traditional knowledge systems, such as Ayurveda. It points out that recreation of the methodologies that enabled the holistic view point about health in Ayurveda may unravel some of the complex connections with Nature. PMID:27066472
Payyappallimana, Unnikrishnan; Venkatasubramanian, Padma
Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over three millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one's self (svasthya) but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles, such as the tridosa (three humors) theory, provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day-to-day practice. Classical Ayurveda texts cover an array of themes on food ranging from diversity of natural sources, their properties in relation to seasons and places and to their specific function both in physiological and pathological states. The epistemic perspective on health and nutrition in Ayurveda is very different from that of biomedicine and modern nutrition. However, contemporary knowledge is reinventing and advancing several of these concepts in an era of systems biology, personalized medicine, and the broader context of a more holistic transition in sciences in general. Trans-disciplinary research could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and health sciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary health conditions. This article briefly reviews the parallels in Ayurveda and biomedicine and draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with traditional knowledge systems, such as Ayurveda. It points out that recreation of the methodologies that enabled the holistic view point about health in Ayurveda may unravel some of the complex connections with Nature.
The number of positron emission tomography (PET) facilities has rapidly increased in Japan in recent years. We assume there has been a downward spiral that low reimbursement prices for PET scans by public health insurance have driven these facilities to provide cancer screening, leading to a decline in efficiency with more cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to confirm this decline and clarify the determinants of efficiency. Questionnaire survey data from 65 facilities that provided PET cancer screening were used. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to measure the efficiency of each facility. Multivariate regression analysis was then performed with each DEA score as a dependent variable, with other potential factors that might affect efficiency as independent variables. We found that from 2004 to 2006 efficiency in PET facilities declined. However, significantly greater efficiency was observed for those facilities that started cancer screening earlier, were located in an area with an aging population, and were clinics and general hospitals. Conversely, significantly lower efficiency was observed for facilities with higher market share and price for PET cancer screening. Our findings on decreasing efficiency imply that reimbursement prices should be raised to halt the downward spiral.
Nicol, Noreen Heer
Although atopic dermatitis is a common cutaneous disorder, patients often are frustrated in their attempts to understand the disease and its treatment. Studies have shown that the patient-provider relationship is key to patient compliance with a skin care regimen and that most patients with atopic dermatitis are eager to be well informed. However, many patients fail to receive an adequate explanation of the causes of atopic dermatitis or to be taught how to apply topical treatments, even though instruction and practical demonstrations are associated with a dramatic improvement in the treatment outcome. Efforts to educate patients regarding the use of moisturizers are correlated with clinical improvement and a reduction in the use of topical medications such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. In addition to topical moisturizers, medications, wet wraps, and hydration therapy has become a frequently used practice in the management of atopic dermatitis.
Prado, Manuel; Roa, Laura M.; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Rovayo, Manuel
This paper presents a wearable human movement monitor designed within the context of a telehealthcare system for the elderly. One major characteristic of this device is the capability for an on-line personalization to the user. This capability compels to a trade-off among processing capacity, portability, low cost and power consumption, which are necessary to assure its feasibility. We have performed a preliminary laboratory study to assess the influence of the customization capacity in the reliability of the device for capturing falling events. The study was based carried out over 8 voluntaries and demonstrated that the device is able to distinguish true falling events from normal activities like fast walking or going up/downstairs. Moreover, our outcomes indicate that the subject and the environment have a critical influence on the reliability of the falling detection. This result underlines the importance of providing personalized support in telehealthcare.
Qureshi, Aysha Zia; Zia, Zubia; Gitay, Mehnaz Nuruddin; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Khan, Muhammad Saad
Nature is the kindest of all to provide man with all the necessary components for a healthy life at easily accessible lengths. The deprivation arises with unawareness and lack of correct measures to extract the benefits. Medical education makes the youth aware of the numerous disorders and diseases, as well as their preventions and treatments. This awareness needs to be realized and implemented in the society, and it is not possible without the advisers acting on the same lines. Since doctors are the most trusted and their advice is adopted without much thought, it is extremely inevitable to analyze the attitude of medical students of various levels to understand the cause of their negligence toward their own deficiencies, the focus for this study being vitamin D (VD). A cross sectional descriptive study was done on undergraduate medical students of health profession from different universities of Pakistan to access the awareness regarding VD deficiency associated with sunlight. Informed consent was duly signed by each participant after which self-constructed questionnaire was provided to them and data are collected. SPSS 17 was used for Statistical analysis. Final students are well aware of VD significance, take food rich in VD but still suffer from fatigue and muscular pain. No treatment was taken for fatigue and muscular pain by majority of these sufferers and those who took treatment were VD supplement. The health sufferers were mostly those who avoided sunlight highlighting the role of VD in maintaining an active lifestyle as well as the significance of sunlight in maintaining VD levels. It can be concluded that in spite of awareness, the role of sunlight exposure and the proper time and duration of exposure cannot be ignored to create a healthy and active society.
Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D
This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.
Khanal, Saval; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham B Mohamed; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; Palaian, Subish; Mishra, Pranaya
Academic detailing is rarely practised in developing countries. A randomized control trial on healthcare service was conducted to evaluate the impact of academic detailing programme on the adherence of primary healthcare providers in Banke district, Nepal, to childhood diarrhoea treatment guidelines recommended by World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (WHO/UNICEF). The participants (N=209) were systematically divided into control and intervention groups. Four different academic detailing sessions on childhood diarrhoea management were given to participants in the intervention group. At baseline, 6% of the participants in the control and 8.3% in the intervention group were adhering to the treatment guidelines which significantly (p < 0.05) increased among participants in the intervention (65.1%) than in the control group (16.0%) at the first follow-up. At the second follow-up, 69.7% of participants in the intervention group were adhering to the guidelines, which was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than those in the control group (19.0%). Data also showed significant improvement in prescribing pattern of the participants in the intervention group compared to the control group. Therefore, academic detailing can be used for promoting adherence to treatment guidelines in developing countries, like Nepal.
Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b. Mohamed; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; Palaian, Subish; Mishra, Pranaya
Academic detailing is rarely practised in developing countries. A randomized control trial on healthcare service was conducted to evaluate the impact of academic detailing programme on the adherence of primary healthcare providers in Banke district, Nepal, to childhood diarrhoea treatment guidelines recommended by World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (WHO/UNICEF). The participants (N=209) were systematically divided into control and intervention groups. Four different academic detailing sessions on childhood diarrhoea management were given to participants in the intervention group. At baseline, 6% of the participants in the control and 8.3% in the intervention group were adhering to the treatment guidelines which significantly (p<0.05) increased among participants in the intervention (65.1%) than in the control group (16.0%) at the first follow-up. At the second follow-up, 69.7% of participants in the intervention group were adhering to the guidelines, which was significantly (p<0.05) greater than those in the control group (19.0%). Data also showed significant improvement in prescribing pattern of the participants in the intervention group compared to the control group. Therefore, academic detailing can be used for promoting adherence to treatment guidelines in developing countries, like Nepal. PMID:23930342
Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C
Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. This study aims to explore healthcare providers' (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical guidelines should be implemented alongside in
Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C
Background Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. Objective This study aims to explore healthcare providers' (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. Design We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Conclusions Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical
Frisby, Joshua; Smith, Vernon; Traub, Stephen; Patel, Vimla L
Hospital Emergency Departments (EDs) frequently experience crowding. One of the factors that contributes to this crowding is the "door to doctor time", which is the time from a patient's registration to when the patient is first seen by a physician. This is also one of the Meaningful Use (MU) performance measures that emergency departments report to the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Current documentation methods for this measure are inaccurate due to the imprecision in manual data collection. We describe a method for automatically (in real time) and more accurately documenting the door to physician time. Using sensor-based technology, the distance between the physician and the computer is calculated by using the single board computers installed in patient rooms that log each time a Bluetooth signal is seen from a device that the physicians carry. This distance is compared automatically with the accepted room radius to determine if the physicians are present in the room at the time logged to provide greater precision. The logged times, accurate to the second, were compared with physicians' handwritten times, showing automatic recordings to be more precise. This real time automatic method will free the physician from extra cognitive load of manually recording data. This method for evaluation of performance is generic and can be used in any other setting outside the ED, and for purposes other than measuring physician time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Rongxia; McNeil, Michael M; Pickering, Susanne; Pemberton, Michael R; Duran, Laurie L; Collins, Limone C; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M
We studied military health care provider (HCP) practices regarding reporting of adverse events following immunization (AEFI). A convenience sample of HCP was surveyed to assess familiarity with Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), AEFI they were likely to report, methods used and preferred for reporting, and perceived barriers to reporting. We analyzed factors associated with HCP reporting AEFI to VAERS. A total of 547 surveys were distributed with 487 completed and returned for an 89% response rate. The percentage of HCP aware of VAERS (54%) varied by occupation. 47% of respondents identified knowledge of at least one AEFI with only 34% of these indicating that they had ever reported to VAERS. More serious events were more likely to be reported. Factors associated with HCP reporting AEFIs in bivariate analysis included HCP familiarity with filing a paper VAERS report, HCP familiarity with filing an electronic VAERS report, HCP familiarity with VAERS, and time spent on immunization tasks. In a multivariable analysis, only HCP familiarity with filing a paper VAERS report was statistically significant (Odds ratio = 115.3; p < 0.001). Specific educational interventions targeted to military HCP likely to see AEFIs but not currently filing VAERS reports may improve vaccine safety reporting practices. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Law, James; McCann, Dolly; O'May, Fiona
This paper is a report of a descriptive qualitative study of the role and activities of nursing and allied health professionals caring for children with complex needs in a community setting. Health care is changing in terms of service provision and delivery, with an increased focus on person-centred care, prevention and community-based services. The role of nursing and allied health professionals is central to these changes but is not well described in terms of capacity, or the knowledge and skills required to meet increasing demand. Within four Health Boards, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2007 with three nursing and four allied health managers, followed by four focus groups with 15 nursing and 11 allied health practitioners; in addition, three nurses and one speech therapist were interviewed by telephone. Respondents identified challenges related to communication and information systems, equity of service provision, family-centred care and partnership working. Generic and specialized knowledge and skills are needed, although providing the right skills in the right place can often prove problematic with potential implications for service provision. Findings support the adoption of integrated partnership working, going beyond the identification of key professionals, to developing a set of criteria against which future service provision could be judged. Research priorities were identified; comparative evaluation of services, better understanding of the transition process and a clearer sense of the individual's response to the increasing customization of services. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Villaseñor, Sally; Walker, Tara; Fetters, Lisa; McCoy, Maryanne
The study sought to determine the barriers to e-prescribing particular to the acute care setting, the educational and motivational needs of acute care providers, and the optimal process for incentive, education, and implementation of e-prescribing. A theoretically based survey instrument was adapted from previous work. Four domains were assessed: finesse, intent to use, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The survey was offered to a group of acute care providers. The educational and motivational needs of acute care providers are different from those in primary care. Perceived barriers centered on uncertain pharmacy hours, unconfirmed transmittal, and accidental transmission to wrong pharmacy. Healthcare providers with more self-assessed knowledge of e-prescribing are more likely to use e-prescribing. Providers with fewer years in practice seem to have greater knowledge of e-prescribing. Providing education and exposure to e-prescribing has the potential to decrease perception of barriers and increase perceived usefulness for acute care providers. Software redesign may be needed to remove barriers associated with uncertain pharmacy hours, controlled substance prescribing, transmittal confirmation, and bidirectional communication needs, thereby improving motivation to e-prescribe.
Ojinmah, U R; Onyekonwu, C L; Ozoh, G A; Onyekonwu, G C
Leprosy continues to be a challenge worldwide. In 2009, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported 244,796 new cases worldwide. Of this, South East Asia, South Americas and Africa have the highest number of new cases. To highlight misdiagnosis of Hansen's disease as a drawback to eradication of leprosy. A retrospective study of cases of Hansen's disease misdiagnosed by clinicians who were seen in the skin clinics of two tertiary institutions in South-East Nigeria over a one year period. Of the nine misdiagnosed cases, three were females while six were males. Apart from one child of six years old, the rest of the patients were adults. Referring diagnoses included chronic osteomyelitis, acromegaly, dermatitis and depression. One of the patients presented with a reversal reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum) following treatment in a peripheral health facility. Confirmation of the diagnosis was based on slit skin smears for Acid Fast Bacilli carried out in the side laboratory of skin clinic UNTH, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu state (four patients) and mile four hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State( three patients). All the smears were positive. Patients were commenced on multi drug therapy and all showed marked clinical improvement following drug therapy. Eradication of leprosy may not be feasible if health care providers are ignorant of the different presentations of the disease. A high index of suspicion for leprosy is needed among health care workers in endemic areas. Development of tools for early diagnosis and detection of infection, improvement in existing tools for data collection, provision of guidelines and training materials on vital information for leprosy control will all contribute to the continued success of the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme in Nigeria.
Lindenmeyer, Antje; Redwood, Sabi; Griffith, Laura; Teladia, Zaheera; Phillimore, Jenny
Objectives The main objectives of the study were to explore the experiences of primary care professionals providing care to recent migrants in a superdiverse city and to elicit barriers and facilitators to meeting migrants' care needs. This paper focuses on a strong emergent theme: participants' descriptions and understandings of creating a fit between patients and practices. Design An exploratory, qualitative study based on the thematic analysis of semistructured interviews. Setting and participants A purposive sample of 10 practices. We interviewed 6 general practitioners, 5 nurses and 6 administrative staff; those based at the same practice opted to be interviewed together. 10 interviewees were from an ethnic minority background; some discussed their own experiences of migration. Results Creating a fit between patients and practice was complex and could be problematic. Some participants defined this in a positive way (reaching out, creating rapport) while others also focused on ways in which patients did not fit in, for example, different expectations or lack of medical records. A small but vocal minority put the responsibility to fit in on to migrant patients. Some participants believed that practice staff and patients sharing a language could contribute to achieving a fit but others outlined the disadvantages of over-reliance on language concordance. A clearly articulated, team-based strategy to create bridges between practice and patients was often seen as preferable. Conclusions Although participants agreed that a fit between patients and practice was desirable, some aimed to adapt to the needs of recently arrived migrants, while others thought that it was the responsibility of migrants to adapt to practice needs; a few viewed migrant patients as a burden to the system. Practices wishing to improve fit might consider developing strategies such as introducing link workers and other ‘bridging’ people; however, they could also aim to foster a general stance
Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M.; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara
Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors. PMID:25661846
Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara
Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors.
van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J
Introduction Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities) from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96%) completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001); this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic
MacDougall, Donna M; Halperin, Beth A; Langley, Joanne M; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Halperin, Scott A
In Canada, rotavirus vaccine is recommended for all infants, but not all provinces/territories have publicly funded programs. We compared public and healthcare provider (HCP) knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in a province with a public health nurse-delivered, publicly funded rotavirus vaccination program to a province with a publicly funded, physician-delivered program. A third province with no vaccination program acted as a control. Information about knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of parents whose children were eligible for the universal program and healthcare providers responsible for administering the vaccine were collected through the use of two validated surveys distributed in public health clinics, physicians' offices, and via e-mail. Early and postvaccine-program survey results were compared. A total of 722 early implementation and 709 postimplementation parent surveys and 180 early and 141 postimplementation HCP surveys were analyzed. HCP and public attitudes toward rotavirus vaccination were generally positive and didn't change over time. More parents postprogram were aware of the NACI recommendation and the vaccination program and reported that their healthcare provider discussed rotavirus infection and vaccine with them. Prior to the program across all sites, more physicians than nurses were aware of the national recommendation regarding rotavirus vaccine. In the postprogram survey, however, more nurses were aware of the national recommendation and their provincial universal rotavirus vaccination program. Nurses had higher knowledge scores than physicians in the postprogram survey (p<0.001). Parents of young infants were also more knowledgeable about rotavirus and rotavirus vaccine in the two areas where universal programs were in place (p<0.001). Implementation of a universal rotavirus vaccination program was associated with an increase in knowledge and more positive attitudes toward rotavirus vaccine amongst parents of
Zhang, Helen L.; Mnzava, Kunda W.; Mitchell, Sarah T.; Melubo, Matayo L.; Kibona, Tito J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Crump, John A.; Sharp, Joanne P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.
Background Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses. Methodology/Results We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97%) had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42%) leptospirosis, and 20 (32%) Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4), rabies (4), and anthrax (3) in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%), rabies (9, 18%) and anthrax (6, 12%). None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis. Conclusions This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic
Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B.; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C.
Background Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. Objective This study aims to explore healthcare providers’ (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. Design We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Conclusions Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical
Suurmond, J; Rupp, I; Seeleman, C; Goosen, S; Stronks, K
Asylum seekers have been recognized as having unique and complex health needs which require attention upon arrival in the host country. Not much is known about what issues to address in first contacts with asylum seekers. The purpose of this study is to give insight in the specific issues that healthcare providers need to address in the first contacts with newly arrived asylum seekers. A qualitative study using different types of data in 2007 and 2008. Questionnaires (n = 89) were used as input for seven group interviews with Dutch care providers (n = 46) working with asylum seekers in the Netherlands, were qualitatively analysed, using a framework method. Healthcare providers identified four issues they aimed to address in first contacts with asylum seekers: (1) assessing the current health condition; (2) health risk assessment; (3) providing information about the healthcare system of the host country; and (4) health education. The first contacts between healthcare providers and asylum seekers serve different goals, especially assessing health problems and risks, and providing health information. These issues may, however, be addressed differently by different healthcare providers, across different host countries, dependent on the way healthcare and medical insurance for asylum seekers are organized. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed
Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women’s birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women’s mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women’s preparation for birthing. PMID:22211059
Arnold, R; van Teijlingen, E; Ryan, K; Holloway, I
Objective To analyse the culture of a Kabul maternity hospital to understand the perspectives of healthcare providers on their roles, experiences, values and motivations and the impact of these determinants on the care of perinatal women and their babies. Design Qualitative ethnographic study. Setting A maternity hospital, Afghanistan. Population Doctors, midwives and care assistants. Methods Six weeks of observation followed by 22 semi-structured interviews and four informal group discussions with staff, two focus group discussions with women and 41 background interviews with Afghan and non-Afghan medical and cultural experts. Main outcome measures The culture of care in an Afghan maternity hospital. Results A large workload, high proportion of complicated cases and poor staff organisation affected the quality of care. Cultural values, social and family pressures influenced the motivation and priorities of healthcare providers. Nepotism and cronyism created inequality in clinical training and support and undermined the authority of management to improve standards of care. Staff without powerful connections were vulnerable in a punitive inequitable environment—fearing humiliation, blame and the loss of employment. Conclusions Suboptimal care put the lives of women and babies at risk and was, in part, the result of conflicting priorities. The underlying motivation of staff appeared to be the socio-economic survival of their own families. The hospital culture closely mirrored the culture and core values of Afghan society. In setting priorities for women's health post-2015 Millennium Development Goals, understanding the context-specific pressures on staff is key to more effective programme interventions and sustainability. PMID:25394518
Austin, Anne; Gulema, Hanna; Belizan, Maria; Colaci, Daniela S; Kendall, Tamil; Tebeka, Mahlet; Hailemariam, Mengistu; Bekele, Delayehu; Tadesse, Lia; Berhane, Yemane; Langer, Ana
Increasing women's access to and use of facilities for childbirth is a critical national strategy to improve maternal health outcomes in Ethiopia; however coverage alone is not enough as the quality of emergency obstetric services affects maternal mortality and morbidity. Addis Ababa has a much higher proportion of facility-based births (82%) than the national average (11%), but timely provision of quality emergency obstetric care remains a significant challenge for reducing maternal mortality and improving maternal health. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the provision of emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa from the perspective of healthcare providers by analyzing three factors: implementation of national referral guidelines, staff training, and staff supervision. A mixed methods approach was used to assess barriers to quality emergency obstetric care. Qualitative analyses included twenty-nine, semi-structured, key informant interviews with providers from an urban referral network consisting of a hospital and seven health centers. Quantitative survey data were collected from 111 providers, 80% (111/138) of those providing maternal health services in the same referral network. Respondents identified a lack of transportation and communication infrastructure, overcrowding at the referral hospital, insufficient pre-service and in-service training, and absence of supportive supervision as key barriers to provision of quality emergency obstetric care. Dedicated transportation and communication infrastructure, improvements in pre-service and in-service training, and supportive supervision are needed to maximize the effective use of existing human resources and infrastructure, thus increasing access to and the provision of timely, high quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Burgess, Diana J.
Systematic reviews of healthcare disparities suggest that clinicians’ diagnostic and therapeutic decision making varies by clinically irrelevant characteristics, such as patient race, and that this variation may contribute to healthcare disparities. However, there is little understanding of the particular features of the healthcare setting under which clinicians are most likely to be inappropriately influenced by these characteristics. This study delineates several hypotheses to stimulate future research in this area. It is posited that healthcare settings in which providers experience high levels of cognitive load will increase the likelihood of racial disparities via 2 pathways. First, providers who experience higher levels of cognitive load are hypothesized to make poorer medical decisions and provide poorer care for all patients, due to lower levels of controlled processing (H1). Second, under greater levels of cognitive load, it is hypothesized that healthcare providers’ medical decisions and interpersonal behaviors will be more likely to be influenced by racial stereotypes, leading to poorer processes and outcomes of care for racial minority patients (H2). It is further hypothesized that certain characteristics of healthcare settings will result in higher levels of cognitive load experienced by providers (H3). Finally, it is hypothesized that minority patients will be disproportionately likely to be treated in healthcare settings in which providers experience greater levels of cognitive load (H4a), which will result in racial disparities due to lower levels of controlled processing by providers (H4b) and the influence of racial stereotypes (H4c).The study concludes with implications for research and practice that flow from this framework. PMID:19726783
Sinha, Samrat; David, Siddarth; Gerdin, Martin; Roy, Nobhojit
Background: Research on healthcare delivery in zones of conflict requires sustained and systematic attention. In the context of the South Asian region, there has been an absence of research on the vulnerabilities of health care workers and institutions in areas affected by armed conflict. The paper presents a case study of the varied nature of security challenges faced by local healthcare providers in the state of Manipur in the North-eastern region of India, located in the Indo-Myanmar frontier region which has been experiencing armed violence and civil strife since the late 1960s. . The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal and spatial trends in incidents involving health care workers in Manipur during the period 2008 to 2009. Methods: We conducted a retrospective database analysis of the Manipur Micro-level Insurgency Database 2008-2009, created by using local newspaper archives to measure the overall burden of violence experienced in the state over a two year period. Publicly available press releases of armed groups and local hospitals in the state were used to supplement the quantitative data. Simple linear regression was used to assess longitudinal trends. Data was visualized with GIS-software for spatial analysis. Results: The mean proportion of incidents involving health care workers per month was 2.7% and ranged between 0 and 6.1% (table 2). There was a significant (P=0.037) month-to-month variation in the proportion of incidents involving health care workers, as well as a upward trend of about 0.11% per month. Spatial analysis revealed different patterns depending on whether absolute, population-adjusted, or incident-adjusted frequencies served as the basis of the analysis. Conclusions: The paper shows a small but steady rise in violence against health workers and health institutions impeding health services in Manipur’s pervasive violence. More evidence-building backed by research along with institutional obligations and commitment is essential
Tsitsakis, Christos A; Karasavvoglou, Anastasios; Tsaridis, Efstathios; Ramantani, Georgia; Florou, Giannoula; Polychronidou, Persefoni; Stamatakis, Stamatios
also constitutes a particularly crucial and useful tool to help authorities shape their healthcare policies and modify national health systems, which are currently based on the size and characteristics of indigenous populations, to take into account the different conditions with regard to both the number of patients treated and the epidemiological characteristics of the migrants. A greater appreciation of the particular current and potential roles of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can help to provide appropriate healthcare services to migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers, especially when these groups are excluded from the public health system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Brown, Sharon A; Steinhardt, Mary A
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative, focus group study was to further refine the Resilience-based Diabetes Self-management Education (RB-DSME) recruitment process and intervention, build greater trust in the community, and identify strategies to enhance its sustainability as a community-based intervention in African American church settings. Methods Six 2-hour focus groups (N = 55; 10 men and 45 women) were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion. Two sessions were conducted with individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who participated in previous RB-DSME pilot interventions and their family members, two sessions with local church leaders, and two sessions with community healthcare providers who care for patients with T2DM. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a grounded theory approach. The validity of core themes was enhanced by external review and subsequent discussions with two qualitative methods consultants. Results There was expressed interest and acceptability of the RB-DSME program. Church connection and pastor support were noted as key factors in building trust and enhancing recruitment, retention, and sustainability of the program. Core themes across all groups included the value of incentives, the need for foundational knowledge shared with genuine concern, teaching with visuals, dealing with denial, balancing the reality of adverse consequences with hope, the importance of social support, and addressing healthcare delivery barriers. Conclusion Focus groups documented the feasibility and potential effectiveness of RB-DSME interventions to enhance diabetes care in the African American community. In clinical practice, inclusion of these core themes may enhance T2DM self-care and treatment outcomes.
Doğan, Omer Tamer; Berk, Serdar; Ozşahin, Sefa Levent; Arslan, Sülhattin; Düzenli, Hasan; Akkurt, Ibrahim
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common sleep disorder that can lead to serious complications. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of OSAHS. Unfortunately, PSG studies are expensive, time-consuming, requiring special team and equipment. Therefore, it is possible to determine the cases likely to have OSAHS requiring at least PSG by type A studies. There isn't enough data about the prevalence of OSAHS in Turkey. The aim of this study was to estimate the symptom prevalence of OSAHS in health-care providers in central Sivas. The questionnaire asking demographic features, additional diseases, habits, the symptoms related with OSAHS was performed in total of 1202 health care providers. We also performed Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) to determine excessive daytime sleepiness. Snoring was detected in 267 participants. Snoring rates were 38% and 10.9% in men and in women, respectively. The rate of witnessed sleep apnea in all cases was 4.4% (n=53). Witnessed sleep apnea was reported by 42 of men (8.4%) and 11 of women (1.6%). A total of 338 participants had excessive daytime sleepiness. There was a significant relation between three major symptoms of OSAHS and excessive sleepiness while driving. All three major symptoms were detected in 22 cases (1.8%), of which 21 were males. This study suggested that OSAHS symptom prevalence is quite high helth-care provides in our region and, therefore expanded usage of PSG studies is required.
Chaudhary, Noami; Lucero, Catherine; Villanueva, Gerald; Poles, Michael; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth
Patient education is critical in ensuring patient compliance and good health outcomes. Fellows must be able to effectively communicate with their patients, delivering enough information for the patient to understand their medical problem and maximize patient compliance. We created an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with 4 liver disease cases to assess fellows' knowledge and ability to inform standardized patients (SPs) about their clinical condition. We developed 4 cases highlighting different aspects of liver disease and created a 4-station OSCE: hepatitis B, acute hepatitis C, new diagnosis of cirrhosis, and an end-stage cirrhotic nontransplant candidate. The SP with hepatitis B was minimizing the fact that she could not read English. The acute hepatitis C SP was a nursing student who is afraid that having hepatitis C might jeopardize her career. The SP with the new diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis needed to stop drinking, and the end-stage liver disease patient had to grapple with his advanced directives. Twelve fellows from 4 GI training programs participated. Our focus was to assess the fellows' knowledge about liver diseases and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies of health literacy, shared decision making, advanced directives, and goals of care. The goal for the fellows was to communicate effectively with the SPs, and acknowledge that each patient had an emotionally charged issue to overcome. The SPs used a checklist to rate fellows' performance. Faculty and the SPs observed the cases and provided feedback. The fellows were surveyed on their performance regarding the case. The majority of fellows were able to successfully summarize findings and discuss a plan with the patient in the new diagnosis of cirrhosis (76.92%) and hepatitis C case (100%), but were less successful in the hepatitis B case (30.77%) and the end-of-life case (41.67%). Overall, a small percentage of fellows reflected that they did a good
Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Gao, Shang; Tong, Yao; Yang, Weiwei
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received tremendous attention over the past ten years. In engineering applications of WSNs, a number of sensor nodes are usually spread across some specific geographical area. Some of these nodes have to work in harsh environments. Dependability of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is very important for its successful applications in the engineering area. In ordinary research, when a node has a failure, it is usually discarded and the network is reorganized to ensure the normal operation of the WSN. Using appropriate WSN re-organization methods, though the sensor networks can be reorganized, this ca