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Sample records for healthy adults mapping

  1. Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

  2. Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

  3. Characterization of left ventricle energy loss in healthy adults using vector flow mapping: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Chao; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Weihua; Ta, Shengjun; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Liwen

    2017-05-01

    Energy loss (EL) is a new quantitative hemodynamic index based on vector flow mapping (VFM). This study aimed to characterize EL of the left ventricle (LV) in healthy adults. Fifty-one healthy adults were enrolled in this study. EL of LV was analyzed frame by frame using color Doppler images of a standard apical three-chamber dynamic view on an offline VFM workstation. The average EL of systole and diastole was calculated, and the results were averaged over three cardiac cycles. The average EL for systole and diastole was 11.07±5.82J/m/s and 11.58±5.54 J/m/s, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the aortic velocity time integral (AOVTI), A-wave peak velocity, and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) were independently associated with the average systolic EL. E-wave peak velocity, height, and IVCT were independently associated with the average diastolic EL. For females, the average systolic and diastolic EL was 12.66±7.06J/m/s and 13.90±5.37J/m/s, respectively. For males, the systolic and diastolic EL was 9.29±3.33J/m/s and 8.97±4.55J/m/s, respectively. Energy loss in LV changes regularly during the cardiac cycle. The average systolic EL has a high positive correlation with AOVTI, whereas the average diastolic EL has with E-wave peak velocity. Women have higher average EL than men in both systole and diastole. By recognizing the EL characterization of healthy adults, the variation in EL may reflect cardiac dysfunction. These were preliminary results, and thus, the clinical implications of EL warrant further investigation. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Vector flow mapping analysis of left ventricular energetic performance in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Koichi; Maeda, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kainuma, Atsushi; Ishii, Maki; Naito, Yoshifumi; Kinoshita, Mao; Hamaoka, Saeko; Kato, Hideya; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Naotoshi; Itatani, Keiichi; Sawa, Teiji

    2017-01-09

    Vector flow mapping, a novel flow visualization echocardiographic technology, is increasing in popularity. Energy loss reference values for children have been established using vector flow mapping, but those for adults have not yet been provided. We aimed to establish reference values in healthy adults for energy loss, kinetic energy in the left ventricular outflow tract, and the energetic performance index (defined as the ratio of kinetic energy to energy loss over one cardiac cycle). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in fifty healthy volunteers, and the stored images were analyzed to calculate energy loss, kinetic energy, and energetic performance index and obtain ranges of reference values for these. Mean energy loss over one cardiac cycle ranged from 10.1 to 59.1 mW/m (mean ± SD, 27.53 ± 13.46 mW/m), with a reference range of 10.32 ~ 58.63 mW/m. Mean systolic energy loss ranged from 8.5 to 80.1 (23.52 ± 14.53) mW/m, with a reference range of 8.86 ~ 77.30 mW/m. Mean diastolic energy loss ranged from 7.9 to 86 (30.41 ± 16.93) mW/m, with a reference range of 8.31 ~ 80.36 mW/m. Mean kinetic energy in the left ventricular outflow tract over one cardiac cycle ranged from 200 to 851.6 (449.74 ± 177.51) mW/m with a reference range of 203.16 ~ 833.15 mW/m. The energetic performance index ranged from 5.3 to 37.6 (18.48 ± 7.74), with a reference range of 5.80 ~ 36.67. Energy loss, kinetic energy, and energetic performance index reference values were defined using vector flow mapping. These reference values enable the assessment of various cardiac conditions in any clinical situation.

  5. Pressure Mapping of a Standard Hospital Recliner and Select Cushions With Healthy Adults: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Slayton, Stephanie; Morris, Paula; Brinkley, Jason

    The aim of the study was to compare the degree of pressure created when healthy adult volunteers sat on a hospital recliner chair in various positions and on various cushions. Comparative cross-sectional study. Thirty-four healthy subjects were recruited from the community, an urban city in a rural area of Eastern North Carolina. Interface pressure measurements were taken by the investigators for each subject sitting on a standard hospital recliner under each of the following conditions: no cushion, foam cushion, nonadjustable air cushion, nonadjustable air/foam cushion, and adjustable air cushion. Subject positions, upright sitting and reclined, were randomly selected. Analyses consisted of data visualizations by investigators and univariate statistics. For each surface, mean pressure, peak pressure, and Pressure Area Index (PAI) were obtained and compared. Inferences were drawn from a repeated-measures analysis-of-covariance model. Subject position was not associated with any of the measures for each surface after adjusting for other variables (average pressure P = .1094, maximum/peak pressure P = .1318, PAI P = .4336). Subject weight, the type of surface, and their interaction do impact the results (average pressure, maximum/peak pressure, and PAI, P < .0001). The foam cushion had the highest mean and average interface pressures and the lowest PAI. The nonadjustable air and air/foam cushions performed most similarly to each other, showing lowest mean and average interface pressures and the highest PAI. Position of a hospital recliner chair in the 2 positions studied had no association with interface pressure outcomes; therefore, other methods of pressure redistribution need to be utilized by clinicians. Based on the results of this study, clinicians may need to reevaluate the type of cushion used in the acute hospital setting, as a standard foam cushion was found to increase interface pressures when compared to other cushions and a standard hospital recliner.

  6. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Chamberlain, Ryan; Bankier, Alexander A

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and VolExp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. • Co-registration of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography allows dual-phase densitometry. • Dual-phase co-registered densitometry reflects heterogeneous regional changes in lung function. • Quantification of lung in healthy subjects is needed to set reference values. • Expiratory low attenuation areas <30 % could be considered within normal range.

  7. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  8. Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shortfall Questionnaire Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy Family HealthPrevention and WellnessStaying ...

  9. Handgrip dynamometry in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Luna-Heredia, Esther; Martín-Peña, Gonzalo; Ruiz-Galiana, Julián

    2005-04-01

    To establish normal reference values for handgrip strength in healthy adult subjects using hand dynamometry. Descriptive study of 517 healthy volunteers (267 females and 229 males) aged 17-97 years. Grip strength was measured using two different handgrip dynamometers. Three consecutive measurements were made in both the dominant and the non-dominant hands. The results were analysed after stratification by age, gender, weight, height and dominant/non-dominant hand. The handgrip strength depends on gender (non-dominant hand: 22.8 +/-7.2 kg in females and 35.1 +/- 12.4 kg in males (mean +/- standard deviation); "t" test P<0.0001) and is negatively correlated with, age (females r = -0.60, males r = -0.67, P<0.01) and positively with height (females r = -0.48, P<0.01, males r = -0.60, P<0.01). Normal reference values for handgrip strength should be established and stratified according to age and gender. The variations associated with height do not warrant adjustments in relation to this variable.

  10. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  11. Healthy Universities: Mapping Health-Promotion Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…

  12. Healthy Universities: Mapping Health-Promotion Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…

  13. Speaking-Related Dyspnea in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…

  14. Speaking-Related Dyspnea in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…

  15. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant interaction of height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society

  16. Reliability of Transcallosal Inhibition in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Melanie K.; Newham, Di J.

    2017-01-01

    Transcallosal inhibition (TCI), assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, can provide insight into the neurophysiology of aging and of neurological disorders such as stroke. However, the reliability of TCI using the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) has not been formally assessed, despite its use in longitudinal studies. This study aimed to determine the reliability of iSP onset latency, duration and depth in healthy young and older adults. A sample of 18 younger (mean age 27.7 years, range: 19–42) and 13 older healthy adults (mean age 68.1 years, range: 58–79) attended four sessions whereby the iSP was measured from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of each hand. 20 single pulse stimuli were delivered to each primary motor cortex at 80% maximum stimulator output while the participant maintained an isometric contraction of the ipsilateral FDI. The average onset latency, duration of the iSP, and depth of inhibition relative to baseline electromyography activity was calculated for each hand in each session. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all four sessions, or the first two sessions only. For iSP onset latency the reliability ranged from poor to good. For iSP duration there was moderate to good reliability (ICC > 0.6). Depth of inhibition demonstrated variation in reproducibility depending on which hand was assessed and whether two or four sessions were compared. Bland and Altman analyses showed wide limits of agreement between the first two sessions, particularly for iSP depth. However, there was no systematic pattern to the variability. These results indicate that although iSP duration is reliable in healthy adults, changes in longitudinal studies should be interpreted with caution, particularly for iSP depth. Future studies are needed to determine reliability in clinical populations. PMID:28119588

  17. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  18. [Hypoxemia after general anesthesia in healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Croston, J; Brown, L

    1990-09-01

    It has been shown that a variable percentage of patients who receive a general anesthetic are significantly hypoxemic when they arrive at the recovery room. Pulse oximetry has proved to be a reliable method to determine arterial oxygen saturation when compared to arterial or mixed venous blood oxygen saturation measurements. The authors determined the incidence and severity of hypoxemia by pulse oximetry in 45 healthy adult patients, (non obese, non smokers) who underwent non thoracic surgery under general anesthesia. Arterial oxygen saturation was measured without premedication before surgery (control), when they arrived at the recovery room, and 5 and 15 minutes later. The axillary temperature was taken at the same times. The results were expressed as the median and standard deviation and were analyzed with Student T Test, and p LO.05 was considered significant. Nine patients (20%) showed unacceptable oxygen saturation when they arrived at the recovery room (88.4 +/- 2.50%, LO.05). All patients showed significant hypothermia (35.3 +/- 0.54 degrees C). The authors conclude that a significant number of healthy adult patients who are given a general anesthetic show severe hypoxemia when they arrive at the recovery room. The severe hypothermia found in these patients can aggravate the hypoxemia. They consider it is mandatory to control the temperature of and to administer oxygen in the recovery room to all patients who receive a general anesthetic.

  19. The Healthy Adults Project in rural Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Eichner, June E; Fisher, Kimberly A; Moore, William E; Kobza, Cee E; Abbott, Kathryn E; Thompson, David M; Stephens, Aietah L

    2009-01-01

    Screening to identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease is sorely needed in rural areas of Oklahoma. The Healthy Adults Project was started as a screening program for public school employees in a rural school district in southwest Oklahoma. The screening project is a collaborative effort between the Anadarko Public School district and the University of Oklahoma Prevention Research Center. Two hundred twenty-four (224) employees participated in the screening in 2004, and 206 employees participated in 2005. Approximately 50% of females and 80% of males had two or more modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in 2004 and 2005. Worksite screening is a valuable tool to raise awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly in less densely populated areas where wages are low and few preventive services are available. Knowledge of individual risk is the first step in improving health outcomes.

  20. Macular thickness in healthy Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M.; Al-Zwaidi, Fahad M.; Yassin, Sanaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the macular thickness in the eyes of healthy Saudi adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study, including 158 healthy participants between August and December 2015. Mean subject age was 29.9 ± 7.85 years old. All participants underwent full ophthalmic evaluation, including SD-OCT imaging, and axial length measurement. Data from the right eye were included. Mean retinal thickness was determined. Correlations between retinal thickness and gender, age, axial length, and spherical equivalence were analyzed. Results: Mean central retinal thickness was 244.76 ± 23.62 µm, mean axial length was 23.8 ± 1.062 mm (range: 20.5-29 mm) and mean spherical equivalent was -0.31 ± 1.75 diopters (D) (range: -5.50 to +4.25 D). Central subfield (CSF) thickness and foveal volume were significantly lower in women than in men (both p<0.001). Data from the various age groups did not show statistically significant differences in the CSF thickness (p=0.389) or foveal volume (p=0.341). A positive correlation between CSF thickness and axial length (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusion: The normal macular thickness values in healthy Saudi individuals is different from that reported in other ethnic groups, as obtained by SD-OCT. Saudi men had thicker CSF than Saudi women and axial length was positively correlated to the central foveal thickness. PMID:28042632

  1. Normal intraabdominal pressure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Cobb, William S; Burns, Justin M; Kercher, Kent W; Matthews, Brent D; James Norton, H; Todd Heniford, B

    2005-12-01

    Intraabdominal pressure (IAP) has been considered responsible for adverse effects in trauma and other abdominal catastrophes as well as in formation and recurrence of hernias. To date, little information is available concerning IAP in normal persons. Our purpose in this study was to measure the normal range of IAP in healthy, nonobese adults and correlate these measurements with sex and body mass index (BMI). After Institutional Review Board approval, 20 healthy young adults (< or =30 years old) with no prior history of abdominal surgery were enrolled. Pressure readings were obtained through a transurethral bladder (Foley) catheter. Each subject performed 13 different tasks including standing, sitting, bending at the waist, bending at the knees, performing abdominal crunches, jumping, climbing stairs, bench-pressing 25 pounds, arm curling 10 pounds, and performing a Valsalva and coughing while sitting and also while standing. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Intraabdominal pressure was measured in 10 male and 10 female subjects. The mean age of the study group was 22.7 years (range, 18-30 years), and BMI averaged 24.6 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-31.9 kg/m(2)). Mean IAP for sitting and standing were 16.7 and 20 mm Hg. Coughing and jumping generated the highest IAP (107.6 and 171 mm Hg, respectively). Lifting 10-pound weights and bending at the knees did not generate excessive levels of pressure with the maximum average of 25.5 mm Hg. The mean pressures were not different when comparing males and females during each maneuver. There was a significant correlation between higher BMI and increased IAP in 5 of 13 exercises. Normal IAP correlates with BMI but does not vary based on sex. The highest intraabdominal pressures in healthy patients are generated during coughing and jumping. Based on our observations, patients with higher BMI and chronic cough appear to generate significant elevation in IAP. Thus, this group of patients may

  2. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Matthew J; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Muller, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3-min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (Δ = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ΔMAP was comparable between groups (Δ = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %ΔFVC (-2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %ΔCVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ΔHR and %ΔCVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ΔHR and %ΔFVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress.

  3. Magnetocardiographic and electrocardiographic exercise mapping in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Takala, P; Hänninen, H; Montone, J; Mäkijärvi, M; Nenonen, J; Oikarinen, L; Simeliu, K; Toivonen, L; Katil, T

    2001-06-01

    In 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), detection of myocardial ischemia is based on ST-segment changes in exercise testing. Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a complementary method to the ECG for a noninvasive study of the electric activity of the heart. In the MCG, ST-segment changes due to stress have also been found in healthy subjects. To further study the normal response to exercise, we performed MCG mappings in 12 healthy volunteers during supine bicycle ergometry. We also recorded body surface potential mapping (BSPM) with 123 channels using the same protocol. In this paper we compare, for the first time, multichannel MCG recorded in bicycle exercise testing with BSPM over the whole thorax in middle-aged healthy subjects. We quantified changes induced by the exercise in the MCG and BSPM with parameters based on signal amplitude, and correlation between signal distributions at rest and after exercise. At the ST-segment and T-wave apex, the exercise induced a magnetic field component outward the precordium and the minimum value of the MCG signal over the mapped area was found to be amplified. The response to exercise was smaller in the BSPM than in the MCG. A negative component in the MCG signal at the repolarization period of the cardiac cycle should be considered as a normal response to exercise. Therefore, maximum ST-segment depression over the mapped area in the MCG may not be an eligible parameter when evaluating the presence of ischemia.

  4. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  5. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  6. Atorvastatin Increases Exercise Leg Blood Flow in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642

  7. Measurement of Cough Aerodynamics in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Aaron J; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K; Long, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Cough is a critical human reflex and also among the most frequent symptoms in medicine. Despite the prevalence of disordered cough in laryngeal pathologies, comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of cough in these patients is lacking. Herein we seek to establish normative values for cough aerodynamics to provide a population standard for reference in future studies. Healthy subjects were recruited from an outpatient clinic to perform voluntary cough. Subjects were instructed on the technique for maximal voluntary cough production with measurements recorded on pneumotachograph. Fifty-two subjects were studied, including 29 women and 23 men with a mean age of 51.6 and 52.3 years, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cough peak airflow, peak pressure, and expiratory rise time. Results were stratified by age, gender, and height. Peak airflow demonstrated significant differences across age, gender, and height, with flow increasing according to increasing height. Peak cough pressure also increased with height and was significantly greater in males versus females. Expiratory rise time, the time from glottal opening to peak airflow, did not vary with age or height but was statistically significantly longer in women. Cough aerodynamics can be readily measured objectively in the outpatient setting. Expiratory rise time, peak flow, and peak pressure are important aspects of each cough epoch. Normative data provided herein can be used for future studies of patients with laryngotracheal disorders, and these cough parameters may prove to be simple, accessible, and repeatable outcome measures.

  8. Postural sway following cryotherapy in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Duarte, Marcos; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the wide use of cryotherapy and its potential negative effects on postural stability, little is known about how postural sway is affected, particularly when the whole lower limb is immersed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy on postural sway in healthy males. Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned into two intervention groups: control (tepid water at ∼26°C) or ice (cold water at ∼11°C). Postural sway was measured through the center of pressure (COP) position while they stood on a force plate during bipedal (70 s) and unipedal (40 s) conditions before and after the subjects were immersed in a water tub up to the umbilical level for 20 min. COP standard deviation (SD) and COP velocity were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Statistical analysis showed that in the bipedal condition cryotherapy increased the COP SD and COP velocity in the ML direction. During the unipedal condition, a higher COP velocity in the AP and ML directions was also reported. Our findings indicate that cryotherapy by immersing the whole lower limb should be used with caution before engaging in challenging postural control activities.

  9. Perceived face size in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.

  10. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain.

    PubMed

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-06-01

    Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.

  11. CT Pulmonary Findings in Healthy Older Adult Aspirators versus Nonaspirators

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Susan G.; Clark, Hollins; Baginski, Scott G.; Todd, J. Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine; Leng, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis In previous studies, we consistently found that approximately 30% of asymptomatic healthy older adults silently aspirated liquids during a flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), and that their aspiration status was stable for the following year. However, no studies have systematically evaluated effects of silent aspiration on lung parenchyma and airways. We used computed tomography (CT) to compare lungs of healthy older adult aspirators versus nonaspirators. We hypothesized that CT images would show pulmonary differences in healthy older adult aspirators versus nonaspirators. Study Design Prospective study. Methods Fifty healthy older adults (25 aspirators and 25 nonaspirators) who participated in a previous FEES were randomly selected. CT scans were performed; on inspiration, lung views were taken at 1.25 mm and 2.5 mm windows; on expiration, lung views were taken at 2.5 mm. CT scans were reviewed by radiologists blinded to group assignment. Outcomes included bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis, bronchial wall thickening, parenchymal band, fibrosis, air trapping, intraluminal airway debris, and tree-in-bud pattern. Results Chi-square analyses between aspirators and nonaspirators found no statistically significant differences between aspirators and nonaspirators for any outcomes (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for smoking did not change the results. Conclusion(s) There were no differences in pulmonary CT findings between healthy older adult aspirators and nonaspirators. This study adds to the evidence that some aspiration may be within the range of normal for older adults, or at least does not contribute to a change in pulmonary appearance on CT images. PMID:23832617

  12. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  13. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  14. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  15. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  16. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  17. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  18. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  19. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  20. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  1. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  2. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Laura E; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A; Sumner, Dale R; Wimmer, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA).With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years.

  3. Combined Healthy Behaviors and Healthcare Services Use in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aceituno, Ana; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2017-07-31

    Data on the combined impact of healthy behaviors on healthcare use in older adults are limited. Study with community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years from the Spanish Seniors-ENRICA cohort, recruited in 2008-2010, followed through 2012-2013, and analyzed in 2016 (N=2,021). At baseline, the following healthy behaviors were self-reported: three traditional (never smoking, being physically active, having a healthy diet) and three emerging (sleeping 7-8 hours/day, sitting <8 hours/day, not living alone). Outcomes were self-reported polypharmacy (five or more drugs per day), primary care physician visits (one or more per month), medical specialist visits (more than one per year), and hospitalization (one or more in the last year). The associations between baseline healthy behaviors and healthcare services used in 2012-2013 were summarized with ORs and 95% CIs from multiple logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, lifestyles, comorbidities, and baseline health services used. Most single healthy behaviors were associated with lower use of most health services. Compared with participants with zero or one healthy behavior, those with five or six healthy behaviors showed lower risk of polypharmacy (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.24, 0.85, p-trend=0.001), visits to the primary care physician (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.26, 0.96, p-trend=0.013), and hospitalization (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.24, 1.01, p-trend=0.016). No association was found with visits to the medical specialist. The combination of five to six healthy behaviors in older adults is associated with half the risk of polypharmacy and using several healthcare services. In an era of constrained resources in most countries, this information may help inform health policy to control healthcare spending in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  5. INTERACTIVE VIDEO DANCE GAMES FOR HEALTHY OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    STUDENSKI, S.; PERERA, S.; HILE, E.; KELLER, V.; SPADOLA-BOGARD, J.; GARCIA, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate healthy older adults’ interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user. Methods Healthy older adults were recruited from 3 senior living settings and offered three months of training and supervision using a video dance game designed for older people. Before and after the program, data was collected on vital signs, physical function and self reported quality of life. Feedback was obtained during and after training. Results Of 36 persons who entered (mean age 80.1 ± 5.4 years, 83 % female), 25 completed the study. Completers were healthier than non completers. Completers showed gains in narrow walk time, self-reported balance confidence and mental health. While there were no serious adverse events, 4 of 11 non completers withdrew due to musculoskeletal complaints. Conclusions Adapted Interactive video dance is feasible for some healthy older adults and may help achieve physical activity goals. PMID:21125204

  6. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip J.; Lopes, Marco A.; Perry, Sonja C.; Lanter, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces) may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut. PMID:27846295

  7. Older adults' perspectives on naturopathic medicine's impact on healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Erica B; Thomas, Marie-Sabine; McCarty, Melissa; Berg, Jennifer; Burlingham, Bonnie; Bradley, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    High rates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization among older adults are of interest because studies suggest relationships among CAM, self-care, and healthy lifestyle. These potential relationships are of particular interest because of the contribution of self-care in maintaining physical, emotional, and spiritual health as key strategies to successful aging. Naturopathic medicine (NM) is a type of primary care CAM used by older adults, yet little is known about older adults' use of NM or its role in healthy aging. We sought to examine perceptions about, and utilization of, NM and the experience of addressing health and wellness as part of the aging process. Phenomenology-based qualitative inquiry. A total of 13 community-based clinics affiliated with a naturopathic medical school. A total of 47 adults aged 58-100 years. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured focus groups with quantitative analysis of clinical administrative data. Over 2543 older adults used NM services affiliated with a natural academic clinic in Seattle in 2011 for diagnoses consistent with primary care: fatigue, anxiety, diabetes, diarrhea, and depression, in rank order. Participants reported they sought NM because it offered a different system of care aligned with their values. Themes included (1) feeling heard, (2) a focus on health education including prevention and self-care, and (3) feeling supported. Themes further distilled into optimal descriptive characteristics of patient-centered providers that may best support older adults' healthy aging. A final theme described barriers to further utilization. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  9. Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Healthy Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women. PMID:24082842

  10. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  11. Emotional expressiveness in sleep-deprived healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Minkel, Jared; Htaik, Oo; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sleep deprivation on emotional expression and subjective emotional experience in a highly controlled, laboratory setting. Twenty-three healthy adult participants watched positive (amusing) and negative (sad) film clips before and after they were randomly assigned to a night of sleep deprivation or a normal sleep control condition. The intensity of their facial expressiveness while viewing the films was coded by human judges and compared to their subjective emotional responses. Relative to the control group, sleep-deprived participants demonstrated less expressiveness, especially in response to positive stimuli. Subjective responses were not significantly different between the sleep-deprived and control groups. These preliminary results suggest that sleep deprivation is associated with attenuated emotional expressiveness in healthy adults.

  12. Effects of orthosis on balance and gait in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Joon; Choi, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of an oral orthosis that can change body alignment on the balance ability and gait of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 21 University students. A gait analyzer was used to analyze the subjects’ balance ability and gait quality. Two walking speeds were used: 2 km/h, a comfortable speed, and 4 km/h, a slightly faster walking speed. [Results] The step length, and base of gait at 2 km/h differed significantly after the intervention. The total step time and step length increased significantly after the intervention. Furthermore, the total base of gait decreased significantly after the intervention. The step times of the left lower limb at 4 km/h differed significantly after the intervention. [Conclusion] The oral orthosis tested positively affects the balance ability and gait of healthy adults. PMID:26180365

  13. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n = 703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p < .05) to the predictive ability of the overall model: being female; living with a partner; a strong sense of coherence (construct from the salutogenic framework), flexible restraint of eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Healthy Lifestyle and Blood Pressure Variability in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Maseli, Anna; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Fischer, Andreas; Jung, Manuel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between healthy lifestyle metrics and blood pressure variability (BPV) in young and healthy adults. A population-based sample of 1,999 individuals aged 25-41 years was investigated. A lifestyle-score from 0 (most unhealthy) to 7 (most healthy) was calculated by giving one point for each of the following components: never smoking cigarettes, adhering to a healthy diet, performing moderate or intense physical activity, having a body mass index <25 kg/m2, a total cholesterol <200 mg/dl, a glycated hemoglobin <5.7%, or a conventional BP <120/80 mm Hg. Standardized ambulatory 24-hour BP measurements were obtained in all individuals. BPV was defined as the SD of all individual ambulatory BP recordings. We constructed multivariable linear regression models to assess the relationships between the lifestyle-score and BPV. None of the results were adjusted for multiple testing. Median age was 37 years and 46.8% were men. With increasing lifestyle-score, systolic and diastolic BPV is decreasing linearly (P for trend <0.0001), even after multivariable adjustment. Per 1-point increase in lifestyle-score, the β-coefficient (95% confidence interval) for systolic and diastolic 24-hour BPV was -0.03 (-0.03; -0.02) and -0.04 (-0.05; -0.03), respectively, both P for trend <0.0001. These relationships were attenuated but remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for mean individual BP. In this study of young and healthy adults, adopting a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower BPV. These associations were independent of mean BP levels.

  15. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability.

  16. Walking Stability during Cell Phone Use in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I.; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. PMID:25890490

  17. Serum immunoglobulin levels in healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, J. W.; Zegers, B. J. M.; Sander, P. C.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Serum levels of IgM, IgG and IgA were determined in 270 healthy children, 4–12 years old, and in thirty healthy adults by the radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini. There were nine 1-year age groups of thirty children each (fifteen boys and fifteen girls); the adult group consisted of fifteen males and fifteen females. The difference in values between adults and children was statistically significant. The IgG and IgA concentrations showed a gradual rise with increasing age; the IgM concentration remained constant at a distinctly lower level than that in adults. The IgA level was about the same in both sexes. Girls had significantly higher IgM and IgG levels than boys. A consistent seasonal influence on the three serum immunoglobulin concentrations could not be demonstrated. A very wide variation in serum levels of each immunoglobulin in each age group was found. Very low values were by no means exceptional. The consequence of this finding for the diagnosis of immunological incompetency is discussed. PMID:4182354

  18. Cerebellar contributions to neurological soft signs in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Stieltjes, Bram; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin, e.g., in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Yet NSS are also present in healthy individuals suggesting a neurodevelopmental signature of motor function, probably as a continuum between health and disease. So far, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these motor phenomena in healthy persons, and it is even less known whether the cerebellum contributes to NSS expression. Thirty-seven healthy young adults (mean age = 23 years) were studied using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and "resting-state" functional MRI at three Tesla. NSS levels were measured using the "Heidelberg Scale." Cerebellar gray matter volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Cerebellar function was assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local network strength. The relationship between cerebellar structure and function and NSS was analyzed using regression models. There was no significant relationship between cerebellar volume and NSS (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). Positive associations with cerebellar lobule VI activity were found for the "motor coordination" and "hard signs" NSS domains. A negative relationship was found between lobule VI activity and "complex motor task" domain (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). The data indicate that in healthy young adults, distinct NSS domains are related to cerebellar activity, specifically with activity of cerebellar subregions with known cortical somatomotor projections. In contrast, cerebellar volume is not predictive of NSS in healthy persons.

  19. Sonoclot evaluation of whole blood coagulation in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Babski, Danielle M; Brainard, Benjamin M; Krimer, Paula M; Ralph, Alan G; Pittman, Jennifer R; Koenig, Amie

    2012-12-01

    To establish a standard protocol for analysis of canine whole blood and generate reference intervals for healthy dogs using the Sonoclot analyzer, and to compare Sonoclot values to standard and viscoelastic coagulation tests. Prospective study. Veterinary University research facility and teaching hospital. Twelve healthy random source dogs and 52 healthy dogs from the general veterinary school population. Blood sampling for viscoelastic coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 12 healthy adult dogs by jugular venipuncture. After a rest period at room temperature of 30, 60, or 120 minutes, 340 μL of citrated blood was added to 20 μL of 0.2 M CaCl(2) in 1 of 2 cuvette types warmed to 37° C. Cuvettes contained a magnetic stir-bar with glass beads (gbACT+) or only a magnetic stir-bar (nonACT). Reference interval samples were collected from 52 healthy adult dogs and analyzed in duplicate. The ACT, CR, and PF were not affected by duration of rest period for either cuvette type. ACT variability was decreased when using gbACT+ cuvettes (P < 0.05). In normal dogs reference intervals (mean ± 2 SD) using gbACT+ cuvettes were: ACT 56.0-154.0 seconds, CR 14.85-46.0, and PF 2.1-4.05. ACT correlated to TEG R-time, K-time, and angle, while CR correlated with all TEG parameters. Fibrinogen correlated with ACT, CR, and PF. Sonoclot did not correlate with other common coagulation tests. Sonoclot provides viscoelastic evaluation of canine whole blood coagulation and correlated to several TEG parameters and fibrinogen. A standard protocol and reference intervals were established. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  20. Echocardiographic parameters in healthy young adult Sphynx cats.

    PubMed

    Mottet, E; Amberger, C; Doherr, M G; Lombard, C

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to determine normal reference values for 2-Dimension (2D) and Motion-mode (M-mode) echocardiographic parameters in nonsedated healthy young adult Sphynx cats and to compare them to those of the domestic shorthair (DSH). 131 Sphynx cats underwent cardiac screening prior to breeding. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adult domestic cats. A complete cardiac ultrasound was performed on all cats using right parasternal long and short axis views. There were few echocardiographic parameters in the Sphynx that differed from those of the healthy DSH. Only the left atrial (LA) dimension in 2D and M-mode, the left atrial/aortic (LA/Ao) ratio and the internal dimension of the left ventricle in systole (LVIDs) measured with M-mode were different. In conclusion, although the heart of Sphynx cat can often have a particular 2-D echocardiographic appearance, the M-mode cardiac dimensions are similar to those of the DSH.

  1. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  2. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  3. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups—young adults (20–29 years of age) and older adults (70–89 years of age). Participants completed cognitive measures and several discourse tasks; these included telling stories depicted in wordless picture books and answering multiple-choice comprehension questions pertaining to the story. Results The 2 groups did not differ significantly for proportion of story propositions conveyed; however, the younger group performed significantly better on the comprehension measure as compared with the older group. Only the older group demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the story measures. Performance on the production and comprehension measures significantly correlated with performance on the cognitive measures for the older group but not for the younger group. Conclusions The relationship between adults’ comprehension of stimuli used to elicit narrative production samples and their narrative productions differed across the life span, suggesting that discourse processing performance changes in healthy aging. Finally, the study’s findings suggest that memory and attention contribute to older adults’ story processing performance. PMID:21106701

  4. Energy Expenditure and Intensity in Healthy Young Adults during Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Tzu; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chu, I-Hua

    2015-07-01

    To examine and compare the energy expenditure (EE) and intensity of Xbox 360 Kinect exergames in healthy young adults. Seventeen young adults (22.0 ± 2.9 years; 7 men) were enrolled and asked to complete 6 exergames using Xbox 360 Kinect. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout each exergame, and metabolic equivalents (METs) and EE were calculated from VO2. Boxing (6.8 ± 1.9 METs) and soccer (6.2 ± 1.7 METs) provided vigorous intensity of physical activity, which was significantly greater than track and field, ping-pong, and bowling (5.0 ± 1.5, 4.0 ± 1.6, and 2.6 ± 0.8 METs, respectively; all p < .01). Beach volleyball (5.7 ± 1.8 METs) was greater than ping-pong and bowling (both p < .01). EE exhibited a similar pattern. These results remained after adjusting for participants' previous exergaming experience and resting HR. Kinect Sports from Xbox 360 Kinect is capable of providing a moderate-to-vigorous level of physical activity in young healthy adults. These exergames may be used as an alternative mode of exercise to promote physical activity participation in this population. Future research that evaluates the feasibility of using exergames as an alternative mode of exercise in other populations is warranted.

  5. Dynamic stability differences in fall-prone and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2010-01-01

    Typical stability assessments characterize performance in standing balance despite the fact that most falls occur during dynamic activities such as walking. The objective of this study was to identify dynamic stability differences between fall-prone elderly individuals, healthy age-matched adults, and young adults. Three-dimensional video-motion analysis kinematic data were recorded for 35 contiguous steps while subjects walked on a treadmill at three speeds. From this data, we estimated the vector from the center-of-mass to the center of pressure at each foot-strike. Dynamic stability of walking was computed by methods of Poincare analyses of these vectors. Results revealed that the fall-prone group demonstrated poorer dynamic stability than the healthy elderly and young adult groups. Stability was not influenced by walking velocity, indicating that group differences in walking speed could not fully explain the differences in stability. This pilot study supports the need for future investigations using larger population samples to study fall-prone individuals using nonlinear dynamic analyses of movement kinematics. PMID:17686633

  6. Single tooth bite forces in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Dellavia, C; Tartaglia, G M

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of bite forces on healthy single tooth appears essential for a correct quantification of the actual impact of single implant oral rehabilitations. In the present study, a new single tooth strain-gauge bite transducer was used in 52 healthy young adults (36 men, 16 women) with a complete permanent dentition. The influences of tooth position along the dental arch, of side, and of sex, on maximum bite force were assessed by an ANOVA. No significant left-right differences were found. On average, in both sexes the lowest bite force was recorded on the incisors (40-48% of maximum single tooth bite force), the largest force was recorded on the first molar. Bite forces were larger in men than in women (P < 0.002), and increased monotonically along the arch until the first or second permanent molar (P < 0.0001). The present data can be used as reference values for the comparison of dental forces in patients.

  7. Ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Shanmugam; Rai, Santosh B; Parsons, Helen; Drew, Steve; Smith, Christopher D; Griffin, Damian R

    2014-08-01

    No studies have looked at the rotator cuff dimensions in the young healthy population using ultrasonography. Our aim is to define the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in the healthy young adult population and explore correlations with other patient characteristics. Thirty male and 30 female healthy volunteers (aged 18-40 years), with no shoulder problems, underwent ultrasound assessment of both shoulders by a musculoskeletal radiologist. The dimensions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and biceps were measured in a standardized manner. A total of 120 shoulders were scanned. The mean maximum width of the supraspinatus footprint was 14.9 mm in men and 13.5 mm in women (P < .001). The mean thickness of the supraspinatus tendon was 4.9 mm in women and 5.6 mm in men. The mean thickness of the subscapularis was 4.4 in men and 3.8 mm in women and for the infraspinatus was 4.9 mm in men and 4.4 mm in women. There was no correlation between height, weight, biceps, or deltoid thickness with any tendon measurements. Apart from supraspinatus tendon thickness, the difference between dominant and nondominant shoulders in the same sex was not significant for any other tendon dimensions. This study has defined the dimensions of the rotator cuff in the young healthy adult, which has not been previously published. This is important for the documentation of normal ultrasound anatomy of the rotator cuff and also demonstrates that the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can and should be used to estimate the expected dimensions. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Strategies of healthy adults walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill.

    PubMed

    Brady, Rachel A; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2009-06-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in this novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or fix themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for optimizing gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group).

  10. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  11. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally.

  12. Decreased segregation of brain systems across the healthy adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Micaela Y.; Park, Denise C.; Savalia, Neil K.; Petersen, Steven E.; Wig, Gagan S.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging has been associated with decreased specialization in brain function. This characterization has focused largely on describing age-accompanied differences in specialization at the level of neurons and brain areas. We expand this work to describe systems-level differences in specialization in a healthy adult lifespan sample (n = 210; 20–89 y). A graph-theoretic framework is used to guide analysis of functional MRI resting-state data and describe systems-level differences in connectivity of individual brain networks. Young adults’ brain systems exhibit a balance of within- and between-system correlations that is characteristic of segregated and specialized organization. Increasing age is accompanied by decreasing segregation of brain systems. Compared with systems involved in the processing of sensory input and motor output, systems mediating “associative” operations exhibit a distinct pattern of reductions in segregation across the adult lifespan. Of particular importance, the magnitude of association system segregation is predictive of long-term memory function, independent of an individual’s age. PMID:25368199

  13. Alternate-day dosing of itraconazole in healthy adult cats.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S M; Kubier, A; Dirikolu, L; Papich, M G; Mitchell, M A; Rubin, S I

    2016-02-01

    The current available formulations of itraconazole are not ideal for dosing in cats. The capsular preparation often does not allow for accurate dosing, the oral solution is difficult to administer and poorly tolerated, and the bioavailability of compounded formulations has been shown to be poor in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate every other day dosing of 100 mg itraconazole capsule in healthy adult cats. Ten healthy adult cats received a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole orally every 48 h for 8 weeks. Peak and trough serum concentrations of itraconazole were measured weekly using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and chemistry profiles were performed weekly. The dosage regimen achieved average therapeutic trough concentrations (>0.5 μg/mL) within 3 weeks. The protocol yielded no adverse effects in 8 of the 10 study cats, with affected cats recovering fully with discontinuation of the drug and supportive care. At 8 weeks, an average peak concentration of 1.79 ± 0.952 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.996-2.588) and an average trough concentration of 0.761 ± 0.540 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.314-1.216) were achieved. Overall, a 100 mg every other day oral dosage regimen for itraconazole in cats yielded serum concentrations with minimal fluctuation and with careful monitoring may be considered for treatment of cats with systemic fungal disease.

  14. Déjà Vu Experiences in Healthy Czech Adults.

    PubMed

    Lacinová, Lenka; Neužilová Michalčáková, Radka; Širůček, Jan; Ježek, Stanislav; Chromec, Jakub; Masopustová, Zuzana; Urbánek, Tomáš; Brázdil, Milan

    2016-12-01

    The study examines the prevalence of déjà vu in healthy Czech adults and explores its relationships with a number of variables: age, sex, neuroticism, depression, the degree of irritability in the limbic system, perceived stress, and finally attachment avoidance and anxiety. The participants were 365 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 70 years recruited in the Czech Republic (mean age = 29.05; SD = 11.17) who filled out online questionnaires. Déjà vu experiences were reported by 324 (88.8%) of them. Persons who experienced déjà vu were younger than the persons who had not experienced it. We found that sex, levels of neuroticism, depression, perceived stress, and attachment did not serve as predictors of experiences of déjà vu phenomena. Finally, those who had reported déjà vu experiences reported more limbic system irritability symptoms. We discuss the possibility that déjà vu reports together with other studied variables mainly reflect the participants' willingness to report "extraordinal" experiences.

  15. Surface electromyography of continuous drinking in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Gabriel, Chaim; Eviatar, Ephraim; Segal, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    To give a description of normal surface electromyography (sEMG) aspects of uninterrupted (continuous) drinking and to establish normal sEMG values for swallowing 100 mL of water. Prospective observational study of healthy volunteers. Four hundred twenty apparently healthy male and female volunteers divided into three age groups (18-40, 41-65, 66+ years). The evaluated parameters included the total duration, number of swallows, amount of water per swallow, and voltage of the EMG activity of the orbicularis oris, masseter, and submental-submandibular muscles and the infrahyoid muscle groups covered by the m. platysma. The overall normal mean values for duration, number of swallows, and amplitude of muscle activity during continuous drinking were compiled. The age-related increase in duration of swallows and of total drinking time was significant only in the older group (95% confidence interval, P < .05). There were no significant sex-related differences for any age group (P > or = .05). The mean electric activity (in muV) varied insignificantly among the age groups. The activity of the m. orbicularis oris was the least informative. An unexpectedly significant number of healthy subjects (14.25%, P < .05) performed a dry swallow after drinking. The establishment of normal sEMG levels now makes this modality applicable for evaluating the swallowing mechanism among adults for potentially identifying and ruling out abnormalities. Its simplicity, noninvasiveness, and low level of discomfort also make it highly suitable for screening purposes.

  16. Structural covariance networks across healthy young adults and their consistency.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Guo, Taomei; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

    2015-08-01

    To investigate structural covariance networks (SCNs) as measured by regional gray matter volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from healthy young adults, and to examine their consistency and stability. Two independent cohorts were included in this study: Group 1 (82 healthy subjects aged 18-28 years) and Group 2 (109 healthy subjects aged 20-28 years). Structural MRI data were acquired at 3.0T and 1.5T using a magnetization prepared rapid-acquisition gradient echo sequence for these two groups, respectively. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to construct SCNs and further applied the spatial overlap ratio and correlation coefficient to evaluate the spatial consistency of the SCNs between these two datasets. Seven and six independent components were identified for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Moreover, six SCNs including the posterior default mode network, the visual and auditory networks consistently existed across the two datasets. The overlap ratios and correlation coefficients of the visual network reached the maximums of 72% and 0.71. This study demonstrates the existence of consistent SCNs corresponding to general functional networks. These structural covariance findings may provide insight into the underlying organizational principles of brain anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  18. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.

  19. Hunting increases adaptive auditory map plasticity in adult barn owls.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Ro, Peter; Ro, Daniel; Knudsen, Eric I

    2005-10-19

    The optic tectum (OT) of barn owls contains topographic maps of auditory and visual space. Barn owls reared with horizontally displacing prismatic spectacles (prisms) acquire a novel auditory space map in the OT that restores alignment with the prismatically displaced visual map. Although juvenile owls readily acquire alternative maps of auditory space as a result of experience, this plasticity is reduced greatly in adults. We tested whether hunting live prey, a natural and critically important behavior for barn owls, increases auditory map plasticity in adult owls. Two groups of naive adult owls were fit with prisms. The first group was fed dead mice during 10 weeks of prism experience, while the second group was required to hunt live prey for an identical period of time. When the owls hunted live prey, auditory maps shifted substantially farther (five times farther, on average) and the consistency of tuning curve shifts within each map increased. Only a short period of time in each day, during which the two groups experienced different conditions, accounts for this effect. In addition, increased map plasticity correlated with behavioral improvements in the owls' ability to strike and capture prey. These results indicate that the experience of hunting dramatically increases adult adaptive plasticity in this pathway.

  20. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America’s population of older adult’s 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. Methods The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Results Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican

  1. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  2. Prehypertension and Its Determinants in Apparently Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Sunandha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High incidence of prehypertension is reported in medical undergraduates. Prehypertension may progress to hypertension and eventually cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identifying the risk factors of hypertension in prehypertensive state may aid in effective control of blood pressure. Aim To find whether clustering of known risk factors of hypertension or certain individual risk factors alone affect blood pressure in young adults. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study done in 84 apparently healthy medical students of either sex aged between 18-23 years. It included students with at least one known risk factor of hypertension. Blood pressure levels of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were defined as prehypertension. The risk factors considered were male gender, family history of cardiovascular disease, sedentary life, general and central obesity, sleep quality, perceived stress and dietary pattern. Clustering of risk factors was assessed based on collective scoring system in which each risk factor was scored appropriately. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. The p<0.05 was considered significant. Results There was a positive correlation between total risk factor score and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.266, p = 0.015). Among the risk factors, frequency of males with systolic and diastolic prehypertension was higher compared to females (p <0.0001,= 0.022 respectively). Body mass index was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p <0.001, 0.002, respectively). Waist circumference was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p< 0.0001). Conclusion In apparently healthy young adults, male gender and obesity are the major risk factors of elevated blood pressure. PMID:27790426

  3. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 yr) were included. Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to determine CSA and to quantify the fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength. The fat fractions were also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P < 0.0001). At all ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction was higher in paraspinal muscles than leg muscles (P < 0.0001). The CSA of the muscles did not correlate with age. Knee extension strength correlated with fat fraction (P < 0.05), and the muscle strength of hip muscles, thigh muscles, and anterior calf muscles correlated with CSA (P < 0.05). Sex was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P < 0.05) and BMI with thigh fat fraction (P < 0.001). There was no association between fat fraction and physical activity or lower back pain. The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had significantly lower fat fractions in lumbar paraspinal muscles, and BMI was positively associated with thigh, but not paraspinal, fat fraction.

  4. Grip strength in healthy caucasian adults: reference values.

    PubMed

    Günther, Christian M; Bürger, Alexander; Rickert, Markus; Crispin, Alexander; Schulz, Christoph U

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to update reference data of handgrip strength for healthy adults of both genders spanning a wide age range and to analyze possible factors of influence. Intraindividual and interindividual variations of grip strength and their relation to several anthropometric factors were analyzed in a standardized manner for 769 healthy adults (women, n = 403; men, n = 366) aged between 20 years and 95 years. Measurements were done in neutral position of arm, forearm, and wrist on setting II of a Baseline digital hydraulic dynamometer (NexGen Ergonomics Inc. Quebec, Canada). Mean strength was about 41% less in women (right 29 kg; left 27 kg) than in men (right 49 kg; left 47 kg) resulting in a ratio of left to right hand slightly above .95 in both genders. During the course of life, hand strength develops comparably in both genders peaking at 35 years of age and decreasing continuously further on. Anthropometric variables such as forearm circumference and length, hand size, or body mass showed a positive correlation with grip strength. Body mass index, type of work, and hand dominance showed only a partial positive correlation or no correlation with grip strength. Gender and age, followed by parameters representing body length and obesity, were observed to have the highest predictive value for handgrip strength and were therefore entered into the generation of prediction equations. We recommend side adjustment of measured values for intraindividual comparison and inclusion of information regarding anthropometric characteristics, as well as using gender- and age-adjusted reference values, whereas hand dominance can be neglected. The regression equations we generated might prove to be useful for clinicians or for those who use normative values within software to provide more accurate predictions of strength scores for specific applications.

  5. Prehypertension and Its Determinants in Apparently Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Sunandha; Krishnadasa, Subbalakshmi Narasajjana

    2016-09-01

    High incidence of prehypertension is reported in medical undergraduates. Prehypertension may progress to hypertension and eventually cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identifying the risk factors of hypertension in prehypertensive state may aid in effective control of blood pressure. To find whether clustering of known risk factors of hypertension or certain individual risk factors alone affect blood pressure in young adults. This was a cross-sectional study done in 84 apparently healthy medical students of either sex aged between 18-23 years. It included students with at least one known risk factor of hypertension. Blood pressure levels of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were defined as prehypertension. The risk factors considered were male gender, family history of cardiovascular disease, sedentary life, general and central obesity, sleep quality, perceived stress and dietary pattern. Clustering of risk factors was assessed based on collective scoring system in which each risk factor was scored appropriately. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. The p<0.05 was considered significant. There was a positive correlation between total risk factor score and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.266, p = 0.015). Among the risk factors, frequency of males with systolic and diastolic prehypertension was higher compared to females (p <0.0001,= 0.022 respectively). Body mass index was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p <0.001, 0.002, respectively). Waist circumference was higher in systolic and diastolic prehypertensives compared to normotensives (p< 0.0001). In apparently healthy young adults, male gender and obesity are the major risk factors of elevated blood pressure.

  6. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression.

  7. The seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae in healthy adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sun Myoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Durey, Areum; Park, Shin-Goo; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-05-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae is one of the most common zoonosis. However, only several cases of B. henselae infection have been reported in Korea. This study investigated the seroprevalence of B. henselae in healthy adults and related risk factors. Serum samples from 300 healthy participants were analyzed using an immunoglobulin G immunof luorescence assay (IFA) for B. henselae isolated in Korea. Surveys on the risk factors for B. henselae infection were conducted simultaneously. Of the participants, 47.7% and 15.0% raised dogs and cats, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of B. henselae was 15.0% (IFA titer ≥ 1:64). Participants who had raised cats showed 22.2% seropositivity against B. henselae, and those with no experience with cats showed 13.7% seroprevalence (p = 0.17). Participants who had cats as pets or been scratched by cats, showed 9.8% seropositivity against B. henselae (IFA titer ≥ 1:256). However, those who had not raised or been scratched by a cat showed 2.0% seropositivity (p = 0.015). In Korea, the seroprevalence of B. henselae is higher than expected, suggesting that Bartonella infection due to B. henselae is not uncommon. Cats are proposed to play a more important role than dogs in transmission of CSD.

  8. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N.; MacDonald, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression. PMID:27594823

  9. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Using Concept Maps to Engage Adult Learners in Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of learning theories can help adult educators become more effective practitioners and meet the needs of the learners they serve. Adult educators who understand how individuals learn can be better prepared to use effective strategies during the learning process. This article addresses the use of concept maps as a strategy to engage…

  11. Using Concept Maps to Engage Adult Learners in Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of learning theories can help adult educators become more effective practitioners and meet the needs of the learners they serve. Adult educators who understand how individuals learn can be better prepared to use effective strategies during the learning process. This article addresses the use of concept maps as a strategy to engage…

  12. Mapping the Misunderstood Population of Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Adult students are not well documented, are frequently left out of discussions of higher-education policy, and are not fully understood by the colleges they attend, says a report ("Returning to Learning: Adults' Success in College is Key to America's Future") released this week by the Lumina Foundation for Education. As a result, those students…

  13. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  14. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  15. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bradburn, Steven; McPhee, Jamie S; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods this cross-sectional study included 225 old (52% women, mean age: 74.4 ± 3.3 years) and 134 young (52% women, mean age: 23.4 ± 2.7 years) adult participants from the MyoAge project. Whole body bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood analyses included a panel of bone-related peptides (dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin, sclerostin, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23), as well as serum calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D assays. A selection of cognitive domains (working memory capacity, episodic memory, executive functioning and global cognition) was assessed with a standardised neuropsychological test battery. Results adjusting for covariates and multiple testing revealed that plasma OC levels were positively associated with measures of executive functioning (β = 0.444, P < 0.001) and global cognition (β = 0.381, P = 0.001) in the older women. Discussion these correlative results demonstrate a positive association between OC, a factor known to regulate bone remodelling, with cognitive performance in older non-demented women. Further work should address possible mechanistic interpretations in humans. PMID:27515675

  16. DNA methylation and cognitive functioning in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, Olga J G; van Boxtel, Martin P J; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Kok, Frans J; Verhoef, Petra; Durga, Jane

    2012-03-01

    Long-term supplementation with folic acid may improve cognitive performance in older individuals. The relationship between folate status and cognitive performance might be mediated by changes in methylation capacity, as methylation reactions are important for normal functioning of the brain. Although aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, the relationship between DNA methylation status and non-pathological cognitive functioning in human subjects has not yet been investigated. The present study investigated the associations between global DNA methylation and key domains of cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Global DNA methylation, defined as the percentage of methylated cytosine to total cytosine, was measured in leucocytes by liquid chromatography-MS/MS, in 215 men and women, aged 50-70 years, who participated in the Folic Acid and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (FACIT) study (clinical trial registration number NCT00110604). Cognitive performance was assessed by means of the Visual Verbal Word Learning Task, the Stroop Colour-Word Interference Test, the Concept Shifting Test, the Letter-Digit Substitution Test and the Verbal Fluency Test. Using hierarchical linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, level of education, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, erythrocyte folate concentration and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C → T genotype, we found that global DNA methylation was not related to cognitive performance on any of the domains measured. The present study results do not support the hypothesis that global DNA methylation, as measured in leucocytes, might be associated with cognitive functioning in healthy older individuals.

  17. Higher Eating Frequency Does Not Decrease Appetite in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P < 0.05) and for the time period from baseline through 1030 (P < 0.001). The results from this study in 12 healthy adults do not support the popularized notion that small, frequent meals help to decrease overall appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Sleep Misperception in Healthy Adults: Implications for Insomnia Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Wang, Wei; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Time estimation is a complex cognitive task that is especially challenging when the time period includes sleep. To determine the accuracy of sleep duration perception, we investigated 44 healthy subjects participating in multi-day inpatient sleep protocols during which they had extended nighttime and short daytime sleep opportunities but no time cues or knowledge of time of day. Methods: The first sleep opportunity was at habitual sleep time and duration. The subsequent 3, 4, or 11 days had 12-h nighttime sleep opportunities and 4-h daytime nap opportunities, potentially creating an experimentally induced “insomnia” with substantial time awake during scheduled sleep. Results: Subjective sleep duration estimates were accurate for the first (habitual) sleep opportunity. The subjective reports following nighttime 12-h sleep opportunities significantly underestimated objective sleep duration, while those following daytime 4-h sleep opportunities significantly overestimated objective sleep duration. Misperception errors were not explained by poor sleep efficiency, which was lower during 4-h (~39%) than 12-h opportunities (~71%). Subjective sleep estimates after 4-h opportunities correlated with the percentage of REM and N3 sleep. Subjective sleep estimates following 12-h opportunities were, unexpectedly, negatively correlated with NREM stage 2 sleep. Conclusion: The estimation of sleep duration in the absence of time cues may depend on length of sleep opportunity and/or time of day. The results have implications for understanding sleep state misperception, which is an important consideration in patients with insomnia. Citation: Bianchi MT; Wang W; Klerman EB. Sleep misperception in healthy adults: implications for insomnia diagnosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):547-554. PMID:23066367

  19. Reference intervals of echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Czopowicz, Michał; Witkowski, Lucjan; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Frymus, Tadeusz; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine references intervals for echocardiographic measurements in adult dairy goats. Animals 125 clinically healthy, adult dairy goats aged 2–9 years, belonging to two breeds–Polish Fawn Improved (PFI, n = 64, weight range from 46 to 73, median of 58.5kg) and Polish White Improved (PWI, n = 61, weight range from 48 to 80 kg, median of 67.9kg), closely related to French Alpine and Saanen, respectively. Methods Non-invasive transthoracic echocardiography examination was performed in unsedated goats in a standing position. Two-dimensional, M-mode and pulsed wave Doppler measurements were obtained. A non-parametric method was applied for determination of reference intervals. Measurements for the two breeds were compared using an analysis of covariance to control for their body weight. Repeatability was assessed using a between-day coefficient of variation and a coefficient of repeatability. Results Following reference intervals were determined: aortic diameter in diastole 2.2–3.3, left atrial diameter in systole 2.5–4.3cm cm, the ratio of the left atrial diameter to the aortic diameter 0.96–1.5, right ventricular internal diameter in diastole 0.4–1.7cm, left ventricular internal diameter in systole and diastole 1.8–3.2 and 3.2–5.6 cm, respectively, inter-ventricular septum thickness in systole and diastole 0.7–1.5 and 0.5–1.1cm, respectively, left ventricular posterior-wall in systole and diastole 0.8–1.6 and 0.5–1.2cm, respectively, E-point to septal separation 0.3–0.8cm, left ventricular fractional shortening 28–54%, left ventricular ejection fraction 55–86%, maximum Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract velocity 80–140 cm/s and 70–130 cm/s, respectively Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract pressure gradient 2.5–8.9mmHg and 1.9–6.5mmHg, respectively. Most of the differences between the two breeds could be attributed to different body weight. Conclusions The study provides echocardiographic reference

  20. Gastrointestinal tolerance and utilization of agave inulin by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Doligale, Jamie L; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-06-01

    Little clinical research exists on agave inulin as a fiber source. Due to differences in botanical origin and chemical structure compared to other inulin-type fibers, research is needed to assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance following consumption. This study aimed to evaluate GI tolerance and utilization of 5.0 and 7.5 g per day of agave inulin in healthy adults (n = 29) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial consisting of three 21 day periods with 1 week washouts among periods. GI tolerance was assessed via daily and weekly questionnaires, three fecal samples were collected on days 16-20 of each period, and breath hydrogen testing was completed on the final day of each treatment period. Survey data were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. All other outcomes were analyzed using a mixed linear model with a repeated measures procedure. Composite GI intolerance scores for 5.0 and 7.5 g treatments were both greater (P < 0.05) than control, however, scores were low, with means of 0.4, 1.9, and 2.3 on a 0-12 point composite scale for 0, 5.0, and 7.5 g treatments, respectively. There were slight increases (P < 0.05) in bloating, flatulence, and rumbling frequency with 5.0 and 7.5 g agave inulin. Abdominal pain and rumbling intensity were marginally greater (P < 0.05) with 7.5 g. Bloating and flatulence intensity increased (P < 0.05) with 5.0 g and 7.5 g. Agave inulin did not affect diarrhea (P > 0.05). Number of bowel movements per day increased, stools were softer, and stool dry matter percentage was lower with 7.5 g (P < 0.05). Breath hydrogen concentrations increased (P < 0.001) from 5-8 hour postprandial when participants consumed agave inulin compared to control. These data demonstrate that doses up to 7.5 g per day of agave inulin led to minimal GI upset, do not increase diarrhea, and improve laxation in healthy young adults.

  1. Kidney dysfunction and silent brain infarction in generally healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Lee, Ji Eun; Lim, Jae-Sung; Cho, Be Long; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Park, Jin-Ho

    2017-08-15

    The association between silent brain infarction (SBI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based kidney dysfunction has not yet been definitively confirmed. This study aimed to investigate the association in generally healthy adults without a previous history of stroke or overt kidney disease. The data from the screening health check-up program in the Seoul National University Hospital Health Promotion Center from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were used. A total of 2594 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were included. SBIs were identified using T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Kidney dysfunction was defined as eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m(2). To assess the effect of kidney dysfunction on the small perforating branches of cerebral vessels, subgroup analysis was performed using the presence of SLI as a dependent variable. The mean age was 56.8±9.3years, and 1422 subjects (54.8%) were male. The mean eGFR level was 81.9±15.4ml/min/1.73m(2). The prevalence rates of kidney dysfunction and SBI were 5.1% and 7.1%, respectively. A higher proportion of subjects with SBI had kidney dysfunction than subjects without SBI (14.6% vs. 4.4%). The number of SBI lesions tended to increase with the progression of kidney dysfunction (p for trend<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, kidney dysfunction was significantly associated with the presence of SBI (adjusted odd ratio=1.99 to 2.21 in all four models). The same significant association was consistently identified in subgroup analyses using silent lacunar infarction (adjusted odd ratio=1.71 to 1.87 in all four models). Kidney dysfunction was found to be an independent risk factor for the presence and number of SBI in generally healthy adults. Physicians treating patients with a decreased creatinine-based eGFR level should try to identify and modify the coexisting risk factors of stroke followed by SBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kidney dysfunction and cerebral microbleeds in neurologically healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Lee, Ji Eun; Lim, Jae-Sung; Cho, Be Long

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral microbleed (CMB) is a potent risk factor for overt cerebrovascular disease. Although some studies indicated the possible role of renal dysfunction as a risk factor of CMB, the findings could not be generalized. This study aimed to investigate the association between renal dysfunction and cerebral microbleed (CMB) in neurologically healthy adults. Materials and methods A total of 2,518 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were involved in the study. CMBs were defined as well-demarcated focal areas of low signal intensity with associated blooming on the T2-weighted MRI measuring less than 5mm in diameter. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Kidney function was classified as normal (≥90), mild (60 to 89.9), moderate (30 to 59.9), and severe (<30 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal dysfunction according to the GFR. Results The mean age of the participants was 57.5 ± 8.3 years (ranged 40 to 79), and 1,367 subjects (54.3%) were male. The mean GFR level was 81.5 ± 15.5, and the prevalence of CMB was 4.1% (n = 103). Subjects with CMB demonstrated a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction than those without CMB (15.5% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction showed a significant association with CMB (adjusted odd ratio = 2.63; p = 0.008). Furthermore, a decrease in the GFR level was associated with an increasing trend of the presence of CMB (p for trend = 0.031) and number of CMB lesions (p for trend = 0.003). Conclusions Renal dysfunction was significantly associated with the presence of CMB in neurologically healthy adults. More studies are needed to evaluate if treatment of kidney disease and risk factor modification may prevent further progress of CMB. PMID:28207801

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-03-28

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  4. Olfactory and gustatory function in healthy adult Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Wei, Yongxiang; Yu, Di; Zhang, Jinfeng; Liu, Yuehong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of age and gender on olfactory and gustatory function and to establish test methodology and normative values in Chinese subjects. Cross-sectional study. The center laboratory and the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital. The T&T olfactometer, the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs), and the triple drop method for gustatory testing were used to examine the chemosensation in 90 healthy adults (45 men and 45 women). Older subjects (age 51-65 years) showed worse olfaction compared with younger subjects (age 18-35 years) when both T&T (younger -1.71 ± 0.41, older -0.92 ± 0.95; P < 0.01) and Sniffin' Sticks (threshold, discrimination, identification score: younger 33.17 ± 2.83, older 30.89 ± 3.35; P < 0.05) testing were performed. Measurement of oERPs revealed that older patients (N1 471 ± 85 ms, P2 676 ± 93 ms) had longer latencies compared with younger ones (N1 368 ± 57 ms, P2 561 ± 74 ms, P < 0.05) of N1/P2 wave. The results of trigeminal nerve-related potential examination showed that N1/P2 latencies were longer and amplitudes were lower in older people (N1 384 ± 98 ms/-5.01 ± 4.00 uv, P2 568 ± 95 ms/6.53 ± 3.62 uv) compared with younger patients (N1 316 ± 31 ms/-7.20 ± 3.43 uv, P2 472 ± 66 ms/8.72 ± 3.09 uv; P < 0.05). Gustation was normal in all subjects, and there was no significant difference between younger and older groups. Age and gender affect olfaction in Chinese adults as measured by standard testing methods used in other human populations. In healthy Chinese subjects, gustation was normal and did not vary with age. Our data provide preliminary normative values for future investigation of chemosensation in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird…

  6. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird…

  7. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  8. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  9. Voice Loudness and Gender Effects on Jitter and Shimmer in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmann, Meike; Storck, Claudio; Carding, Paul N.; Drinnan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate voice loudness and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in healthy young adults because previous descriptions have been inconsistent. Method: Fifty-seven healthy adults (28 women, 29 men) aged 20-40 years were included in this cross-sectional single-cohort study. Three phonations of /a/ at soft,…

  10. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  11. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grönholm-Nyman, Petra; Soveri, Anna; Rinne, Juha O.; Ek, Emilia; Nyholm, Alexandra; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization. PMID:28386226

  12. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  13. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Grönholm-Nyman, Petra; Soveri, Anna; Rinne, Juha O; Ek, Emilia; Nyholm, Alexandra; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  14. Measures of vocal attack time for healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Roark, Rick M; Watson, Ben C; Baken, R J; Brown, Darnell J; Thomas, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the vocal attack time (VAT) in a healthy young adult population. Sound pressure (SP) and electroglottographic (EGG) recordings were obtained for 57 female and 55 male subjects while performing multiple tokens of three tasks (sustained /a/, "always," and "hallways") at comfortable pitch and loudness. Generalized sinusoidal models were obtained for SP and EGG signals to compare rates of amplitude change. VAT was computed from the time lag of the cross-correlation function using a fully automated process accompanied by operator validation. Adjusted mean VAT values were significantly shorter for females than for males. There was no systematic effect of age on VAT. However, 25- to 29-year-old men showed longer VAT than did the other age and sex subgroups. Normative data are presented for a new measure of the duration of vocal initiation, VAT. Acquiring this measure requires very little intervention by the user and, thereby, eliminates the influence of subjective decision making. Although beyond the scope of this article, we suggest several factors that might underlie VAT as a function of speaker sex and age. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alexithymia and polysomnographic measures of sleep in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bazydlo, R; Lumley, M A; Roehrs, T

    2001-01-01

    This study examined associations between alexithymia and objective characteristics of sleep (latencies, stages, and amount and patterning of REM sleep) that may contribute to subjective reports of poor sleep quality and impaired dream recall among alexithymic people. Fifty healthy, normally sleeping adults from the community completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and slept uninterrupted for one night in the laboratory while polysomnography was conducted. Various measures of sleep latency, sleep stages, and REM sleep-related variables were obtained, and analyses correlated these sleep measures with alexithymia, controlling for age, sex, and level of depressed affect. Higher alexithymia scores were significantly related to increased stage 1 (light) sleep and decreased stage 3/4 (deep) sleep. Alexithymia was unrelated to overall sleep efficiency or percentage of stage 2 sleep. Alexithymia was related to more frequent REM episodes and more stage 1 sleep during and immediately after REM episodes but was unrelated to the absolute amount of REM sleep. Alexithymia was also related to an earlier onset of the first REM episode. Alexithymia is associated with more light sleep and less deep sleep, which may contribute to subjective reports of poor sleep and increased sleepiness, fatigue, and somatic symptoms. Although alexithymia is not associated with an overall reduction of REM sleep, the increased frequency of episodes of REM that are interrupted and followed by light sleep rather than complete awakenings may contribute to limited dream recall.

  16. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus.

  17. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    PubMed

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  18. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults: Understanding Their Perspectives on Healthy Living.

    PubMed

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Slaets, Joris P J; Smits, Carolien H M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults' perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data-(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living.

  19. Conceptual model and map of psychological abuse of older adults.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Rosen, Abby; Fairman, Kimberly P; Anetzberger, Georgia J

    2011-04-01

    Psychological abuse of older adults is a hidden and pervasive problem that is not well conceptualized nor well measured. Goals. The goals were to (a) conceptualize psychological abuse using three-dimensional concept maps, and (b) develop theoretical models. Methods. Statements describing the construct were generated by local and national panels. These were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software whereby the concepts were depicted as a map. Results. The concept maps guided development of theoretical hierarchies. Significance. Theoretical models may help to develop measures to estimate prevalence better and may enable more precise screening for triage into appropriate interventions. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  20. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  1. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<−0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (−2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients. PMID:26161294

  2. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<-0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (-2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients.

  3. Kinematic viscosity of unstimulated whole saliva in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Foglio-Bonda, A; Pattarino, F; Foglio-Bonda, P L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze kinematic viscosity and pH of unstimulated whole saliva, evaluate possible variations after sampling, identify any gender differences and detect possible correlations between them. The sample consisted of sixty-four healthy young adults (37 females and 27 males, mean age 25.2 years). Saliva was collected using the spitting method at 11:00 am. Kinematic viscosity was determined with a capillary viscometer (ViscoClock, Schott-Geräte Mainz, Germany) equipped with a micro-Ubbelohde capillary. Viscosity and pH were measured at a temperature of 36 °C in a thermostatic bath. Viscosity and pH data were evaluated almost simultaneously at six different times after sampling in order to identify any variations due to aging. The data were statistically analyzed using Student's t test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. In total sample kinematic viscosity was 1.40 cSt (SD = 0.39; RSD % = 27.81), in the male and female groups was 1.33 cSt (SD = 0.35, RSD% = 26.31) and 1.45 cSt (SD = 0.41, RSD % = 28.45) respectively; the difference was not statistically significant. Viscosity decreased exponentially as a function of time after sampling then reaching a plateau around 1.12 cSt, while the pH values increased linearly. There was a trend of pH to decrease while viscosity decreases. Kinematic viscometry could be a valid tool to evaluate salivary viscosity. Degradation of saliva after sampling affects viscosity and slightly pH. The use of capillary viscometer to evaluate salivary aging needs more improvements. Further studies are required to investigate and explain the effects of different techniques to reduce the film forming on the air/liquid interface during measurement.

  4. Smartphone technology facilitates dietary change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ipjian, Michelle L; Johnston, Carol S

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals are advised to adhere to specific diet plans for their personal health; hence, it is important that tools are available to support these behaviors. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist health care professionals in educating their clients on specific dietary modifications. This pilot study focused on a single dietary modification, reducing sodium intake, to determine whether a commercial health app is useful for promoting dietary change. Thirty healthy adults (age 34.4 ± 15.7 y; body mass index 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a university community and completed this 4-wk randomized parallel trial. Participants were instructed to reduce their sodium intake to ≤2300 mg/d by using the MyFitnessPal app to receive feedback on sodium content of foods or by paper tallying of estimated sodium intake. The predicted 24-h sodium excretion, estimated using the ratio of sodium to creatinine from the first morning urine void, and participant satisfaction were the main outcomes measured. The change in the predicted 24-h sodium excretion differed between groups: -838 ± 1093 and +236 ± 1333 mg/24 h predicted for the app and journal groups, respectively (P = 0.010). Moreover, participants in the app group reported significantly greater satisfaction with their method of diet tracking than the journal group (P = 0.001). These data suggest that smartphone apps have the potential to facilitate the implementation of dietary advice. This was a small pilot study with limited scope, and more research is necessary to determine the value of smartphone apps for facilitating dietary change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Precursors of Hypertensive Heart Phenotype Develop in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Marvao, Antonio; Dawes, Timothy J.W.; Shi, Wenzhe; Durighel, Giuliana; Rueckert, Daniel; Cook, Stuart A.; O’Regan, Declan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study used high-resolution 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance to define the anatomical and functional left ventricular (LV) properties associated with increasing systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a drug-naïve cohort. Background LV hypertrophy and remodeling occur in response to hemodynamic stress but little is known about how these phenotypic changes are initiated in the general population. Methods In this study, 1,258 volunteers (54% women, mean age 40.6 ± 12.8 years) without self-reported cardiovascular disease underwent 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance combined with computational modeling. The relationship between SBP and wall thickness (WT), relative WT, end-systolic wall stress (WS), and fractional wall thickening were analyzed using 3-dimensional regression models adjusted for body surface area, sex, race, age, and multiple testing. Significantly associated points in the LV model (p < 0.05) were identified and the relationship with SBP reported as mean β coefficients. Results There was a continuous relationship between SBP and asymmetric concentric hypertrophic adaptation of the septum and anterior wall that was associated with normalization of wall stress. In the lateral wall an increase in wall stress with rising SBP was not balanced by a commensurate hypertrophic relationship. In normotensives, SBP was positively associated with WT (β = 0.09) and relative WT (β = 0.07) in the septal and anterior walls, and this regional hypertrophic relationship was progressively stronger among pre-hypertensives (β = 0.10) and hypertensives (β = 0.30). Conclusions These findings show that the precursors of the hypertensive heart phenotype can be traced to healthy normotensive adults and that an independent and continuous relationship exists between adverse LV remodeling and SBP in a low-risk population. These adaptations show distinct regional variations with concentric hypertrophy of the septum and eccentric hypertrophy of the

  6. Motivators of and Barriers to Engagement in Healthy Eating Behaviors among non-Hispanic Black Adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p < 0.001), and having low self-control over eating behaviors was a significant barrier to healthy eating (p < 0.05). Importance ratings of healthy eating were positively associated with motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p < 0.001; availability of healthy foods: p < 0.001; addressing medical issues: p < 0.001; convenience of eating healthy foods: p < 0.01). There were age and income differences in several motivators and barriers. Intervention programs to increase healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.

  7. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  8. Maps of the adult human hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Nezzar, Hachemi; Sakka, Laurent; Boirie, Yves; Fontaine, Denys; Coste, Aurélien; Coll, Guillaume; Sontheimer, Anna; Sarret, Catherine; Gabrillargues, Jean; De Salles, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The human hypothalamus is a small deeply located region placed at the crossroad of neurovegetative, neuroendocrine, limbic, and optic systems. Although deep brain stimulation techniques have proven that it could be feasible to modulate these systems, targeting the hypothalamus and in particular specific nuclei and white bundles, is still challenging. Our goal was to make a synthesis of relevant topographical data of the human hypothalamus, under the form of magnetic resonance imaging maps useful for mastering its elaborated structure as well as its neighborhood. As from 1.5 Tesla, Inversion-Recovery sequence allows locating the hypothalamus and most of its components. Spotting hypothalamic compartments is possible according to specific landmarks: the anterior commissure, the mammillary bodies, the preoptic recess, the infundibular recess, the crest between the preoptic and the infundibular recesses, the optical tract, the fornix, and the mammillo-thalamic bundle. The identification of hypothalamus and most of its components could be useful to allow the quantification of local pathological processes and to target specific circuitry to alleviate severe symptoms, using physical or biological agents. PMID:23682342

  9. Using a concept map as a tool for strategic planning: The Healthy Brain Initiative.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynda A; Day, Kristine L; Vandenberg, Anna E

    2011-09-01

    Concept mapping is a tool to assist in strategic planning that allows planners to work through a sequence of phases to produce a conceptual framework. Although several studies describe how concept mapping is applied to various public health problems, the flexibility of the methods used in each phase of the process is often overlooked. If practitioners were more aware of the flexibility, more public health endeavors could benefit from using concept mapping as a tool for strategic planning. The objective of this article is to describe how the 6 concept-mapping phases originally outlined by William Trochim guided our strategic planning process and how we adjusted the specific methods in the first 2 phases to meet the specialized needs and requirements to create The Healthy Brain Initiative: A National Public Health Road Map to Maintaining Cognitive Health. In the first stage (phases 1 and 2 of concept mapping), we formed a steering committee, convened 4 work groups over a period of 3 months, and generated an initial set of 42 action items grounded in science. In the second stage (phases 3 and 4), we engaged stakeholders in sorting and rating the action items and constructed a series of concept maps. In the third and final stage (phases 5 and 6), we examined and refined the action items and generated a final concept map consisting of 44 action items. We then selected the top 10 action items, and in 2007, we published The Healthy Brain Initiative: A National Public Health Road Map to Maintaining Cognitive Health, which represents the strategic plan for The Healthy Brain Initiative.

  10. Single-Nephron Glomerular Filtration Rate in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Denic, Aleksandar; Mathew, Jerry; Lerman, Lilach O; Lieske, John C; Larson, Joseph J; Alexander, Mariam P; Poggio, Emilio; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D

    2017-06-15

    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assesses the function of all nephrons, and the single-nephron GFR assesses the function of individual nephrons. How the single-nephron GFR relates to demographic and clinical characteristics and kidney-biopsy findings in humans is unknown. We identified 1388 living kidney donors at the Mayo Clinic and the Cleveland Clinic who underwent a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the kidney with the use of contrast material and an iothalamate-based measurement of the GFR during donor evaluation and who underwent a kidney biopsy at donation. The mean single-nephron GFR was calculated as the GFR divided by the number of nephrons (calculated as the cortical volume of both kidneys as assessed on CT times the biopsy-determined glomerular density). Demographic and clinical characteristics and biopsy findings were correlated with the single-nephron GFR. A total of 58% of the donors were women, and the mean (±SD) age of the donors was 44±12 years. The mean GFR was 115±24 ml per minute, the mean number of nephrons was 860,000±370,000 per kidney, and the mean single-nephron GFR was 80±40 nl per minute. The single-nephron GFR did not vary significantly according to age (among donors <70 years of age), sex, or height (among donors ≤190 cm tall). A higher single-nephron GFR was independently associated with larger nephrons on biopsy and more glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis than would be expected for age. A higher single-nephron GFR was associated with a height of more than 190 cm, obesity, and a family history of end-stage renal disease. Among healthy adult kidney donors, the single-nephron GFR was fairly constant with regard to age, sex, and height (if ≤190 cm). A higher single-nephron GFR was associated with certain risk factors for chronic kidney disease and certain kidney-biopsy findings. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.).

  11. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C.; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests. There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05). APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  12. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  13. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  14. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  15. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  16. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  17. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  18. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults With Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T; Huber, Jessica E; Sussman, Joan E

    2017-03-01

    The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and individuals with PD who had a diagnosis of hypophonia. Increased vocal intensity was elicited via monaurally presented multitalker background noise. At a comfortable speaking intensity, HOAs and individuals with PD produced comparable vocal intensity, rates of vocal fold closure, and minimum flow. HOAs used smaller OQs, higher subglottal pressure, and lower peak-to-peak flow than individuals with PD. Both groups increased speaking intensity when speaking in noise to the same degree. However, HOAs produced increased intensity with greater driving pressure, faster vocal fold closure rates, and smaller OQs than individuals with PD. Monaural background noise elicited equivalent vocal intensity increases in HOAs and individuals with PD. Although both groups used laryngeal mechanisms as expected to increase sound pressure level, they used these mechanisms to different degrees. The HOAs appeared to have better control of the laryngeal mechanism to make changes to their vocal intensity.

  19. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults With Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and individuals with PD who had a diagnosis of hypophonia. Increased vocal intensity was elicited via monaurally presented multitalker background noise. Results At a comfortable speaking intensity, HOAs and individuals with PD produced comparable vocal intensity, rates of vocal fold closure, and minimum flow. HOAs used smaller OQs, higher subglottal pressure, and lower peak-to-peak flow than individuals with PD. Both groups increased speaking intensity when speaking in noise to the same degree. However, HOAs produced increased intensity with greater driving pressure, faster vocal fold closure rates, and smaller OQs than individuals with PD. Conclusions Monaural background noise elicited equivalent vocal intensity increases in HOAs and individuals with PD. Although both groups used laryngeal mechanisms as expected to increase sound pressure level, they used these mechanisms to different degrees. The HOAs appeared to have better control of the laryngeal mechanism to make changes to their vocal intensity. PMID:28241225

  20. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  1. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  2. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  3. Variability in Perisylvian Brain Anatomy in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Bollich, Angela M.; Corey, David M.; Lemen, Lisa C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    Gray matter volumes of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), pars triangularis (PTR), and pars opercularis were measured on MRI in 48 healthy right-handers. There was the expected leftward PT asymmetry in 70.8%, and leftward PTR asymmetry in 64.6% of the sample. When asymmetry patterns within individuals were examined, there was not one…

  4. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  5. Variability in Perisylvian Brain Anatomy in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Bollich, Angela M.; Corey, David M.; Lemen, Lisa C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    Gray matter volumes of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), pars triangularis (PTR), and pars opercularis were measured on MRI in 48 healthy right-handers. There was the expected leftward PT asymmetry in 70.8%, and leftward PTR asymmetry in 64.6% of the sample. When asymmetry patterns within individuals were examined, there was not one…

  6. Intraindividual variability in physical and emotional functioning: comparison of adults with traumatic brain injuries and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Burton, Catherine L; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Hunter, Michael A

    2002-08-01

    Recent research has shown that individuals with certain neurological conditions demonstrate greater intraindividual variability on cognitive tasks compared to healthy controls. The present study investigated intraindividual variability in the domains of physical functioning and affect/stress in three groups: adults with mild head injuries, adults with moderate/severe head injuries, and healthy adults. Participants were assessed on 10 occasions and results indicated that (a) individuals with head injuries demonstrated greater variability in dominant finger dexterity and right grip strength than the healthy controls; (b) increased variability tended to be associated with poorer performance/report both within and across tasks; and (c) increased variability on one task was associated with increased variability on other tasks. The findings suggest that increased variability in physical function, as well as cognitive function, represents an indicator of neurological compromise.

  7. Large Epidemic of Respiratory Illness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-15

    Epidemic of Respiratory fliness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults Margaret A. K. Ryan, Gregory C. Gray," Besa Smith, Jamie A...immunization, respiratory infections due to adenoviruses have reemerged to threaten the health of young adults in the military. Shortly after the loss...challenges for young adults in the military in the postvaccine era. The US military has long had concern about the impact adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7

  8. Development of an Evidence-Informed Blog to Promote Healthy Eating Among Mothers: Use of the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Low adherence to dietary guidelines and a concurrent rise of obesity-related chronic diseases emphasize the need for effective interventions to promote healthy eating. There is growing recognition that behavior change interventions should draw on theories of behavior change. Online interventions grounded in theory lead to increased effectiveness for health behavior change; however, few theory-driven social media-based health promotion interventions have been described in the literature. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop an evidence-informed blog to promote healthy eating among French-Canadian mothers of preschool and school-aged children. Methods The following six steps of the IM protocol were performed. In Step 1, a preliminary needs assessment included a literature search on theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults (ie, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, intention/goals) and a qualitative study including focus groups to identify female Internet users’ perceptions of their use of healthy eating blogs. In Step 2, two behavioral outcomes were selected (ie, increase daily intakes of Vegetables and Fruits and Milk and Alternatives of mothers to reach Canadian dietary recommendations) and subsequently divided into six performance objectives inspired by national and international dietary recommendations such as planning for healthy meals. A matrix of change objectives was then created by crossing performance objectives with theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults. Step 3 consisted of selecting theory-based intervention methods (eg, modeling and goal setting) and translating them into practical applications for the context of a dietary intervention delivered through a blog. A 6-month intervention was developed in

  9. Neuroimaging the short- and long-term effects of repeated picture naming in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Anna D; Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L; Nickels, Lyndsey; Angwin, Anthony J; van Hees, Sophia; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A

    2015-08-01

    Repeated attempts to name pictures can improve subsequent naming for aphasic individuals with anomia, however, the neurocognitive mechanisms responsible for such improvements are unknown. This study investigated repeated picture naming in healthy older adults over a period of minutes (short-term) after one repetition and a period of days (long-term) after multiple repetitions. Compared to unprimed pictures, both repeated conditions showed faster naming latencies with the fastest latencies evident for the short-term condition. Neuroimaging results identified repetition suppression effects across three left inferior frontal gyrus regions of interest: for both the short- and long-term conditions in the pars orbitalis, and for long-term items in the pars triangularis and pars opercularis regions. The whole brain analysis also showed a repetition suppression effect in bilateral pars triangularis regions for the long-term condition. These findings within the inferior frontal gyrus suggest that effects of repeated naming may be driven by a mapping mechanism across multiple levels of representation, possibly reflecting different levels of learning, and lend support to the idea that processing may be hierarchically organised in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The whole brain analysis also revealed repetition suppression for the long-term condition within the posterior portion of bilateral inferior temporal gyri, which may reflect attenuation of integration processes within this region following the learning of task-relevant information.

  10. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scarpelini, S; Rhind, S G; Nascimento, B; Tien, H; Shek, P N; Peng, H T; Huang, H; Pinto, R; Speers, V; Reis, M; Rizoli, S B

    2009-12-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG.

  11. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  12. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  13. Conceptual model and map of financial exploitation of older adults.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Fairman, Kimberly P; Rosen, Abby; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the processes and outcomes of three-dimensional concept mapping to conceptualize financial exploitation of older adults. Statements were generated from a literature review and by local and national panels consisting of 16 experts in the field of financial exploitation. These statements were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software, which grouped the statements into clusters and depicted them as a map. Statements were grouped into six clusters, and ranked by the experts as follows in descending severity: (a) theft and scams, (b) financial victimization, (c) financial entitlement, (d) coercion, (e) signs of possible financial exploitation, and (f) money management difficulties. The hierarchical model can be used to identify elder financial exploitation and differentiate it from related but distinct areas of victimization. The severity hierarchy may be used to develop measures that will enable more precise screening for triage of clients into appropriate interventions.

  14. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  15. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: An intergenerational transmission perspective.

    PubMed

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms, and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers' beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and perceived behavioural control, and also by their mothers' intentions and perceived behavioural control. Mothers' own beliefs and intentions may be involved in shaping their children's beliefs and intentions into adulthood but their child feeding practices may have less of an influence.

  16. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K

  17. Prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults: Effect of age, caffeine consumption and exercise.

    PubMed

    Fermont, Jiske; Arts, Ilse M P; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Kleine, Bert U; Schelhaas, H Jurgen; Zwarts, Machiel J

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults and to assess the effect of age, caffeine and exercise. Fasciculations were studied with ultrasonography in 58 healthy adults in various age categories. Questionnaires were used to determine effect of caffeine and regular exercise on the presence of fasciculations. Finally, we tested the effect of strenuous exercise on fasciculations in 10 healthy adults. Twenty-five subjects (43%) showed fasciculations on ultrasonography, mostly in the abductor hallucis longus muscle. Fasciculations were only sporadically encountered in muscle groups above the knee. Subjects with fasciculations were significantly older than those without. Caffeine and regular physical exercise did not influence the prevalence of fasciculations. However, strenuous physical exercise caused a temporary increase in fasciculations, but only in lower leg muscles. Fasciculations above the knee should raise suspicion and may warrant further investigation.

  18. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bernice AL; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization. PMID

  19. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice Al; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization.

  20. Learned Fear of Gastrointestinal Sensations in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Weltens, Nathalie; Sarafanova, Ekaterina; Arijs, Vicky; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety are important determinants of gastrointestinal symptom perception. We studied learning of fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations as a putative mechanism in the development of gastrointestinal symptom-specific fear and anxiety. Fifty-two healthy subjects (26 women) received 2 types of esophageal balloon distention at a perceptible but nonpainful intensity (conditioned stimulus [CS], the innocuous sensation) and at a painful intensity (unconditioned stimulus [US]). Subjects were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. During the learning phase, the innocuous CS preceded the painful US in the experimental group (n = 26). In the control group (n = 26), on the contrary, the US never followed the CS directly. During a subsequent extinction phase, both groups received only CS distention-the painful US was no longer administered. Indexes of fear learning toward the innocuous CS distention included the skin conductance response, fear-potentiated startle (measured by the eye-blink electromyogram), and self-reported expectancy of the US. During the learning phase, only the experimental group learned to fear the innocuous gastrointestinal CS, based on the increase in US expectancy (compared with the control group, P = .04), increased skin conductance response (compared with the control group, P = .03), and potentiated startle reflex (compared with the control group, P = .001) in response to the CS. The differences between the experimental and control groups in US expectancy and skin conductance, but not fear-potentiated startle, disappeared during the extinction phase. Fear toward innocuous gastrointestinal sensations can be established through associative learning in healthy human beings. This may be an important mechanism in the development of fear of gastrointestinal symptoms, implicated in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Healthy behavior and memory self-reports in young, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Small, Gary W; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Chen, Stephen T; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that healthy behaviors, such as regular physical exercise, a nutritious diet, and not smoking, are associated with a lower risk for Alzheimer's disease and dementia. However, less is known about the potential link between healthy behaviors and mild memory symptoms that may precede dementia in different age groups. A daily telephone survey (Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index) of US residents yielded a random sample of 18,552 respondents ranging in age from 18 to 99 years, including 4,423 younger (age 18-39 years), 6,356 middle-aged (40-59 years), and 7,773 older (60-99 years) adults. The questionnaire included demographic information and the Healthy Behavior Index (questions on smoking, eating habits, and frequency of exercise). General linear models and logistic regressions were used in the analysis. Older adults were more likely to report healthy behaviors than were middle-aged and younger adults. Reports of memory problems increased with age (14% of younger, 22% of middle-aged, and 26% of older adults) and were inversely related to the Healthy Behavior Index. Reports of healthy eating were associated with better memory self-reports regardless of age, while not smoking was associated with better memory reports in the younger and middle-aged and reported regular exercise with better memory in the middle-aged and older groups. These findings indicate a relationship between reports of healthy behaviors and better self-perceived memory abilities throughout adult life, suggesting that lifestyle behavior habits may protect brain health and possibly delay the onset of memory symptoms as people age.

  2. An electrophysiological investigation of discourse coherence in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Yael; Epstein, Baila; Yu, Yan H; Benasich, April A; Shafer, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate discourse-coherence processing. Because there are scant data on ERP indices of discourse coherence in typical adults, it is important to study a non-clinical population before examining clinical populations. Twelve adults listened to a story with sentences in a coherent versus incoherent order. Sequences of nonsense syllables served as a control. ERPs in the 200-400 ms time window, reflecting phonological and lexical processing, and in the 600-900 ms time window, reflecting later discourse processing for integration, were investigated. Results revealed a right anterior and posterior positivity that was greater for coherent than for incoherent discourse during the 600-900 ms time window. These findings point to an index of discourse coherence and further suggest that ERPs can be used as a clinical tool to study discourse-processing disorders in populations with brain damage, such as aphasia and traumatic brain injury.

  3. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Healthy Mind, Healthy Mobility Trial: A Novel Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Dawn P; Gregory, Michael A; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Hachinski, Vladimir; Fitzgerald, Clara; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    More evidence is needed to conclude that a specific program of exercise and/or cognitive training warrants prescription for the prevention of cognitive decline. We examined the effect of a group-based standard exercise program for older adults, with and without dual-task training, on cognitive function in older adults without dementia. We conducted a proof-of-concept, single-blinded, 26-wk randomized controlled trial whereby participants recruited from preexisting exercise classes at the Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging in London, Ontario, were randomized to the intervention group (exercise + dual-task [EDT]) or the control group (exercise only [EO]). Each week (2 or 3 d · wk(-1)), both groups accumulated a minimum of 50 min of aerobic exercise (target 75 min) from standard group classes and completed 45 min of beginner-level square-stepping exercise. The EDT group was also required to answer cognitively challenging questions while doing beginner-level square-stepping exercise (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of interventions on standardized global cognitive function (GCF) scores at 26 wk was compared between the groups using the linear mixed effects model approach. Participants (n = 44; 68% female; mean [SD] age: 73.5 [7.2] yr) had on average, objective evidence of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, mean [SD]: 24.9 [1.9]) but not dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination scores, mean [SD]: 28.8 [1.2]). After 26 wk, the EDT group showed greater improvement in GCF scores compared with the EO group (difference between groups in mean change [95% CI]: 0.20 SD [0.01-0.39], P = 0.04). A 26-wk group-based exercise program combined with dual-task training improved GCF in community-dwelling older adults without dementia.

  5. Youth Asset Mapping: Showcasing Youth Empowerment and Positive Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Deborah J.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Schwieterman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    Youth and adult partners participated in youth asset mapping, a form of action research, to assess community assets and youth involvement opportunities. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine youths' feelings of empowerment and experiences with adult partners. Asset mapping contributed to youth empowerment, especially when adults were engaging…

  6. Youth Asset Mapping: Showcasing Youth Empowerment and Positive Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Deborah J.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Schwieterman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    Youth and adult partners participated in youth asset mapping, a form of action research, to assess community assets and youth involvement opportunities. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine youths' feelings of empowerment and experiences with adult partners. Asset mapping contributed to youth empowerment, especially when adults were engaging…

  7. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change.

    PubMed

    Tagoe, Henry A; Dake, Fidelia Aa

    2011-04-07

    Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana) and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey) to arrive at the results. While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0%) exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0%) exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  8. Circadian Variation of Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Older Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Cherie B.; Malihi, Mehrdad; McLaren, Jay W.; Hodge, David O.; Sit, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Intraocular pressure in the sitting position changes minimally during sleep, although aqueous humor flow decreases by 50% or more at night. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy has been unclear. This study investigated the roles of outflow facility, episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow in maintaining IOP at night. Methods. Forty-two eyes of 21 healthy subjects (age 47–76 years, mean 59 years) were studied. Aqueous humor flow rate, IOP in the sitting position, outflow facility, and EVP were measured in each eye during the middiurnal period (2:00–4:00 PM). Uveoscleral flow was calculated from the other variables by using the modified Goldmann equation. These variables were remeasured during the midnocturnal period (2:00–4:00 AM) and compared with those measured during the diurnal period by using generalized estimating equation models. Results. Intraocular pressure did not change from the middiurnal period (13.9 ± 3.0 mm Hg) to the midnocturnal period (13.0 ± 1.8 mm Hg, mean ± SD, P = 0.07), although aqueous humor flow rate decreased from 2.48 ± 0.96 μL/min to 1.27 ± 0.63 μL/min (P < 0.001). Outflow facility decreased from 0.23 ± 0.06 μL/min/mm Hg to 0.20 ± 0.06 μL/min/mm Hg (P = 0.004), and EVP was unchanged from the middiurnal period (7.4 ± 1.8 mm Hg) to the midnocturnal period (7.4 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.95). Uveoscleral outflow decreased 93%, from 0.94 ± 1.26 μL/min during the middiurnal period to 0.07 ± 0.78 μL/min (P = 0.008) during the midnocturnal period. Conclusions. The nocturnal decrease in aqueous humor flow rate in older, healthy subjects is compensated by a small decrease in outflow facility and a large decrease in uveoscleral outflow to maintain a stable IOP. PMID:24243986

  9. Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Vogt, Emelie; Johannsmeyer, Sarah; Forbes, Scott C; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2015-07-01

    Creatine supplementation in close proximity to resistance training may be an important strategy for increasing muscle mass and strength; however, it is unknown whether creatine supplementation before or after resistance training is more effective for aging adults. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design, older adults (50-71 years) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: creatine before (CR-B: n = 15; creatine (0.1 g/kg) immediately before resistance training and placebo (0.1 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin) immediately after resistance training), creatine after (CR-A: n = 12; placebo immediately before resistance training and creatine immediately after resistance training), or placebo (PLA: n = 12; placebo immediately before and immediately after resistance training) for 32 weeks. Prior to and following the study, body composition (lean tissue, fat mass; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum leg press and chest press) were assessed. There was an increase over time for lean tissue mass and muscle strength and a decrease in fat mass (p < 0.05). CR-A resulted in greater improvements in lean tissue mass (Δ 3.0 ± 1.9 kg) compared with PLA (Δ 0.5 ± 2.1 kg; p < 0.025). Creatine supplementation, independent of the timing of ingestion, increased muscle strength more than placebo (leg press: CR-B, Δ 36.6 ± 26.6 kg; CR-A, Δ 40.8 ± 38.4 kg; PLA, Δ 5.6 ± 35.1 kg; chest press: CR-B, Δ 15.2 ± 13.0 kg; CR-A, Δ 15.7 ± 12.5 kg; PLA, Δ 1.9 ± 14.7 kg; p < 0.025). Compared with resistance training alone, creatine supplementation improves muscle strength, with greater gains in lean tissue mass resulting from post-exercise creatine supplementation.

  10. Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Influential factors for pressure pulse waveform in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shuyu; Zhi, Guang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and other contributory factors on pulse waveform are still under arguments. In view of different results caused by few considerations of possible influential factors and general agreement of gender relating to pulse waveform, this study aims to address the confounding factors interfering with the association between gender and pulse waveform characteristics. A novel method was proposed to noninvasively detect pressure pulse wave and assess the morphology of pulse wave. Forty healthy young subjects were included in the present research. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured manually and body mass index (BMI), pulse blood pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) were calculated automatically. Student's t test was used to analyze the gender difference and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of intrinsic factors. Univariate regression analysis was performed to assess the main factors on the waveform characteristics. Waveform features were found significantly different between genders. However this study indicates that the main factors for time-related and amplitude-related parameters are HR and SBP respectively. In conclusion, the impact of HR and SBP on pulse waveform features should not be underestimated, especially when analyzing the gender difference.

  12. Isometric shoulder girdle strength of healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Garner, Brian A; Shim, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Shoulder girdle muscles are important for stabilizing the scapula and orienting the glenoid for upper-extremity motion. However, data describing shoulder girdle strength and how it varies with position is lacking. A series of experiments was conducted to measure isometric strength at three positions each for elevation, depression, protraction, and retraction of the shoulder girdle. Nineteen healthy men and women (ages 19 to 23 years) participated in the study. Subjects were seated in a custom apparatus and asked to push or pull with extended arms as forcefully as possible against force-sensing handles. Shoulder girdle elevation angle and protraction angle were recorded with a video system during the tests. In each direction the force generated by the shoulder girdle varied significantly (P<0.05) and monotonically with position. The greatest forces in elevation (mean 1101N, SD 370N) and protraction (mean 1117N, SD 471N) occurred at the most depressed and retracted positions, respectively. Similarly, the greatest forces in depression (mean 810N, SD 274N) and retraction (mean 914N, SD 362N) occurred at the most elevated and protracted positions, respectively. Male subjects generated 38-81% greater force than female subjects, depending on direction. Shoulder girdle elevation and protraction strengths correlated significantly (P<0.01) with bodyweight (r>0.71) and with one-repetition maximum bench-press strength (r>0.83). Functional tasks such as bench-press may be good indicators of shoulder girdle strength in some directions.

  13. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  14. Reliability and accuracy of cirtometry in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Valéria da Silva; Starling, Célia Cristina Duarte; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Martins, Jocimar Avelar; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2007-01-01

    To determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of cirtometry (measurements of the circumference of the chest and abdomen taken during respiratory movements) as well as its correlation with pulmonary volumes measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography. A total of 40 healthy individuals were evaluated. The mean age was 28 years. The measurements were taken in the supine position at three different time points: at rest, at maximal inspiration, and at maximal expiration. Two trained investigators, each of whom was blinded as to the results obtained by the other, performed the measurements. The Friedman test was used to determine intrarater reliability, and the Wilcoxon test, together with the intraclass correlation coefficient, were used to determine interrater reliability. The correlation between the cirtometry measurements and the plethysmography results was obtained using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at 0.05 for all tests. Intrarater reliability was satisfactory. Regarding interrater reliability, statistically significant differences (2.8 cm at the most) were found in all sets of measurements. However, through the analysis of the intraclass correlation coefficient, the investigators were found to be responsible only for a small portion of the variability (1.2-5.08%) found among the measurements. When the cirtometry measurements were compared to the volumes measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography, low correlations (range, r = 0.170-0.343) were found. The findings of this study suggest that, although cirtometry is a reliable measurement, it does not accurately measure pulmonary volumes.

  15. Serum transferrin receptor status of healthy adult Arabs.

    PubMed

    Knox-Macaulay, Huxley; Gravell, David; Elender, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have provided reference ranges for the concentration of serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) in various white populations, but there is a dearth of relevant reference sTfR data in non-whites. The aim of this investigation was to establish sTfR reference ranges and mean values for a healthy non-white Arab population that could be used also for Arabs worldwide. sTfR and serum ferritin concentrations were estimated by immunoassays and blood counts were determined by conventional methods. Analysis of the data of 114 volunteer Arab blood donors (91 male, 23 female) revealed a higher mean sTfR concentration in males of 22.6+/-8.1 nmol/L (range 10.9-38.7 nmol/L) compared to that in females of 18.7+/-4.4 nmol/L (range 10.7-25.8 nmol/L, p=0.001). There was no significant correlation of sTfR concentration with age, serum ferritin level, or blood haemoglobin level, but a strong inverse correlation was demonstrated with mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin of red cells. Iron-replete volunteer subjects with alpha-thalassaemia trait appear to have relatively high mean sTfR concentration. We recommend the use of gender-dependent sTfR reference values for Arabs.

  16. Hemodynamic function during finger force production tasks in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Pollonini, Luca; Younes, Lena; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2017-09-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique used to measure muscle hemodynamics. The focus of this study was to evaluate changes in muscle oxygenation during sustained maximal force production in young, healthy control individuals to establish baseline function in an ideal population. NIRS was used to monitor reduced hemoglobin (HbR) and oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) in forearm muscles. Hemodynamic responses during force production tasks were monitored in real time. During handgrip exercises, maximal force production declined significantly. Increased HbR was found while HbO remained constant. The correlation between force production and HbO was positive (r = 0.18), while the correlation between force and HbR was negative (r = -0.48). The application of NIRS to monitor the correlation between force production and hemodynamic measures in the forearm was successful. These data set the foundation for future use of NIRS as a diagnostic tool for individuals with peripheral vascular disease: Muscle Nerve 56: 472-478, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics and Their Joint Association With Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Branscum, Adam; Hanks, June; Smit, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics and to examine the association between different combinations of healthy lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular disease biomarkers. The prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics was estimated for the US adult population (N=4745) using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for the following parameters: being sufficiently active (accelerometer), eating a healthy diet (Healthy Eating Index based on 24-hour recalls), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level), and having a recommended body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Cardiovascular biomarkers included mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, white blood cells (WBCs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, and homocysteine. The study was conducted from August 15, 2013, through January 5, 2016. Only 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.4%) of all adults had all 4 healthy lifestyle characteristics. Participants with 3 or 4 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics had more favorable biomarker levels except for mean arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Having at least 1 or 2 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics was favorably associated with C-reactive protein, WBCs, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and homocysteine. For HDL-C and total cholesterol, the strongest correlate was body fat percentage. For homocysteine, a healthy diet and not smoking were strong correlates; for WBCs, diet was not a strong correlate. Although multiple healthy lifestyle characteristics are important, specific health characteristics may be more important for particular cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Diurnal variation in the quantitative EEG in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M

    2000-01-01

    Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for θ (4.75–6.75 Hz), α1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and β1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113

  20. Circadian Variation of Aqueous Dynamics in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Arthur J.; Nau, Cherie B.; McLaren, Jay W.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Hodge, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Recent research indicates that intraocular pressure (IOP) does not decrease significantly during the nocturnal period, although aqueous humor flow decreases by 50% or more at night. This study was undertaken to investigate whether changes in outflow facility, episcleral venous pressure, or uveoscleral flow at night could account for the nocturnal IOP. Methods Sixty-eight eyes of 34 healthy subjects (age, 18–44 years; mean, 29) were studied. Aqueous humor flow rate, IOP, and outflow facility were measured with pneumatonometry, anterior chamber fluorophotometry, and Schiotz tonography respectively, in each eye during the mid-diurnal (2–4 PM) and mid-nocturnal (2–4 AM) periods. Nocturnal IOP, flow rate, and outflow facility were compared to the same variables during the diurnal period. Mathematical models based on the modified Goldmann equation were used to assess the conditions under which these results could be reconciled. Results Supine IOP decreased slightly from 18.9 ± 2.7 mm Hg in the mid-diurnal period to 17.8 ± 2.5 mm Hg in the mid-nocturnal period (mean ± SD, P = 0.001). Aqueous flow rate decreased from 2.26 ± 0.73 to 1.12 ± 0.75 µL/min (mean ± SD, P < 0.001). There was a nonsignificant trend toward a nocturnal decrease of outflow facility (diurnal, 0.27 ± 0.11 µL/min/mm Hg; nocturnal, 0.25 ± 0.08 µL/min/mm Hg; mean ± SD, P = 0.13). Conclusions Outflow facility measured by tonography does not decrease enough during the nocturnal period to compensate for the decreased aqueous humor flow rate. Modeling results indicate that the experimental results could be reconciled only if nocturnal changes in episcleral venous pressure and/or uveoscleral flow occurred. PMID:18385065

  1. Renal excretion of plasma soluble melanins by healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Z L; Nayak, U

    1993-01-01

    The soluble melanins of blood plasma form in vivo and in vitro from dopa, catecholamines, catechol, hydroquinone, homogentisic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, p-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine and other structurally related end(ex)ogenous compounds by oxidative polymerization. The mean quantity of natural melanins in normal plasma is 1.61 +/- 0.10 (standard deviation) mg/ml, (n = 20) and in uraemic plasma 2.72 +/- 0.38 mg/ml, (n = 16). The plasma melanins (approximately 3%), are associated with proteins (approximately 85%), mucoproteins (approximately 0.25%), lipids (approximately 0.4%), as soluble lipofuscins, and probably are associated with proteins without lipids as soluble melanoproteins. Fluorescence, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies and the melanin isolation method show the presence of soluble melanins in the urine of healthy people. Soluble melanins can also be formed in vitro in the urine by oxidative polymerization of the precursors. In most of the urine samples we studied, melanins were present in larger amounts than the urinary proteins, indicating that the kidneys can selectively excrete the melanin components of the lipofuscins, and that the solubility of melanins does not depend upon combination with proteins. The quantities of purified melanins precipitated with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees C during 72 h from urine samples collected during 24 h periods ranged from 0.1460 g to 3.7627 g (mean 1.1303 +/- 1.1739 g, n = 8) and the plasma clearance rates ranged from 0.06 ml/min to 1.56 ml/min (mean 0.48 +/- 0.48 ml/min, n = 8). From the individual 24 h urine samples we obtained from 9 to 216 mg/dl of precipitated melanins while the individual plasma samples contained from 145 to 175 mg/dl.

  2. Strategies used during a challenging weighted walking task in healthy adults and individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kubinski, Andrew J; Higginson, Jill S

    2012-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that affects millions of people. While numerous gait differences have been identified between healthy adults and adults with knee OA under normal and challenging conditions, adults with knee OA have not been studied during a challenging weighted walking task. Investigation of the effect of weighted walking on the initial contact and loading response phases of gait was undertaken in 20 healthy and 20 knee OA subjects ages 40-85 years old walking at 1.0m/s while unweighted and weighted with 1/6th of their body weight in a weight vest. Subjects were grouped according to their Kellgren and Lawrence radiographic score and healthy subjects were age-matched to those with knee OA. ANOVA revealed significant effects for hip flexion angle at initial contact, step length, initial double support percent, and load rate. Post hoc t-tests revealed that subjects with knee OA had a larger initial double support percent and hip flexion angle at initial contact and a decreased load rate compared to unweighted, healthy adults. Also, both groups increased their initial double support percent in response to the challenging weighted walking task, but only the healthy adults increased their hip flexion angle at initial contact and decreased their load rate. During the weighted condition, the knee OA group had a shorter step length compared to the healthy group. Because the knee OA group only made minor compensations to their gait strategy, it appears that they may be unable or prefer not to adjust their gait mechanics due to underlying issues.

  3. In adult patients with type 1 diabetes healthy lifestyle associates with a better cardiometabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Leroux, C; Gingras, V; Desjardins, K; Brazeau, A-S; Ott-Braschi, S; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of adults with T1D who adopted a healthy lifestyle and to explore the association between a healthy lifestyle and the cardiometabolic profile. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 115 adults with T1D. Participants wore a motion sensor and completed a 3-day food record. The following CMR factors were assessed: body mass index, waist circumference, body composition (iDXA), glycated hemoglobin, lipids and blood pressure. Insulin resistance was estimated (estimated glucose disposal rate). Participants were classified according to the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted (ranging from 0 to 3): regular physical activity (physical activity level ≥1.7), good diet quality (Canadian Healthy Eating Index score >80) and none-smoking status. The proportion of participants who adopted 3, 2, 1 or 0 lifestyle habits were 11%, 30%, 37%, and 23%, respectively. As the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted increased, participants had significantly lower body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). In addition, a trend for lower estimated insulin resistance was observed (p = 0.06). For each increase of one healthy lifestyle habit, body mass index decreased by 1.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference by 4.0 cm for men and 4.8 cm for women and trunk fat by 3.6% for men and 4.1% for women. These results suggest the importance of a healthy lifestyle among adults with T1D in order to control CMR factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arm-Hand Usage in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify arm-hand usage of older adults without a disability and to determine the effect of hand dominance, gender and day on hand usage, 2) to determine the factors that predict arm-hand usage. This information will enhance the understanding of the client’s extent of occupational performance. Methods Twenty men and 20 women, 65–85 years old, wore 3 accelerometers (wrists and hip) for 7 consecutive days. Manual dexterity and grip strength were assessed. A 3–way factorial ANOVA and multiple linear regressions were conducted. Results The activity kilocounts from both wrist accelerometers revealed a significant interaction effect between hand and gender (F(1,190)=24.4, p<.001). Enhanced manual dexterity of the right hand was associated with greater right hand usage. Conclusion Arm-hand usage is a novel dimension of hand function which can be used to measure the extent of real-life occupational performance when the client is in his/her home. PMID:21218678

  5. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS.

  6. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Sultan, Intisar E.; Guraya, Shaista S.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To screen for low bone mineral density among young adult Saudi women using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and exploring the high risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 279, 20-36 years old female students and employees of Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and May 2014. The study included bone status assessed using QUS, a structured self-reported questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and evaluation of bone markers of bone metabolism. Results: The prevalence of low bone mineral density was 9%. Serum osteocalcin was found significantly higher in candidates with low bone mineral density, 20.67 ng/ml versus 10.7 ng/ml, and it was negatively correlated with T-scores. At any given point in time the exposed subjects to low calcium intake and inadequate sun exposure in the population were 11 times and 3 times more likely to have low bone mineral density, (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95%confidence interval [CI]=3.16, 38.34; p=0.001) and (adjusted OR, 3.32, 95%CI=1.27, 8.66, p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection screening programs for low bone mineral density are needed in Saudi Arabia as it affects young Saudi women specially the high-risk group that includes young women with insufficient calcium intake and insufficient sun exposure. Serum osteocalcin as a biomarker for screening for low bone mineral density could be introduced. PMID:27761561

  7. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  8. Light exposure patterns in healthy older and young adults.

    PubMed

    Scheuermaier, Karine; Laffan, Alison M; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2010-04-01

    Aging is associated with an earlier timing of circadian rhythms and a shorter phase angle between wake time and the timing of melatonin secretion or the core body temperature nadir. Light has a phase-dependent effect on the circadian pacemaker, and modifications of habitual light exposure in older people could contribute to a change in the timing of circadian rhythms or in the phase angle of entrainment. In this study, we compare natural light exposure of community-dwelling older and young subjects studied at the same time of year, focusing on the pattern of light exposure across the waking day. We recorded light exposure data for 3 to 8 days from 22 older (aged 66.01 +/- 5.83) and 22 young subjects (aged 23.41 +/- 4.57), living at home on self-selected sleepwake schedules, and matched for time of year. All subjects were from New England (latitude 42.3 degrees N to 43 degrees N). We compared the percentage of the waking day spent by older and young subjects at 4 different light levels (from very dim to very bright). We compared hourly averaged light exposure data in each group according to clock time and with respect to each subject's daily sleepwake times. Although both age groups spent more than half of their waking hours in dim or moderate room light intensity (<100 lux), we found that the older subjects spent a significantly greater percentage of their waking day in the brighter light levels (> or =1000 lux); their hourly averaged light exposure levels were also significantly greater whether we examined the data with respect to absolute clock time, to wake time, or to bed time, and this was true across all seasons. We found that healthy older people were exposed to significantly higher levels of light throughout their waking day than young people. Differences in natural light exposure may contribute to the age-related phase advance of the circadian pacemaker and its later timing relative to the sleepwake cycle. This hypothesis should be explored further in

  9. Clinical assessment of organizational strategy: An examination of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pia; White, Desirée A

    2015-06-01

    During the assessment of patients with cognitive difficulties, clinicians often examine strategic processing, particularly the ability to use organization-based strategies to efficiently complete various tasks. Several commonly used neuropsychological tasks are currently thought to provide measures of organizational strategic processing, but empirical evidence for the construct validity of these strategic measures is needed before interpreting them as measuring the same underlying ability. This is particularly important for the assessment of organizational strategic processing because the measures span cognitive domains (e.g., memory strategy, language strategy) as well as types of organization. In the present study, 200 adults were administered cognitive tasks commonly used in clinical practice to assess organizational strategic processing. Factor analysis was used to examine whether these measures of organizational strategic processing, which involved different cognitive domains and types of organization, could be operationalized as measuring a unitary construct. A very good-fitting model of the data demonstrated no significant shared variance among any of the strategic variables from different tasks (root mean square error of approximation < .0001, standardized root-mean-square residual = .045, comparative fit index = 1.000). These findings suggest that organizational strategic processing is highly specific to the demands and goals of individual tasks even when tasks share commonalities such as involving the same cognitive domain. In the design of neuropsychological batteries involving the assessment of organizational strategic processing, it is recommended that various strategic measures across cognitive domains and types of organizational processing are selected as guided by each patient's individual cognitive difficulties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  11. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  12. The Relationship between Relative Fundamental Frequency and a Kinematic Estimate of Laryngeal Stiffness in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Heller Murray, Elizabeth S.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and a kinematic estimate of laryngeal stiffness. Method: Twelve healthy adults (mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 4.4; 10 women, 2 men) produced repetitions of /ifi/ while varying their vocal effort during simultaneous acoustic and video…

  13. The Relationship between Relative Fundamental Frequency and a Kinematic Estimate of Laryngeal Stiffness in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Heller Murray, Elizabeth S.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and a kinematic estimate of laryngeal stiffness. Method: Twelve healthy adults (mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 4.4; 10 women, 2 men) produced repetitions of /ifi/ while varying their vocal effort during simultaneous acoustic and video…

  14. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  15. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  16. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  17. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  18. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  19. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  20. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  1. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  2. Correlates of Intellectual Ability with Morphology of the Hippocampus and Amygdala in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amat, Jose A.; Bansal, Ravi; Whiteman, Ronald; Haggerty, Rita; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Several prior imaging studies of healthy adults have correlated volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala with measures of general intelligence (IQ), with variable results. In this study, we assessed correlations between volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala and full-scale IQ scores (FSIQ) using a method of image analysis that permits detailed…

  3. Correlates of Intellectual Ability with Morphology of the Hippocampus and Amygdala in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amat, Jose A.; Bansal, Ravi; Whiteman, Ronald; Haggerty, Rita; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Several prior imaging studies of healthy adults have correlated volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala with measures of general intelligence (IQ), with variable results. In this study, we assessed correlations between volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala and full-scale IQ scores (FSIQ) using a method of image analysis that permits detailed…

  4. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  5. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The effect of rhythmic musical training on healthy older adults' gait and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Linda M; Brown, Laura J E; Astell, Arlene J

    2014-08-01

    Older adults' gait is disturbed when a demanding secondary cognitive task is added. Gait training has been shown to improve older adults' walking performance, but it is not clear how training affects their cognitive performance. This study examined the impact on gait, in terms of cost or benefit to cognitive performance, of training healthy older adults to walk to a rhythmic musical beat. In a mixed model design, 45 healthy older adults aged more than 65 years (M = 71.7 years) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group received a rhythmic musical training and their dual-task (DT) walking and cognitive performances were compared with a group who had music playing in the background but no training, and a third group who heard no music and received no training. Outcomes in single-task (ST) and DT conditions were step-time variability and velocity for gait and correct cognitive responses for the cognitive task. The Musical Training group's step-time variability improved in both the ST (p < .05) and the DT (p < .05) after training, without adversely affecting their cognitive performance. No change was seen in the control groups. Rhythmic musical training can improve gait steadiness in healthy older adults with no negative impact on concurrent cognitive functioning. This could potentially enhance "postural reserve" and reduce fall risk. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, K M M; Veldman, M P; Solnik, S; Koch, G; Zijdewind, I; Hortobágyi, T

    2015-06-01

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults and examined if specific metrics of neuronal excitability measured by magnetic brain stimulation mediate the practice and retention effects. Eleven healthy old adults practiced a wrist extension-flexion visuomotor skill for 20 min (MP, 71.3 years), while a second group only watched the templates without movements (attentional control, AC, n = 11, 70.5 years). There was 40 % motor learning in MP but none in AC (interaction, p < 0.001) with the skill retained 24 h later in MP and a 16 % improvement in AC. Corticospinal excitability at rest and during task did not change, but when measured during contraction at 20 % of maximal force, it strongly increased in MP and decreased in AC (interaction, p = 0.002). Intracortical inhibition at rest and during the task decreased and facilitation at rest increased in MP, but these metrics changed in the opposite direction in AC. These neuronal changes were especially profound at retention. Healthy old adults can learn a new motor skill and consolidate the learned skill into motor memory, processes that are most likely mediated by disinhibitory mechanisms. These results are relevant for the increasing number of old adults who need to learn and relearn movements during motor rehabilitation.

  9. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  10. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  11. Influence of continual biofeedback on jaw pursuit-tracking in healthy adults and in adults with apraxia plus aphasia.

    PubMed

    Ballard, K J; Robin, D A

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a disorder of motor programming resulting from damage to premotor or anterior insula cortex. The authors used a pursuit visuomotor tracking task to test whether such a disorder interferes with development of motor programs or with modification of existing programs via integration of feedback. Healthy older adults (n = 15) and adults with AOS plus aphasia and nonverbal apraxia (n = 8) performed a jaw movement task with (a) continuous visual feedback of a target movement pattern and their jaw movement and (b) no feedback. Healthy speakers were more accurate and less variable with feedback, suggesting accurate development of a program and feedback integration. Apraxic individuals' performance accuracy and response to feedback suggested that the neurological damage impairs both development of new programs and efficient integration of feedback.

  12. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in the mean values of both IgG and IgM between male and female children involved in the present study (p>0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (p<0.05); suggesting a significant gender difference in the value of both IgG and IgA amongst adult subjects. No significant differences were observed in the mean values of any of the various types of immunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  13. Transcranial Doppler Sonography Reveals Reductions in Hemispheric Asymmetry in Healthy Older Adults during Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Amanda E.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Shaw, Tyler H.

    2017-01-01

    Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18–24) and healthy older (aged 66–77) adults. To measure temporal changes in cerebral blood flow, participants underwent functional transcranial doppler (fTCD) recording during a 1 h vigilance task. Based on research showing a compensatory effect of increased left hemisphere activation during vigilance in young adults and the “hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults” (HAROLD) model, we predicted that during vigilance our older adults would show greater left hemisphere activation but perform at a similar level compared to young adults. While cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) declined over time in both groups, only young adults showed the typical right-lateralized CBFV pattern. Older adults showed greater left hemisphere activation consistent with the HAROLD model. However, the increased left hemisphere activation did not appear to be compensatory as the older adults performed at a significantly lower level compared to young adults over the vigil. Findings are discussed in terms of the HAROLD model of healthy aging and the resource theory of vigilance. PMID:28228722

  14. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain.

  15. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A.; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain. PMID:28111548

  16. Mapping viscoelastic properties of healthy and pathological red blood cells at the nanoscale level.

    PubMed

    Ciasca, G; Papi, M; Di Claudio, S; Chiarpotto, M; Palmieri, V; Maulucci, G; Nocca, G; Rossi, C; De Spirito, M

    2015-10-28

    In order to pass through the microcirculation, red blood cells (RBCs) need to undergo extensive deformations and to recover the original shape. This extreme deformability is altered by various pathological conditions. On the other hand, an altered RBC deformability can have major effects on blood flow and can lead to pathological implications. The study of the viscoelastic response of red blood cells to mechanical stimuli is crucial to fully understand deformability changes under pathological conditions. However, the typical erythrocyte biconcave shape hints to a complex and intrinsically heterogeneous mechanical response that must be investigated by using probes at the nanoscale level. In this work, the local viscoelastic behaviour of healthy and pathological red blood cells was probed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Our results clearly show that the RBC stiffness is not spatially homogeneous, suggesting a strong correlation with the erythrocyte biconcave shape. Moreover, our nanoscale mapping highlights the key role played by viscous forces, demonstrating that RBCs do not behave as pure elastic bodies. The fundamental role played by viscous forces is further strengthened by the comparison between healthy and pathological (diabetes mellitus) RBCs. It is well known that pathological RBCs are usually stiffer than the healthy ones. Our measures unveil a more complex scenario according to which the difference between normal and pathological red blood cells does not merely lie in their stiffness but also in a different dynamical response to external stimuli that is governed by viscous forces.

  17. Differential performance of SF-36 items in healthy adults with and without functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Krahn, Gloria L; Suzuki, Rie; Peterson, Jana J; Roid, Gale; Hall, Trevor

    2010-04-01

    To determine whether Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) items show differential item functioning among healthy adults with various types of functional limitations as compared with a healthy sample with no identified limitations. Survey responses were analyzed by using partial correlations. General community. Participants (N=206) included (1) adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), (2) adults who were deaf or hard of hearing, (3) adults who were legally blind, (4) adults with psychiatric or emotional conditions, and (5) adults with no reported functional limitations. Participants were screened to ensure the absence of substantial health problems. Not applicable. SF-36. Partial correlations showed a significant negative correlation, indicating differential item functioning (ie, apparent bias) for people with SCI on all 10 SF-36 Physical Functioning items. For people who were blind, 5 items showed a significant negative correlation. Two items had significant negative correlations for the deaf/hard-of-hearing group. One item showed significant negative performance for people with mental health conditions. Our data indicated a possibility for measurement bias caused by the blending of health and function concepts in the SF-36. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 p<.001) and adherence to a healthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a

  19. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measure Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Setting Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Participants Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. Results A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I2 = 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Conclusions Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. PMID:27729596

  20. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I(2 )= 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  1. Clusters of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors Are Associated With Body Mass Index Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Hargreaves, Margaret; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Schlundt, David; Wallston, Kenneth A; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-05-01

    To identify eating styles from 6 eating behaviors and test their association with body mass index (BMI) among adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-report survey data. Twelve primary care and specialty clinics in 5 states. Of 11,776 adult patients who consented to participate, 9,977 completed survey questions. Frequency of eating healthy food, frequency of eating unhealthy food, breakfast frequency, frequency of snacking, overall diet quality, and problem eating behaviors. The primary dependent variable was BMI, calculated from self-reported height and weight data. k-Means cluster analysis of eating behaviors was used to determine eating styles. A categorical variable representing each eating style cluster was entered in a multivariate linear regression predicting BMI, controlling for covariates. Four eating styles were identified and defined by healthy vs unhealthy diet patterns and engagement in problem eating behaviors. Each group had significantly higher average BMI than the healthy eating style: healthy with problem eating behaviors (β = 1.9; P < .001), unhealthy (β = 2.5; P < .001), and unhealthy with problem eating behaviors (β = 5.1; P < .001). Future attempts to improve eating styles should address not only the consumption of healthy foods but also snacking behaviors and the emotional component of eating. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein requirements in healthy adults: a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Sun, Feng; Piao, Jian Hua; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze protein requirements in healthy adults through a meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies. A comprehensive search for nitrogen balance studies of healthy adults published up to October 2012 was performed, each study were reviewed, and data were abstracted. The studies were first evaluated for heterogeneity. The average protein requirements were analyzed by using the individual data of each included studies. Study site climate, age, sex, and dietary protein source were compared. Data for 348 subjects were gathered from 28 nitrogen balance studies. The natural logarithm of requirement for 348 individuals had a normal distribution with a mean of 4.66. The estimated average requirement was the exponentiation of the mean of the log requirement, 105.64 mg N/kg•d. No significant differences between adult age, source of dietary protein were observed. But there was significant difference between sex and the climate of the study site (P<0.05). The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake of the healthy adult population was 105.64 mg N/kg•d (0.66 g high quality protein/kg•d) and 132.05 mg N/kg•d (0.83 g high quality protein/kg•d), respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep disorders and their impacts on healthy, dependent, and frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Cochen, V; Arbus, C; Soto, M E; Villars, H; Tiberge, M; Montemayor, T; Hein, C; Veccherini, M F; Onen, S H; Ghorayeb, I; Verny, M; Fitten, L J; Savage, J; Dauvilliers, Y; Vellas, B

    2009-04-01

    Sleep disorders differ widely in the heterogeneous older adult population. Older adults can be classified into three groups based upon their overall level of disability: healthy, dependent, and frail. Frailty is an emerging concept that denotes older persons at increased risk for poor outcomes. The aim of this consensus review is to describe the sleep disorders observed in healthy and dependent older adults and to discuss the potential sleep disorders associated with frailty as well as their potential consequences on this weakened population. A review task force was created including neurologists, geriatricians, sleep specialists and geriatric psychiatrists to discuss age related sleep disorders depending on the three categories of older adults. All published studies on sleep in older adults on Ovid Medline were reviewed and 106 articles were selected for the purpose of this consensus. Many healthy older adults have complains about their sleep such as waking not rested and too early, trouble falling asleep, daytime napping, and multiple nocturnal awakenings. Sleep architecture is modified by age with an increased percentage of time spent in stage one and a decreased percentage spent in stages three and four. Insomnia is frequent and its mechanisms include painful medical conditions, psychological distress, loss of physical activity and iatrogenic influences. Treatments are also involved in older adults' somnolence. The prevalence of primary sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements and sleep disordered breathing increases with age. Potential outcomes relevant to these sleep disorders in old age include mortality, cardiovascular and neurobehavioral co-morbidities. Sleep in dependent older adults such as patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) is disturbed. The sleep patterns observed in these patients are often similar to those observed in non-demented elderly but alterations are more severe. Nocturnal sleep disruption and daytime

  4. Naturalistic assessment of executive function and everyday multitasking in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated, and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults.

  5. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  6. High prevalence of pineal cysts in healthy adults demonstrated by high-resolution, noncontrast brain MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Pu, Y; Mahankali, S; Hou, J; Li, J; Lancaster, J L; Gao, J-H; Appelbaum, D E; Fox, P T

    2007-10-01

    Although the prevalence of pineal cysts in autopsy series has been reported as being between 25% and 40%, MR studies have documented their frequency to range between 1.5% and 10.8%. The purpose of this high-resolution brain MR imaging study at 1.9T was to determine the prevalence of pineal cysts in healthy adults. Brain MR images of 100 healthy young volunteers were randomly selected from our International Consortium for Brain Mapping project data base. Cysts were detected as circular areas of isointensity relative to CSF on both 3D gradient-echo T1-weighted and 2D fast spin-echo T2-weighted images. The inner diameters of all visualized pineal cysts were measured, and a criterion of 2.0 mm of the largest inner cross-sectional diameter was used to categorize cysts as being either small cystic changes (<2.0-mm diameter) or pineal cysts (>2.0-mm diameter). Twenty-three percent (23/100) of the volunteers had pineal cysts with a mean largest inner cross-sectional diameter of 4.3 mm (range, 2-14 mm); 13% (13/100) demonstrated cystic changes involving the pineal gland with the largest inner cross-sectional diameter of less than 2.0 mm. There was a slight female predominance. Two subjects with long-term follow-up scans showed no symptoms or changes in the size of their pineal cysts. On high-resolution MR imaging, the prevalence of pineal cysts was 23% in our healthy group of adults, which is consistent with previous autopsy studies. Long-term follow-up studies of 2 cases demonstrated the stability of the cysts.

  7. Similar Subgroups Based on Cognitive Performance Parse Heterogeneity in Adults With ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Jeanette C.; Hoogman, Martine; Onnink, A. Marten H.; van Rooij, Daan; von Rhein, Daniel; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Norris, David G.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize heterogeneity in adults with ADHD we aimed to identify subgroups within the adult ADHD spectrum, which differ in their cognitive profile. Method Neuropsychological data from adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy control participants (n = 132) were used in a confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting six cognitive factors were correlated across participants to form networks. We used a community detection algorithm to cluster these networks into subgroups. Results Both the ADHD and control group separated into three profiles that differed in cognitive performance. Profile 1 was characterized by aberrant attention and inhibition, profile 2 by increased delay discounting, and profile 3 by atypical working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion Our findings suggest that qualitative differences in neuropsychological performance exist in both control and ADHD adult individuals. This extends prior findings in children with and without ADHD and provides a framework to parse participants into well-defined subgroups. PMID:26374770

  8. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  9. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    PubMed

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Humoral responses to independent vaccinations are correlated in healthy boosted adults.

    PubMed

    Garman, Lori; Vineyard, Amanda J; Crowe, Sherry R; Harley, John B; Spooner, Christina E; Collins, Limone C; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M; James, Judith A

    2014-09-29

    Roughly half of U.S. adults do not receive recommended booster vaccinations, but protective antibody levels are rarely measured in adults. Demographic factors, vaccination history, and responses to other vaccinations could help identify at-risk individuals. We sought to characterize rates of seroconversion and determine associations of humoral responses to multiple vaccinations in healthy adults. Humoral responses toward measles, mumps, tetanus toxoid, pertussis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anthrax protective antigen were measured by ELISA in post-immunization samples from 1465 healthy U.S. military members. We examined the effects of demographic and clinical factors on immunization responses, as well as assessed correlations between vaccination responses. Subsets of boosted adults did not have seroprotective levels of antibodies toward measles (10.4%), mumps (9.4%), pertussis (4.7%), hepatitis B (8.6%) or protective antigen (14.4%) detected. Half-lives of antibody responses were generally long (>30 years). Measles and mumps antibody levels were correlated (r=0.31, p<0.001), but not associated with select demographic features or vaccination history. Measles and mumps antibody levels also correlated with tetanus antibody response (r=0.11, p<0.001). Vaccination responses are predominantly robust and vaccine specific. However, a small but significant portion of the vaccinated adult population may not have quantitative seroprotective antibody to common vaccine-preventable infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Humoral responses to independent vaccinations are correlated in healthy boosted adults

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Lori; Vineyard, Amanda J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Harley, John B.; Spooner, Christina E.; Collins, Limone C.; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J.M.; James, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Roughly half of U.S. adults do not receive recommended booster vaccinations, but protective antibody levels are rarely measured in adults. Demographic factors, vaccination history, and responses to other vaccinations could help identify at-risk individuals. We sought to characterize rates of seroconversion and determine associations of humoral responses to multiple vaccinations in healthy adults. Methods Humoral responses toward measles, mumps, tetanus toxoid, pertussis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anthrax protective antigen were measured by ELISA in post-immunization samples from 1,465 healthy U.S. military members. We examined the effects of demographic and clinical factors on immunization responses, as well as assessed correlations between vaccination responses. Results Subsets of boosted adults did not have seroprotective levels of antibodies toward measles (10.4%), mumps (9.4%), pertussis (4.7%), hepatitis B (8.6%) or protective antigen (14.4%) detected. Half-lives of antibody responses were generally long (>30 years). Measles and mumps antibody levels were correlated (r=0.31, p<0.001), but not associated with select demographic features or vaccination history. Measles and mumps antibody levels also correlated with tetanus antibody response (r=0.11, p<0.001). Conclusions Vaccination responses are predominantly robust and vaccine specific. However, a small but significant portion of the vaccinated adult population may not have quantitative seroprotective antibody to common vaccine-preventable infections. PMID:25140930

  12. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  13. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  14. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  15. The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jia; Yang, Ye; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Che; Deng, Zhihong; Lam, Byron L; Hu, Liang; Oakley, Jonathan; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the repeatability and profiles with different partition methods in intraretinal thickness layers in healthy human subjects, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT was used to acquire three-dimensional volume of the macula in 20 healthy subjects. The dataset was acquired twice using the macular cube 512×128 protocol in an area of 6×6 mm2 centered on the fovea. Commercially available segmentation software (Orion™) was used to segment the dataset into thickness maps of six intraretinal layers. The coefficient of repeatability and intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC) were analyzed using hemispheric zoning and sectors defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Results All datasets were successfully segmented to create six thickness maps of individual intraretinal layers. Coefficients of repeatabilities of these layers in hemispheric zones ranged from 0.9 to 6.6 µm, with an average of 3.6 µm (standard deviation [SD] 1.4), which was not significantly different compared to ETDRS sectors (P>0.05). ICCs of these layers in hemispheric zones ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, with an average of 0.91 (SD 0.07). There were no significant differences in ICCs between two zoning methods (P>0.05). Significant variations of tomographic intraretinal thicknesses were found between the inner and outer annuli and among the quadrantal sectors within the inner and outer annuli (P<0.05). Significant variations of the quadrantal sectors including both inner and outer annuli were evident in intraretinal layers (P<0.05) except for the outer plexiform layer. Conclusion The measurement repeatabilities of tomographic thicknesses of intraretinal layers are comparable using both hemispheric and ETDRS partitions in volumetric data combined with the commercially available segmentation software. In keeping with known, normal anatomical variation, significant differences in tomographic thickness in

  16. Prohibition or coffee shops: regulation of amphetamine and methylphenidate for enhancement use by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dubljević, Veljko

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes appropriate public policies for enhancement use of two most important stimulant drugs: Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts). The author argues that appropriate regulation of cognition enhancement drugs cannot be a result of a general discussion on cognitive enhancements as such, but has to be made on a case-by-case basis. Starting from the recently proposed taxation approach to cognition enhancement drugs, the author analyzes available, moderately permissive models of regulation. After a thorough analysis of relevant characteristics of methylphenidate and amphetamine, the author concludes that a moderately liberal permissive regulation of enhancement use by healthy adults might be appropriate for extended release forms of methylphenidate. However, due to their danger profile, amphetamine and instant release forms of methylphenidate should not be made readily available to healthy adults and would need to be prohibited.

  17. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Music enhances category fluency in healthy older adults and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R G; Moulin, C J A; Hayre, S; Jones, R W

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to some music, in particular classical music, has been reported to produce transient increases in cognitive performance. The authors investigated the effect of listening to an excerpt of Vivaldi's Four Seasons on category fluency in healthy older adult controls and Alzheimer's disease patients. In a counterbalanced repeated-measure design, participants completed two, 1-min category fluency tasks whilst listening to an excerpt of Vivaldi and two, 1-min category fluency tasks without music. The authors report a positive effect of music on category fluency, with performance in the music condition exceeding performance without music in both the healthy older adult control participants and the Alzheimer's disease patients. In keeping with previous reports, the authors conclude that music enhances attentional processes, and that this can be demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Mapping viscoelastic properties of healthy and pathological red blood cells at the nanoscale level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciasca, G.; Papi, M.; di Claudio, S.; Chiarpotto, M.; Palmieri, V.; Maulucci, G.; Nocca, G.; Rossi, C.; de Spirito, M.

    2015-10-01

    In order to pass through the microcirculation, red blood cells (RBCs) need to undergo extensive deformations and to recover the original shape. This extreme deformability is altered by various pathological conditions. On the other hand, an altered RBC deformability can have major effects on blood flow and can lead to pathological implications. The study of the viscoelastic response of red blood cells to mechanical stimuli is crucial to fully understand deformability changes under pathological conditions. However, the typical erythrocyte biconcave shape hints to a complex and intrinsically heterogeneous mechanical response that must be investigated by using probes at the nanoscale level. In this work, the local viscoelastic behaviour of healthy and pathological red blood cells was probed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Our results clearly show that the RBC stiffness is not spatially homogeneous, suggesting a strong correlation with the erythrocyte biconcave shape. Moreover, our nanoscale mapping highlights the key role played by viscous forces, demonstrating that RBCs do not behave as pure elastic bodies. The fundamental role played by viscous forces is further strengthened by the comparison between healthy and pathological (diabetes mellitus) RBCs. It is well known that pathological RBCs are usually stiffer than the healthy ones. Our measures unveil a more complex scenario according to which the difference between normal and pathological red blood cells does not merely lie in their stiffness but also in a different dynamical response to external stimuli that is governed by viscous forces.In order to pass through the microcirculation, red blood cells (RBCs) need to undergo extensive deformations and to recover the original shape. This extreme deformability is altered by various pathological conditions. On the other hand, an altered RBC deformability can have major effects on blood flow and can lead to pathological implications. The study of the viscoelastic

  20. Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Saneei, Parvane; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afshar, Hamid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in Western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudied region of Middle East. We examined the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI-2010, as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 15·2 % (males 10·8 % and females 18·3 %) and 30·0 % (males 22·9 % and females 35·1 %), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, those in the top quartile of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower chance of anxiety (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·72) and a 45 % lower odds of depression (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), compared with those in the bottom quartile. Stratified analysis by sex revealed that women in the highest categories of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower odds of having anxiety and depression, after adjustment for confounders, but no significant association was found in men. In addition, among individuals who were 40 years old or younger, those with high adherence to AHEI-2010 were 58 and 51 % less likely to have anxiety and depression, compared with those with less adherence. Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of anxiety and depression in Iranian adults. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  1. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CVI]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of <0.05 being significant. Results The median daily and weekly CVI for the population were 13.1% (range 0-28.7%) and 21.2% (range 3.9-68.1%), respectively. The index of individuality was 0.99 and 1 for daily and weekly samples, respectively. The median daily and weekly RCVs for the population were 39.8% (range 17.0-80.5%) and 60.5% (range 20.1-187.8%), respectively. Conclusions and relevance This study demonstrates high individual variability for NT-proBNP concentrations in a population of adult healthy cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  2. The impact of diurnal variation on induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Induced sputum cell counts are a non-invasive, reliable method for evaluating the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Current reference values for induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults do not account for the effects of circadian rhythm, including diurnal variation. The objective of this study was to describe the diurnal variation in induced sputum cell counts, compared between early morning and late afternoon, in healthy adult individuals. Methods 100 healthy adult subjects with no history of lung disease and normal bronchial reactivity proceeded with induced sputum testing at 7 am and 4 pm on different days. The order of testing was randomized. The cytotechnologist preparing and performing the cell counts was blinded to the sample collection time and subject characteristics. Results 65 subjects were included in the final analyses. There was no significant change in the total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collections. There was good inter-observer agreement with respect to differential sputum cell count interpretation. Conclusions This is the largest study to assess the variation in induced sputum cell counts in healthy adult subjects at different times of the day. We found no significant change in total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collection time points. This is in contrast to studies in asthmatics that demonstrated a circadian variation in sputum cell counts and other markers of inflammation, suggesting that fluctuations in airway inflammatory cells during the day are a disease-specific effect. PMID:23537329

  3. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T; Pack, Allan I; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T

    2015-08-01

    Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Twenty-eight healthy young adults. None. Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0-7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9-18.3 beats.min(-1). Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1-18.1 beats.min(-1). There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  5. Gender differences in factors affecting rejection of food in healthy young Swedish adults.

    PubMed

    Nordin, S; Broman, D A; Garvill, J; Nyroos, M

    2004-12-01

    With the objectives to better understand gender-related differences in variables of importance for food intake, and interrelations between these variables, 100 healthy, young women and 100 healthy, young men responded to self-administrated questionnaires about general food rejection, learned illness-associated food aversions, disgust (the Disgust Scale), food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale), nausea and appetite. The results show that food rejection and aversions were more common in women (69 and 38%, respectively) than in men (47 and 18%), and that women are more disgust sensitive than men. However, no differences between women and men were observed regarding reasons for rejecting food (predominantly sensory attributes), prevalence of gastrointestinal illness as an associated aversion symptom (95 vs 89%), type of aversive food due to associated illness (predominantly high protein items), or food neophobia. Based on path analyses, a model is proposed of interrelations between disgust, food neophobia, learned food aversions, nausea, appetite, and general food rejection in healthy young adults.

  6. Altered Value Coding in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Mamerow, Loreen; Lei, Xu; Fang, Lei; Mata, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that aging is associated with changes in risk taking but less is known about their underlying neural basis, such as the potential age differences in the neural processing of value and risk. The goal of the present study was to investigate adult age differences in functional neural responses in a naturalistic risk-taking task. Twenty-six young adults and 27 healthy older adults completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Young and older adults showed similar overt risk-taking behavior. Group comparison of neural activity in response to risky vs. control stimuli revealed similar patterns of activation in the bilateral striatum, anterior insula (AI) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Group comparison of parametrically modulated activity in response to continued pumping similarly revealed comparable results for both age groups in the AI and, potentially, the striatum, yet differences emerged for regional activity in the vmPFC. At whole brain level, insular, striatal and vmPFC activation was predictive of behavioral risk taking for young but not older adults. The current results are interpreted and discussed as preserved neural tracking of risk and reward in the AI and striatum, respectively, but altered value coding in the vmPFC in the two age groups. The latter finding points toward older adults exhibiting differential vmPFC-related integration and value coding. Furthermore, neural activation holds differential predictive validity for behavioral risk taking in young and older adults. PMID:27630561

  7. Estimating the age of healthy infants from quantitative myelin water fraction maps.

    PubMed

    Dean, Douglas C; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Walker, Lindsay; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean C L

    2015-04-01

    The trajectory of the developing brain is characterized by a sequence of complex, nonlinear patterns that occur at systematic stages of maturation. Although significant prior neuroimaging research has shed light on these patterns, the challenge of accurately characterizing brain maturation, and identifying areas of accelerated or delayed development, remains. Altered brain development, particularly during the earliest stages of life, is believed to be associated with many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this work, we develop a framework to construct voxel-wise estimates of brain age based on magnetic resonance imaging measures sensitive to myelin content. 198 myelin water fraction (VF(M) ) maps were acquired from healthy male and female infants and toddlers, 3 to 48 months of age, and used to train a sigmoidal-based maturational model. The validity of the approach was then established by testing the model on 129 different VF(M) datasets. Results revealed the approach to have high accuracy, with a mean absolute percent error of 13% in males and 14% in females, and high predictive ability, with correlation coefficients between estimated and true ages of 0.945 in males and 0.94 in females. This work represents a new approach toward mapping brain maturity, and may provide a more faithful staging of brain maturation in infants beyond chronological or gestation-corrected age, allowing earlier identification of atypical regional brain development.

  8. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  9. Effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Cecilia S M; Tsunaka, Megumi; Tsang, Hector W H; Chan, Edward P; Cheung, Wai Ming

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a systematic review and critical appraisal of the effect of yoga on stress management in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) that assessed the effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults. Selected studies were classified according to the types of intervention, duration, outcome measures, and results. They were also qualitatively assessed based on Public Health Research, Education and Development standards. The systematic review was based on eight RCTs and CCTs that indicated a positive effect of yoga in reducing stress levels or stress symptoms. However, most of the studies had methodological problems in that the intervention duration was short and limited follow-up data was available. This review revealed positive effects of yoga on stress reduction in healthy adult populations. However, the result should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the associated methodological problems. Further studies to ascertain yoga's long-term effects and the underlying biological mechanisms leading to its stress reduction effect should be conducted.

  10. Does proprioceptive system stimulation improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo P; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Lahr, Juliana; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Sit-to-walk performance is linked to proper proprioceptive information processing. Therefore, it is believed that an increase of proprioceptive inflow (using muscle vibration) might improve sit-to-walk performance. However, before testing muscle vibration effects on a frail population, assessment of its effects on healthy young people is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle vibration on sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen young adults performed the sit-to-walk task under three conditions: without vibration, with vibration applied before movement onset, and with vibration applied during the movement. Vibration was applied bilaterally for 30 s to the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and upper trapezius muscles bellies. The vibration parameters were as follows: 120 Hz and 1.2 mm. Kinematics and kinetic data were assessed using a 3D motion capture system and two force plates. The coordinates of reflective markers were used to define the center-of-mass velocities and displacements. In addition, the first step spatiotemporal variables were assessed. [Results] No vibration effect was observed on any dependent variables. [Conclusion] The results show that stimulation of the proprioceptive system with local muscle vibration does not improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults.

  11. Walking on uneven terrain in healthy adults and the implications for people after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kelly A; Clark, David J; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Fox, Emily J

    2017-09-16

    One third of individuals after stroke report an inability to walk in the community. Community mobility requires walking adaptability - the ability to adjust one's stepping pattern to meet environmental demands and task goals. Walking on uneven terrain (e.g. grass, gravel) has unique requirements and is a critical component of walking adaptability that has not been investigated in the post-stroke population. To summarize current knowledge of biomechanical and neuromuscular modifications during uneven terrain negotiation in healthy individuals and discuss implications of post-stroke impairments. Review of eleven studies, identified through a search of relevant literature on PubMed and CINAHL. On uneven terrain, healthy adults demonstrate numerous gait modifications including a lowered center of mass, increased muscle co-contraction during stance and exaggerated or increased toe clearance during swing. After stroke, changes in muscle activity and limb coordination will likely result in difficulty or inability performing these modifications that healthy adults use to maintain stability and safety when walking on uneven terrain. Studies of biomechanical and neuromuscular control of walking on uneven terrain are needed to quantify mobility limitations in adults post-stroke. Such investigations will contribute to the understanding of mobility impairments after stroke and the design of critically important intervention strategies.

  12. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p < 0.001), a slower chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  13. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology.

  14. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain.

  15. Rejecting familiar distracters during recognition in young adults with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Lana J; Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2010-05-01

    The most common cognitive complaint reported by healthy older adults and young adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is memory difficulties. We investigated the effects of normal aging and the long-term effects of TBI in young adults on the susceptibility to incorrectly endorse distracter information on a memory test. Prior to a study phase, participants viewed a "pre-exposure" list containing distracter words, presented once or three times, and half of the target study words. Subsequently, during the study phase, all target words were presented such that, across lists, study words were viewed either once or three times. On the recognition test, TBI and older adult participants were more likely to falsely endorse "pre-exposed" distracter words viewed three times as being from the target study list, compared to non-head-injured young controls. Normal aging and head injury in young may similarly compromise one's ability to reject highly familiar, but distracting, information during recognition. Older adult and TBI participants were also slower to complete the Trail Making task and had poorer output on a Digit Span task, suggesting these two populations share a deficit in executive function and working memory. Similar changes in frontal lobe function may underlie these shared cognitive deficits.

  16. Effects of walking speed, strength and range of motion on gait stability in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun G; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2008-10-20

    Falls pose a tremendous risk to those over 65 and most falls occur during locomotion. Older adults commonly walk slower, which many believe helps improve walking stability. While increased gait variability predicts future fall risk, increased variability is also caused by walking slower. Thus, we need to better understand how differences in age and walking speed independently affect dynamic stability during walking. We investigated if older adults improved their dynamic stability by walking slower, and how leg strength and flexibility (passive range of motion (ROM)) affected this relationship. Eighteen active healthy older and 17 healthy younger adults walked on a treadmill for 5min each at each of 5 speeds (80-120% of preferred). Local divergence exponents and maximum Floquet multipliers (FM) were calculated to quantify each subject's inherent local dynamic stability. The older subjects walked with the same preferred walking speeds as the younger subjects (p=0.860). However, these older adults still exhibited greater local divergence exponents (p<0.0001) and higher maximum FM (p<0.007) than the younger adults at all walking speeds. These older adults remained more locally unstable (p<0.04) even after adjusting for declines in both strength and ROM. In both age groups, local divergence exponents decreased at slower speeds and increased at faster speeds (p<0.0001). Maximum FM showed similar changes with speed (p<0.02). Both younger and older adults exhibited decreased instability by walking slower, in spite of increased variability. These increases in dynamic instability might be more sensitive indicators of future fall risk than changes in gait variability.

  17. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.; Dehon, Hedwige; Larøi, Frank

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS ➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement), highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions. Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the emergence of

  18. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  19. The Relationship of Aspiration Status With Tongue and Handgrip Strength in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Rees, Catherine; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Recently, subclinical aspiration has been identified in approximately 30% of community-dwelling older adults. Given that the tongue is a key component of the safe swallow, we hypothesized healthy older adults who aspirate will generate less tongue strength than adults who do not aspirate. Furthermore, as muscle weakness may reflect a global effect of aging, we further investigated whether tongue strength is correlated with handgrip strength. Methods. We assessed 78 healthy community-dwelling older adults (M = 77.3 years, SD = 7.26) for aspiration status (37% aspirators) via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Maximal isometric anterior and posterior tongue strength, anterior and posterior swallowing tongue strength, and maximum handgrip strength were measured. Results. Isometric tongue strength was significantly lower in aspirators versus nonaspirators (p = .03) at both the anterior (463 vs 548 mmHg, respectively) and posterior lingual locations (285 vs 370 mmHg, respectively). Likewise, swallowing tongue strength was significantly lower in aspirators versus nonaspirators at both the anterior (270 vs 317 mmHg, respectively) and posterior lingual locations (220 vs 267 mmHg, respectively). There was no difference between aspirators and nonaspirators’ handgrip strength (p > .05), although handgrip strength was correlated with posterior tongue strength (r = .34, p = .005). Conclusions. Lower anterior and posterior isometric and swallowing tongue strength were dependent on aspiration status. Lower lingual strength in healthy adults may predispose them to aspiration. The correlation between tongue and handgrip strength is consistent with the hypothesis that impaired oropharyngeal strength reflects global age-related declines in muscle strength. PMID:21300744

  20. Cognitive and mood improvements following acute supplementation with purple grape juice in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Haskell-Ramsay, C F; Stuart, R C; Okello, E J; Watson, A W

    2017-04-20

    Berry-derived phenolic compounds found in grapes have been associated with a number of health benefits, including the augmentation of human brain function and cognition. Previous intervention studies of Concord grape juice have demonstrated improvement to memory and driving ability following 3- to 4-month supplementation in middle-aged and older adults. However, no studies to date have demonstrated acute cognitive benefits of grape juice, and investigation of these effects in young adults is lacking. This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced-crossover study, assessed the effects of 230 ml purple grape juice or sugar-matched control in 20 healthy young adults. Computerised measures of episodic memory, working memory, attention and mood were completed at baseline and following a 20-min absorption period. Purple grape juice significantly improved reaction time on a composite attention measure (p = 0.047) and increased calm ratings (p = 0.046) when compared to placebo. Order effects also indicated an enduring positive effect on pre-dose memory reaction time (p = 0.018) and post-dose calm ratings (p = 0.019) when purple grape was consumed first. These findings in a small sample of healthy young adults suggest that purple grape juice can acutely enhance aspects of cognition and mood. No significant effects of juice were observed on memory measures, suggesting that these may be less susceptible to manipulation following acute supplementation in healthy young adults. Potential mechanisms underlying these effects include modulation of cerebral blood flow, glucoregulation and inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity, all of which require further exploration.

  1. Altered coronary vascular control during cold stress in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaohui; Wilson, Thad E; Drew, Rachel C; Ettinger, Joshua; Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality increases in the cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Previously, we reported that determinants of myocardial O(2) demand, such as the rate-pressure product, increase more in older adults compared with young adults during cold stress. The aim of the present study was to determine if aging influences the coronary hemodynamic response to cold stress in humans. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used to noninvasively measure peak coronary blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery before and during acute (20 min) whole body cold stress in 10 young adults (25 ± 1 yr) and 11 older healthy adults (65 ± 2 yr). Coronary vascular resistance (diastolic blood pressure/peak coronary blood velocity), coronary perfusion time fraction (coronary perfusion time/R-R interval), and left ventricular wall stress were calculated. We found that cooling (via a water-perfused suit) increased left ventricular wall stress, a primary determinant of myocardial O(2) consumption, in both young and older adults, although the magnitude of this increase was nearly twofold greater in older adults (change of 9.1 ± 3.5% vs. 17.6 ± 3.2%, P < 0.05, change from baseline in young and older adults and young vs. older adults). Despite the increased myocardial O(2) demand during cooling, coronary vasodilation (decreased coronary vascular resistance) occurred only in young adults (3.22 ± 0.23 to 2.85 ± 0.18 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P < 0.05) and not older adults (3.97 ± 0.24 to 3.79 ± 0.27 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P > 0.05). Consistent with a blunted coronary vascular response, absolute coronary perfusion time tended to decrease (P = 0.13) and coronary perfusion time fraction decreased (P < 0.05) during cooling in older adults but not young adults. Collectively, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate an altered coronary hemodynamic response to acute cold stress.

  2. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T.; Pack, Allan I.; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Design: Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Setting: Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Participants: Twenty-eight healthy young adults. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0–7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9–18.3 beats.min−1. Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1–18.1 beats.min−1. There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Conclusions: Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. Citation: Azarbarzin A, Ostrowski M, Younes M, Keenan BT, Pack AI, Staley B, Kuna ST. Arousal responses during overnight polysomnography and their reproducibility in healthy young adults. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1313–1321. PMID

  3. Aging and longitudinal change in perceptual-motor skill acquisition in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2005-07-01

    Knowledge about aging of perceptual-motor skills is based almost exclusively on cross-sectional studies. We examined age-related changes in the retention of mirror-tracing skills in healthy adults who practiced for 3 separate days at baseline and retrained 5 years later at follow-up. Overall, the speed and accuracy of an acquired skill were partially retained after a 5-year interim, although the same asymptote was reached. Analyses with individual learning curves indicated that the effects of age on mirror-tracing speed were greater at longitudinal follow-up than at baseline, with older adults requiring more training to reach asymptote. Thus, although the long-term retention of acquired skills declines with age, older adults still retain the ability to learn the skill. Moreover, those who maintained a processing speed comparable with that of the younger participants evidenced no age-related performance decrements on the mirror-drawing task.

  4. Effect of resistance-exercise training on cognitive function in healthy older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Feng-Tzu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that exercise helps reduce or prevent cognitive deterioration among older adults, and recent studies have further examined the effects of resistance-exercise training on cognition. The purpose of this review was to examine the role of resistance-exercise training on cognition in healthy older adults. Specifically, it describes the definition, health benefits, and the design of resistance-exercise training. The authors also review the research related to resistance exercises and cognition and found that this exercise modality may enhance specific cognitive performances. Next, they examine the potential mechanisms underlying resistance exercise and cognitive enhancement. Finally, they consider potential therapeutics and recommendations for further research on resistance-exercise training and cognition in older adults.

  5. Healthy urban living: Residential environment and health of older adults in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yafei; Dijst, Martin; Faber, Jan; Geertman, Stan; Cui, Can

    2017-09-01

    A healthy residential environment, especially for older adults, has emerged as an important issue on political and planning agenda in China. This paper aims to investigate the direct and indirect impact of residential environment on the health of older adults in Shanghai, taking into account health-related behaviours, subjective well-being and socio-demographic factors in one comprehensive conceptual model. Our results show that the residential environment is associated with older adults' health directly, and also indirectly through a series of significant behavioural (physical and social activities) and perceptual (subjective well-being) factors. After combining the direct and indirect association, the results show that good housing and neighbourhood quality and a safe social environment contribute to better subjective, physical and mental health conditions of older adults. In addition, access to cultural facilities is positively related to older adults' mental and physical health and subjective well-being, while a higher proportion of older adults in a neighbourhood appears to promote physical and social activities but not health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and leukocyte telomere maintenance in depressed and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Kupferman, Eve; Burke, Heather; Mahan, Laura; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Adverse childhood experiences are also associated with shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adults, suggesting accelerated cell aging. No studies have yet assessed the relationship of ACEs to LTL in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), despite the high incidence of antecedent ACEs in individuals with MDD. Further, no studies in any population have assessed the relationship of ACEs to the activity of telomerase, the major enzyme responsible for maintaining LTL, or the relationship between telomerase and LTL in individuals with ACEs. METHODS Twenty healthy, unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls had ACEs assessed and had blood drawn for LTL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) resting telomerase activity. RESULTS In healthy controls, greater ACE exposure was associated with shorter LTL (p< 0.05) but was unassociated with telomerase activity. In MDD, however, the opposite pattern was seen: Greater ACE exposure was unrelated to LTL but was associated with increased telomerase activity (p< 0.05) and with a higher telomerase: LTL ratio (p= 0.022). LIMITATIONS Study limitations include the small sample size, a single timepoint assessment of telomerase activity, and the use of retrospective self-report to assess ACEs. CONCLUSIONS These results replicate prior findings of shortened LTL in healthy adults with histories of multiple ACEs. However, in MDD, this relationship was substantially altered, raising the possibility that activation of telomerase in ACE-exposed individuals with MDD could represent a compensatory response to endangered telomeres. PMID:25173430

  8. Thermographic mapping of the abdomen in healthy subjects and patients after enterostoma.

    PubMed

    Siah, C J R; Childs, C

    2015-03-01

    Heat is a sign and symptom of surgical wound infection in wound assessment criteria but there is currently no diagnostic tool being used in clinical practice to assess the skin temperature of surgical wounds. Using thermal imaging, the objective of this study was to map the temperature of the healing surgical wound and to provide confirmatory data of: a) optimum IR imaging distance from skin temperature target field of view (FOV) b) body composition effects on abdominal skin surface temperature readings c) thermal mapping characteristics of infected versus non-infected wounds post stoma-closure. The abdominal skin surface temperature of healthy, afebrile subjects was measured under controlled, ambient conditions in a small (240cm x 320cm) clinical room. Subject standing positions were 30cm, 60cm and 100cm from the IR camera. Abdominal skin surface temperature and thermal imaging maps were acquired in a population of surgical patients before and after closure of enterostoma. Subjects (30) aged 19-52 (median=29) years were recruited. At a distance of 100cm, each of nine anatomical regions showed a decrease in mean temperature as BMI increased. Subjects with BMI >25 had lower mean abdominal temperatures. Statistically significant differences were observed for right hypochondrium (p=0.022), left lumbar region (p=0.009), right lumbar region (p=0.010) and the umbilical region (p=0.021). Half of patients (5/10) developed surgical wound infection. Within the operating distances investigated, no significant effect on abdominal temperature readings was observed. With increasing BMI, lower abdominal temperatures were noted. The thermal pattern of abdominal surgical wounds reveals some differences between the healing and infected wound. Healing wounds showed changes in the thermal 'map'; an increase in temperature on the first post-operative day, and 'warming' over the subsequent five days. 'Cold spots' emerged on the thermogram of the surgical wounds which subsequently were

  9. Measurement of M-mode echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult Van cats.

    PubMed

    Kayar, Abdullah; Ozkan, Cumali; Iskefli, Onur; Kaya, Abdullah; Kozat, Suleyman; Akgul, Yakup; Gonul, Remzi; Or, Mehmet Erman

    2014-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies are the most common type of cardiac diseases in cats. Although some normal echocardiographic values for cats have been published, there are variations based on breeds and gender. The objective of this study is to determine normal reference values for M-mode echocardiographic parameters in nonsedated healthy adult Van cats and to compare those values with data reported for nonsedated healthy cats of other breeds. A total of 40 clinically healthy Van cats of both sexes belonging to the Van Cat Research and Application Center of Yuzuncu Yil University were used. Body weight (BW) and 16 M-mode echocardiographic variables were measured in 40 healthy Van cats. The effect of gender and age on each echocardiographic parameter was analyzed and the relationship between BW and each parameter investigated. There was a significant relationship between gender and left atrial dimension during ventricular systole (LAD) and aortic root dimension at end-diastole (AOD) as well as between BW and interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (IVSd) and end-systole (IVSs), left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (LVPWd), LAD, AOD, the left ventricular end diastolic volume (EDV) and the stroke volume (SV). A relationship between age and the SV parameter alone was also established. This present study is the first work on cardiac reference values for Van cats highlighting the differences in some M-mode echocardiographic parameters of healthy adult Van cats and other cat breeds, which should be considered when interpreting echocardiographic findings, in order to draw the correct conclusions regarding cardiac health.

  10. A virtual water maze revisited: Two-year changes in navigation performance and their neural correlates in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2017-02-01

    Age-related declines in spatial navigation are associated with deficits in procedural and episodic memory and deterioration of their neural substrates. For the lack of longitudinal evidence, the pace and magnitude of these declines and their neural mediators remain unclear. Here we examined virtual navigation in healthy adults (N=213, age 18-77 years) tested twice, two years apart, with complementary indices of navigation performance (path length and complexity) measured over six learning trials at each occasion. Slopes of skill acquisition curves and longitudinal change therein were estimated in structural equation modeling, together with change in regional brain volumes and iron content (R2* relaxometry). Although performance on the first trial did not differ between occasions separated by two years, the slope of path length improvement over trials was shallower and end-of-session performance worse at follow-up. Advanced age, higher pulse pressure, smaller cerebellar and caudate volumes, and greater caudate iron content were associated with longer search paths, i.e. poorer navigation performance. In contrast, path complexity diminished faster over trials at follow-up, albeit less so in older adults. Improvement in path complexity after two years was predicted by lower baseline hippocampal iron content and larger parahippocampal volume. Thus, navigation path length behaves as an index of perceptual-motor skill that is vulnerable to age-related decline, whereas path complexity may reflect cognitive mapping in episodic memory that improves with repeated testing, although not enough to overcome age-related deficits.

  11. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; p<0.01). Moreover, the initial increase in SFA vascular conductance from rest to exercise was positively correlated with the change in walking speed for all adults (rho=0.41, p=0.005). In conclusion, these results suggest that calf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of manual therapy on pulmonary function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Bradley A.; Peiffer, Jeremiah J.; Losco, Barrett; Hebert, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Manual therapy is suggested as a potentially therapeutic intervention that may improve pulmonary function. However, this form of therapy is largely based on clinical observations and hypothetical models rather than mechanistic knowledge. This study examined the influence of a single session of manual therapy applied to the thoracic spine and thorax on dynamic pulmonary function over an extended time frame in healthy adults. 21 healthy individuals (14 males) aged 19–35 (mean [SD] age = 23 [3.9], BMI [SD] = 22.97 [2.41]) completed one experimental testing session consisting of five pulmonary function tests and the delivery of a manual therapy intervention. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes following the intervention. Baseline mean (SD) forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were 5.55(1.23 L), 4.64(0.92 L) and 165.7(40.0L min−1) respectively. The mean (SD) FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.84(0.07). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the pulmonary function measures following the manual therapy intervention. Our findings do not support the use of manual therapy to provide a short-term benefit in respiratory function to healthy adults. PMID:27616562

  13. Design and evaluation of a computer game to promote a healthy diet for young adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Café) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Café game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people's self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed.

  14. Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the “bigger is better” hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions. PMID:24568942

  15. The effect of manual therapy on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wall, Bradley A; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Losco, Barrett; Hebert, Jeffrey J

    2016-09-12

    Manual therapy is suggested as a potentially therapeutic intervention that may improve pulmonary function. However, this form of therapy is largely based on clinical observations and hypothetical models rather than mechanistic knowledge. This study examined the influence of a single session of manual therapy applied to the thoracic spine and thorax on dynamic pulmonary function over an extended time frame in healthy adults. 21 healthy individuals (14 males) aged 19-35 (mean [SD] age = 23 [3.9], BMI [SD] = 22.97 [2.41]) completed one experimental testing session consisting of five pulmonary function tests and the delivery of a manual therapy intervention. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes following the intervention. Baseline mean (SD) forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were 5.55(1.23 L), 4.64(0.92 L) and 165.7(40.0L min(-1)) respectively. The mean (SD) FEV1/FVC ratio was 0.84(0.07). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the pulmonary function measures following the manual therapy intervention. Our findings do not support the use of manual therapy to provide a short-term benefit in respiratory function to healthy adults.

  16. Evaluation of Barley's Beta-glucan Food Fortification through Investigation of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Kastanidou, Olympia; Massara, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal permeability is an index of the adequate function of the intestinal barrier and its modification is associated with intestinal diseases. The aim of the study is to investigate the hypothesis that barley's beta-glucan can inhibit the alteration of intestinal permeability and maintain intestinal integrity after a period of consumption of a carbohydrate snack (cake) rich in sugars. Volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled intervention study for 1 month. In this double-blind methodology, they were randomly assigned to (1) the intervention group (daily consumption of one portion of cake fortified with barley's beta-glucan) or (2) the placebo group (daily consumption of the same cake without the enrichment). Intestinal permeability was assessed using the lactulose/mannitol test. Athens, Greece. Twenty-three healthy volunteers (age > 40 years). Intestinal permeability did not differ between the 2 groups, both at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. In addition, the intestinal permeability was not significantly modified at the end of the intervention in each group. The results of the lactulose/mannitol test for the intervention and placebo groups were comparable. For healthy adults, the daily consumption of a simple cake (placebo) and the consumption of the cake fortified with barley's beta-glucan resulted in similar impact for intestinal permeability; thus, beta-glucans did not exert a protective role in intestinal permeability of healthy adults.

  17. Neuromodulation as a cognitive enhancement strategy in healthy older adults: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana R S; Fregni, Felipe; Simis, Marcel; Almeida, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    Increases in life expectancy have been followed by an upsurge of age-associated cognitive decline. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have risen as promising approaches to prevent or delay such cognitive decline. However, consensus has not yet been reached about their efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Here we review the effects of TMS and tDCS on cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Despite considerable variability in the targeted cognitive domains, design features and outcomes, the results generally show an enhancement or uniform benefit across studies. Most studies employed tDCS, suggesting that this technique is particularly well-suited for cognitive enhancement. Further work is required to determine the viability of these techniques as tools for long-term cognitive improvement. Importantly, the combination of TMS/tDCS with other cognitive enhancement strategies may be a promising strategy to alleviate the cognitive decline associated with the healthy aging process.

  18. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  19. Effect of localised vibration on muscle strength in healthy adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, A H; Anwer, S; Zafar, H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-08-06

    To investigate the effects of local vibration on muscle strength in healthy adults. The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using a combination of the following keywords: vibration, vibration therapy, power, maximal voluntary contraction, performance, rate of force development and vibratory exercise. In addition, the Medical Subject Headings 'vibration', 'strength' and 'exercise' were used. The bibliographical search was limited to articles published in English. Trials that evaluated the effect of localised vibration on muscle strength in healthy humans were included. Two independent evaluators verified the quality of the selected studies using the PEDro Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. Muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. In total, 29 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility. Eighteen studies did not match the inclusion criteria, and were excluded. The 11 studies included in this review had an average PEDro score of 5.36/10. Most of the studies reported significant improvements in muscle strength after the application of local vibration. There was considerable variation in the vibration training parameters and target muscle location. The use of local vibration on the target muscle can enhance muscle strength in healthy adults. Further well-designed controlled studies are required to confirm the effect of local vibration training on muscle strength. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prefrontal cortex and executive functions in healthy adults: a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-05-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the "bigger is better" hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions.

  1. Prevalence of physiological heart murmurs in a population of 95 healthy young adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Drut, A; Ribas, T; Floch, F; Franchequin, S; Freyburger, L; Rannou, B; Cadoré, J L; Bublot, I

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of physiological heart murmurs in healthy young adult dogs. Healthy dogs aged between 1 and 5 years were enrolled prospectively. All participating dogs underwent physical examination, urinalysis, blood testing and blood pressure measurement. Cardiac auscultations were performed by three independent examiners. Dogs with heart murmurs underwent echocardiography, to exclude cardiovascular abnormalities. Of 109 dogs evaluated, 95 completed the study. Heart murmurs were detected in 22 dogs. Interobserver agreement for murmur detection was moderate to fair (weighted kappa 0 · 29-0 · 56). On the basis of two different sets of echocardiographic criteria, physiological heart murmurs were diagnosed in 6 and 11 dogs, respectively, giving a prevalence of 6-12%. All physiological heart murmurs were systolic and low-grade (I-III/VI). Most were louder towards the left heart base and some radiated up to the thoracic inlet. The epidemiological features of dogs with physiological heart murmurs did not differ significantly from those of dogs without murmurs (P > 0 · 10). This study shows that physiological heart murmurs may not be limited to growing dogs or specific breeds, as they were commonly encountered in this population of healthy young adult dogs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. A rehabilitative ultrasound imaging investigation of lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy aging adults.

    PubMed

    Stetts, Deborah M; Freund, Jane E; Allison, Stephen C; Carpenter, Gray

    2009-01-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to evaluate lateral abdominal muscle size and function during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), an exercise used to improve lumbar spine stability. Little is known about the size and performance of these muscles in healthy aging adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using RUSI, the size and symmetry of the lateral abdominal muscles bilaterally at rest and during the ADIM in healthy older adults and the reliability of these measurements. Three ultrasound images of the right and left lateral abdominal muscles were taken at rest and during the ADIM in 12 healthy older adults. Thickness of the transversus abdominis muscles (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) were measured for all images. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed using model 3, form 1 (ICC3,1). Two ratios of the abdominal muscles were calculated in the relaxed and contracted states. Paired t-tests were used to compare relaxed muscle thickness to contracted muscle thickness for all 3 muscles for each side. To test further for interactions of side and contractile state, 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVAs were performed. Side-to-side differences in absolute and relative thickness were assessed with paired t-tests for the TrA and IO muscles. Absolute and relative side-to-side muscle symmetry indices were computed for each muscle at rest. There was a significant difference in muscle thickness between the contracted and relaxed states for both the TrA and IO. There was no significant difference between left/right muscle thickness for the TrA or IO at rest or during the ADIM. The TrA nearly doubled in size while thickness of the IO + EO stayed relatively constant during the ADIM. Reliability for absolute muscle thickness was generally excellent: ICCs3,1 ranged from 0.95 to 1.00 for intra-image reliability; 0.77 to 0.97 for inter-image reliability. These findings support symmetrical and preferential activation of

  3. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The reliability of two visual motor integration tests used with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Chinner, Alexandra; Stagnitti, Karen

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT Occupational therapists often assess the visual motor integration (VMI) skills of children, adults, and the elderly, which are parts of the Body Functions and Structures of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Objective. As it is imperative that therapists use tests and measures with strong psychometric properties, this study aims to examine the reliability of two VMI tests used with adults. Method. Sixty-one healthy adults, 18 males and 43 females, with an average age of 31.82 years, completed the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (DTVMI) and the Full Range Test of Visual Motor Integration (FRTVMI). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to examine the tests' internal consistency, while the Spearman's rho correlation was used to evaluate the test-retest reliability, intrarater reliability, and interrater reliability of the two VMI tests. Results. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the DTVMI and FRTVMI was 0.66 and 0.80, respectively. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.77 (p < .001) for the DTVMI and 0.61 (p < .001) for the FRTVMI. The interrater reliability correlation was significant for both DTVMI at 0.79 (p < .001) and FRTVMI at 0.80 (p < .001). The DTVMI intrarater reliability correlation result was 0.95 (p < .001) and the FRTVMI at 0.87 (p < .001). Conclusion. Overall, the DTVMI and the FRTVMI exhibited moderate to high levels of reliability when used with a sample of healthy adults. Both VMI tests appear to exhibit reasonable levels of reliability and are recommended for use with adults and the elderly.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl Substance Serum Concentrations and Immune Response to FluMist Vaccination among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010 – 2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The resuts of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study’s many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. PMID:27208468

  7. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  8. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    PubMed

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  9. Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

  10. SWI phase asymmetries in deep gray matter of healthy adults: is there an association with handedness?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yubo; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Lianxin; Geng, Mingbin; Wang, Lijuan; Bai, Xue; Hu, Jianbin; Man, Xiaoni

    2013-06-01

    To explore the handedness effects on phase asymmetries in deep gray matter of healthy adults by using magnetic susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) phase. Thirty left-handed (16 men, 14 women; age range, 20 to 57 years) and 30 age- and sex-matched right-handed (16 men, 14 women; age range, 20 to 58 years) healthy adults were examined at 3.0 T MRI. For each subject, phase values were detected in bilateral frontal white matters (FWM), caudate nucleus (CA), putamen (PU), globus pallidus (GP), thalamus (TH), red nucleus (RN) and substantia nigra (SN) on phase images. Statistical analysis was performed with paired-samples t-test and independent-samples t-test. In both handedness groups, the corrected phase values in the left hemisphere were significantly lower than those in the right one in FWM, CA, PU, GP (P < 0.05) and there was no significant hemispheric asymmetry in TH, RN and SN (P > 0.05). Differences in corrected phase values in corresponding brain regions of the same hemisphere between left-handed and right-handed groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Hemispheric asymmetry of SWI phase in deep gray matter may not associate with handedness in adult brain.

  11. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p < 0.001). Higher scores on SMCs were associated with higher perceived stress (p = 0.001), and ineffective coping styles (p = 0.001). Factors contributing to meaning-in-life were associated with fewer SMCs (p < 0.05). SMCs may reflect early, subtle cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  14. Tongue movements during water swallowing in healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography (EMMA) was used to study the swallowing-related movements of markers located in midline on the anterior (blade), middle (body), and posterior (dorsum) tongue in a sample of 34 healthy adults in 2 age groups (under vs. over 50 years of age). Participants performed a series of reiterated water swallows, in either a discrete or a sequential manner. This study shows that age-related changes in tongue movements during swallowing are restricted to the domain of movement duration. The authors confirm that different tongue regions can be selectively modulated during swallowing tasks and that both functional and anatomical constraints influence the manner in which tongue movement modulation occurs. Sequential swallowing, in comparison to discrete swallowing, elicits simplification or down-scaling of several kinematic parameters. The data illustrate task-specific stereotyped patterns of tongue movement in swallowing, which are robust to the effects of healthy aging in all aspects other than movement duration.

  15. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during cold stress and isometric exercise in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-09-15

    Cardiovascular mortality increases in cold weather in older adults, and physical activity may impart even greater cardiovascular risk than cold exposure alone. Human aging is associated with exaggerated pressor responses to whole body cooling; however, the sympathetic response to cold stress alone and in combination with isometric exercise is unknown. We hypothesized that cold stress would 1) increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 2) augment the MSNA response to isometric handgrip in older adults. Whole body cooling (water-perfused suit) was conducted in 11 young (23 ± 1 yr) and 12 healthy older adults (60 ± 2 yr). Blood pressure (BP; Finometer) and MSNA (microneurography) were measured throughout cooling and during isometric handgrip at 30% maximal voluntary contraction performed at a mean skin temperature (Tsk) of 34 and 30.5°C. MSNA was greater in older adults at Tsk = 34.0°C and throughout cooling (P < 0.05). MSNA increased during cooling in older, but not young, adults (young: Δ0 ± 1 vs. older: Δ8 ± 1 bursts/min; P < 0.05). The cooling-induced increase in BP was greater in older adults (P < 0.05). During handgrip, the increases in MSNA and BP were not different between conditions in either young (Δ14 ± 2 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ12 ± 3 Tsk 30.5°C bursts/min; Δ20 ± 3 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ19 ± 3 Tsk 30.5°C mmHg; both P > 0.05) or older adults (Δ12 ± 1 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ8 ± 1 Tsk 30.5°C bursts/min; Δ18 ± 3 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ17 ± 2 Tsk 30.5°C mmHg; both P > 0.05). In summary, MSNA increased during cold stress in older, but not young, adults. Furthermore, concomitant cold stress did not alter the sympathetic responses to isometric exercise in either age group, suggesting preserved sympathetic responsiveness during exercise in the cold in healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Pulmonary responses of healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 and 0.08 ppm ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Previous studies have shown small but significant decreases in spirometric lung function in healthy young adults exposed to 0.08 ppm ozone. It is unclear, however, if such effects may are seen at concentrations below 0.08 ppm. Methods. A group of 30 healthy young adul...

  17. Pulmonary responses of healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 and 0.08 ppm ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Previous studies have shown small but significant decreases in spirometric lung function in healthy young adults exposed to 0.08 ppm ozone. It is unclear, however, if such effects may are seen at concentrations below 0.08 ppm. Methods. A group of 30 healthy young adul...

  18. Development of a training programme for home health care workers to promote preventive activities focused on a healthy lifestyle: an intervention mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Walters, Maaike E; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-09

    Lifestyle is an important aspect in maintaining good health in older adults, and home health care (HHC) workers can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. However, there is limited evidence in the literature regarding how to develop an effective training programme to improve the physical activity level and fruit and vegetable consumption of older adults within a HHC setting. The aim of this paper is to describe how Intervention Mapping (IM) was used to develop a training programme to promote preventive activities of HHC workers relating to the physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake of older adults living at home. IM, a systematic theory and evidence-based approach was used to develop, implement and evaluate the training programme. This entailed a literature search, a survey, semi-structured interviews and consultation with HHC workers and various field experts, and a pilot training session. The determinants associated with the provision of preventive activities were identified, and an overview was created of those objectives, matching methods and practical applications that could influence these determinants. The performance objectives for the HHC workers were early detection and monitoring, promoting a healthy lifestyle, informing colleagues, continuing allocated preventive activities and referring to other experts and facilities. Findings were translated into a comprehensive training programme for HHC workers focused on motivating older adults to adopt and maintain a healthier lifestyle. IM was a useful tool in the development of a theory-based training programme to promote preventive activities by HHC workers relating to fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity of older adults.

  19. Effecting healthy lifestyle changes in overweight and obese young adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors. Outcomes included YA blood, nutrition, anthropometric, and fitness measures at pre, post, and 3-month follow-up. Compared with wait-list controls, the YA-only cohort improved immediately postintervention in blood pressure (BP), weight, and balance (p < .05). At 3-month follow-up, no intervention was consistently superior; overall reductions in weight, BP, hip circumference, and exercise barriers were obtained (p < .05). Linear and curvilinear changes from baseline to 3 months after the intervention varied by outcome and participant. Participants with Down syndrome lost less weight.

  20. Stool Microbiome and Metabolome Differences between Colorectal Cancer Patients and Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Tiffany L.; Manter, Daniel K.; Sheflin, Amy M.; Barnett, Brittany A.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Ryan, Elizabeth P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy adults (n = 10) and colorectal cancer patients (n = 11) prior to colon resection surgery at the University of Colorado Health-Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, CO. The V4 region of the 16s rRNA gene was pyrosequenced and both short chain fatty acids and global stool metabolites were extracted and analyzed utilizing Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). There were no significant differences in the overall microbial community structure associated with the disease state, but several bacterial genera, particularly butyrate-producing species, were under-represented in the CRC samples, while a mucin-degrading species, Akkermansia muciniphila, was about 4-fold higher in CRC (p<0.01). Proportionately higher amounts of butyrate were seen in stool of healthy individuals while relative concentrations of acetate were higher in stools of CRC patients. GC-MS profiling revealed higher concentrations of amino acids in stool samples from CRC patients and higher poly and monounsaturated fatty acids and ursodeoxycholic acid, a conjugated bile acid in stool samples from healthy adults (p<0.01). Correlative analysis between the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between stool metabolites and certain bacterial species. These associations could provide insight into microbial functions occurring in a cancer environment and will help direct future mechanistic studies. Using integrated “omics” approaches may prove a useful tool in identifying functional groups of gastrointestinal bacteria and their associated metabolites as novel therapeutic and chemopreventive targets. PMID:23940645

  1. Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Weir, Tiffany L; Manter, Daniel K; Sheflin, Amy M; Barnett, Brittany A; Heuberger, Adam L; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy adults (n = 10) and colorectal cancer patients (n = 11) prior to colon resection surgery at the University of Colorado Health-Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, CO. The V4 region of the 16s rRNA gene was pyrosequenced and both short chain fatty acids and global stool metabolites were extracted and analyzed utilizing Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). There were no significant differences in the overall microbial community structure associated with the disease state, but several bacterial genera, particularly butyrate-producing species, were under-represented in the CRC samples, while a mucin-degrading species, Akkermansia muciniphila, was about 4-fold higher in CRC (p<0.01). Proportionately higher amounts of butyrate were seen in stool of healthy individuals while relative concentrations of acetate were higher in stools of CRC patients. GC-MS profiling revealed higher concentrations of amino acids in stool samples from CRC patients and higher poly and monounsaturated fatty acids and ursodeoxycholic acid, a conjugated bile acid in stool samples from healthy adults (p<0.01). Correlative analysis between the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between stool metabolites and certain bacterial species. These associations could provide insight into microbial functions occurring in a cancer environment and will help direct future mechanistic studies. Using integrated "omics" approaches may prove a useful tool in identifying functional groups of gastrointestinal bacteria and their associated metabolites as novel therapeutic and chemopreventive targets.

  2. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (<33), 'getting there' (33-38), 'excellent' (39-46), or 'outstanding' (47+). There was a total of 93,252 first-time respondents, of which 76% were female. Over 80% of respondents were between 16-44 years of age. The mean total score was 34.1 ± 9.7 points. Females had a higher total score than males (p < 0.001) and vegetarians had higher total scores than non-vegetarians (p < 0.001). Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years (p < 0.001). When comparing Socioeconomic Indices for Areas deciles, those most disadvantaged had a lower total score than those least disadvantaged (p < 0.001). Repeat measures showed that those who scored lowest (needs work) in their first completion increased their total score by 3.2 ± 7.4 at their second completion (p < 0.001). While the Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  3. Normative Values of Voice Analysis Parameters With Respect to Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Adult Turkish Women.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Emel C; Sahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayir, Omer; Saylam, Guleser; Ozdek, Ali; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Objective measurements are quite important for assessment of voice disorders. The first aim of this study was to establish a prototype database of normative values of voice analysis parameters in healthy Turkish adult female population. The second aim was to evaluate the variations of these parameters during physiological menstrual cycle. This is a prospective, single-blind study. Eighty-nine healthy women (mean age, 31.5 ± 6.0 years) with normal physical findings and without vocal abuse or dysphonia were participated. Detailed physical and videostroboscopic larynx examination was done. Participants' voice samples of sustained /a/ and /i/ vowels were recorded, and voice analysis was done. GRBAS scale was done by four otolaryngologists, and subjects were asked to score their own voice quality using Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) at the premenstruation, during menstruation, and postmenstruation periods. Eighty-nine healthy Turkish women's some normative acoustic vocal parameters of three different phases of menstrual cycle were reported. The data indicated that during the premenstruation period; the mean jitter %, shimmer % and noise-to-harmonic ratio values were significantly higher than that of other two periods. Variations of computerized acoustic vocal analysis parameters through menstruation cycle were in concordance with the perceptual voice assessment (GRBAS) and the questionnaire of subjects' perception of their own voices (VHI-10). In this study the normative values of voice analysis parameters of healthy adult Turkish women was reported. Adding computerized voice analysis parameters may improve the assessment and screening of voice in routine clinical practice because this is a simple and reliable method. Evaluation of voice can be performed regardless of the phases of menstrual cycle, but not performing acoustic analysis during the premenstrual period may prevent some of the unintended errors. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  4. Cardiometabolic disease risk in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity: Stability of metabolic health status in adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fangjian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2016-02-01

    To assess the stability of metabolic status and body mass index (BMI) status and their relative contribution to risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, and mortality. A total of 14,685 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and 4,990 from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were included. People with healthy obesity (HO) are defined as those meeting all three indices of blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids. People with unhealthy obesity crossed the risk threshold for all three criteria. In both healthy and unhealthy subgroups, risks for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality were comparable among BMI status during a mean 18.7-year follow-up. When compared with HO, hazard ratios were increased for diabetes (5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-7.48), CHD (5.60, 95% CI 3.14-9.98), stroke (4.84, 95% CI 2.13-10.97), and mortality (2.6, 95% CI 1.88-3.61) in people with unhealthy obesity. BMI only moderately increased the risks for diabetes among healthy subjects. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study over 20 years, 17.5% of lean subjects and 67.3% of overweight subjects at baseline developed obesity during follow-up. Despite rising BMI, metabolic status remained relatively stable. Metabolic status is relatively stable despite rising BMI. HO had lower risks for diabetes, CHD, stroke, and mortality than unhealthy subjects but increased diabetes risks than healthy lean people. Cardiometabolic risk factors confer much higher risk than obesity per se. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  5. Electromyography and Mechanomyography Signals During Swallowing in Healthy Adults and Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Hodgetts, William; Scott, Dylan; Kuffel, Kristina; King, Ben; Brodt, Chris; Rieger, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to dysphagia therapy to demonstrate the activity of submental muscles during swallowing exercises. Mechanomyography (MMG) has been suggested as a potential superior alternative to sEMG; however, this advantage is not confirmed for signal acquired from submental muscles. This study compared the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained from sEMG and MMG sensors during swallowing tasks, in healthy participants and those with a history of head and neck cancer (HNC), a population with altered anatomy and a high incidence of dysphagia. Twenty-two healthy adults and 10 adults with a history of HNC participated in this study. sEMG and MMG signals were acquired during dry, thin liquid, effortful, and Mendelsohn maneuver swallows. SNR was compared between the two sensors using repeated measures ANOVAs and subsequent planned pairwise comparisons. Test-retest measures were collected on 20 % of participants. In healthy participants, MMG SNR was higher than that of sEMG for dry [t(21) = -3.02, p = 0.007] and thin liquid swallows [t(21) = -4.24, p < 0.001]. Although a significant difference for sensor was found in HNC participants F(1,9) = 5.54, p = 0.043, planned pairwise comparisons by task revealed no statistically significant difference between the two sensors. sEMG also showed much better test-retest reliability than MMG. Biofeedback provided as an adjuvant to dysphagia therapy in patients with HNC should employ sEMG technology, as this sensor type yielded better SNR and overall test-retest reliability. Poor MMG test-retest reliability was noted in both healthy and HNC participants and may have been related to differences in sensor application.

  6. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  7. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  8. Long-term effects of histidine depletion on whole-body protein metabolism in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Rafii, Mahroukh; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    The essentiality of histidine in healthy adults is a controversial topic. To study the potential metabolic effects of a lack of exogenous histidine, four healthy adults consumed a histidine-free diet, with adequate energy and 1.0 g/(kg. d) of an L-amino acid mixture for 48 d. Protein metabolism was monitored every 4 d by using indicator amino acid (L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine) oxidation (in four subjects) and [(15)N]glycine (in one subject). Urine samples (24-h) were collected for measurement of urea, total nitrogen, creatinine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), histidine and beta-alanine. Albumin, transferrin and hematologic concentrations were measured on d 0, 24 and 48. Urinary excretion of nitrogen, urea, creatinine and 3-MH were not affected by the histidine-free diet. However, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decline (24-28%) in whole-body protein turnover. Significant (P < 0.05) decreases in albumin (12%), transferrin (17%) and hemoglobin (Hb) (11%) concentrations occurred slowly over the histidine depletion period. The urinary excretion of beta-alanine (an index of carnosine catabolism) generally increased in the smallest subject during the consumption of histidine-free diet. This study demonstrates that a lack of histidine in the diet for a prolonged period resulted in an accommodation of protein turnover and phenylalanine oxidation, measured by the (13)C-phenylalanine indicator amino acid. The extensive metabolic accommodation, together with decreases in Hb, albumin and transferrin during histidine depletion, leaves unresolved the issue of whether histidine is a dietary essential amino acid in healthy adults.

  9. Factors Influencing Bolus Dwell Times in Healthy Older Adults Assessed Endoscopically

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Susan G.; Maslan, Jonathan; Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Since it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as function of aspiration status. Study Design Prospective Methods Seventy-six healthy volunteers from the 7th, 8th, and 9th decades of life participated. Dwell times were analyzed via FEES as a function of pharyngeal location, liquid type, delivery method, purée type, viscosity, age, and gender. Results Longer dwell times were evidenced with the eldest participants, straw delivery, and the smallest volume. Adults in the 9th decade were 4.8 (p = 0.01) and 3.8 (p = 0.02) times more likely to have longer dwell times at the vallecula and 7.1 (p = 0.002) and 3.8 (p = 0.02) at the pyriform sinus than those in the 7th and 8th decades, respectively. Longer dwell times at the vallecula and pyriform sinuses were 2 and 2.38 times (p < 0.0001) more likely for straw than cup delivery, respectively. Five ml boluses were 1.5 times (p < 0.05) more likely to result in longer dwell times than larger volumes. Bolus dwell times did not significantly differ as a function of aspiration status. Conclusions Advanced age, straw delivery, and small volumes yielded longer dwell times. These variables should be considered before diagnosing an abnormal bolus dwell time in elder patients. PMID:22081498

  10. Grip Strength as a Marker of Hypertension and Diabetes in Healthy Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Anton, Stephen D; Jo, Ara

    2015-12-01

    Muscle strength may play a role in cardiometabolic disease. We examined the relationship between hand grip strength and diabetes and hypertension in a sample of healthy weight adults. In 2015, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 for adults aged ≥20 years with healthy BMIs (between 18.5 and <25) and no history of cardiovascular disease (unweighted n=1,467; weighted n=61,587,139). Hand grip strength was assessed with a dynamometer. Diabetes was based on hemoglobin A1c level and reported diabetes diagnosis. Hypertension was based on measured blood pressure and reported hypertension diagnosis. Individuals with undiagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes had lower grip strength (51.9 vs 69.8, p=0.0001), as did individuals with diagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes (61.7 vs 69.8, p=0.008). Mean grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension compared with individuals without hypertension (63.5 vs 71.5, p=0.008) as well as among individuals with diagnosed hypertension compared with those without hypertension (60.8 vs 71.5, p<0.0001). In adjusted analyses controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, and first-degree relative with disease, mean grip strength was lower for undiagnosed diabetes (β=-10.02, p<0.0001) and diagnosed diabetes (β=-8.21, p=0.03) compared with individuals without diabetes. In adjusted analyses, grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension (β=-6.6, p=0.004) and diagnosed hypertension (β=-4.27, p=0.04) compared with individuals without hypertension. Among healthy weight adults, combined grip strength is lower in individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Grip Strength as a Marker of Hypertension and Diabetes in Healthy Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mainous, Arch G.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Anton, Stephen D.; Jo, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Muscle strength may play a role in cardiometabolic disease. We examined the relationship between hand grip strength and diabetes and hypertension in a sample of healthy weight adults. Methods In 2015, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012 for adults aged ≥20 years with healthy BMIs (between 18.5 and <25 kg/m2) and no history of cardiovascular disease (unweighted n=1,469; weighted n=61,672,082). Hand grip strength was assessed with a dynamometer. Diabetes was based on hemoglobin A1c level and reported diabetes diagnosis. Hypertension was based on measured blood pressure and reported hypertension diagnosis. Results Individuals with undiagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes had lower grip strength (51.9 vs 69.8, p=0.0001), as well as among individuals with diagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes (61.7 vs 69.8, p=0.008). Mean grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension compared with individuals without hypertension (63.5 vs 71.5, p=0.008) as well as among individuals with diagnosed hypertension compared with those without hypertension (60.8 vs 71.5, p<0.0001). In adjusted analyses controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, and first-degree relative with disease, mean grip strength was lower for undiagnosed diabetes (β= −10.02, p<0.0001) and diagnosed diabetes (β= −8.21, p=0.03) compared with individuals without diabetes. In adjusted analyses, grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension (β= −6.6, p=0.004) and diagnosed hypertension (β= −4.27, p=0.04) compared with individuals without hypertension. Conclusions Among healthy weight adults, combined grip strength is lower in individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26232901

  12. Inter-segmental motions of the foot in healthy adults: Gender difference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Kyoung Min; Choi, In Ho

    2016-11-01

    Multi-segment Foot Models (MFM) have increased in use for both clinical and research applications; however, little is known about the gender differences of inter-segmental motions within the foot and ankle during gait. The objectives of this study were to analyze the gender differences of inter-segmental foot motion during gait in healthy young adults using a MFM with a 15-marker set. One hundred healthy adults (50 males, 50 females) between 20 and 35 years of age who had normal function and no radiographic abnormality, were evaluated. Inter-segmental angles (ISA) (hindfoot, forefoot, and hallux) were calculated at each time point. The ISAs at specific phases of the gait cycle, the change in ISAs between the phases, and the range of motion for each ISA across the entire gait cycle were compared between genders. The kinematic curve of the inter-segmental foot motions showed a characteristic pattern during the whole gait cycle. Although the hallux of female was aligned in a more valgus angulation during gait, the overall patterns of the inter-segmental foot motions were quite similar for both genders. Most differences in the inter-segmental foot motions between men and women were observed in the range of motion. Considering the stance phase of gait-cycle, the range of motion in the sagittal and transverse plane of the hindfoot was greater in females than in males. The sagittal range of motion of the hallux was also greater in females, mainly due to higher plantar flexion. The gender differences of the inter-segmental foot motion were investigated during gait in healthy young adults using a MFM with a 15-marker set. Females had a larger range of motion in the sagittal plane of the hallux and in the sagittal and transverse plane of the hindfoot. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of acute moderate hyperglycemia on traditional and thromboelastometry coagulation parameters in healthy adult horses.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Kate F; Lascola, Kara M; Smith, Stephanie A; Clark-Price, Stuart C; McMichael, Maureen; Wilkins, Pamela A

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether experimentally induced acute moderate hyperglycemia is associated with coagulation activation in healthy adult horses. Prospective experimental study. University veterinary teaching hospital. Six healthy adult horses. Hyperglycemia (10.0-13.3 mmol/L [180-240 mg/dL]) was induced and maintained for 6 hours using a hyperglycemic clamp technique. Blood glucose concentrations were assessed using a point of care (POC) glucometer at 10- and 20-minute intervals throughout the hyperglycemic clamp procedure. Platelet count, fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin antithrombin complex level (TAT), and thromboelastometry (TEM) were determined before and after jugular catheter placement, prior to glucose administration, and at 3 and 6 hours of sustained hyperglycemia. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with significance defined as P < 0.05. All horses maintained blood glucose concentration >10.0 mmol/L (>180 mg/dL) throughout the duration of the hyperglycemic clamp with a mean concentration of 11.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L [216 ± 6 mg/dL] as measured by the POC glucometer. No significant difference was found for any evaluated parameter associated with sustained hyperglycemia. Intravenous catheter placement resulted in a significant increase in mean TAT (0.8 ± 0.3 μg/L pre-catheter, 2.3 ± 0.8 μg/L post-catheter; P = 0.008). Acute, moderate hyperglycemia in healthy adult horses does not have a detectable effect on coagulation based on evaluated parameters. Jugular catheter placement results in a transient increase in thrombin generation as determined by increased TAT concentrations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  14. The Recline Exercise: Comparisons with the Head Lift Exercise in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avinash; Rajappa, Akila; Tipton, Elizabeth; Malandraki, Georgia A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the comparative effectiveness of the new Recline Exercise (RE) and the traditional Head Lift Exercise (Shaker Exercise) on submental muscle activity, tongue strength, and perceived exertion in 40 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.5 years, SD 2.6 years). Both groups participated in a 6-week exercise regimen. Outcome variables evaluated pre- and post-exercise included: duration and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity during swallowing measured via surface electromyography (sEMG); anterior and posterior isometric lingual pressures measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument; and perceived exertion levels measured with the Borg category-ratio scale of perceived exertion. Results indicated no significant pre-post differences within or between groups in swallow duration and peak amplitude. In addition, the RE group demonstrated significant post-treatment increases in anterior and posterior tongue strength [p = 0.009; p < 0.001]; however, these increases were of small magnitude (d = 0.132; d = 0.319). Both groups showed marked improvements in perceived exertion levels [p < 0.001]. Our findings indicate that healthy young adults who perform the RE or the HLE do not have significant swallow duration or amplitude gains, most likely due to the reduced need for such gains in the healthy head/neck musculature for submaximal tasks. Furthermore, the significant lingual strength gains seen with the RE indicate that additional musculature is being engaged during its completion. These results are encouraging; however, future research in older adults and patients with dysphagia with examination of swallowing biomechanics is needed to determine its full potential as a rehabilitative regimen.

  15. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  16. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults With Parkinson's Disease, Adults With Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014). Method Speakers read Harvard sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Sentence stimuli were equated for peak intensity and mixed with multitalker babble. A total of 50 listeners orthographically transcribed sentences. Procedures were identical to those for a VAS reported in Tjaden, Sussman, and Wilding (2014). Results The percent correct scores from transcription were significantly higher in magnitude than the VAS scores. Multivariate linear modeling indicated that the pattern of findings for transcription and VAS was virtually the same with respect to differences among groups and speaking conditions. Correlation analyses further indicated a moderately strong, positive relationship between the two metrics. The majority of these correlations were significant. Last, intrajudge and interjudge listener reliability metrics for the two intelligibility tasks were comparable. Conclusion Results suggest that there may be instances when the less time-consuming VAS task may be a viable substitute for an orthographic transcription task when documenting intelligibility in mild dysarthria. PMID:26556727

  17. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  18. Acute Effect of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism on Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (61±1 y; mean ± SE, 53–79 y) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4mg) following eplerenone (100 mg/dose, 2 doses, 24 hours between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.9±0.5 to 5.6±0.6 %, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOSSer1177 to total eNOS (1.53±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.9±1.9 vs. 21.0±1.5 %, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/77±4/2 vs. 134/77± 4/2 mmHg, P ≥0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure. PMID:26639352

  19. Establishment of reference values of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets in healthy Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Oladepo, D K; Idigbe, E O; Audu, R A; Inyang, U S; Imade, G E; Philip, A O; Okafor, G O; Olaleye, D; Mohammed, S B; Odunukwe, N N; Harry, T O; Edyong-Ekpa, M; Idoko, J; Musa, A Z; Adedeji, A; Nasidi, A; Ya'aba, Y; Ibrahim, K

    2009-09-01

    A total of 2,570 apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults from the six geopolitical zones in the country were enrolled in our study in 2006. The samples were assayed using the Cyflow technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The majority (64%) of the participants had CD4 counts within the range of 501 to 1,000 cells/microl. The reference range for CD4 was 365 to 1,571 cells/microl, while the reference range for CD8 was 145 to 884 cells/microl.

  20. Association of Biotin Ingestion With Performance of Hormone and Nonhormone Assays in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Danni; Radulescu, Angela; Shrestha, Rupendra T; Root, Matthew; Karger, Amy B; Killeen, Anthony A; Hodges, James S; Fan, Shu-Ling; Ferguson, Angela; Garg, Uttam; Sokoll, Lori J; Burmeister, Lynn A

    2017-09-26

    Biotinylated antibodies and analogues, with their strong binding to streptavidin, are used in many clinical laboratory tests. Excess biotin in blood due to supplemental biotin ingestion may affect biotin-streptavidin binding, leading to potential clinical misinterpretation. However, the degree of interference remains undefined in healthy adults. To assess performance of specific biotinylated immunoassays after 7 days of ingesting 10 mg/d of biotin, a dose common in over-the-counter supplements for healthy adults. Nonrandomized crossover trial involving 6 healthy adults who were treated at an academic medical center research laboratory. Administration of 10 mg/d of biotin supplementation for 7 days. Analyte concentrations were compared with baseline (day 0) measures on the seventh day of biotin treatment and 7 days after treatment had stopped (day 14). The 11 analytes included 9 hormones (ie, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and 2 nonhormones (prostate-specific antigen and ferritin). A total of 37 immunoassays for the 11 analytes were evaluated on 4 diagnostic systems, including 23 assays that incorporated biotin and streptavidin components and 14 assays that did not include biotin and streptavidin components and served as negative controls. Among the 2 women and 4 men (mean age, 38 years [range, 31-45 years]) who took 10 mg/d of biotin for 7 days, biotin ingestion-associated interference was found in 9 of the 23 (39%) biotinylated assays compared with none of the 14 nonbiotinylated assays (P = .007). Results from 5 of 8 biotinylated (63%) competitive immunoassays tested falsely high and results from 4 out of 15 (27%) biotinylated sandwich immunoassays tested falsely low. In this preliminary study of 6 healthy adult participants and 11 hormone and nonhormone analytes measured by 37 immunoassays

  1. Acute effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on vascular function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (61±1 years; mean±SE, 53-79 years) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4 mg) following eplerenone (100 mg/dose, 2 doses, 24h between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.9±0.5 to 5.6±0.6%, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS(Ser1177) to total eNOS (1.53±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.9±1.9 vs. 21.0±1.5%, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/77±4/2 vs. 134/77±4/2 mmHg, P≥0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure.

  2. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  3. [Reference intervals for peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Cóndor, José M; Álvarez, Marco; Cano, Luis; Matos, Edgar; Leiva, Christian; Paredes, José A

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (PBL) in healthy adults in Lima (Peru), a cross-sectional study was conducted among blood donors taken in between 2011 and 2012. Based on the criteria obtained from the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI C28-A3), 318 samples were processed, 61.9% (197/318) coming from male donors. For PBL count, a flow cytometer with a simple platform was used. The RIs are established for each PBL in adults based on sex with their respective reference limits and 90% confidence intervals. Differences were found in CD3+ percentage counts (p=0.001) and in CD3-CD56+ absolute (p=0.003) and percentage counts (p?0.001). The RIs found are different to those described in studies conducted in other countries due to the characteristics of the population and the study model.

  4. Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-12

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  5. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  6. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for

  7. Association of elevated cytokines with childhood adversity in a sample of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Karen J.; Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M.; Twal, Waleed O.; Shaftman, Stephanie; DeSantis, Stacia M.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood trauma has been associated adult stress-related disorders. However, little is known about physiologic alterations in adults with a history of early life trauma that do not have current psychiatric or medical diagnoses. In this study, the relationships between childhood adversity and cytokine and C - reactive protein (CRP) levels in healthy adults were examined. Method Participants included men (n=18) and women (n=20) who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for Axis I psychiatric disorders or any major medical illness. Cytokine and CRP levels were obtained from baseline blood samples. Subjects completed the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report (ETI-SR). The primary outcomes included serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL1-β), and CRP levels. In addition, the mean numbers of traumatic experiences (sexual, physical, emotional, general, and the summed total) were measured. Results Significant positive associations were found between the total ETI score and IL-6 (p = 0.05), IL1-β (p < 0.05), and TNF-α (p = 0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between the number of general traumas and IL1-β (p < 0.05), TNF-α (p < 0.05), and IL-6 (p < 0.01). Neither the total number of traumas nor any of the trauma subscales were significantly associated with CRP levels. Conclusions The positive association between childhood trauma and basal cytokine levels supports the extant literature demonstrating the long-term impact of childhood trauma and stress on homeostatic systems. Importantly, this association was found in healthy adults, suggesting that these alterations may precede the development of significant stress-related psychiatric disorder or disease. PMID:23415658

  8. "We Don't Believe Media Anymore": Mapping Critical Literacies in an Adult Immigrant Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This article maps critical literacies conceptually and empirically in the context of adult immigrant language classrooms. It begins by describing Deleuze and Guattari's cartographic approach. Then it traces critical literacies situated conceptually within a Freirean paradigm before mapping them differently through the Deleuzian-informed Multiple…

  9. "We Don't Believe Media Anymore": Mapping Critical Literacies in an Adult Immigrant Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This article maps critical literacies conceptually and empirically in the context of adult immigrant language classrooms. It begins by describing Deleuze and Guattari's cartographic approach. Then it traces critical literacies situated conceptually within a Freirean paradigm before mapping them differently through the Deleuzian-informed Multiple…

  10. Validity of Submaximal Step Tests to Estimate Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter; Parfitt, Gaynor; Davison, Kade; Eston, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is a strong predictor of health and fitness and is considered a key physiological measure in the healthy adult population. Submaximal step tests provide a safe, simple and ecologically valid means of assessing VO2max in both the general population and a rehabilitation setting. However, no studies have attempted to synthesize the existing knowledge regarding the validity of the multiple step-test protocols available to estimate VO2max in the healthy adult population. The objective of this study was to systematically review literature on the validity and reliability of submaximal step-test protocols to estimate VO2max in healthy adults (age 18-65 years). A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed. The search returned 690 studies that underwent the initial screening process. To be included, the study had to (1) have participants deemed to be healthy and aged between 18 and 65 years; (2) assess VO2max by means of a submaximal step test against a graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion; and (3) be available in English. Reference lists from included articles were screened for additional articles. The primary outcome measures used were the validity statistics between the actual measured VO2max and predicted VO2max values, and the reported direction of the statistically significant difference between the measured VO2max and the predicted VO2max. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to assess the risk of bias in each included study, and was adapted to the type of quantitative study design used. The combined database search produced 690 studies, from which 644 were excluded during the screening process. Following full-text assessment, a further 39 studies were excluded based on the eligibility criteria detailed previously. Four additional studies were located via the reference lists of the included studies, leaving 11 studies that

  11. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jessica K; Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Ivry, Richard B; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-05-01

    Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning and the other assaying nonmotor/declarative learning, to examine off-line changes in performance in young (20-34 years), middle-aged (35-50 years), and older (51-70 years) adults without disordered sleep. During an initial session, conducted either in the morning or evening, participants learned a motor sequence and a list of word pairs. Memory tests were given twice, 12 and 24 hours after training, allowing us to analyze off-line consolidation after a break that included sleep or normal wake. Sleep-dependent performance changes were reduced in older adults on the motor sequence learning task. In contrast, sleep-dependent performance changes were similar for all 3 age groups on the word pair learning task. Age-related changes in sleep or networks activated during encoding or during sleep may contribute to age-related declines in motor sequence consolidation. Interestingly, these changes do not affect declarative memory.

  12. Executive Function Subcomponents and their Relations to Everyday Functioning in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Everyday functioning and its executive functioning cognitive correlates (i.e., switching, inhibition, and updating) were investigated in healthy older adults (HOAs) using multiple methods of functional status. In addition to whether computerized experimental tasks would better dissociate these subcomponents than neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, we were also interested in the contributions of both experimental and neuropsychological measures of executive function subcomponents to functional abilities. Seventy HOAs (45 young-old and 25 old-old) and 70 younger adults completed executive function and neuropsychological tests. In addition to self- and informant questionnaires of functional abilities, HOAs completed two performance-based measures. An aging effect was found on all executive function measures. Old-old older adults and their informants did not report more functional difficulties but demonstrated more difficulties on performance-based measures relative to young-old participants. For the HOAs, after controlling for age and education, the neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, but not experimental measures, explained a significant amount of variance in the informant-report and both performance-based measures. Updating measures differentially predicted performance-based measures, while switching was important for questionnaire and performance-based measures. The contribution of executive functioning to functional status when measured with experimental measures specifically designed to isolate the executive subcomponent was not as strong as hypothesized. Further research examining the value of isolating executive function subcomponents in neuropsychological assessment and the prediction of functional abilities in older adults is warranted. PMID:27206842

  13. Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sonal; Jais, Manoj; Dutta, Renu; Dutta, A K

    2009-07-01

    Widespread childhood immunization with DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) has largely eradicated diphtheria and tetanus from many countries. The reduction in the circulation of toxigenic strains has resulted in less natural boosting of adult immunity. As a result, the adult population in countries with high childhood immunization coverage have become susceptible to the disease. The duration of immunity after primary immunization to diphtheria and tetanus is limited and a reduction in immunity is common in adults. With this perspective, the present study was carried out on a random serum sample of 255 healthy individuals aged 20-50 years. The serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin G levels against diphtheria and tetanus by enzyme immuno assays. Fifty-three per cent of adults were unprotected; 22 % were seen to have only a basic protection against diphtheria; 25% were protected against both diseases; and 47% were susceptible to tetanus. The susceptibility was seen to increase with age. To avoid epidemics in the future, immunity must be improved. It is important to treat even the most trivial wound with care and tetanus toxoid immunization. Also, it is necessary to monitor the community for immunity to diphtheria using standard techniques in order to undertake epidemiological surveillances of, and prevention from, these dreadful diseases.

  14. Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics. Results The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults. PMID:24744828

  15. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  16. Relationships between IQ and regional cortical gray matter thickness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Narr, Katherine L; Woods, Roger P; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip; Robinson, Delbert; Dimtcheva, Teodora; Gurbani, Mala; Toga, Arthur W; Bilder, Robert M

    2007-09-01

    Prior studies show positive correlations between full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and cerebral gray matter measures. Few imaging studies have addressed whether general intelligence is related to regional variations in brain tissue and the associated influences of sex. Cortical thickness may more closely reflect cytoarchitectural characteristics than gray matter density or volume estimates. To identify possible localized relationships, we examined FSIQ associations with cortical thickness at high spatial resolution across the cortex in healthy young adult (age 17-44 years) men (n = 30) and women (n = 35). Positive relationships were found between FSIQ and intracranial gray and white matter but not cerebrospinal fluid volumes. Significant associations with cortical thickness were evident bilaterally in prefrontal (Brodmann's areas [BAs] 10/11, 47) and posterior temporal cortices (BA 36/37) and proximal regions. Sex influenced regional relationships; women showed correlations in prefrontal and temporal association cortices, whereas men exhibited correlations primarily in temporal-occipital association cortices. In healthy adults, greater intelligence is associated with larger intracranial gray matter and to a lesser extent with white matter. Variations in prefrontal and posterior temporal cortical thickness are particularly linked with intellectual ability. Sex moderates regional relationships that may index dimorphisms in cognitive abilities, overall processing strategies, or differences in structural organization.

  17. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ⩾50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2μg/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8μg/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

  18. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  19. Exercise using mung bean bag improves balance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, A; Chamonchant, D; Boonyong, S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise using a mung bean bag (MB) for balance ability. Thirty-nine healthy female young adults (aged 18-25 years with normal body mass index) were randomly assigned into three groups (n for each group = 13): control group, firm surface (FS) exercise group, and MB exercise group. The FS and MB groups were trained with static and dynamic balance exercises (20 minutes × 3 times/week × 6 weeks). Participants' balance abilities were measured using a Balance Master 4 times: at pre-training (baseline) and at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks post-training. Three tests were assessed: unilateral stance test, modified clinical test for sensory integrations on balance (mCTSIB), and limits of stability (LOS) test. The MB group significantly improved unilateral stance balance in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, whereas the FS group improved only in the eyes-closed condition. No significant difference was found across groups in the mCTSIB parameters. Only the FS group significantly improved LOS parameters. These results suggest the MB exercise could be used to improve unilateral stance balance, but not the LOS or mCTSIB, in healthy young adults.

  20. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  1. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Gertrud L; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2012-02-01

    Arousals occur from all sleep stages and can be identified as abrupt electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) changes. Manual scoring of arousals is time consuming with low interscore agreement. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting arousals from non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, independent of the subject's age and disease. The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG, and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 24 subjects. Eight of the subjects were diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD) and the rest (16) were healthy adults in various ages. The performance of the algorithm was validated in 3 settings: testing on the 8 patients with PD using the leave-one-out method, testing on the 16 healthy adults using the leave-one-out method, and finally testing on all 24 subjects using a 4-fold crossvalidation. For these 3 validations, the sensitivities were 89.8%, 90.3%, and 89.4%, and the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 88.8%, 89.4%, and 86.1%. These results are high compared with those of previously presented arousal detection algorithms and especially compared with the high interscore variability of manual scorings.

  2. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Turner, Arlener D.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Methods: Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Results: Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = −0.304, slope = −0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = −1.793, slope = −0.241) activity. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. PMID:25762710

  3. ESTABLISHING MEAN CD4+ T CELL VALUES AMONG HEALTHY JAVANESE ADULTS IN INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Zaini, Khilyat Ulin Nur

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish mean CD4+ T cell values among healthy Javanese adults in Indonesia. Two hundred forty-one healthy adults (119 women and 122 men), aged 18-65 years, were enrolled in the study. CD4+ T cells were analyzed by immunophenotyping. The mean absolute CD4+ T cell count was 753.3 ± 270.3 cells/µl (median = 725.0 cells/µl) and the mean CD4+ T cell percentage was 32.6 ± 7.7%, (median = 31.0%). Women had a slightly higher mean absolute CD4+ T cell count and CD4+ T cell percentage (779.1 ± 271.0 cells/ µl; 33.4 ± 8.2%) than men (728.2 ± 268.3 cells/µl; 31.8 ± 7.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.126, p = 0.216, respectively). The mean absolute CD4+ T cell varied significantly by age group (p = 0.002). Sixty-one point seven percent of men studied (37/60) had a CD4+ T cell count less than 500 cells/µl (OR 1.8; 95% CI = 1.001-3.300). Absolute CD4+ T cell counts among Javanese Indonesians varied significantly by age.

  4. Combination of erythritol and fructose increases gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Sonhee C; Wolf, Bryan W; Hertzler, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of a large amount of dietary fructose induces gastrointestinal intolerance, and glucose has been known as an enhancer of fructose absorption. Erythritol is a nonglycemic sugar alcohol, and it has been suggested that erythritol is absorbed paracellularly. It was hypothesized that paracellular absorption of erythritol could also enhance paracellular absorption of fructose in healthy adults. This is one of the proposed pathways for how additional glucose enhances the absorption of fructose. Thirty-seven nondiabetic, healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-masked, controlled crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed beverages containing either 50 g fructose and 50 g glucose, 50 g fructose and 33.3 g erythritol (an equimolar concentration of fructose), or 50 g fructose alone. Breath hydrogen response was determined for 8 hours postprandially. Gastrointestinal intolerance symptoms and the number and consistency of bowel movements were recorded for 24 hours postprandially. The breath hydrogen area under the curve (AUC) of the fructose and erythritol beverage was 2 times the AUC of the fructose beverage and 8.75 times the AUC of the fructose and glucose beverage (P < .001, respectively). Compared with fructose and glucose beverage and fructose alone, frequency of watery stools increased (P < .05) and gastrointestinal tolerance worsened (P < .05) when participants consumed fructose and erythritol. These data suggest that coingestion of equimolar concentrations of fructose and erythritol increased carbohydrate malabsorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-associated changes in hand grip and quadriceps muscle strength ratios in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Dinesh; Wilson, Keely; Martin, Helen J; Allen, Robert; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Stokes, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Muscle strength may decline with age differentially in the upper and lower limbs. This information is difficult to capture through a single measure. The present study therefore aimed to characterize the relative changes in handgrip and lower limb muscle strength with aging by expressing them as a ratio. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 20-82 years performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of quadriceps and handgrip using a custom-built transducer and a Jamar dynamometer respectively. The grip-quadriceps ratios for young adults was similar in males and females (0.75); indicating knee extensor force exceeded grip force by approximately 25%. Ratios were increased in older adults (p=0.05), and strength of the two muscle groups was approximately equal (1.1). Pearson's correlation coefficients for grip against quadriceps strength were r=0.63 (young males), r=0.83 (young females), r=0.35 (older males) and r=0.05 (older females). The ratio used demonstrated clear differences between the age groups. The reduced muscle strength with increasing age was expected, but the higher grip/quadriceps strength ratios quantify a greater loss of quadriceps than grip strength with aging. It remains to be investigated whether the relatively greater rate of decline in quadriceps strength seen in healthy older people is more exaggerated in those who are frail, which would have implications for using grip strength as a physical marker of lower limb strength and function in those at risk of immobility and falls.

  6. APOE and KIBRA Interactions on Brain Functional Connectivity in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningnannan; Liu, Huaigui; Qin, Wen; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variations of APOE and KIBRA have been associated with human memory and Alzheimer's disease. APOE and KIBRA can jointly modulate glutamate receptor to influence long-term potentiation; however, their interactions on brain functional connectivity remain unknown. Here, we investigated additive and epistatic interactions between APOE and KIBRA (rs17070145) on brain functional connectivity density (FCD) in 267 healthy young adults. A voxel-based FCD analysis was performed to identify brain regions with significant APOE-KIBRA interaction. Additive effects showed decreased FCD in the left parahippocampal gyrus and the right middle temporal gyrus and increased FCD in the bilateral middle occipital gyri, with the increase of the number of the risk-alleles of APOE and KIBRA. Epistatic effects showed APOE × KIBRA interaction in the FCD of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The FCD of the DLPFC showed APOE risk-allele-dependent reduction (ε2 > ε3 > ε4) in KIBRA TT homozygotes, but APOE risk-allele-dependent increase (ε2 < ε3 < ε4) in KIBRA C-carriers. FCD differences were only significant between the 2 extreme subgroups in both additive and epistatic analyses. These findings suggest that APOE and KIBRA have region-dependent additive and epistatic interactions on brain connectivity in healthy young adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  8. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Travers, Brittany G.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students’ self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity–impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  9. Oral consumption of α-linolenic acid increases serum BDNF levels in healthy adult humans.

    PubMed

    Hadjighassem, Mahmoudreza; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Shekarriz, Nima; Baseerat, Argavan; Molavi, Nima; Mehrpour, Masoud; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Tondar, Mahdi; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Meng, Goh Yong

    2015-02-26

    Dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have remarkable impacts on the levels of DHA in the brain and retina. Low levels of DHA in plasma and blood hamper visual and neural development in children and cause dementia and cognitive decline in adults. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) changes with dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake. BDNF is known for its effects on promoting neurogenesis and neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of the oral consumption of α-Linolenic acid (ALA) on blood levels of BDNF and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in healthy adult humans. 30 healthy volunteers, 15 men and 15 women, were selected randomly. Each individual served as his or her own control. Before consuming the Flaxseed oil capsules, 5cc blood from each individual was sampled in order to measure the plasma levels of BDNF and MDA as baseline controls. During the experiment, each individual was given 3 oral capsules of flaxseed oil, containing 500mg of alpha linolenic acid, daily for one week. Then, plasma levels of BDNF and MDA were tested. The plasma levels of BDNF and MDA significantly (P < 0.05) increased in individuals who received the oral capsules of ALA. Plasma levels of BDNF increased more in the women in comparison with the men. ALA treatment could be a feasible approach to reduce size of infarcts in stroke patients. Thus, ALA could be used in adjunction with routine stroke therapies to minimize brain lesions caused by stroke.

  10. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Debra A; Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E; Turner, Arlener D; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-03-31

    To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = -0.304, slope = -0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = -1.793, slope = -0.241) activity. Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. The effect of acute increase in urge to void on cognitive function in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M S; Snyder, P J; Pietrzak, R H; Darby, D; Feldman, R A; Maruff, P

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, voluntary inhibition of micturition is associated with an increasing sensation in the urge to void and pain, and acute pain has been associated with transient deterioration in aspects of cognitive function. Eight healthy young adults consumed 250 ml of water every 15 min until they could no longer inhibit voiding. Performance on standardized measures of cognitive function was measured at hourly intervals which were classified as baseline, when individuals reported an increase in the urge to void, a strong increase in the urge to void, an extreme increase in the urge to void and postmicturition. Sensations of the urge to void and pain increased with time of inhibition of urge to void and with amount of water consumed. Having an extreme urge to void exerted a large negative effect on attentional and working memory functions (d>0.8). These cognitive functions returned to normal levels after micturition. The magnitude of decline in cognitive function associated with an extreme urge to void was as large and equivalent or greater than the cognitive deterioration observed for conditions known to be associated with increased accident risk. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Majer, Matthias; Nater, Urs M; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Capuron, Lucile; Reeves, William C

    2010-07-14

    Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income). Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01. Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

  13. Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol in apparently healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between autonomic nervous system activity as indexed by measures of heart rate variability and overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol levels in a large sample of working adults. The study population comprised 611 apparently healthy employees of an airplane manufacturing plant in Southern Germany. Heart rate variability was calculated as beat-to-beat intervals over the course of one 24-hour weekday measured with an ambulatory ECG recorder. Overnight urine collection and blood samples were also obtained. We found an inverse association between indices of vagally-mediated heart rate variability and plasma levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the ratio of LDL to high density lipoprotein (HDL) that remained significant in multivariate models after controlling for relevant covariates including norepinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine was not significantly related to any measure of cholesterol in multivariate models. We report here for the first time, in a large sample of healthy human adults, evidence supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant inverse relationship between measures of plasma cholesterol and vagally-mediated heart rate variability after controlling for sympathetic nervous system activity. This suggests an important role for the vagal control of plasma cholesterol levels in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Voice loudness and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Meike; Storck, Claudio; Carding, Paul N; Drinnan, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate voice loudness and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in healthy young adults because previous descriptions have been inconsistent. Fifty-seven healthy adults (28 women, 29 men) aged 20-40 years were included in this cross-sectional single-cohort study. Three phonations of /a/ at soft, medium, and loud individual loudness were recorded and analyzed using PRAAT software (P. Boersma & D. Weeninkk, 2006). Voice loudness and gender effects on measured sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, jitter, and shimmer were assessed through the use of descriptive and inferential (analysis of variance) statistics. Jitter and shimmer significantly increased with decreasing voice loudness, especially in phonations below 75 dB and 80 dB. In soft and medium phonation, men were generally louder and showed significantly less shimmer. However, men had higher jitter measures when phonating softly. Gender differences in jitter and shimmer at medium loudness may be mainly linked to different habitual voice loudness levels. This pragmatic study shows significant voice loudness and gender effects on perturbation. In clinical assessment, requesting phonations above 80 dB at comparable loudness between genders would enhance measurement reliability. However, voice loudness and gender effects in other age groups, in disordered voices, or when a minimal loudness is requested should be further investigated.

  16. Biomechanical correlates of surface electromyography signals obtained during swallowing by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby Mann, Giselle D; Groher, Michael E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three biomechanical swallowing events were analyzed: hyoid elevation, pharyngeal constriction, and opening-closing of the pharyngoesophageal segment. For each biomechanical event and from the sEMG signal, the authors identified onset, peak, and offset time points. From these points, duration measures were calculated. Means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each measure. Subsequently, correlations were evaluated between timing aspects of the sEMG traces and each biomechanical event. Swallow onset in the sEMG signal preceded the onset of all biomechanical events. All biomechanical events demonstrated a strong correspondence to the sEMG signal. The strongest relationship was between hyoid elevation-anterior displacement and the sEMG signal. These results suggest that the sEMG signal is a useful indicator of major biomechanical events in the swallow. Future studies should address the impact of age and disease processes, as well as bolus characteristics, on the biomechanical correlates of sEMG signals obtained during swallowing.

  17. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Yu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm3) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans. PMID:28168046

  18. Effect of neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation on energy expenditure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE) model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender) associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females) participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1), motor threshold (E2), and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3). Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject's demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  19. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yuan; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhu, Haohao; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm(3)) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41-50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  20. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, M A; Pleil, J D; Sobus, J R; Angrish, M M; Morgan, M K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creatinine is a human metabolite that is continually produced in skeletal muscles and presumably excreted in the urine at a stable rate. However, creatinine also serves as a biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (efficiency) of the kidneys, so undiagnosed kidney function impairment could affect this commonly applied dilution calculation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has recently conducted a study that collected approximately 2600 urine samples from 50 healthy adults, aged 19-50 years old, in North Carolina in 2009-2011. Urinary ancillary data (creatinine concentration, total void volume, elapsed time between voids), and participant demographic data (race, gender, height, and body weight) were collected. A representative subset of 280 urine samples from 29 participants was assayed using a new kidney injury panel (KIP). In this article, we investigated the relationships of KIP biomarkers within and between subjects and also calculated their interactions with measured creatinine levels. The aims of this work were to document the analytical methods (procedures, sensitivity, stability, etc.), provide summary statistics for the KIP biomarkers in "healthy" adults without diagnosed disease (distribution, fold range, central tendency, variance), and to develop an understanding as to how urinary creatinine level varies with respect to the individual KIP proteins. Results show that new instrumentation and data reduction methods have sufficient sensitivity to measure KIP levels in nominally healthy urine samples, that linear regression between creatinine concentration and urinary excretion explains only about 68% of variability, that KIP markers are poorly correlated with

  1. Normal macular thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons: the Handan Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xin Rong; Liang, Yuan Bo; Friedman, David S; Sun, Lan Ping; Wong, Tien Yin; Tao, Qiu Shan; Bao, Lingzhi; Wang, Ning Li; Wang, Jie Jin

    2010-08-01

    To describe macular thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons. Population-based cross-sectional study. Chinese adults aged 30+ years who were residents of Handan, North China. The Handan Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in Chinese persons. Eligible residents underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including OCT (Stratus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany). Fast macular thickness scans were performed over maculae within 6 mm in diameter, divided into 3 regions (central, inner, and outer, with a diameter of 1, 3, and 6 mm, respectively) and 9 quadrants (1 in the central region and 4 each in the inner and outer regions). Retinal thickness (means and standard deviations) was calculated by OCT mapping software, presented for foveal minimum, central macula (within 1 mm diameter), and inner and outer regions divided by 8 quadrants. Macular thickness measured by OCT. Of the 6830 participants (90.4% response rate) examined, 2230 eyes of healthy subjects with high-quality OCT scans were selected (32.7% of participants; mean age, 46.4+/-9.9 years, 58.4% were women). The mean foveal minimum, central, inner, and outer macular thicknesses were 150.3 (18.1) microm, 176.4 (17.5) microm, 255.3 (14.9) microm, and 237.7 (12.4) microm, respectively (overall differences, P<0.001). The mean foveal volume was 0.139 (0.014) mm(3), and the mean total macular volume was 6.761 (0.516) mm(3). In the inner region, the nasal quadrant was thinner than the superior and inferior quadrants, and in the outer region, the nasal quadrant was the thickest (P<0.001). Age was positively correlated with foveal (beta coefficient = 3.582) and central macular (beta coefficient = 2.422) thicknesses. The foveal minimum, central, inner, and outer macular thicknesses were significantly greater in men than in women. Fasting plasma glucose was negatively correlated with central macular thickness (2.416 mm reduction per

  2. White matter microstructure in the executive network associated with aggression in healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bato, Angelica A.; Blair, Melanie A.; DeRosse, Pamela; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today’s society; however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15–30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. PMID:25691778

  3. Relationships between maximal oxygen uptake and endothelial function in healthy male adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Canino, Baldassare; Batsis, John A; Buscemi, Chiara; Calandrino, Vincenzo; Mattina, Alessandro; Arnone, Mariangela; Caimi, Gregorio; Cerasola, Giovanni; Verga, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic capacity, as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) has an important role in contrasting the traditional cardiovascular risk factors and preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is known that endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, is strictly linked to atherogenesis and cardiovascular risk. However, the relationship between VO2 max and FMD has not been fully investigated especially in healthy non-obese subjects. This preliminary study cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between VO2 max and FMD in 22 non-obese, healthy sedentary male subjects. Dividing the cohort in two subgroups of 11 subjects each according to the median value of VO2 max, the FMD was significantly lower in the subgroup with lower VO2 max (mean ± sem: 7.1 ± 0.7 vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 %; P = 0.035). Absolute VO2 max (mL min(-1)) was significantly and independently correlated with body fat mass (r = -0.50; P = 0.018) and with FMD (r = 0.44; P = 0.039). This preliminary study suggests that maximal oxygen uptake is independently correlated with endothelial function in healthy non-obese adults. These results are also in agreement with the possibility that improving maximal oxygen uptake may have a favorable effect on endothelial function and vice versa.

  4. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Panackal, Anil A; Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A; Rosen, Lindsey B; Browne, Sarah K; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C; Bennett, John E; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R

    2017-02-01

    Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. Published by Oxford University Press for the Clinical Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Physical activity in adults with controlled and uncontrolled asthma as compared to healthy adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common among asthmatics, physical activity (PA) seems important in asthma management. Still, various studies point at avoidance of sports and certain daily life activities like walking stairs, even by patients with mild symptoms. We aimed to compare physical activity levels between healthy subjects and asthmatics with controlled and uncontrolled disease. Methods Data on asthma and PA were drawn from the Portuguese National Asthma Survey. The short telephone version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA levels. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma and at least one of these criteria: one or more asthma symptoms in the last twelve months, currently taking asthma medication or an asthma medical appointment in the previous twelve months. Controlled asthma was defined as a CARAT global score > 24 or a CARAT second factor score ≤ 16. Healthy subjects were defined as individuals without atopy, heart disease or any respiratory symptom. X2 and Mann–Whitney/Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to compare groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess relations between asthma status and PA dimensions. Results A total of 606 non-asthmatics, 125 controlled and 78 uncontrolled asthmatic subjects were included. In both genders, overall PA level did not differ significantly between groups. Controlled (men) and uncontrolled (women) asthmatics did more vigorous PA than healthy respondents. Male controlled asthmatics also did more moderate PA. Crude logistic regression showed positive relations between daily sitting time, vigorous and moderate PA and controlled asthma in men and between vigorous PA and uncontrolled asthma in women. After adjustments for confounders, moderate PA remained a predictor of controlled asthma in men, while vigorous PA doubled the risk of uncontrolled asthma in women. Conclusion Our study showed that adult asthmatics, independent

  6. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved cognition while cycling in Parkinson's disease patients and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hazamy, Audrey A; Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Bowers, Dawn; Lee, Hyo Keun; Wilson, Jonathan; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2017-04-01

    Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task. Participants with and without PD completed a battery of 12 cognitive tasks assessing visual and verbal processing in the following cognitive domains: speed of processing, controlled processing, working memory and executive function. Persons with PD exhibited impairments compared to healthy participants in select tasks (i.e., 0-back, 2-back and operation span). Further, both groups unexpectedly exhibited dual task facilitation of response times in visual tasks across cognitive domains, and improved verbal recall during an executive function task. Only one measure, 2-back, showed a speed-accuracy trade-off in the dual task. These results demonstrate that, when paired with a motor task in which they are not impaired, people with PD exhibit similar DTEs on cognitive tasks as HOAs, even when these task effects are facilitative. More generally, these findings demonstrate that pairing cognitive tasks with cycling may actually improve cognitive performance which may have therapeutic relevance to cognitive decline associated with aging and PD pathology.

  8. Altered Response to Neuroendocrine Challenge Linked to Indices of the Metabolic Syndrome in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, A. R.; Walters, O. C.; Price, L. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Carpenter, L. L.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is frequently abnormal in MetS, and excessive cortisol exposure may be implicated in metabolic derangements. We investigated the hypothesis that cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to a standardized neuroendocrine challenge test would be associated with indices of MetS in a community sample of healthy adults. Healthy adults, 125 men and 170 women, without significant medical problems or chronic medications were recruited from the community. Participants completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, and anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and cholesterol were measured. Participants reported on their history of early life stress and recent stress, as well as mood and anxiety symptoms. Cortisol and ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test were negatively associated with measures of central adiposity (p < 0.001) and blood pressure (p < 0.01), and positively associated with HDL cholesterol (p < 0.01). These findings remained significant after controlling for body mass index (BMI). Measures of stress and anxiety and depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cortisol and ACTH responses in the Dex/CRH test but were not related to MetS indices. That altered HPA axis function is linked to MetS components even in a healthy community sample suggests that these processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Identification of premorbid risk processes might allow for detection and intervention prior to the development of disease. PMID:22549400

  9. Relationships of electrocardiographic parameters with ambulatory hypertension in young and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Metin, Fatih; Bossard, Matthias; Schoen, Tobias; von Rotz, Mirco; Mettler, Heidi; Abächerli, Roger; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a leading cardiovascular risk factor and a major determinant of left ventricular mass. Te aim of this study was to assess electrocardiographic (ECG) changes associated with hypertension in a large cohort of young and healthy adults. Healthy individuals aged 25–41 years without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a population based cohort study. Resting 12-lead ECG and ambulatory 24-hour BP measurement were obtained using validated devices. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationships between ECG parameters and daytime hypertension, defined as systolic daytime BP≥140, diastolic BP≥90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive treatment. Daytime hypertension was present among 430 of 2070 (21%) participants. Significant linear relationships were observed between daytime hypertension with RR interval (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 (0.78; 0.92)), R-wave amplitude in leads I and II (OR (95% CI) 2.04 (1.30; 3.19) and 1.61 (1.15; 2.24), and S-wave amplitudes in leads aVR, V1 and V2 with ORs (95% CI) of 3.28 (1.93; 5.59), 2.15 (1.51; 3.08) and 1.47 (1.18; 1.83), respectively. We also observed linear associations between daytime hypertension and T-wave amplitudes in leads V1 (OR (95% CI) 4.83 (2.35; 9.91)), V2 (2.18 (1.43; 3.32)), V4 (0.48 (0.29; 0.80)) and V5 (0.37 (0.19; 0.72)). Several ECG parameters are independently associated with daytime hypertension among young and healthy adults. This is one of the first studies to show significant relationships between T wave amplitude and hypertension.

  10. Severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) in healthy adults: A new mnemonic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Daniela J; Alain, Claude; Söderlund, Hedvig; Khuu, Wayne; Levine, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Recollection of previously experienced events is a key element of human memory that entails recovery of spatial, perceptual, and mental state details. While deficits in this capacity in association with brain disease have serious functional consequences, little is known about individual differences in autobiographical memory (AM) in healthy individuals. Recently, healthy adults with highly superior autobiographical capacities have been identified (e.g., LePort, A.K., Mattfeld, A.T., Dickinson-Anson, H., Fallon, J.H., Stark, C.E., Kruggel, F., McGaugh, J.L., 2012. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 98(1), 78-92. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.05.002). Here we report data from three healthy, high functioning adults with the reverse pattern: lifelong severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) with otherwise preserved cognitive function. Their self-reported selective inability to vividly recollect personally experienced events from a first-person perspective was corroborated by absence of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers associated with naturalistic and laboratory episodic recollection, as well as by behavioral evidence of impaired episodic retrieval, particularly for visual information. Yet learning and memory were otherwise intact, as long as these tasks could be accomplished by non-episodic processes. Thus these individuals function normally in day-to-day life, even though their past is experienced in the absence of recollection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Eustachian Tube Opening Measurement by Sonotubometry Using Perfect Sequences for Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beleskiene, Vilma; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Januskiene, Vaida; Daunoraviciene, Kristina; Rauba, Darius; Ivaska, Justinas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to establish the rate variation of sonotubometric measurements using a specific broadband class of signals, the so-called perfect sequences (PSEQ) among healthy adults and to identify an optimal and technically simple test to provoke Eustachian tube (ET) openings. Methods Sonotubometry was performed on 105 healthy adult subjects. Three different consecutive maneuvers were performed for ET opening: dry swallowing, water swallowing (a small [2 mL] and a large [5 mL] water bolus). Values of the amplitude and duration of each measured ET opening were calculated. Results A total of 6,300 measurements were performed. Sonotubometric ET openings were detected for all subjects but not for each measurement. In 6,180 of 6,300 measurements (98.1%), objective ET openings were registered. In 11 of 105 subjects (10.5%) at least one sonotubometric ET opening was not detected. The mean ET opening duration time and the mean sound amplitude similar for all performed test and were 270 (SD, ±96) msec, 13.48 (SD, ±6.57) dB. Conclusion Sonotubometry based on PSEQ stimuli is a reliable methodology to assess the ET opening function in healthy subjects. Mean ET opening duration time and the mean sound wave amplitude performed similarly in all analysed tests, hence it might be concluded that dry (saliva) and water swallowing are reliable sonotubometric maneuvers and may be used when examining ET opening function. The size of a sip during water swallowing does not affect the sonotubometry result. All maneuvers can be equally used as the optimal test, and water swallow is most comfortable for the subject. PMID:27090279

  12. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.

  13. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in younger vs. older healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Gullixson, Leah R; Allen, Alexander R; Kost, Susan L; Nicholson, Wayne T

    2014-10-01

    A major feature of endothelial dysfunction is reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which in ageing may be due to decreased production of endothelial prostacyclin, or nitric oxide (NO), or both. We tested this hypothesis in 12 younger (age 18-38 years, six women) and 12 older healthy adults (age 55-73 years, six post-menopausal women). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by the forearm vascular conductance (FVC) response to intra-arterial acetylcholine (ACh) (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 μg dl(-1) forearm tissue min(-1) ) before and 90 min after inhibition of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) with oral celecoxib (400 mg), followed by the addition of endothelial NO synthase inhibition with intra-arterial N(G) -monomethyl-l arginine acetate (L-NMMA). Ageing was associated with a significantly reduced FVC response to ACh (P = 0.009, age-by-dose interaction; highest dose FVC ± SEM in ageing: 11.2 ± 1.4 vs. younger: 17.7 ± 2.4 units, P = 0.02). Celecoxib did not reduce resting FVC or the responses to ACh in any group. L-NMMA significantly reduced resting FVC and the responses to ACh in all groups, and absolute FVC values following L-NMMA were similar between groups. In healthy normotensive younger and older adults, there is minimal contribution of prostacyclin to ACh-mediated vasodilation, yet the NO component of vasodilation is reduced with ageing. In the clinical context, these findings suggest that acute administration of medications that inhibit prostacyclin (i.e. COX-2 inhibitors) evoke modest vascular consequences in healthy persons. Additional studies are necessary to test whether chronic use of COX-2 medications reduces endothelium dependent vasodilation in older persons with or without cardiovascular risk factors. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Map learning and the alignment effect in young and older adults: how do they gain from having a map available while performing pointing tasks?

    PubMed

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Muffato, Veronica; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate age-related differences between young and older adults in the impact of a map being available or not while performing aligned and counter-aligned pointing tasks. In the first study, 19 young adults (aged 20-30) and 19 young-old adults (aged 65-74) studied a map and performed a pointing task. In the second, three groups of adults, 19 of them young (aged 20-30), 19 young-old (aged 65-74), and 19 old-old (aged 75-84), studied a map and performed a pointing task, first with the map available, and then without it. The results of both studies showed that young and older adults' performance was similar in aligned pointing, while the young performed better than the older adults in counter-aligned pointing. Analyzing the types of error, results showed that older adults made more counter-aligned pointing errors than young adults, both with and without the map. Having the map available improved all participants' performance, however. Finally, visuo-spatial working memory was found to sustain pointing performance in all age groups and map conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that older adults are specifically susceptible to the alignment effect-making more counter-aligned errors-regardless of whether or not they have a map available while performing pointing tasks.

  15. Seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis and diphtheria among healthy adults in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Han, Fulian; Nie, Qing; Ren, Hongyu; Zhang, Baoqiang; Liu, Qiyong; He, Qiushui; Shao, Zhujun

    2011-12-01

    Despite extensive childhood immunization, pertussis remains one of the world's leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths. Incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has increased in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. In China, booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis are not used in adults, and little is known about pertussis incidence in the age group. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and diphtheria among adults in China. Blood samples were obtained from 210 healthy adults aged 18-50 years in Weifang city, China during the period of May and June 2010. Serum IgG antibodies against PT (anti-PT IgG) and diphtheria were determined by the commercial ELISA kits, respectively. According to the kit, concentration of anti-PT IgG higher than 30 IU/mL was considered positive. An antibody concentration of ≥ 0.1 IU/mL was defined as evidence of seroprotection against diphtheria. The mean concentration of anti-PT IgG antibodies was 9.95 IU/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.45-11.44). Eleven (5.24%) of the studied subjects were proved to be seropositive to pertussis. Of the 210 subjects, 161 (76.6%) had anti-diphtheria antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL and 49 (23.3%) had the antibody concentration between 0.01 and 0.099 IU/mL. Our study indicated that about 5% of adults aged 18-50 years had positive anti-PT IgG antibodies, suggesting that adult pertussis is not uncommon in China. Although a high proportion of studied subjects had a protective level of immunity against diphtheria, the antibody level decreased with the increasing age of adults. Booster vaccinations against pertussis should be considered in adults in China. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired peripheral vasodilation during graded systemic hypoxia in healthy older adults: role of the sympathoadrenal system.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Larson, Dennis G; Luckasen, Gary J; Dinenno, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    Systemic hypoxia is a physiological and pathophysiological stress that activates the sympathoadrenal system and, in young adults, leads to peripheral vasodilation. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral vasodilation to graded systemic hypoxia is impaired in older healthy adults and that this age-associated impairment is due to attenuated β-adrenergic mediated vasodilation and elevated α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. Forearm blood flow was measured (Doppler ultrasound), and vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated in 12 young (24 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (63 ± 2 yr) adults to determine the local dilatory responses to graded hypoxia (90, 85, and 80% O2 saturations) in control conditions, following local intra-arterial blockade of β-receptors (propranolol), and combined blockade of α- and β-receptors (phentolamine + propranolol). Under control conditions, older adults exhibited impaired vasodilation to hypoxia compared with young participants at all levels of hypoxia (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text] = 4 ± 6 vs. 35 ± 8%; P < 0.01). During β-blockade, older adults actively constricted at 85 and 80% [Formula: see text] (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text] = -13 ± 6%; P < 0.05 vs. control), whereas the response in the young was not significantly impacted (peak ΔFVC = 28 ± 8%). Combined α- and β-blockade increased the dilatory response to hypoxia in young adults; however, older adults failed to significantly vasodilate (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text]= 12 ± 11% vs. 58 ± 11%; P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that peripheral vasodilation to graded systemic hypoxia is significantly impaired in older adults, which cannot be fully explained by altered sympathoadrenal control of vascular tone. Thus, the impairment in hypoxic vasodilation is likely due to attenuated local vasodilatory and/or augmented vasoconstrictor signaling with age.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that the lack of peripheral vasodilation

  17. Aging-Related Geniohyoid Muscle Atrophy Is Related to Aspiration Status in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Method. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. Results. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. Conclusion. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112114

  18. Aging-related geniohyoid muscle atrophy is related to aspiration status in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Todd, Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine R; Ding, Jingzhong; Carr, Jeffery J; Ge, Yaorong; Browne, James D; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Butler, Susan G

    2013-07-01

    Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation.

  19. Repeatability of the modified Oxford foot model during gait in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia J; Arnold, Brent L; Coffey, Timothy G; Pidcoe, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford foot model (OFM) is a multi-segment model for calculating hindfoot and forefoot motion. Limited information is available regarding the repeatability and error of this model in adults. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the intra-tester reliability of OFM hindfoot and forefoot gait kinematics in adults at initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO). Seventeen healthy adults (age=25.1±4.8 years, height=1.75±0.10m, weight=74.0±12.4kg) were tested on a single visit, during which 1 examiner recorded 2 sessions. For each session, 10 walking trials were recorded using a 12-camera motion analysis system (Vicon, Oxford, UK). Markers were removed and re-applied between sessions. Dynamic hindfoot and forefoot angles were calculated both with and without referencing to neutral stance (assuming neutral stance angles are zero in all planes). Using the 10 trial average, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,k)) and standard errors of the measurement were calculated for each reference condition, anatomical plane, and joint (hindfoot, forefoot). Referencing to neutral stance resulted in good reliability (ICC≥0.83) and small error (≤2.45°) for hindfoot and forefoot angle in all planes. Without referencing to neutral stance, sagittal and transverse plane reliability were also good (ICC≥0.90) and error small (≤3.14°); however, frontal plane reliability was poor (ICC≤0.77), with large error (≥4.86°). Our results show that overall the OFM is reliable during adult gait. Reliability for adults is higher than previously reported in children. Referencing joint angles to neutral stance decreased error by up to 2° from previous reports. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Breakfast consumption frequency is associated with grip strength in a population of healthy Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Niu, K; Momma, H; Kobayashi, Y; Guan, L; Chujo, M; Otomo, A; Cui, Y; Nagatomi, R

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have reported that regular consumption of breakfast is associated with health benefits. However, only a few studies have examined the association between frequency of breakfast consumption and muscular function. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association between frequency of breakfast consumption and muscle strength among apparently healthy Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study design was used. Between 2008 and 2011 in Sendai, Japan, 1415 Japanese adult employees (1069 men and 346 women) aged between 19 and 83 years participated in the study. Grip strength, as measured by a handheld digital dynamometer, was used as an indicator of muscle strength. Frequency of breakfast consumption during the previous month was assessed using a brief self-administered dietary history questionnaire, and the results were divided into three categories for analysis: low (≤2 days week⁻¹), middle (3-5 days week⁻¹) and high (≥6 days week⁻¹). Multivariate analysis was performed using analysis of covariance, with covariates mainly including socio-demographic, lifestyle-related and health-related factors. After adjusting for several potential confounders, grip strength was shown to be positively associated with breakfast consumption frequency (geometric means, 95% confidence interval (CI): low frequency, 36.2 (35.7-36.8) kg; middle frequency, 36.7 (36.0-37.5) kg; high frequency, 37.0 (36.6-37.5) kg; P for trend = 0.03). Grip strength per kilogramme body weight (kg kg⁻¹) was also positively associated with frequency of breakfast consumption (P for trend = 0.01). This cross-sectional study reveals a positive association between breakfast consumption frequency and muscle strength in apparently healthy adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anson, Eric R; Bigelow, Robin T; Carey, John P; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either "compensatory" or "compensatory back-up," i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as "covert" (occurring during head movement) and "overt" (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults.

  2. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  3. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.

  4. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. As part of the Potsdam Gait Study, participants started with 10 wk of power training followed by 10 wk of detraining (n = 16), and participants started with a 10-wk control period followed by 10 wk of power training (n = 16). We measured gait kinematics (stride characteristic and joint kinematics) and isokinetic power of the ankle plantarflexor (20°·s, 40°·s, and 60°·s) and knee extensor and flexor (60°·s, 120°·s, and 180°·s) muscles at weeks 0, 10, and 20. Power training improved isokinetic muscle power by ~30% (P ≤ 0.001) and fast (5.9%, P < 0.05) but not habitual gait velocity. Ankle plantarflexor velocity measured during gait at fast pace decreased by 7.9% (P < 0.05). The changes isokinetic muscle power and joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity. The mechanisms that increased fast gait velocity involved higher cadence (r = 0.86, P ≤ 0.001) rather than longer strides (r = 0.49, P = 0.066). Detraining did not reverse the training-induced increases in muscle power and fast gait velocity. Because increases in muscle power and modifications in joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity, kinematic mechanisms seem to play a minor role in improving healthy old adults' fast gait velocity after power training.

  5. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  6. Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing.

  7. Comparison of gut microbiota in adult patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mansour; Razavi, Shabnam; Navab-Moghadam, Fatemeh; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Alaei-Shahmiri, Fariba; Mehrtash, Amirhosein; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that inflammatory reactions leading to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may also contribute to variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, suggesting a relation between T2DM and bacterial residents in the intestinal tract. This case-control study was designed to evaluate the composition of the gut microbiota dominant bacterial groups in patients with T2DM compared to the healthy people. A total of 36 adult subjects (18 patients diagnosed with T2DM and 18 healthy persons) were included in the study. The intestinal microbiota composition was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The quantities of two groups of bacteria were meaningfully different among T2DM patients and healthy individuals. While, the level of Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the patients with T2DM (P value < 0.001), Bifidobacterium was significantly more frequent in the healthy people (P value < 0.001). The quantities of Prevotella (P value = 0.0.08) and Fusobacterium (P value = 0.99) genera in faecal samples were not significantly different between the two groups. The significant alterations in dominant faecal bacterial genera found in T2DM patients participating in the current study highlight the link between T2DM disease and compositional variation in intestinal flora. These findings may be valuable for developing approaches to control T2DM by modifying the gut microbiota. More investigations with focus on various taxonomic levels (family, genus and species) of bacteria are necessary to clarify the exact relevance of changes in the gut microbial communities with the progression of T2DM disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Tracking Healthy Days -- a window on the health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, David G; Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M; Zahran, Hatice S

    2005-07-01

    In collaboration with its partners in the public health and aging services communities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Care and Aging Studies Branch has developed and validated a brief set of health-related quality of life (CDC HRQOL) measures for tracking the perceived physical and mental health of adults over time. For the past 12 years, these measures -- also called the Healthy Days measures -- have been used in an expanding set of population health surveys, surveillance systems, performance report cards, and evaluation studies, and they have provided useful disease and disability burden data to inform decision making and provide new insights for prevention research. Although now used continuously to assess health-related quality of life for Americans aged 12 years and older, the measures and population data have been especially valuable in applications affecting older adults, for which health-related quality of life is an outcome of primary importance. The CDC HRQOL measures are recommended to public health and social service professionals as a feasible way to assess perceived physical and mental health needs of older adults and to document the effects of policies and interventions.

  9. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  10. Reference values of handgrip dynamometry of healthy adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Schlüssel, Michael Maia; dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kac, Gilberto

    2008-08-01

    Although maximal voluntary handgrip strength (HGS) is considered a reliable tool in nutritional assessment there are few reference data available. This paper presents reference values for handgrip strength of healthy adults (age > or = 20 years) from a household survey. Data were obtained from a representative sample of adults (1122 males and 1928 females) living in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. HGS was measured three times with a Jamar mechanical dynamometer in both hands and the highest value used in the analysis. The percentile distribution of HGS was calculated according to sex and age categories. Mean values of right and left HGS were 42.8 and 40.9 kg for males, and 25.3 and 24.0 kg for females, respectively. HGS increased with age and significantly decreased after 40 and 50 year-olds for women and men, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with HGS in both sexes but only underweight male subjects had significantly lower HGS values. The highest HGS values are observed at the 4th decade of life with significant declines thereafter. HGS is significantly associated with BMI. The reference values of HGS may be useful in assessing the nutritional status of similar adult urban population.

  11. Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Linda L; Carvalho, John P; Tyrka, Audrey R; Wier, Lauren M; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Anderson, George M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Price, Lawrence H

    2007-11-15

    Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test were examined in healthy adults (n = 50) without current psychopathology. Subjects with a self-reported history of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment (MAL) (n = 23) as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared with subjects without such a history (CTL) (n = 27). Compared with CTLs, MAL subjects exhibited significantly lower cortisol and ACTH baseline-to-peak deltas. A significant group effect was seen in the (repeated measures) cortisol response to the stress challenge, reflecting lower concentrations among MAL subjects. A significant group x time effect characterized the relatively blunted ACTH response of the MAL group. Emotional neglect (-.34, p = .02) and sexual abuse (.31, p = .03) strongly predicted maximal cortisol release. In adults without diagnosable psychopathology, childhood maltreatment is associated with diminished HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Possible explanations for the finding are discussed.

  12. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Berryman, Nicolas; Fraser, Sarah A; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Li, Karen ZH; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults. Methods Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT) training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention. Results All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training. All groups showed improved speed of processing and inhibition abilities, but only participants who took part in the DT training, independently of physical training, showed increased task-switching abilities. The level of functional mobility after intervention was significantly associated with task-switching abilities. Conclusion Combined training did not yield synergetic effects. However, DT training did lead to transfer effects on executive performance in neuropsychological tests. Both aerobic-resistance training and stretching-toning exercises can improve functional mobility in older adults. PMID:27698558

  13. Ready, set, point: the effects of alertness on prism adaptation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kintzel, Franziska; Ishigami, Yoko; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-05-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a promising rehabilitation technique for visuo-spatial neglect, an attention disorder that is characterized by spatial attention deficits (i.e., deficits in orienting). PA involves visuo-motor adaptation to rightward shifting prism goggles. Following goggle removal, this adaptation results in leftward shifts in visuo-motor aiming and amelioration of spatial neglect. Even though some studies clearly support the beneficial effects of PA for spatial neglect, not all studies find benefits, thus it remains unclear how PA effects could be improved. Taking advantage of the known interactions between orienting and alerting reported in the attention literature (i.e., alerting enhances orienting function; e.g., Ishigami and Klein in J Individ Differ 30:220-237. doi: 10.1027/1614-0001.30.4.220 , 2009, in J Neurosci Methods 190:117-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.04.019 , 2010; Robertson et al. in Nature 395:169-72. doi: 10.1038/25993 , 1998), we examined the effects of alerting tones on PA with healthy young and older adults. We found that the effects of alerting on PA with young adults were negative, while there was a positive effect with older adults, specifically on a visuo-motor outcome task. Thus, enhancement of PA effects by alerting may be age specific and task specific. Therefore, we can conclude that while the impact of alerting tones is not always positive, further research in patients with neglect may be warranted.

  14. Preliminary investigation on prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia: Should we tune our focus on healthy adults?

    PubMed

    Lee, Cathy Nga Yan; Lam, Simon Ching; Tsang, Alan Yat Kwan; Ng, Bernadette Ting Yan; Leung, Joyce Chung Yin; Chong, Andy Chun Yin

    2015-07-01

    Osteoporosis and osteopenia are global health problems with increasing trend, particularly in developed regions. Apart from traditional well-recognized high-risk groups (i.e. postmenopausal women and elders), prevalence of such problems among adults should not be ignored because of the advantages of early detection and health promotion. Therefore, this preliminary study aims to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among adult office workers, which represented a relatively large proportion of the population in urbanized cities. An GE-Lunar Achilles ultrasonometer was used to screen the bone mineral density (BMD) of 80 participants. The BMD T-score ranged from -3 to 3.5. The majority of the participants had normal BMD result (T-score, ≥ -1), whereas 35% was classified as abnormal (T-score, < -1) including 31.3% osteopenia and 3.8% osteoporosis. High prevalence rate of abnormal BMD among healthy adults should be further studied in this population. The findings also suggest that the current ignorance in adulthood may increase the prevalence of osteoporotic fractures in the future. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  15. Local food environment interventions to improve healthy food choice in adults: a systematic review and realist synthesis protocol.

    PubMed

    Penney, Tarra L; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Maguire, Eva R; Kuhn, Isla; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-03

    Local food environments have been linked with dietary intake and obesity in adults. However, overall evidence remains mixed with calls for increased theoretical and conceptual clarity related to how availability of neighbourhood food outlets, and within-outlet food options, influence food purchasing and consumption. The purpose of this work is to develop a programme theory of food availability, supported by empirical evidence from a range of local food environment interventions. A systematic search of the literature will be followed by duplicate screening and quality assessment (using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool). Realist synthesis will then be conducted according to the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) publication standards, including transparent appraisal, synthesis and drawing conclusions via consensus. The final synthesis will propose an evidence-based programme theory of food availability, including evidence mapping to demonstrate contextual factors, pathways of influence and potential mechanisms. With the paucity of empirically supported programme theories used in current local food environment interventions to improve food availability, this synthesis may be used to understand how and why interventions work, and thus inform the development of theory-driven, evidence-based interventions to improve healthy food choice and future empirical work. PROSPERO CRD42014009808. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman

    2016-07-01

    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Modular organization of muscle activity patterns in the leading and trailing limbs during obstacle clearance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline. Full body three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded and electromyography (EMG) was collected from 14 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. EMG data were analyzed using two techniques: by mapping the EMG data to the approximate location of the motor neuron pools on the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord and by applying a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to unilateral and bilateral muscle activations separately. Results showed that obstacle clearance may be achieved not only with the addition of a new activation pattern in the leading limb, but with a temporal shift of a pattern present during unobstructed walking in both the leading and trailing limbs. An investigation of the inter-limb coordination of these patterns suggested a strong bilateral linkage between lower limbs. These results highlight the modular organization of muscle activation in the leading and trailing limbs, as well as provide a mechanism of control when implementing a locomotor adjustment when stepping over an obstacle.

  18. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies to Alpha-Synuclein in LRRK2 Mutation Carriers, Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Patients, and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castelao, Beatriz; Gorostidi, Ana; Ruíz-Martínez, Javier; López de Munain, Adolfo; Castaño, José G

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (Snca) plays a major role in Parkinson disease (PD). Circulating anti-Snca antibodies has been described in PD patients and healthy controls, but they have been poorly characterized. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of anti-Snca reactivity in human subjects carrying the LRRK2 mutation, idiopathic PD (iPD) patients, and healthy controls and to map the epitopes of the anti-Snca antibodies. Antibodies to Snca were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting using purified recombinant Snca in plasma from individuals carrying LRRK2 mutations (104), iPD patients (59), and healthy controls (83). Epitopes of antibodies were mapped using recombinant protein constructs comprising different regions of Snca. Clear positive anti-Snca reactivity showed no correlation with age, sex, years of evolution, or the disability scores for PD patients and anti-Snca reactivity was not prevalent in human patients with other neurological or autoimmune diseases. Thirteen of the positive individuals were carriers of LRRK2 mutations either non-manifesting (8 out 49 screened) or manifesting (5 positive out 55), three positive (out of 59) were iPD patients, and five positive (out of 83) were healthy controls. Epitope mapping showed that antibodies against the N-terminal (a.a. 1-60) or C-terminal (a.a. 109-140) regions of Snca predominate in LRRK2 mutation carriers and iPD patients, being N122 a critical amino acid for recognition by the anti-C-terminal directed antibodies. Anti-Snca circulating antibodies seem to cluster within families carrying the LRRK2 mutation indicating possible genetic or common environmental factors in the generation of anti-Snca antibodies. These results suggest that case-controls' studies are insufficient and further studies in family cohorts of patients and healthy controls should be undertaken, to progress in the understanding of the possible relationship of anti-Snca antibodies and PD pathology.

  19. Can Native T1 Mapping Differentiate between Healthy and Diffuse Diseased Myocardium in Clinical Routine Cardiac MR Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Juliane; Seifert, Ingmar; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P.; Maderwald, Stefan; Quick, Harald H.; Schlosser, Thomas; Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives T1 mapping allows quantitative myocardial assessment, but its value in clinical routine remains unclear. We investigated, whether the average native myocardial T1 value can be used as a diagnostic classifier between healthy and diffuse diseased myocardium. Methods Native T1 mapping was performed in 54 persons with healthy hearts and in 150 patients with diffuse myocardial pathologies (coronary artery disease (CAD): n = 76, acute myocarditis: n = 19, convalescent myocarditis: n = 26, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): n = 12, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): n = 17) at 1.5 Tesla in a mid-ventricular short axis slice using a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. The average native myocardial T1 value was measured using dedicated software for each patient. The mean as well as the range of the observed average T1 values were calculated for each group, and compared using t-test. The ability of T1 mapping to differentiate between healthy and diffuse diseased myocardium was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC). Results The mean T1 value of the group “healthy hearts” (955±34ms) differed significantly from that of the groups DCM (992±37ms, p<0.001), HCM (980±44ms, p = 0.035), and acute myocarditis (974±36ms, p = 0.044). No significant difference was observed between the groups “healthy hearts” and CAD (951±37ms, p = 0.453) or convalescent myocarditis (965±40ms, p = 0.240). The average native T1 value varied considerably within all groups (range: healthy hearts, 838-1018ms; DCM, 882-1034ms; HCM, 897-1043ms; acute myocarditis, 925-1025ms; CAD, 867-1082ms; convalescent myocarditis, 890-1071ms) and overlapped broadly between all groups. ROC analysis showed, that the average native T1 value does not allow for differentiating between healthy and diffuse diseased myocardium, except for the subgroup of DCM. Conclusions The average native T1 value in cardiac MR imaging does not allow differentiating between healthy

  20. Influence of passive leg movements on blood circulation on the tilt table in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Czell, David; Schreier, Reinhard; Rupp, Rüdiger; Eberhard, Stephen; Colombo, Gery; Dietz, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Background One problem in the mobilization of patients with neurological diseases, such as spinal cord injury, is the circulatory collapse that occurs while changing from supine to vertical position because of the missing venous pump due to paralyzed leg muscles. Therefore, a tilt table with integrated stepping device (tilt stepper) was developed, which allows passive stepping movements for performing locomotion training in an early state of rehabilitation. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if passive stepping and cycling movements of the legs during tilt table training could stabilize blood circulation and prevent neurally-mediated syncope in healthy young adults. Methods In the first experiment, healthy subjects were tested on a traditional tilt table. Subjects who had a syncope or near-syncope in this condition underwent a second trial on the tilt stepper. In the second experiment, a group of healthy subjects was investigated on a traditional tilt table, the second group on the tilt ergometer, a device that allows cycling movements during tilt table training. We used the chi-square test to compare the occurrence of near-syncope/syncope in both groups (tilt table/tilt stepper and tilt table/tilt ergometer) and ANOVA to compare the blood pressure and heart rate between the groups at the four time intervals (supine, at 2 minutes, at 6 minutes and end of head-up tilt). Results Separate chi-square tests performed for each experiment showed significant differences in the occurrence of near syncope or syncope based on the device used. Comparison of the two groups (tilt stepper/ tilt table) in experiment one (ANOVA) showed that blood pressure was significantly higher at the end of head-up tilt on the tilt stepper and on the tilt table there was a greater increase in heart rate (2 minutes after head-up tilt). Comparison of the two groups (tilt ergometer/tilt table) in experiment 2 (ANOVA) showed that blood pressure was significantly higher on the tilt

  1. Changes of blood pressure and heart rate during sexual activity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Xue-Rui, Tan; Ying, Lv; Da-Zhong, Yang; Xiao-Jun, Chen

    2008-08-01

    This study is to observe the changes of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), double product (DP) and heart rate variability during sexual activity in healthy adults before we cover patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Forty-nine participants grouped by sex, 22 males, aged 40.6+/-7.8 years; 27 females, aged 40.3+/-7.8 years, underwent simultaneous ambulatory monitoring of BP and HR for 24 h. During the monitoring period, sexual activity of the participants with man-on-top in their familiar environment was performed. Participants were requested to measure BP manually at the beginning of each sexual phase and three times after orgasm in every 10-min interval and 60 min after orgasm. For each individual, eight measuring values, respectively, about BP, HR, DP and heart rate variability were obtained from baseline to 1 h after orgasm. The data were statistically analyzed with paired t-test and the significant level was set at P<0.05. In both groups, the peak BP did not appear at orgasm, but at the beginning of plateau and dropped to baseline level at 10 min after orgasm (male 141.41+/-17.13/91.05+/-13.69 vs. 120.14+/-11.07/72.86+/-7.78 mmHg, female 121.67+/-16.61/77.37+/-15.03 vs. 109.37+/-10.54/67.19+/-9.41 mmHg). The peak HR occurred at the beginning of orgasm, and dropped to baseline level 10-20 min after orgasm (male 96.36+/-11.96 vs. 75.41+/-9.02 bpm, female 90.19+/-10.38 vs. 71.44+/-5.68 bpm). DP of both groups elevated at the beginning of plateau and orgasm then decreased to baseline level 10 min after orgasm (male 12964.27+/-2659.17 vs. 9134.09+/-1469.58 mmHg bpm, female 10044.48+/-1777.89 vs. 7841.30+/-1023.79 mmHg bpm). All the results showed that BP, HR and DP have mild to moderate changes during sexual activity in healthy adults. Using ambulatory technology to monitor BP and HR helps us to get the real data in participants during sexual activity. BP, HR and DP increase just slightly for a short time and recover to baseline level soon after sexual

  2. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  3. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Design: Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Interventions: Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Measurements and Results: Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, sleep restriction

  4. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-shi; Tang, Yun-xiang; Xiao, Ze-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Zhang, Ming-dao; Zhang, Zai-fu; Hu, Zhen-yu; Lou, Fei-ying; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Tian-hong

    2010-03-20

    Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P < 0.05). Compared with matching ending-words idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further

  5. Differences at brain SPECT between depressed females with and without adult ADHD and healthy controls: etiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Ann; Salmaso, Dario; Varrone, Andrea; Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Bejerot, Susanne; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A; Pagani, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25) and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and the computerized brain atlas (CBA). Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S) was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32) in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in "Depression + ADHD

  6. Brain and mood changes over 2 years in healthy controls and adults with heart failure and ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Garrido, Griselda J; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Arnolda, Leonard; Alfonso, Helman; Flicker, Leon

    2013-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction, a high prevalence of mood disorders, and a relative loss of grey matter in several brain regions. This study aimed to determine if, compared with controls with and without ischaemic heart disease (IHD), adults with HF show evidence of progressive loss of cerebral grey matter, and whether morphological changes are associated with changes in cognition, depression and anxiety symptoms over a follow-up period of 2 years. This was a 24-month longitudinal study of 19 participants with systolic HF, 43 with IHD, and 45 controls. Subjects were older than 45 years and free of cognitive impairment at the start of follow-up. We acquired magnetic resonance images and used Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8 (SPM8) to investigate changes in the distribution of cerebral grey matter volume over time. We used the Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly (CAMCOG) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess 2-year changes in cognitive function and mood. Changes in total grey matter volume and cognitive function were similar across the three study groups, but participants with HF showed evidence of increasing severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms. HF was associated with subtle regional loss of grey matter in the right and left thalamus, left caudate, left and right posterior cingulate, left and right parahippocampal gyri, left superior and middle temporal gyri, and right inferior parietal lobule compared with controls and, to a lesser extent, participants with IHD. HF and IHD are not associated with a disproportional loss of cerebral grey matter or cognitive decline over 2 years compared with cardiologically healthy controls. Adults with HF experience increasing symptoms of anxiety and depression over 2 years compared with controls, and this increased vulnerability is associated with a relative loss of grey matter in brain regions that are important for the modulation of emotions.

  7. Prevalence and severity of childhood adversity in adolescents with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents, and adults with BPD.

    PubMed

    Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne; Zanarini, Mary C

    2017-08-01

    Existing research has demonstrated that both adolescents and adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report higher rates of childhood adversity than their same-age peers; no studies have examined if adolescents and adults with BPD differ based on the extent of these experiences. In the present study, we compared the prevalence rates and severity of multiple forms of abuse and neglect in adolescents and adults with BPD and in psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Participants included 104 adolescent (aged 13-17 years) inpatients with BPD, 60 age-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents, and 290 adult inpatients with BPD. All participants completed an interview that assessed the presence and severity of multiple forms of childhood abuse and neglect. A significantly higher percentage of adolescents with BPD reported 5 of 12 pathological childhood experiences and described more severe abusive experiences than their psychiatrically healthy peers. In comparison with adolescents with BPD, a significantly higher percentage of adults with BPD reported nearly all forms of childhood adversity and rated these experiences as more severe. Taken together, these results suggest that adults with BPD report more severe profiles of abuse and neglect than adolescents with the disorder, even though adolescents with BPD differ from healthy peers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of hydraulic-resistance exercise on strength and power in untrained healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, SungChul; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Okada, Akiyoshi; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydraulic-resistance exercise (HDRE) in improving strength and power in healthy older adults. Thirty-nine older adults (68.6 ± 4.9 years; 15 men, 24 women) were divided into a training group or control group (CON). Hydraulic-resistance exercise consisted of a 12-week supervised program, 50 min · d(-1), 3 d · wk(-1). Hydraulic-resistance exercise was used for 10 exercises: Chest press and pull, shoulder press and pull, low back flexion and extension squat, leg adduction/abduction, leg press, and elbow extension/flexion. The number of the sets and the hydraulic-resistance dial setting (D) were gradually increased in 3 stages during the 12-week program. Strength, rating of perceived exertion, and relative intensity during exercise increased significantly from stage to stage whereas repetition velocity decreased. Total work was higher in the second stage compared with the first but lower in the final stage because of reduced repetitions. Peak torque at D2 and D11 increased (p < 0.05) for knee extension (58 and 9%) and flexion (94 and 21%), chest press (35 and 12%) and pull (29 and 14%), shoulder press (14 and 18%) and pull (75 and 18%), and low back flexion (59 and 46%) and extension (84 and 34%). Peak power at D2 and D11 also increased (p < 0.05) for knee extension (140 and 26%) and flexion (96 and 36%), chest press (54 and 28%) and pull (62 and 23%), shoulder press (55 and 31%) and pull (159 and 30%), and low back flexion (177 and 127%) and extension (104 and 66%). There were no significant changes in the CON. Hydraulic-resistance exercise elicits significant improvements in strength and power in older adults. Therefore, HDRE is an effective form of resistance training that provides benefits using low and moderate intensity of training for older adults.

  9. Inverse association between BMI and prefrontal metabolic activity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher; Thanos, Panayotis K; Ma, Yemine; Pradhan, Kith

    2009-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with a higher risk for impaired cognitive function, which most likely reflects associated medical complications (i.e., cerebrovascular pathology). However, there is also evidence that in healthy individuals excess weight may adversely affect cognition (executive function, attention, and memory). Here, we measured regional brain glucose metabolism (using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)) to assess the relationship between BMI and brain metabolism (marker of brain function) in 21 healthy controls (BMI range 19-37 kg/m(2)) studied during baseline (no stimulation) and during cognitive stimulation (numerical calculations). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) revealed a significant negative correlation between BMI and metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 11, 44) and cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32) but not in other regions. Moreover, baseline metabolism in these prefrontal regions was positively associated with performance on tests of memory (California Verbal Learning Test) and executive function (Stroop Interference and Symbol Digit Modality tests). In contrast, the regional brain changes during cognitive stimulation were not associated with BMI nor with neuropsychological performance. The observed association between higher BMI and lower baseline prefrontal metabolism may underlie the impaired performance reported in healthy obese individuals on some cognitive tests of executive function. On the other hand, the lack of an association between BMI and brain metabolic activation during cognitive stimulation indicates that BMI does not influence brain glucose utilization during cognitive performance. These results further highlight the urgency to institute public health interventions to prevent obesity.

  10. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  11. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  12. A Healthy Aging Program for Older Adults: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Morale

    PubMed Central

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W.; Mehta, Darshan H.

    2015-01-01

    Context As of 2012, 810 million people were over the age of 60 worldwide, accounting for 11 percent of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22 percent of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants’ relevant psychosocial outcomes; ie, self-efficacy and morale. Design The study’s Healthy Aging Mind Body Intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine (BHI), which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population, and evaluated in the current, single-arm, pilot study. Setting The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Participants The 9-week Healthy Aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 and over. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study’s groups. Intervention A new intervention group began the program every 3 months, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly, 90-minute sessions for 9 consecutive weeks, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants: (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. Outcome Measures The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the

  13. Healthy older observers show equivalent perceptual-cognitive training benefits to young adults for multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). Here we assess the capacity of older participants to improve their tracking speed thresholds in a dynamic, virtual reality environment. Results show that this capacity is significantly affected by healthy aging but that perceptual-cognitive training can significantly reduce age-related effects in older individuals, who show an identical learning function to younger healthy adults. Data support the notion that learning in healthy older persons is maintained for processing complex dynamic scenes.

  14. Healthy Older Observers Show Equivalent Perceptual-Cognitive Training Benefits to Young Adults for Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). Here we assess the capacity of older participants to improve their tracking speed thresholds in a dynamic, virtual reality environment. Results show that this capacity is significantly affected by healthy aging but that perceptual-cognitive training can significantly reduce age-related effects in older individuals, who show an identical learning function to younger healthy adults. Data support the notion that learning in healthy older persons is maintained for processing complex dynamic scenes. PMID:23761025

  15. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p < .001) in survival rate between those participants who believed that healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p < .001) for the group that believed in healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  16. Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, J Cobb; Neumeister, Alexander; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Szoeke, Cassandra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.

  17. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N = 61, Ages = 18–35, M = 22.9, SD = 4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations. PMID:26362588

  18. Composition of Microbial Oral Biofilms during Maturation in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Langfeldt, Daniela; Neulinger, Sven C.; Heuer, Wieland; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F.; Eberhard, Jörg; Schmitz, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to analyze the bacterial community structure of oral biofilms at different maturation stages in young healthy adults. Oral biofilms established on membrane filters were collected from 32 human subjects after 5 different maturation intervals (1, 3, 5, 9 and 14 days) and the respective phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Our analyses revealed highly diverse entire colonization profiles, spread into 8 phyla/candidate divisions and in 15 different bacterial classes. A large inter-individual difference in the subjects’ microbiota was observed, comprising 35% of the total variance, but lacking conspicuous general temporal trends in both alpha and beta diversity. We further obtained strong evidence that subjects can be categorized into three clusters based on three differently occurring and mutually exclusive species clusters. PMID:24503584

  19. Albumin bound and alpha 2-macroglobulin bound zinc concentrations in the sera of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Foote, J W; Delves, H T

    1984-09-01

    Reference ranges for albumin bound and alpha 2-macroglobulin bound zinc concentrations have been determined in a study of sera obtained from 134 healthy adults. The concentrations of zinc bound to alpha 2-macroglobulin were remarkably constant with a mean (+/-SD) of 2.4 +/- 0.6 mumol/l; the variations in total serum zinc concentrations were almost entirely accounted for by variations in the zinc associated with albumin. There were no sex related differences in the transport of zinc in serum; neither was this sensitive to the use of oral contraceptives. These data provide a baseline for further investigations into the effects of zinc deficiency on the serum transport of the metal.

  20. Effects of visual fatigue caused by smartphones on balance function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hyun; An, Chang-Man; Moon, Sung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of visual fatigue caused by smartphone use on balance function. [Subjects and Methods] The participants consisted of 22 healthy male and female adults. Their postural stability, limit of stability, and limit of stability running time were evaluated using a computerized posturography apparatus before and after inducing visual fatigue. Postural stability and the limit of stability were divided into static and dynamic conditions. [Results] There were significant differences between the dynamic postural stability, the static and dynamic limit of stability, and both the static and dynamic limit of stability running times after the induction of visual fatigue. [Conclusion] The results showed that visual fatigue caused by smartphone use has a negative effect on balance function. Therefore, reducing visual fatigue through proper rest is necessary. PMID:28265143

  1. Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Washington, Wendy Donlin; Banna, Kelly M; Gibson, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity. Effective, low-cost interventions to increase physical activity are needed to prevent and treat obesity. In this study, 11 healthy adults wore Fitbit accelerometers for 3 weeks. During the initial baseline, subjects earned prize draws for wearing the Fitbit. During intervention, percentile schedules were used to calculate individual prize-draw criteria. The final week was a return to baseline. Four subjects increased step counts as a result of the intervention. A bout analysis of interresponse times revealed that subjects increased overall step counts by increasing daily minutes active and within-bout response rates and decreasing pauses between bouts of activity. Strategies to improve effectiveness are suggested, such as modification of reinforcement probability and amount and identification of the function of periods of inactivity.

  2. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthy young adults from a Hungarian University.

    PubMed

    Laub, Krisztina; Kardos, Szilvia; Nagy, K; Dobay, Orsolya

    2011-03-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy individuals has a high prevalence, especially in children and young adults. Nasal colonisation is a well-known risk factor for subsequent severe infection, or can be the source of transmission of this bacterium to other susceptible persons. In this study, we have surveyed the nasal carriage rate of students of the Semmelweis University, by screening 300 volunteers. We have determined the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates by Etest, and their genetic relatedness by pulsed-fieled gel electrophoresis. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus was found to be 29.3%, and that of MRSA only 0.67% (2/300). The isolates were generally sensitive to antibiotics, except for macrolides. We could observe a noticeably great genetic diversity, even among strains deriving from students of the same university group.

  3. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  4. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  5. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J

    2015-10-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N=61, Ages=18-35, M=22.9, SD=4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations.

  6. State and trait affect as predictors of salivary cortisol in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Polk, Deborah E; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Skoner, David P; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2005-04-01

    We measured affect in 334 healthy adults on each of 7 days over a 3-week period. On the last day, salivary cortisol was assessed 14 times yielding scores for total concentration, morning rise amplitude, and slope of the time function. Trait negative affect (NA) was associated with higher total cortisol concentrations and greater morning rise in men. Cortisol levels for men low in trait positive affect (PA) did not decrease in the afternoon, resulting in a relatively high, flat rhythm. In contrast, women high in trait PA had low morning cortisol resulting in a low flat rhythm. State (person-centered) NA was not associated with same-day cortisol measures. State PA was associated with decreased total cortisol concentration in women. These are the first results showing associations between cortisol and trait PA. Differences in rhythmicity found here are noteworthy given the possible role of cortisol dysregulation in disease incidence, morbidity, mortality, and severity.

  7. Metabolic phenotyping using kinetic measurements in young and older healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Thaden, John J; Ten Have, Gabriella A M; Walker, Dillon K; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J

    2017-10-03

    The aging process is often associated with the presence of sarcopenia. Although changes in the plasma concentration of several amino acids have been observed in older adults, it remains unclear whether these changes are related to disturbances in whole body production and/or interconversions. We studied 10 healthy young (~22.7 y) and 17 older adults (~64.8 y) by administering a mixture of stable amino acid tracers in a pulse and in a primed constant infusion. We calculated whole body production (WBP) and metabolite to metabolite interconversions. In addition, we measured body composition, muscle function, and provided questionnaires to assess daily dietary intake, physical activity, mood (anxiety, depression) and markers of cognitive function. Plasma enrichments and metabolite concentrations were measured by GC- and LC-MS/MS and statistics were performed by student t-test. Older adults had a 11% higher body mass index (p=0.04) and 27% reduced peak leg extension force (p=0.02) than the younger group, but comparable values for muscle mass, mood and cognitive function. Although small differences in several plasma amino acid concentrations were observed, we found older adults had about 40% higher values of WBP for glutamine (221 ± 27 vs. 305 ± 21 μmol/kg ffm/h, p=0.03) and tau-methylhistidine (0.15 ± 0.01 vs. 0.21 ± 0.02 μmol/kg ffm/h, p=0.04), 26% lower WBP value for arginine (59 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 4 μmol/kg ffm/h, p=0.02) and a reduction in WBP (50%; 1.23 ± 0.15 vs. 0.69 ± 0.06 μmol/kg ffm/h, p=0.001) and concentration (25%; 3.5 ± 0.3 μmol/l vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 μmol/l, p=0.01) for β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate. No differences were observed in protein catabolism. Clearance of arginine was decreased (27%, P=0.03) and clearance of glutamine (58%, p=0.01), leucine (67%, p=0.001) and KIC (76%, p=0.004) were increased in older adults. Specific differences exist between young and older adults in amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to

  9. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  10. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p < 0.01). However, the regions showing differences between EH and YH did not overlap between static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process.

  11. Digestive physiological outcomes related to polydextrose and soluble maize fibre consumption by healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Boler, Brittany M Vester; Serao, Mariana C Rossoni; Bauer, Laura L; Staeger, Michael A; Boileau, Thomas W; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate digestive physiological outcomes elicited by functional fibres fed to healthy adult men. A total of twenty-one healthy adult men were utilised in a cross-over design. Each subject received polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) (21 g/d) or no supplemental fibre (no fibre control; NFC) in a snack bar. Periods were 21 d and faeces were collected during the last 5 d of each period. Food intake, including fibre intake, did not differ among treatments. Flatulence (P = 0·001) and distention (P = 0·07) were greatest when subjects consumed PDX or SCF. Reflux was greater (P = 0·04) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. All tolerance scores were low ( < 2·5), indicating only slight discomfort. Faecal ammonia, 4-methylphenol, indole and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0·01) when subjects consumed the functional fibre sources compared with NFC. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were lower (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed PDX compared with SCF and NFC. Faecal pH was lower (P = 0·01) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC, while PDX was intermediate. Faecal wet weight was greatest (P = 0·03) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. Faecal dry weight tended to be greater (P = 0·07) when subjects consumed PDX compared with NFC. The functional fibres led to 1·4 and 0·9 g (PDX and SCF, respectively) increases in faecal dry mass per g supplemental fibre intake. Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. These functional fibres appear to be beneficial to gut health while leading to minimal gastrointestinal upset.

  12. A longitudinal study of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Deborah E; Yaffe, Kristine; Satariano, William A; Tager, Ira B

    2003-04-01

    To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline is associated with maintenance of cognitive function over 6 years or with level of cognitive function on tests performed 6 years later in a longitudinal study of healthy older people. Prospective cohort. Community-based study of noninstitutionalized adults aged 55 and older living in Sonoma, California. Three hundred forty-nine cohort members without evidence of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disability, or cognitive impairment at baseline. Cardiorespiratory fitness measures were based on a standard treadmill exercise test protocol and included peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), treadmill exercise duration, and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES). Cognitive function was evaluated at baseline with a modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE) and after 6 years of follow-up with a detailed cognitive test battery that included the full MMSE, three tests of attention/executive function, two measures of verbal memory, and two tests of verbal fluency. Participants with worse cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline experienced greater decline on the mMMSE over 6 years (mean mMMSE decline (95% confidence interval) by baseline peak VO2 tertile: lowest = -0.5 (-0.8 to -0.3), middle = -0.2 (-0.5-0.0), highest = 0.0 (-0.3-0.2), P =.002 for trend over tertiles). Participants with worse baseline cardiorespiratory fitness also performed worse on all cognitive tests conducted 6 years later. Results were similar for analyses based on peak VO2, treadmill exercise duration, and OUES. After adjustment for demographic and health-related covariates, measures of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated most strongly with measures of global cognitive function and attention/executive function. Baseline measures of cardiorespiratory fitness are positively associated with preservation of cognitive function over a 6-year period and with levels of performance on cognitive tests conducted 6 years later in healthy older

  13. Regional age differences in gray matter diffusivity among healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Lauren E.; Conturo, Thomas E.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Baker, Laurie M.; Cooley, Sarah; Scott, Staci; Cagle, Lee M.; Phillips, Sarah; Paul, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with microstructural changes in brain tissue that can be visualized using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While previous studies have established age-related changes in white matter (WM) diffusion using DTI, the impact of age on gray matter (GM) diffusion remains unclear. The present study utilized DTI metrics of mean diffusivity (MD) to identify age differences in GM/WM micro-structure in a sample of healthy older adults (N=60). A secondary aim was to determine the functional significance of whole-brain GM/WM MD on global cognitive function using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants were divided into three age brackets (ages 50–59, 60–69, and 70+) to examine differences in MD and cognition by decade. MD was examined bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes for the primary analyses and an aggregate measure of whole-brain MD was used to test relationships with cognition. Significantly higher MD was observed in bilateral GM of the temporal and parietal lobes, and in right hemisphere WM of the frontal and temporal lobes of older individuals. The most robust differences in MD were between the 50–59 and 70+ age groups. Higher whole-brain GM MD was associated with poorer RBANS performance in the 60–69 age group. Results suggest that aging has a significant and differential impact on GM/WM diffusion in healthy older adults, which may explain a modest degree of cognitive variability at specific time points during older adulthood. PMID:25864197

  14. Detection and Clinical Patterns of Nephron Hypertrophy and Nephrosclerosis Among Apparently Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Vidhu; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lieske, John C.; Stegall, Mark D.; Larson, Joseph J.; Kremers, Walter K.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Chakkera, Harini A.; Poggio, Emilio D.; Rule, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Even among ostensibly healthy adults, there is often mild pathology in the kidney. The detection of kidney microstructural variation and pathology by imaging and the clinical pattern associated with these structural findings is unclear. Study Design Cross-sectional (clinical-pathological correlation). Setting & Participants Living kidney donors at Mayo Clinic (Minnesota and Arizona sites) and Cleveland Clinic 2000-2011. Predictors Pre-donation kidney function, risk factors, and contrast computed tomography scan of the kidneys. These scans were segmented for cortical volume and medullary volume, reviewed for parenchymal cysts, and scored for kidney surface roughness. Outcomes Nephrosclerosis (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and arteriosclerosis) and nephron size (glomerular volume, profile tubular area, and cortical volume per glomerulus) determined from an implantation biopsy of the kidney cortex at donation. Results Among 1520 living kidney donors, nephrosclerosis associated with increased kidney surface roughness, cysts, and smaller cortical to medullary volume ratio. Larger nephron size (nephron hypertrophy) associated with larger cortical volume. Nephron hypertrophy and larger cortical volume associated with higher systolic blood pressure, higher glomerular filtration rate, higher urine albumin excretion, larger body mass index, higher serum uric acid, and family history of end-stage renal disease. Both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associated with older age and mild hypertension. The net effect of both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associating with cortical volume was that nephron hypertrophy diminished volume loss with age-related nephrosclerosis and fully negated volume loss with mild hypertension-related nephrosclerosis. Limitations Kidney donors are selected on health, restricting the spectrum of pathological findings. Kidney biopsies in living donors are a small tissue sample leading to imprecise

  15. Effects of Age and Bolus Volume on Velocity of Hyolaryngeal Excursion in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barikroo, Ali; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reduced movement velocity has been identified as a risk marker for movement impairment in older adults. Hyolaryngeal excursion is a key movement feature of normal swallowing function which is known to change with age and other extrinsic variables such as bolus volume. However, velocity of hyolaryngeal excursion has received limited attention in the literature on normal or abnormal swallowing. This study evaluated the effects of age and bolus volume on the velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion during swallowing in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers were grouped into three age bands (young: 20-35 years, middle age: 36-55 years, older: 56 ≥ years). All subjects swallowed 5 and 20 mL of thin liquid during fluoroscopic recording. Fluoroscopic images were extracted for each swallow representing the onset and maximum excursion positions of the hyoid and larynx. Superior and anterior excursion distance (excursion magnitude) and the time difference between rest and maximum excursion (excursion duration) were calculated. Velocity was calculated as a ratio of distance over time. Superior hyoid excursion magnitude was significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. Anterior laryngeal excursion magnitude was also significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. No kinematic duration measure demonstrated significant change across age or bolus conditions. Superior hyoid excursion velocity was significantly faster for the 20 mL volume. Superior and anterior laryngeal excursion velocity were significantly faster for the 20 mL volume only in the older group. Results of this study indicate that magnitude and velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion vary with age and volume. Comprising both excursion magnitude and duration, kinematic velocity may be a more complete metric to evaluate age-related swallowing performance.

  16. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  17. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A.; Langade, Deepak G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. Aims: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Materials and Methods: Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. Results: There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults. PMID:26730141

  18. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Syed Shahid; Ahmed, Shaikh Mujeeb; Al Hadlaq, Ahmad; Marzouk, Amir

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. METHODS: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50) years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. RESULTS: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD) parts per billion (ppb). The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002). This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002). The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation. PMID:22924074

  19. Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5±3.0 y; BMI, 25.9±3.3 kg.m-2) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ±3.3 y; BMI, 27.1±.4.0 kg.m-2). Pre- and post-supplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T MRI scanner while functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling (ASL) technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p<0.001), as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0±1.8 vs -2.9±2.4 %, p=0.013) and occipital (8.0±2.6 vs -0.7±3.2 %, p=0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (two back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p=0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  20. Regional age differences in gray matter diffusivity among healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Conturo, Thomas E; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cooley, Sarah; Scott, Staci; Cagle, Lee M; Phillips, Sarah; Paul, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    Aging is associated with microstructural changes in brain tissue that can be visualized using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While previous studies have established age-related changes in white matter (WM) diffusion using DTI, the impact of age on gray matter (GM) diffusion remains unclear. The present study utilized DTI metrics of mean diffusivity (MD) to identify age differences in GM/WM microstructure in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 60). A secondary aim was to determine the functional significance of whole-brain GM/WM MD on global cognitive function using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants were divided into three age brackets (ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70+) to examine differences in MD and cognition by decade. MD was examined bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes for the primary analyses and an aggregate measure of whole-brain MD was used to test relationships with cognition. Significantly higher MD was observed in bilateral GM of the temporal and parietal lobes, and in right hemisphere WM of the frontal and temporal lobes of older individuals. The most robust differences in MD were between the 50-59 and 70+ age groups. Higher whole-brain GM MD was associated with poorer RBANS performance in the 60-69 age group. Results suggest that aging has a significant and differential impact on GM/WM diffusion in healthy older adults, which may explain a modest degree of cognitive variability at specific time points during older adulthood.

  1. Atorvastatin Treatment Does Not Alter Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Taylor, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Both statins and regular physical activity (PA) reduce arterial stiffness. The present post hoc analysis examined if arterial stiffness was improved with high-dose atorvastatin treatment in healthy adults and whether PA levels magnified this response. We utilized data from a double-blind, random-assignment clinical trial investigating the effects of atorvastatin 80 mg/d for 6 mo on skeletal muscle symptoms. Methods. Central and peripheral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured and PA levels assessed at baseline and 6 mo in subjects randomized to atorvastatin (n = 21, 9 men) or placebo (n = 29, 16 men). Results. Baseline participant characteristics, PWV, and PA levels were not different between treatments. Central (means ± SD; 8.7 ± 2.6 to 9.0 ± 2.5 m/sec) and peripheral PWV (9.9 ± 1.3 to 9.8 ± 1.6 m/sec) were unchanged from baseline following atorvastatin treatment (time × drug interaction: P ≥ 0.13). Similarly, PA levels were unaffected by time or treatment. In sex and age adjusted models, baseline levels of PA were not related to changes in PWV with atorvastatin treatment. Conclusion. These data indicate that high-dose atorvastatin treatment for 6 mo does not influence arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Participation in habitual PA did not magnify the vascular effects of statin therapy. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00609063. PMID:27351006

  2. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  3. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders. PMID:28197085

  4. Assessment of optic disc parameters among healthy adult Malays by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Shawarinin; Shaharuddin, Bakiah; Wan Hitam, Wan H

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess the optic disc characteristics in healthy adult Malays and to correlate them with age, gender and refractive errors. Cross-sectional study. A total of 200 voluntary participants (106 women and 94 men) among Malay students aged 20 to 37 years at Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The relationship between Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph parameters with age, gender and refractive error were analysed with correlation tests and multiple linear regression analyses.   Twelve parameters, that is, disc area, rim area, cup area, cup to disc area, cup volume, rim volume, height variation contour, cup shape measure, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and retinal nerve fibre layer cross-sectional area.   Disc area, rim area and cup : disc area ratio averaged 2.24 ± 0.52 (mean ± standard deviation), 1.64 ± 0.32 and 0.25 ± 0.12 mm(2) , respectively. Five parameters (disc area, cup area, cup volume, cup : disc area ratio and mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness) showed statistically significant difference between men and women. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with rim area with coefficient r = -0.21, P = 0.003. All optic disc parameters were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with disc area, except cup shape measure.   One or more of optic disc parameters were affected significantly by age, gender and disc area in healthy adult Malays' eyes. These factors need to be considered during the evaluation of optic disc. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Skeletal muscle area correlates with body surface area in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Shirabe, Ken; Nakagawara, Hidekazu; Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Toshima, Takeo; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Depletion of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) predicts survival in patients with cancer or liver cirrhosis. Recently, many reports have used computed tomography (CT) to measure muscle area to define sarcopenia. However, the definition of sarcopenia using CT has not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to establish formulae to calculate the standard area of skeletal muscle. Forty-five healthy adults (24 men and 21 women, aged 21-66 years) who wished to donate part of their liver for transplantation underwent CT. Cross-sectional areas (cm(2) ) of skeletal muscle were measured at the caudal end of the third lumbar vertebra. Regression analysis was performed to establish formulae to calculate the standard area of skeletal muscle. A validation conducted on 30 other healthy adults was performed to check the accuracy of formulae. Men had a median skeletal muscle area of 155.0 cm(2) (range, 114.0-203.0), compared with 111.7 cm(2) (range, 89.8-139.3) in women (P < 0.001). Furthermore, skeletal muscle area significantly correlated with body surface area (BSA) in men (P < 0.0001, r(2)  = 0.60) and women (P < 0.0001, r(2)  = 0.78). The formulae to calculate skeletal muscle area were 126.9 × BSA - 66.2 in men and 125.6 × BSA - 81.1 in women. The estimated muscle area significantly correlated with actual muscle area in men (P = 0.003, r(2)  = 0.64) and women (P = 0.0001, r(2)  = 0.70). Sarcopenia can be defined by the difference between measured data and calculated data using our new formulae. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Direct comparison of two actigraphy devices with polysomnographically recorded naps in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Nicola; Buman, Matthew P; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Ricker, Ashley A; Mednick, Sara C

    2013-06-01

    The last 20 yrs have seen a marked increase in studies utilizing actigraphy in free-living environments. The aim of the present study is to directly compare two commercially available actigraph devices with concurrent polysomnography (PSG) during a daytime nap in healthy young adults. Thirty healthy young adults, ages 18-31 (mean 20.77 yrs, SD 3.14 yrs) simultaneously wore AW-64 and GT3X+ devices during a polysomnographically recorded nap. Mann-Whitney U (M-U) test, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman statistic were used to compare total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) between the two actigraphs and PSG. Epoch-by-epoch (EBE) agreement was calculated to determine accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values for sleep (PVS) and wake (PVW), and kappa and prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) coefficients. All frequency settings provided by the devices were examined. For both actigraphs, EBE analysis found accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PVS, and PVW comparable to previous reports of other similar devices. Kappa and PABAK coefficients showed moderate to high agreement with PSG depending on device settings. The GT3X+ overestimated TST and SE, and underestimated SOL and WASO, whereas no significant difference was found between AW-64 and PSG. However, GT3X+ showed overall better EBE agreements to PSG than AW-64. We conclude that both actigraphs are valid and reliable devices for detecting sleep/wake diurnal patterns. The choice between devices should be based on several parameters as reliability, cost of the device, scoring algorithm, target population, experimental condition, and aims of the study (e.g., sleep and/or physical activity).

  7. The influence of peripheral vision induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of the peripheral vision (PV) induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults. The subjects consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 males, 7 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The visual interventions were composed of three types. PV1 and PV2 were stimulated using a one-way vertical striped pattern and a two-way vertical striped pattern, respectively. To embody the features of moving people reflected in the mirrors, researchers recorded movements of people or objects provided by mirrors on video image. In this study, this was named PV3. The subjects were exposed to each of the visual stimuli for 3 min in a random order, and their postural control was then evaluated. All the subjects were allowed to practice once prior to performing the one leg stand test, functional reaching test and body sway test. All the evaluations were made before and after the visual intervention, and the subjects rested for 30 min between each intervention. PV3 ranked second in before and after differences of trace length and velocity and had no significant difference from PV2, demonstrating that the PV3, as well as PV2, affected the amount and velocity of body sway. In addition, the standard deviation velocity, trace length and velocity values of PV3 were higher than the PV1 values. Therefore, the treatment of those who have difficulty with postural control and balance maintenance should take place in a controlled therapeutic environment. PMID:27807518

  8. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  9. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  10. Detection and Clinical Patterns of Nephron Hypertrophy and Nephrosclerosis Among Apparently Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Denic, Aleksandar; Alexander, Mariam P; Kaushik, Vidhu; Lerman, Lilach O; Lieske, John C; Stegall, Mark D; Larson, Joseph J; Kremers, Walter K; Vrtiska, Terri J; Chakkera, Harini A; Poggio, Emilio D; Rule, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Even among ostensibly healthy adults, there is often mild pathology in the kidney. The detection of kidney microstructural variation and pathology by imaging and the clinical pattern associated with these structural findings is unclear. Cross-sectional (clinical-pathologic correlation). Living kidney donors at Mayo Clinic (Minnesota and Arizona sites) and Cleveland Clinic 2000 to 2011. Predonation kidney function, risk factors, and contrast computed tomographic scan of the kidneys. These scans were segmented for cortical volume and medullary volume, reviewed for parenchymal cysts, and scored for kidney surface roughness. Nephrosclerosis (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and arteriosclerosis) and nephron size (glomerular volume, mean profile tubular area, and cortical volume per glomerulus) determined from an implantation biopsy of the kidney cortex at donation. Among 1,520 living kidney donors, nephrosclerosis associated with increased kidney surface roughness, cysts, and smaller cortical to medullary volume ratio. Larger nephron size (nephron hypertrophy) associated with larger cortical volume. Nephron hypertrophy and larger cortical volume associated with higher systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin excretion; larger body mass index; higher serum uric acid level; and family history of end-stage renal disease. Both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associated with older age and mild hypertension. The net effect of both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associating with cortical volume was that nephron hypertrophy diminished volume loss with age-related nephrosclerosis and fully negated volume loss with mild hypertension-related nephrosclerosis. Kidney donors are selected on health, restricting the spectrum of pathologic findings. Kidney biopsies in living donors are a small tissue sample leading to imprecise estimates of structural findings. Among apparently healthy adults, the microstructural

  11. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations.

  12. Effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wahrburg, U; Martin, H; Schulte, H; Walek, T; Assmann, G

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults. Randomized controlled study with three study groups and a parallel design, consisting of two consecutive periods. Outpatient clinical research center in a university clinic. 119 healthy students (60 male, 59 female) who were selected after a screening. All completed the study. Blood samples of three subjects (1 male, 2 female) were excluded from evaluation due to later diagnosed genetic anomalies of lipid metabolism. All subjects consumed 750-1000 ml of caffeinated filtered coffee per day for a 2 week wash-in period. During the 6 week test period one group continued drinking the caffeinated coffee, while the two other groups consumed different kinds of decaffeinated coffee. Consumption of both types of decaffeinated coffee did not lead to any significant changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the reactions between the three groups. The diet did not change during the study. Switch from regular to decaffeinated coffee had no cholesterol-elevating effects, irrespective of the type of coffee.

  13. Effect of cortisol diurnal rhythm on emotional memory in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Mitsue; Noguchi, Hiroko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kim, Yoshiharu; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2017-08-31

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between cortisol diurnal rhythm and cognitive function in healthy young adults, especially for emotional memory. To address this deficiency, this study examined the effect of diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) and heart rate variability (HRV) on emotional memory. Participants included healthy volunteers (44 men and 23 women; mean age 20.60 yrs). Participants were shown emotionally arousing slides and were asked to return to the laboratory one week later where they were given a "surprise" memory test to examine their emotional memory retention. Participants were asked to collect saliva samples at four time points (08:00, 11:00, 15:00, and 20:00) on the ex