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Sample records for healthy danish caucasian

  1. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P < 0.05), but no statistical relationship was found in women. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, fat oxidation was best predicted by peak O2 consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. METHOD This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. RESULTS Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%–55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1–30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. PMID:24152086

  3. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.

  4. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  5. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  6. Physiological changes due to mild cooling in healthy lean males of white Caucasian and South Asian descent: A metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Kimberly J; Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Jazet, Ingrid M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2016-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, non-shivering thermogenesis increases to maintain core body temperature by increasing utilization of substrates, especially fatty acids (FA), ultimately affecting lipid-associated metabolites. We aimed to investigate whether mild cooling induces changes in other metabolites and whether this response differs between white Caucasians and South Asians, who have a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype. 12 lean male Dutch white Caucasians and 12 matched Dutch South Asians were exposed to mild cold. Before and after 100 min exposure, serum samples were collected for analysis of 163 metabolites and 27 derived parameters using high throughput metabolomics. The overall response to mild cooling between both ethnicities was not different, therefore the data were pooled. After Bonferroni correction, mild cooling significantly changed 44 of 190 (23%) metabolic parameters. Specifically, cooling increased 19 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, only those containing very long chain FAs, and increased the total class of PC containing mono-unsaturated FAs (+12.5%). Furthermore, cooling increased 10 sphingomyelin species as well as the amino acids glutamine (+18.7%), glycine (+11.6%) and histidine (+10.6%), and decreased short-chain (C3 and C4) acylcarnitines (-17.1% and -19.4%, respectively). In conclusion, mild cooling elicits substantial effects on serum metabolites in healthy males, irrespective of white Caucasian or South Asian ethnicity. PMID:26384768

  7. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  8. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  9. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. PMID:23630132

  10. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions.

  11. Association between tetracycline consumption and tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli from healthy Danish slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio Roberto; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik C; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that exposure to antimicrobial agents can exert a selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between the probability of isolating a tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli isolate from the intestinal tract of healthy pigs and patterns of tetracycline consumption in the herds of origin, together with other risk factors. Data on antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial consumption, and pig herd demographics were obtained from different Danish surveillance programs. Descriptive statistics were performed for the risk factors in relation to the susceptibility status. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors with significant effect on the log odds of tetracycline resistance of E. coli isolates. The model showed that an increase in the interval between last prescription and sampling date would decrease the probability of isolating a resistant E. coli isolate (p-value = 0.01). Also, a direct association between treatment incidence rate in a herd and probability of resistance was detected (p-value = 0.03). Other risk factors found to have a significant effect in the isolate susceptibility status were number of produced animals in the year and year of sampling. Other antimicrobial consumption risk factors, such as number of prescriptions and amount prescribed, although not included in the final model, presented indirect impact in the tetracycline resistance probability. From this study, we can infer that tetracycline usage, the time span between last treatment and sampling date, together with herd size and the proportion of animals being treated in a herd, increase the probability of obtaining a resistant isolate. PMID:19072081

  12. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18–56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92–0.95; pain rating r = 0.93–0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87–0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity

  15. The inhibition by levocetirizine and fexofenadine of the histamine-induced wheal and flare response in healthy Caucasian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schoepke, Nicole; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study compared inhibition by one 5 mg dose of levocetirizine with two 60 mg doses of fexofenadine separated by 12 h of histamine-induced wheal and flare responses in 9 Caucasian and 9 Japanese healthy male volunteers. Levocetirizine was more inhibitory than fexofenadine on wheal, flare and pruritus (p < 0.005). Variability, evaluated from the standard deviation of inhibition, ranged from 14% to 23.2% for levocetirizine and 65.4% to 112.4% for fexofenadine. Levocetirizine had a faster onset of action (30-90 min versus 2 h), shorter time to maximum effect (3-4 versus 3-6 h) and longer duration of action (at least 24 h versus ~12 h) than fexofenadine. The plasma levels of levocetirizine rose more quickly, reached higher levels, were more consistent and decreased slower than those of fexofenadine. There were no clinically significant ethnic differences in responsiveness to the drugs. PMID:23147964

  16. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of single, oral doses of GSK1278863, a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Hara, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Wakamatsu, Akira; Caltabiano, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and safety of GSK1278863, a novel prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, following a single oral administration of GSK1278863 from 10 to 100 mg or placebo in Japanese (n = 19), and 10, 25 and 100 mg in Caucasians (n = 14). Dose-proportional increases were observed in AUCinf of GSK1278863 in both ethnic groups, with a 1.3-1.5-fold higher exposure seen in Japanese relative to Caucasians for all doses. This difference in exposure can be mainly explained by the observed differences in body weights between the two groups. Statistically significant increases in erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reticulocyte counts were observed in Japanese subjects after the 50 and 100 mg dose as compared to placebo. In Caucasians, similar to Japanese, EPO and VEGF levels were observed to be increased in response to the 100 mg dose. Drug-related adverse events, including headache and abdominal pain were reported in 3 Japanese subjects, while headache was reported in 3 Caucasians. In conclusion, GSK1278863 was well tolerated, with dose-proportional increases in exposure observed in both groups. There was no evidence of ethnic differences between Japanese and Caucasian with regard to PK or PD.

  17. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. Methods We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. Results During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Conclusions In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors. PMID:27701463

  18. Phthalate Excretion Pattern and Testicular Function: A Study of 881 Healthy Danish Men

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background: In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. Objectives: We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. Methods: A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin-B; semen quality; and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were assessed. The proportions of DEHP and DiNP excreted as their respective primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] were calculated and expressed as percentages (%MEHP and %MiNP, respectively). Results: The free androgen index was 15% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): –23, –8%] for men in the highest %MiNP quartile compared to the lowest quartile (p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders, and 9% lower (95% CI: –16, –1%) in the highest %MEHP quartile (p = 0.02). %MEHP and %MiNP were negatively associated with the ratio of testosterone/LH and testosterone/FSH. %MEHP was negatively associated with total testosterone, free testosterone, and ratio of testosterone/E2. %MiNP was positively associated with SHBG. There was little evidence of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites or sums of phthalates with reproductive hormones or semen quality Conclusion: Our data suggest that both testosterone production and pituitary–hypothalamic feedback may be compromised in individuals excreting a high proportion of primary metabolites of long-chained phthalates relative to the proportion of secondary metabolites. PMID:22832070

  19. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits.

  20. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  1. Food hypersensitivity among Caucasian and non-Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renuka P; Summerfield, Alison; Khakoo, G A

    2008-02-01

    There are little data regarding the frequency of different foods that cause hypersensitivity in the UK. Furthermore, there are no data regarding food hypersensitivity related to ethnic variations. This prospective study involved 76 children with IgE-mediated food allergy presenting consecutively over 18 months to a Paediatric Allergy Clinic serving a well-defined population that is 21% non-Caucasian. A total of 52.6% of the paediatric allergy clinic population was non-Caucasian compared with 35.9% in General Paediatric Clinics giving a mean difference in percentage of 16.7 (5.6, 27.8), p < 0.01. The average number of food allergens per child in the non-Caucasian group was 2.05 vs. 1.22 in the Caucasian group, mean difference 0.83, which is significant (t = 4.15, d.f. = 74, p < 0.01). Analysis of other allergic conditions revealed no significant increase in the non-Caucasian group. The mean age of first reaction to any food was 2.6 yr (range 0.3-12 yr) in Caucasian, and 1.7 yr (range 0.3-8 yr) in non-Caucasian, children (p < 0.05). There were 125 reactions in the study population, with egg, peanut, tree nut, cow milk and cod being the commonest food allergens. Some novel foods, such as kiwi, lentil and sesame, were also represented in the top 10 food allergies, particularly in the non-Caucasian population. Ethnic minorities are over-represented in terms of the number of children with food allergy and number of food allergies per child, present at an earlier age with food allergy, and possibly have a greater variety of food allergies compared with Caucasians. This is important in terms of health education. Our findings need confirmation by a more detailed population based study, ideally using food challenges in addition to history and skin prick testing.

  2. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics. In vitro and animal studies have shown weak estrogenic and other endocrine disrupting effects of parabens, including reduced testosterone levels in exposed male rats. The knowledge of paraben exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl paraben was only measurable in urine from 7% of the men. Methyl- and n-propyl parabens were also measurable in the majority of serum and seminal plasma samples, whereas the other parabens could only be detected in some of the samples. In all the three matrices significant correlations between the parabens were seen. Furthermore, urinary paraben concentrations correlate to the paraben concentrations in both serum and seminal plasma.

  3. The dermatoglyphics of American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Plato, C C; Cereghino, J J; Steinberg, F S

    1975-03-01

    Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics were collected from 360 male and 360 female seven year old Caucasians from the greater Boston area. All participants were screened and found to be free of minor anomalies or chronic diseases. All individuals with I. Q. scores below 70 were also excluded. The results were presented in such a way as to give information on bilateral symmetry as well as overall frequencies of the various dermatoglyphic features. The results were compared with those of the corresponding sample of seven year old normal male and female Negroes of the accompanying report. A review of the distribution of the dermatoglyphic features in different Caucasian populations has also been presented and the overall dermatoglyphics of the Caucasians were discussed in reference to the distribution of the same features in the other major "racial" groups. The method of collection and selection of the subjects, described in the text, makes this set of data unique and one of the most suitable for use as controls in studying the dermatoglyphics of the individuals with diseases or congenital anomalies.

  4. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorative secondary outcome analysis on data from 784 children from the OPUS School Meal Study, a cluster-randomised cross-over trial where children received school meals for 3 months and habitual lunch for 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of each dietary period, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD, IGF-1 or OC. However, season-modified effects were observed with 25(OH)D, i.e. children completing the school meal period in January/February had higher 25(OH)D status (5·5 (95 % CI 1·8, 9·2) nmol/l; P = 0·004) than children completing the control period in these months. A similar tendency was indicated in November/December (4·1 (95 % CI -0·12, 8·3) nmol/l; P = 0·057). However, the effect was opposite in March/April (-4·0 (95 % CI -7·0, -0·9) nmol/l; P = 0·010), and no difference was found in May/June (P = 0·214). Unexpectedly, the school meals slightly increased PTH (0·18 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods are needed. PMID:26495118

  5. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state. PMID:27146725

  6. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  7. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  8. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  9. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  10. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Charles N; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol J; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. METHODS: Subjects with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn’s disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn’s disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 – a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. RESULTS: For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn

  11. Large D-Dimer Fluctuation in Normal Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 4,117 Samples from 714 Healthy Danish Women

    PubMed Central

    Hedengran, Katrine K.; Andersen, Malene R.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. D-dimer levels increase throughout pregnancy, hampering the usefulness of the conventional threshold for dismissing thromboembolism. This study investigates the biological fluctuation of D-dimer in normal pregnancy. Methods. A total of 801 healthy women with expected normal pregnancies were recruited. D-dimer was repeatedly measured during pregnancy, at active labor, and on the first and second postpartum days. Percentiles for each gestational week were calculated. Each individual D-dimer was normalized by transformation into percentiles for the relevant gestational age or delivery group. The range in percentage points during the pregnancy and the delivery was calculated, and reference intervals were calculated for each pregnancy trimester, during vaginal delivery and scheduled and emergency cesarean section, and for the first and second day postpartum. Results. D-dimer increased during pregnancy; the maximal fluctuation was approximately 20 percentile points in approximately half of the women. In one out of ten women, the D-dimer values fluctuated by more than 50 percentile points. Conclusions. Due to the biological variation in D-dimer within each individual woman during normal pregnancy, repeated D-dimer measurements are of no clinical use in the evaluation of thromboembolic events during pregnancy. PMID:27190521

  12. Hereditary angioneurotic edema and HLA types in two Danish families.

    PubMed

    Eggert, J; Zachariae, H; Svejgaard, E; Svejgaard, A; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F

    1982-01-01

    HLA types were determined in 19 patients and 9 healthy members of 2 Danish families with hereditary angioneurotic edema. The study revealed no connections between hereditary angioneurotic edema and the HLA system. PMID:7165360

  13. Studies of the genetic variability of the coding region of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha in Caucasians with maturity onset NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Møller, A M; Urhammer, S A; Dalgaard, L T; Reneland, R; Berglund, L; Hansen, T; Clausen, J O; Lithell, H; Pedersen, O

    1997-08-01

    Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) gene cause the type 1 form of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1). To address the question of whether genetic variability of HNF-4alpha is associated with late onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) we have sequenced the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of the gene in 36 randomly recruited Danish NIDDM patients. Two nucleotide substitutions that changed the sequence of HNF-4alpha were identified: Thr/Ile130, which has been reported previously and a novel Val/Met255. The Val/Met 255 mutation was found in 4 of 477 Danish NIDDM patients and in none of 217 glucose tolerant control subjects; thus it cannot be excluded that this mutation may have an impact on NIDDM susceptibility. Among 509 NIDDM patients the allelic frequency of the Thr/Ile130 variant was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4-6.0%) compared to 1.9% (0.7-3.1%) among 239 control subjects (p = 0.008). However, in a population sample of 942 Swedish men with an average age of 70 years the allelic frequency of the variant was similar in 246 men with either impaired glucose tolerance (5.6% [2.6-8.6%]) or NIDDM (5.4% [2.7-8.1%]) as compared to 666 glucose tolerant men (5.1% [3.9-6.3%]). Also in a population sample of 369 young healthy Danes the prevalence of the codon 130 variant (4.7% [3.2-6.2%]) was similar to what was found in Swedish Caucasians. Thus, the allelic frequency of the Thr/Ile130 variant among the control subjects in the Danish case-control study deviates from the prevalence in the two other studies which is why we consider the significant association between the codon 130 variant and NIDDM an incidental finding. In glucose tolerant subjects the codon 130 variant in its heterozygous form had no major effect on glucose-induced insulin and C-peptide release although a tendency to a lower insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was seen in middle-aged subjects. In conclusion, variability in

  14. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  15. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study. PMID:26359192

  16. Dental Maturity of Caucasian Children in the Indianapolis Area

    PubMed Central

    Weddell, Lauren S.; Hartsfield, James K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare chronologic and dental age using Demirjian’s method. Methods Two hundred and fifty-seven panoramic radiographs of healthy 5- to 17.5-year-old Caucasian children in the Indianapolis area were evaluated using Demirjian’s 7 tooth method. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for agreement with Demirjian was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 0.97). The ICC for repeatability of the investigator was 0.97 (95% CI=0.95, 0.99). Calculated dental age was significantly greater than chronologic age by 0.59 years (P<.001). There was no significant difference in the mean difference in ages between sexes (P=.73). Medicaid subjects had a significantly higher (P<.001) mean difference (0.82 years) than private insurance subjects (0.32 years). There was a significant negative correlation between the chronologic age and the difference in ages (r=−0.29, P<.001). Overweight (P<.001) and obese (P=.004) subjects were significantly more dentally advanced than normal (P=.35) and underweight (P=.42) subjects. Conclusions Demirjian’s method has high inter- and intraexaminer repeatability. Caucasian children in the Indianapolis area are more advanced dentally than the French-Canadian children studied by Demirjian. Difference between dental age and chronologic age varies depending on the age of the child, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. PMID:21703074

  17. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  18. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  19. Do Caucasian and Asian clocks tick differently?

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A A; Pedrazzoli, M; Koike, B D V; Tufik, S

    2010-01-01

    The Period 3 and Clock genes are important components of the mammalian molecular circadian system. Studies have shown association between polymorphisms in these clock genes and circadian phenotypes in different populations. Nevertheless, differences in the pattern of allele frequency and genotyping distribution are systematically observed in studies with different ethnic groups. To investigate and compare the pattern of distribution in a sample of Asian and Caucasian populations living in Brazil, we evaluated two well-studied polymorphisms in the clock genes: a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in PER3 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CLOCK. The aim of this investigation was to search for clues about human evolutionary processes related to circadian rhythms. We selected 109 Asian and 135 Caucasian descendants. The frequencies of the shorter allele (4 repeats) in the PER3 gene and the T allele in the CLOCK gene among Asians (0.86 and 0.84, respectively) were significantly higher than among Caucasians (0.69 and 0.71, respectively). Our results directly confirmed the different distribution of these polymorphisms between the Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups. Given the genetic differences found between groups, two points became evident: first, ethnic variations may have implications for the interpretation of results in circadian rhythm association studies, and second, the question may be raised about which evolutionary conditions shaped these genetic clock variations.

  20. Bioactive oat β-glucan reduces LDL cholesterol in Caucasians and non-Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is increasing global acceptance that viscous soluble fibers lower serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but most evidence for this comes from studies in Caucasians. To see if oat β-glucan lowers LDL-C in Caucasians and non-Caucasians we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial whose primary aim was to determine if molecular-weight (MW) influenced the LDL-C-lowering effect of oat β-glucan. Results Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects with LDL-C-C ≥ 3.0 and ≤ 5.0 mmol/L (n = 786 screened, n = 400 ineligible, n = 19 refused, n = 367 randomized, n = 345 completed, n = 1 excluded for missing ethnicity) were randomly assigned to consume cereal containing wheat-fiber (Control, n = 74:13 Caucasian:non-Caucasian) or 3 g high-MW (3H, 2,250,000 g/mol, n = 67:19), 4 g medium-MW (4 M, 850,000 g/mol, n = 50:17), 3 g medium-MW (3M, 530,000 g/mol, n = 54:9) or 4 g low-MW (4 L, 210,000 g/mol, n = 51:12) oat β-glucan daily for 4 weeks. LDL-C after 4 weeks was influenced by baseline LDL-C (p < 0.001) and treatment (p = 0.003), but not ethnicity (p = 0.74). In all subjects, compared to control, 3 H, 4 M and 3 M reduced LDL-C significantly by 4.8 to 6.5%, but 4 L had no effect. Compared to control, the bioactive oat β-glucan treatments (3H, 4M and 3M) reduced LDL-C by a combined mean (95% CI) of 0.18 (0.06, 0.31) mmol/L (4.8%, n = 171, p = 0.004) in Caucasians, a value not significantly different from the 0.37 (0.09, 0.65) mmol/L (10.3%, n = 45, p = 0.008) reduction in non-Caucasians. Conclusion We conclude that oat β-glucan reduces LDL-C in both Caucasians and non-Caucasians; there was insufficient power to determine if the magnitude of LDL-C-lowering differed by ethnicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981981 PMID:22118569

  1. Haematological studies on pre-menopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Sanders, T A

    1990-09-01

    Full blood counts, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate, erythrocyte folate concentrations and nutrient intakes were estimated in twenty-three Indian vegetarian, twenty-two Caucasian omnivores and eighteen Caucasian vegetarian women aged 25-40 years. Energy and copper intakes were lower in the Indian women than in the Caucasians. Intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin C and folate were greater and the proportion of energy derived from fat was lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores. Vitamin B12 and protein intakes were lower in both vegetarian groups than in the omnivores. Fe intake was similar in all the groups but haem Fe provided one-quarter of the Fe intake of the omnivores. Haemoglobin concentrations were generally inside the normal range in all groups, but were lower in the Indians as were mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Higher MCV, MCH and lower erythrocyte (RBC) counts were observed in Caucasian vegetarians compared with the Caucasian omnivores. In both groups of vegetarians, concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and ferritin were markedly lower than in the omnivores. RBC folate concentrations were lower in the Indians than in either of the Caucasian groups when subjects taking supplements were excluded. It is concluded that vegetarians need to ensure they have adequate intakes of Fe and vitamin B12.

  2. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  3. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  4. Multiple sclerosis in Caucasians and Latino Americans.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Flores-Rivera, José; De La Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Rangel-López, Edgar; Corona, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that the prevalence, median age of onset, and specific phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) are different in Caucasians and Latino Americans. Recent epidemiological studies indicate an increase in MS prevalence in Latin America (LA), where the south-north gradient of latitude described for Nordic countries does not exist. Analysis of MS epidemiological and specific aspects in LA suggests that susceptibility and clinical behavior of the disease are related to mixtures and admixtures of genes in the population. MS is not present in Amerindians with Mongoloid genes, such as occurs in other pure ethnic groups. Surely, future studies will be carried out to obtain more reliable information. In this review, we contrast and analyze the available data of MS in LA and endemic countries.

  5. The Body Esteem of Hmong and Caucasian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoi, Stephen L.; Chang, Zoua

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated race and gender differences among 73 Hmong American and 80 Caucasian American college students. Racial differences were found only among the women, with Hmong women holding more positive attitudes toward weight concern body items and expressing less interest in changing these body items than Caucasian women. There were no…

  6. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    PubMed

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  7. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  8. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huseynova, Tukezban; Abdulaliyeva, Farah; Lanza, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC) using Scheimpflug camera. Setting Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1) eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber volume (ChV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (AC angle), keratometric power deviation (KPD), maximum front elevation (Max FE), and maximum back elevation (Max BE), as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI), Ambrosio relational thickness (ART), index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), center keratoconus index (CKI), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD), and radius minimum (RM) were collected and statistically compared between the two groups. Results PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05) between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with steep cornea, in Caucasians. PMID:27099469

  9. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  10. Differences in endothelial function between Korean-Asians and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jongeun; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The vascular endothelium plays an integral role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the regulation of blood flow, vascular tone, and platelet aggregation. The aim of this study was to see if there were any differences in endothelial function between Koreans and Caucasians. Material/Methods This was accomplished by 2 measures of endothelial function – the response to local heat and the response to vascular occlusion. Ten Caucasian and 10 Korean male and female subjects participated (<35 years old). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 3 temperatures (38°C, 40°C and 42°C) and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. Results When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 3 different temperatures (38°C, 40°C, and 42°C), the skin blood flows were significantly higher for all temperatures in Caucasians as compared with Koreans, with peak blood flow of 223±48.1, 413.7±132.1, and 517.4±135.8 flux in Caucasians and 126.4±41.3, 251±77.9, and 398±97.2 flux in Koreans, respectively (p=0.001). Results of this study support the idea that the skin blood flow response to occlusion was significantly higher in Caucasians (peak 411.9±88.9 flux) than Koreans (peak 332.4±75.8 flux) (p=0.016). Conclusions These findings suggest that Koreans may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians, which may be explained, in part, by genetic variations between the 2 ethnic groups. PMID:22648248

  11. Differences in diazepam pharmacokinetics in Chinese and white Caucasians--relation to body lipid stores.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Lauder, I J; Chan, M; Ko, W; Lin, H J

    1987-01-01

    We have compared diazepam pharmacokinetics in 16 Chinese and 18 white Caucasian healthy male volunteers, resident in Hong Kong and have correlated them with physical attributes. Serum concentrations of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam were measured in venous blood by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (0-3 h samples) and HPLC (3-72 h samples). Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived assuming a two compartment model, distribution phase less than 6 h, and 100% oral systemic availability. Compared with the Chinese the white Caucasians were older, heavier, taller, and fatter, as judged by skin fold thickness (SFT) and total body weight to 'Ideal' body weight (TBW/IBW) ratio; respective mean differences being 16%, 27%, 4%, 26%, and 15% (p less than 0.05). Mean diazepam apparent volume of distribution (V) and V/IBW were larger in the white Caucasians (52% & 39% respectively, p = 0.002). SFT and TBW/IBW ratio yielded the best correlations with V, V/TBW and V/IBW (0.50-0.75, p less than 0.05). Obesity indices contributed most to the overall regressions (R2 up to 0.52), and for V there was a further small effect (2%, partial F test) due to ethnic group, possibly reflecting stature. Mean peak diazepam concentration (Cmax) was similar in both ethnic groups. Time to Cmax (tmax) was more often prolonged in the Chinese (chi 2 test, p = 0.01). Body fat and stature may thus account for these inter-ethnic differences in the apparent volume of distribution of diazepam, a highly lipid-soluble drug.

  12. A comparison study of the reference curves of bone mineral density at different skeletal sites in native Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Wu, X P; Liao, E Y; Huang, G; Dai, R C; Zhang, H

    2003-08-01

    To understand the differences among reference curves for bone mineral density (BMD) for Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women, we measured the BMD at the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine (L1-L4), lateral lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (including the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, Ward's triangle, and total hip), and ultradistal forearm by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a total of 2728 healthy Chinese women, aged 5-96 years. Documented BMD data for Japanese women and device manufacturer's BMD new reference databases (including the NHANES III dataset) for American Caucasian women were also used in this study. The cubic regression model was found to fit best in analyzing the age-associated variations of BMD at various sites in Chinese women, i.e., the equations had the largest coefficient of determination (R2). At the AP/Lat spine, trochanter, intertrochanter, and Ward's triangle, BMD reference curves for Chinese women were lower than those for Japanese or Caucasian women, while at the femoral neck, total hip, and ultradistal forearm, the reference curves for Chinese women were higher than those for Japanese women, with overlaps and crossing of the curves for some age spans in comparing the Chinese and Caucasian women. There were significant differences in the peak BMD (PBMD) at various sites among the Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian women (P = 0.000). The PBMDs for Chinese women at the lumbar spine and various sites of the hip were 5.7% +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD, range, 2.7-7.9%) lower than those for Japanese women and 5.1% +/- 2.7% (range, 0.5-7.2%) lower than those for Caucasian women; however, the PBMDs for Chinese women were 26.2% higher than those for Japanese women and 10% higher than those for Caucasian women at the ultradistal forearm. After the PBMD, average T-scores of Chinese women for losses at the AP lumbar spine with increasing age were nearly identical to those for Japanese women, but both were greater than those for

  13. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  14. Eating Attitudes and Body Satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Sameena; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthy eating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…

  15. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  16. Psychological Factors of Familial Alcoholism in American Indians and Caucasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Saumty, Deborah; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated within-group differences for Indians with (N=28) and without (N=32) familial history of alcoholism; and assessed cross-cultural differences for Indian (N=31) and Caucasian (N=39) social drinkers with a familial history of alcoholism. Results showed no psychological functioning differences between the Indian groups, but cross-cultural…

  17. Pharmacokinetics of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol in Caucasian and Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Blode, Hartmut; Kowal, Kristin; Roth, Katrin; Reif, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacokinetics of drospirenone (DRSP) and ethinylestradiol (EE) in Caucasian and Japanese women. Method Three open-label, non-randomised studies were performed to assess the pharmacokinetics following single doses of EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg or DRSP monotherapy (1, 3 or 6 mg) in Caucasian (Study 1) and Japanese (Study 2) women, and daily doses with EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg over 21 consecutive days in Caucasian and Japanese women (Study 3). Results In Studies 1 and 2, there was a linear dose-dependent increase in DRSP Cmax and systemic exposure across the range of doses used in both ethnic groups. The coadministration of EE had no relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 mg DRSP. In Study 3, steady-state DRSP concentrations were achieved after about eight days of treatment in both ethnic groups with approximately a threefold accumulation.There was about a twofold EE accumulation over 21 days in both ethnic groups. There were no differences in DRSP or EE exposure at day 21 between ethnic groups; the ratio of the geometric means (Japanese/Caucasian) of the AUC0−24h were 1.05 (90% CI: 0.95–1.17) and 1.02 (90% CI: 0.76–1.38), respectively. Conclusion Ethnic origin had no clinically relevant influence on the pharmacokinetics of DRSP and EE. PMID:22680989

  18. Perceived Counselor Acculturation Levels: Their Pertinence to Caucasian Client Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huan-Chung Scott; Schneider, Lawrence J.

    After reading 1 of 4 randomly-assigned written descriptions of a counselor, a group of 257 Caucasian undergraduates completed the Expectations sbout Counseling: Brief Form (Tinsley, 1982), Confidence Rating scales and Willingness items to examine how the perceived levels of acculturation of the counselor influenced client's perceptions of the…

  19. Racially Based Trust Expectancies of Native American and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Cerda, Carrie

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of trust expectancies among 113 Native American and Caucasian intermediate grade students in same-race and mixed-race schools. Finds that both racial groups had more trust expectancy of their own race. Also finds that this trust expectancy pattern was somewhat less evident in mixed-race schools. (CFR)

  20. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-01

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  1. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  2. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of different formulations of ONO-5334, cathepsin K inhibitor, in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.

  3. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  4. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  5. Decreased physical activity in Pima Indian compared with Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Fontvieille, A M; Kriska, A; Ravussin, E

    1993-08-01

    Since reduced physical activity might be a risk factor for body weight gain, we studied the relationship between physical activity and body composition in 43 Pima Indian children (22 male/21 female, mean +/- s.d.: 9.9 +/- 1.1 years) and 42 Caucasian children (21 male/21 female, 9.7 +/- 1.2 years). A list of usual sport leisure activities was established (e.g. bicycling, swimming, basketball) and the subjects were asked how much time they had devoted to each activity over the past week and the last year. Data on time spent playing outside (excluding sport leisure activities for the estimation of physical activity) and watching television/videos were also collected. Pima Indians were taller (143 +/- 9 vs. 137 +/- 8 cm, P < 0.001), heavier (48.6 +/- 15.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 7.8 kg, P < 0.0001) and fatter (39 +/- 16 vs. 24 +/- 7% fat, P < 0.001) than Caucasians. Pima Indian girls showed significantly lower past year and past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian girls (P < 0.01) and spent significantly more time watching television/videos (P < 0.05). Pima boys also showed significantly lower past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian boys (P < 0.05). In Pima Indian boys, past year sport leisure activity correlated negatively (P < 0.05) with body mass index (r = -0.49) and percentage body fat (r = -0.56). However, such correlations were not found in Pima Indian girls, possibly due their very low levels of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  7. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  8. Native Speakers' Judgments of Second Language Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. N.; Quist, P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines native speakers' reactions to the second language Danish of young Bilingual Turkish-Danish school students. Respondents were asked to evaluate the quality of the Danish of these students on the basis of tape recorded excerpts. Overall, respondents evaluated all speakers more negatively when they considered them to be nonnative Danes, but…

  9. The Māori foot exhibits differences in plantar loading and midfoot morphology to the Caucasian foot.

    PubMed

    Gurney, J K; Kuch, C; Rosenbaum, D; Kersting, U G

    2012-05-01

    The question being addressed in the current study was whether the diabetic Māori foot was more or less prone to ulceration than the diabetic New Zealand Caucasian (NZC) foot. Harris mat and pedobarographic analyses were employed to assess static and dynamic foot morphology and plantar loading in 40 Māori and NZC diabetic and non-diabetic participants. Significantly higher peak pressures were exhibited by the diabetic Māori participants compared to their NZC peers at the central forefoot. Significantly higher static and dynamic arch index values and significantly higher sub-arch angle values were exhibited by the non-diabetic Māori participants compared to their NZC peers. The latter findings suggest that healthy Māori may have a predisposition towards having a flatter foot than healthy NZC, which may have footwear design implications.

  10. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  11. Effects of examiner familiarity on Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, D; Fuchs, L S

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative synthesis of examiner familiarity effects on Caucasian and minority students' test performance. Fourteen controlled studies were coded in terms of methodological quality (high vs. low) and race-ethnicity (Caucasian vs. Black and Hispanic). An analogue to analysis of variance conducted on weighted unbiased effect sizes indicated that examiner familiarity produced a significant effect, with Caucasian and minority examinees' test performance raised by .05 and .72 standard deviations, respectively. Examiner familiarity's differential effect on Caucasian and minority examinees did not interact with the methodological quality of the studies. Nevertheless, limitations of the extant data base require caution in drawing implications for assessment practice. PMID:2914572

  12. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  13. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  14. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene promoter and the risk of alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease in Caucasian Spaniard men.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Teresa; Vidal, Francesc; Broch, Montserrat; Olona, Montserrat; Aguilar, Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; López-Dupla, Miguel; Quer, Joan-Carles; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Richart, Cristóbal

    2010-05-01

    Controversy surrounds the possible influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene promoter on the risk for alcoholic liver disease. Our aim was to determine whether the SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter are associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and for alcoholic liver disease in male Spaniards. The -627 C>A SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter was assessed in a cohort of 344 Caucasian Spanish men, 168 alcoholics, and 176 nonalcoholics. The alcoholic group comprised 79 individuals without liver histopathologic abnormalities and 89 patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. The nonalcoholic group was made of 62 healthy controls and 114 patients with chronic nonalcoholic liver disease. Genotyping was performed using PCR and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared by using the chi(2) test. Overall, no differences in either genotype and allele distribution was observed when comparing the four patient categories defined (P=0.62 and P=0.33, respectively). Subset analyses showed no differences in the genotype and allele distributions between all alcoholic and all nonalcoholic subjects (P=0.55 and P=0.29, respectively). This study failed to detect significant associations of the IL-10 -627C>A SNP and alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease in a cohort of Caucasian male Spaniards.

  15. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  16. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  17. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  18. Danish North Sea crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-09-12

    Danish North Sea blend was assayed earlier this year. The light, sweet crude comprises crude oil from 10 fields. The crude is piped from offshore production facilities to the A/S Dansk Shell refinery at Fredericia, Denmark. Fig. 1 shows the boiling point curve for the crude, and Fig. 2 illustrates the metals content (vanadium, nickel, and iron), as a function of distillation temperature. The table lists properties of the crude and its fractions.

  19. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  20. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  1. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  2. Toe and plantar dermatoglyphics in adult American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Fox, K M; Plato, C C

    1987-09-01

    The scarcity of information on control data of toe and plantar dermatoglyphics led us to undertake this study of adult American Caucasians. Toe and sole prints of 168 male and 83 female participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were analyzed. Toe pattern frequencies demonstrate that fibular loops are the most prevalent pattern on the toes in both males and females. Pattern distribution by digit shows that arches are most often located on the fifth toe while whorls are found with greatest frequency on the third toe. Plantar pattern frequencies indicate that the most common pattern found in the hallucal area is the distal loop. Open fields are frequently found in the II and IV interdigital areas while distal loops are prevalent in the III area. These results are compared to the finger and palmar patterns of the same individuals. The distribution of patterns on the toes and fingers of the same individuals appear to be quite different. Population comparisons did not demonstrate a clear racial difference in the toe pattern frequencies or in the plantar areas.

  3. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  4. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace.

  5. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  6. Similarities and Differences in Chinese and Caucasian Adults' Use of Facial Cues for Trustworthiness Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Background All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for trustworthiness judgments. PMID:22514680

  7. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min-Qiang; Li, Yue-Ping; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Yang; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC) patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER]) database. Methods Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Results A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054), and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767). However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better OS when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, whereas there was no significant difference in the OS between Chinese and Caucasian patients with EAC. Conclusion The presenting demographic features, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of EC patients differed between Chinese and Caucasian patients residing in the US. Chinese patients diagnosed with EAC tended to share similar clinical features with their Caucasian counterparts, and the Chinese patients with ESCC had better OS than their Caucasian counterparts. PMID:27799791

  8. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  9. Heritability of left ventricular structure and function in Caucasian families

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bochud, Murielle; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cusi, Daniele; Fagard, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the heritability as well as genetic and environmental correlations of left ventricular (LV) structural and functional traits in complex pedigrees of a Caucasian population. Methods and results We randomly recruited 459 white European subjects from 52 families (50% women; mean age 45 years). LV structure was measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography and LV function was measured by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Other measurements included blood pressure, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements. We estimated the heritability of LV traits while adjusting for covariables, including sex, age, body height and weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and heart rate. With full adjustment, heritability of LV mass was 0.23 (P= 0.025). The TDI-derived mitral annular velocities Ea and Aa showed moderate heritability (h2= 0.36 and 0.53, respectively), whereas the mitral inflow A peak had weak heritability (h2 = 0.25) and the E peak was not heritable (h2 = 0.11). We partitioned the total phenotypic correlation when it reached significance, into a genetic and an environmental component. The genetic correlations were 0.61 between the E and Ea peaks and 0.90 between the A and Aa peaks. Conclusion Our study demonstrated moderate heritability for LV mass as well as the mitral annular Ea and Aa peaks. We also found significant genetic correlations between the E and Ea peaks and between the A and Aa peaks. Our current findings support the ongoing research to map and detect genetic variants that contribute to the variation in LV mass and other LV structural and functional phenotypes. PMID:21398654

  10. Natural Uranium Tissue Content of Three Caucasian Males.

    PubMed

    Kathren, Ronald L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-09-01

    Uranium content and concentrations were measured in the tissues of three Caucasian male whole body donors to the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries with no known intake other than from natural environmental sources. Average total body uranium content in the three cases was 81.3 ± 22.3 μg, of which 37.2 ± 2.1 μg (46%) was in the skeleton. The skeleton had a mean concentration of 3.79 ± 0.45 μg U kg(-1) wet weight and 11.72 ± 1.49 μg U kg(-1) ash. Distribution was in bone volume and not predominately on bone surfaces. Soft tissue concentrations ranged over about an order of magnitude, averaging about 0.5 μg kg wet weight for all tissues except the thoracic lymph nodes, which averaged 32.3 times the mean for soft tissue of the three cases. Observed thyroid tissue concentrations were about an order of magnitude greater than the average soft tissue concentration in two of the three background cases, suggestive of a possible long-term depot in this organ. Kidney content of uranium averaged 0.38 ± 0.21 μg for the three cases, an order of magnitude lower than the 7 μg recommended for Reference Man. The lower content and concentration in the kidney do not support a significant long-term depot for uranium in that organ. Assuming equilibrium between intake and excretion, the tissue data suggest a transfer coefficient from blood to skeleton of 0.14 with a residence half-life in the skeleton of 4,950 d (13.56 y), significantly greater than the 1,500 d (4.1 y) half-time proposed by ICRP.

  11. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries. PMID:21184978

  12. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  13. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries.

  14. Bone mineral density and leg muscle strength in young Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian women.

    PubMed

    Liang, Michael T C; Bassin, Stanley; Dutto, Darren; Braun, William; Wong, Nathan; Pontello, Andria M; Cooper, Dan M; Arnaud, Sara B

    2007-01-01

    Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of ethnically diverse populations are usually attributed to anthropometric characteristics, but may also be due to life style or diet. We studied healthy young sedentary women with Asian (ASN, n=40), Hispanic (HIS, n=39), or Caucasian (CAU, n=36) backgrounds. Body composition and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic) or PIXI (Lunar GE) for the heel and wrist). Leg strength was quantified with a leg press and dietary calcium was estimated with 3-d diet records. CAU were taller than HIS and ASN (p<0.01). ASN had lower body weights, fat mass, lean body mass, and leg strength than HIS or CAU (p<0.01). Differences in BMD among groups were not eliminated by adjusting for body weight and height at the arm, trochanter, femoral neck, and total hip where BMD values remained lower in the ASN than in HIS or CAU (p<0.01). Conversely, adjusted BMD at the wrist was 7.3% higher in ASN and 8.3% higher in HIS and at the heel, 7.3% higher in ASN and 7.0% higher in HIS than in CAU (p<0.05). Leg strength was a significant predictor of BMD in the hip in CAU (R=0.53, p=0.004), in the hip with dietary calcium in ASN (R=0.65, p=0.02), and in the heel with height in HIS (R=0.57, p=0.03). We conclude that significant factors underlying BMD in ethnically diverse young women vary as a function of ethnicity and include leg strength and dietary calcium as well as anthropometric characteristics.

  15. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  16. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  17. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  18. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  19. Emotional and cognitive health correlates of leisure activities in older Latino and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Angelica P; Meeks, Thomas W; Dawes, Sharron E; Hernandez, Dominique M; Thompson, Wesley K; Sommerfeld, David H; Allison, Matthew A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2011-12-01

    This study examined differences in the frequency of leisure activity participation and relationships to depressive symptom burden and cognition in Latino and Caucasian women. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a demographically matched subsample of Latino and Caucasian (n = 113 each) postmenopausal women (age ≥60 years), interviewed in 2004-2006 for a multiethnic cohort study of successful aging in San Diego County. Frequencies of engagement in 16 leisure activities and associations between objective cognitive performance and depressive symptom burden by ethnicity were identified using bivariate and linear regression, adjusted for physical functioning and demographic covariates. Compared to Caucasian women, Latinas were significantly more likely to be caregivers and used computers less often. Engaging in organized social activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms in both groups. Listening to the radio was positively correlated with lower depressive symptom burden for Latinas and better cognitive functioning in Caucasians. Cognitive functioning was better in Latinas who read and did puzzles. Housework was negatively associated with Latinas' emotional health and Caucasians' cognitive functioning. Latino and Caucasian women participate in different patterns of leisure activities. Additionally, ethnicity significantly affects the relationship between leisure activities and both emotional and cognitive health.

  20. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis. PMID:27672306

  1. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis.

  2. The functional "KL-VS" variant of KLOTHO is not associated with type 2 diabetes in 5028 UK Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Freathy, Rachel M; Weedon, Michael N; Melzer, David; Shields, Beverley; Hitman, Graham A; Walker, Mark; McCarthy, Mark I; Hattersley, Andrew T; Frayling, Timothy M

    2006-01-01

    Background Klotho has an important role in insulin signalling and the development of ageing-like phenotypes in mice. The common functional "KL-VS" variant in the KLOTHO (KL) gene is associated with longevity in humans but its role in type 2 diabetes is not known. We performed a large case-control and family-based study to test the hypothesis that KL-VS is associated with type 2 diabetes in a UK Caucasian population. Methods We genotyped 1793 cases, 1619 controls and 1616 subjects from 509 families for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) F352V (rs9536314) that defines the KL-VS variant. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls. Family-based analysis was used to test for over- or under-transmission of V352 to affected offspring. Results Despite good power to detect odds ratios of 1.2, there were no significant associations between alleles or genotypes and type 2 diabetes (V352 allele: odds ratio = 0.96 (0.84–1.09)). Additional analysis of quantitative trait data in 1177 healthy control subjects showed no association of the variant with fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol (all P > 0.05). However, the HDL-cholesterol levels observed across the genotype groups showed a similar, but non-significant, pattern to previously reported data. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between common functional variation in KL and type 2 diabetes risk. We have found no evidence that the functional KL-VS variant is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a large UK Caucasian case-control and family-based study. PMID:16753056

  3. Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Tammy E; Maroni, Paul D; Ferucci, Paul G; Dayton, Robert; Barnes, Stephen; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Ogden, Lorraine G; Wähälä, Kristiina; Sackett, Holly M; Gray, Karen J

    2005-06-01

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19-65 y old). A secondary goal was to compare plasma and prostatic fluid concentrations of 5 isoflavonoids: genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. Baseline plasma levels of isoflavonoids were quantitated in 45 men by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Participants then consumed a soy beverage daily for 1 wk, and post-soy isoflavonoid levels were quantitated in plasma and prostatic fluid. Equol was the only metabolite that appeared to be influenced by routine dietary habits. Stratified analyses revealed that men who had consumed > or =30 mg soy isoflavones/d for at least 2 y had 5.3-times the probability of producing equol than men who had consumed < or =5 mg/d (P = 0.014). Additionally, those men who consumed animal meat regularly had 4.7-times the probability of producing equol than men who did not consume meat (P = 0.023). Equol production was not linked to age, BMI, or the consumption of yogurt, dairy, fruit, or American-style fast food. Daidzein and its metabolites (but not genistein) were typically present at higher levels in prostate fluid than plasma (median = 4-13 times that in plasma). In conclusion, our data suggest that the ability of Caucasian men to produce equol is favorably influenced by the long-term consumption of high amounts of soy and the consumption of meat. Last, the high concentrations of isoflavonoids in prostatic fluid increases the potential for these compounds to have direct effects in the prostate.

  4. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  6. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  7. Effects of an overnight intravenous lipid infusion on intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity in African-American versus Caucasian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Boesch, Chris; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explain the predisposition for insulin resistance among African American (AA) adolescents, this study aimed to: 1) examine changes in intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity with intralipid (IL) infusion; and 2) determine whether the increase in IMCL is comparable between AA and Caucasian adolescents. Materials and Methods Thirteen AA and 15 Caucasian normal-weight adolescents (BMI <85th) underwent a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, on two occasions in random order, after an overnight 12-hr infusion of: 1) 20% IL and 2) normal saline (NS). IMCL was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tibialis anterior muscle before and after IL infusion. Results During IL infusion, plasma TG, glycerol, FFA and fat oxidation increased significantly, with no race differences. Hepatic insulin sensitivity decreased with IL infusion with no difference between the groups. IL infusion was associated with a significant increase in IMCL, which was comparable between AA (Δ 105%; NS: 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. IL: 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol/kg wet weight) and Caucasian (Δ 86%; NS: 2.8 ± 2.1 vs. IL: 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol/kg wet weight), with similar reductions (P<0.01) in insulin sensitivity between the groups (Δ −44%: NS: 9.1 ± 3.3 vs. IL: 5.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in AA) and (Δ−39%: NS: 12.9 ± 6.0 vs. IL: 7.9 ± 3.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in Caucasian) adolescents. Conclusions In healthy adolescents, an acute elevation in plasma FFA with IL infusion is accompanied by significant increases in IMCL and reductions in insulin sensitivity with no race differential. Our findings suggest that AA normal-weight adolescents are not more susceptible than Caucasians to FFA-induced IMCL accumulation and insulin resistance. PMID:23122836

  8. Differences in coagulation among Asians and Caucasians and the implication for reconstructive microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Dhruv; Smorodinsky, Emmanuil; Guo, Lifei

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular reconstructive surgery has seen a revival with the introduction of muscle-sparing perforator flaps. Recognition of potential ethnic differences in coagulation profiles would be important to a microvascular surgeon. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesize that Asian patients have a less thrombogenic coagulation profile than Caucasians. An extensive retrospective review was performed. The annual incidence of venous thromboembolism in the United States is generally accepted to range from 70 to 120 events per 100,000 people versus 16 to 17 events per 100,000 persons in Asia. Autopsy analysis of pulmonary embolism incidence was noted to be 15% in North Americans and less than 1% in Asian populations. Thromboelastography analysis of Asian and Caucasian patients undergoing cholecystectomy revealed different hemostatic mechanisms. Comparison of Asians and Caucasians undergoing the Fontan procedure revealed significantly lower postoperative factor levels in Asians than Caucasians. Baseline comparison of factor and serum levels revealed Asians with the least thrombogenic profiles compared with other ethnic groups. Asians and Caucasians demonstrate different baseline rates of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, different hemostatic responses to surgery, and different baseline levels of clotting factors. Further study may lead to better pre-, intra-, and postoperative care of the free flap patient based on their ethnic coagulation profile.

  9. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  11. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  12. Digestibility, apparent mineral absorption, and voluntary intake by horses fed alfalfa, tall fescue, and caucasian bluestem.

    PubMed

    Crozier, J A; Allen, V G; Jack, N E; Fontenot, J P; Cochran, M A

    1997-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), low-endophyte (< 5%) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica [Trin.] C.E. Hubbard) were fed as chopped hay to six Arabian geldings (BW 441 kg; SE 2) in intake and digestibility experiments to determine nutritional value for horses at maintenance. Each experimental design was a replicated Latin square. Alfalfa was higher in DM and CP digestibility, IVDMD, apparent absorption of Ca, K, and S, and voluntary intake than the grasses (P < .05). Caucasian bluestem was higher in Zn but was lower in CP, TNC, Mg, P, K, S, and Cu concentrations than tall fescue. Crude protein digestibility and apparent absorption of Mg, K, and S were higher (P < .05) for tall fescue than for caucasian bluestem. Geldings fed alfalfa for ad libitum intake had higher serum concentrations of vitamin A, blood urea nitrogen, P, S, and Cu than geldings fed grass hays. Serum Zn was higher (P < .05), whole blood Se tended to be higher (P < .06), and BUN was lower (P < .05) in geldings fed caucasian bluestem than in those fed tall fescue. All forages met requirements for CP, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe when fed for ad libitum intake but were deficient in Cu for horses at maintenance. Caucasian bluestem was borderline in CP and was deficient in P but was the only forage that met the Zn requirement for the horses. Based on these results, caucasian bluestem could be a useful hay for horses but may require supplementation of CP and P. PMID:9250529

  13. BANK1 functional variants are associated with susceptibility to diffuse systemic sclerosis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, B; Gourh, P; Broen, J; Agarwal, S K; Simeon, C; Ortego-Centeno, N; Vonk, M C; Coenen, M; Riemekasten, G; Hunzelmann, N; Hesselstrand, R; Tan, F K; Reveille, J D; Assassi, S; Garcia-Hernandez, F J; Carreira, P; Camps, M; Fernandez-Nebro, A; de la Peña, P Garcia; Nearney, T; Hilda, D; Gónzalez-Gay, M A; Airo, P; Beretta, L; Scorza, R; Radstake, T R D J; Mayes, M D; Arnett, F C; Martin, J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible association of the BANK1 gene with genetic susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its subphenotypes. Methods A large multicentre case–control association study including 2380 patients with SSc and 3270 healthy controls from six independent case–control sets of Caucasian ancestry (American, Spanish, Dutch, German, Swedish and Italian) was conducted. Three putative functional BANK1 polymorphisms (rs17266594 T/C, rs10516487 G/A, rs3733197 G/A) were selected as genetic markers and genotyped by Taqman 5´ allelic discrimination assay. Results A significant association of the rs10516487 G and rs17266594 T alleles with SSc susceptibility was observed (pooled OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22; p=0.01 and pooled OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.25; p=0.003, respectively), whereas the rs3733197 genetic variant showed no statistically significant deviation. Stratification for cutaneous SSc phenotype showed that the BANK1 rs10516487 G, rs17266594 T and rs3733197 G alleles were strongly associated with susceptibility to diffuse SSc (dcSSc) (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.37, p=0.005; pooled OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.41, p=0.001; pooled OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31, p=0.02, respectively). Similarly, stratification for specific SSc autoantibodies showed that the association of BANK1 rs10516487, rs17266594 and rs3733197 polymorphisms was restricted to the subgroup of patients carrying anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41, p=0.03; pooled OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.46, p=0.01; pooled OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.47, p=0.004, respectively). Conclusion The results suggest that the BANK1 gene confers susceptibility to SSc in general, and specifically to the dcSSc and anti-topoisomerase I antibody subsets. PMID:19815934

  14. Evidence for association of two variants of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor gene OPRL1 with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Judith A.; Nielsen, David A.; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Londono, Douglas; Ho, Ann; Ott, Jurg; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The OPRL1 gene encodes the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP-R), which plays a role in regulating tolerance and behavioral responses to morphine. However, there is limited information on whether variants of OPRL1 are associated with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. In this study, we examined five variants of OPRL1 and their role in determining vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. Methods We recruited 447 subjects: 271 former severe heroin addicts and 176 healthy controls. Using a 5′-fluorogenic exonuclease assay (TaqMan®), we genotyped subjects at five variants in OPRL1. It was then determined whether there was a significant association of allele, genotype, or haplotype frequency with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction. Results When the cohort was stratified by ethnicity, we found that, in Caucasians but not in African Americans or Hispanics, the allele frequency of rs6090041 and rs6090043 were significantly associated point-wise with opiate addiction (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Of the haplotypes formed by these two variants, one haplotype was found to be associated with protection from developing opiate addiction in both African Americans (point-wise P = 0.04) and Caucasians (point-wise P = 0.04), and another haplotype with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction in Caucasians only (P = 0.020). Conclusions This study provides evidence for an association of two variants of the OPRL1 gene, rs6090041 and rs6090043, with vulnerability to develop opiate addiction, suggesting a role for NOP-R in the development of opiate addiction. PMID:20032820

  15. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published.

  16. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrates a significant association of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) with primary immune thrombocytopenia among Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Sarpatwari, Ameet; Bussel, James B; Ahmed, Momin; Erqou, Sebhat; Semple, John W; Newland, Adrian C; Bennett, Dimitri; Pharoah, Paul; Provan, Drew

    2011-07-01

    T-helper 1 polarization in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is well documented. However, the genetic contribution to this imbalance remains unclear. To address this question, we selected six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms within cytokine or cytokine receptor genes for association testing among Caucasian adults. Patients from the United Kingdom Adult ITP Registry were gender-matched (1:3) with healthy controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Variants IL10 -819 c>t, TNFA -308 g>a, TGFB1 -509 c>t, IL1A -889 c>t, IL10 -592 c>t, and IL4R q576r were measured in cases and retrieved for controls from the European Genome-phenome Archive. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. In total, 206 patients with primary ITP were matched with 618 controls. A significant per allele odds ratio of 1·34 (95% confidence interval, 1·03-1·75; P = 0·03) was observed for TNFA -308 g>a, implicating an increased disease susceptibility among Caucasian carriers of the rare allele.

  18. Evaluation and comparison of nasal airway flow patterns among three subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups using computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-31

    Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity. PMID:20854936

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories in Caucasian Americans and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Sandra; Fernandez, Senaida; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Vaccarino, Vivian Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Although the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory are two of the most widely used instruments for assessing depressive and anxious symptoms in both clinical and nonclinical populations, their cross-cultural reliability and validity have yet to be fully established. In this study, 2,703 Caucasian American and 1,110 Latino college…

  20. Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Kligman, A M

    1979-09-01

    The photoprotective role of melanin was evaluated by comparing the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through skin samples of blacks and Caucasians, using both biologic and spectroscopic techniques. UVA transmission was measured using fluoranthene, which causes a phototoxic response to UVA wavelength. UVB was measured by monitoring erythema produced by either a 150-watt xenon arc or FS-20 sunlamps. It was found that on the average, five times as much ultraviolet light (UVB and UVA) reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians as reaches that of blacks. Differences in transmission between the stratum corneum of blacks and of Caucasians were far less striking. The main site of UV filtration in Caucasians is the stratum corneum, whereas in blacks it is the malpighian layers. Melanin acts as a neutral density filter, reducing all wavelengths of light equally. The superior photoprotection of black epidermis is due not only to increased melanin content but also to other factors related to packaging and distribution of melanosomes. Not only are these data consistent with epidemiologic evidence, but they also may indicate why blacks are less disposed to phototoxic drug responses as well as less susceptible to acute and chronic actinic damage. PMID:512075

  1. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  2. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…

  3. Visible Minority, Aboriginal, and Caucasian Children Investigated by Canadian Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…

  4. Factors That Contribute to Learning Difference among African American and Caucasian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen Earl

    This report examines the learning styles of Caucasian and African-American students. While research supports the claim that low academic achievement is prevalent in the minority community, there is no consensus regarding the causes. There are two schools of thought that involve (1) the cognitive deficit or genetic cause, and (2) the cultural…

  5. Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  6. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  7. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  8. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  9. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  10. Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Kligman, A M

    1979-09-01

    The photoprotective role of melanin was evaluated by comparing the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through skin samples of blacks and Caucasians, using both biologic and spectroscopic techniques. UVA transmission was measured using fluoranthene, which causes a phototoxic response to UVA wavelength. UVB was measured by monitoring erythema produced by either a 150-watt xenon arc or FS-20 sunlamps. It was found that on the average, five times as much ultraviolet light (UVB and UVA) reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians as reaches that of blacks. Differences in transmission between the stratum corneum of blacks and of Caucasians were far less striking. The main site of UV filtration in Caucasians is the stratum corneum, whereas in blacks it is the malpighian layers. Melanin acts as a neutral density filter, reducing all wavelengths of light equally. The superior photoprotection of black epidermis is due not only to increased melanin content but also to other factors related to packaging and distribution of melanosomes. Not only are these data consistent with epidemiologic evidence, but they also may indicate why blacks are less disposed to phototoxic drug responses as well as less susceptible to acute and chronic actinic damage.

  11. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed, leaving the…

  12. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor. PMID:17573655

  13. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  14. Cultural Variations in Parenting: Perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Teresa W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined cultural variations in parenting attitudes, behavior, and involvement of mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Findings from Caucasian (n=2,642), African-American (n=469), Hispanic-American (n=357), and Asian-American (n=49) parents revealed that, as group, ethnic parents indicated greater general emphasis on children exerting…

  15. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  16. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  17. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture.

  18. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  19. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  20. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  1. Body composition is the main determinant for the difference in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology between Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko; Ohsugi, Mitsuru; Overgaard, Rune V; Lynge, Jan; Almind, Katrine; Vasconcelos, Nina-Maria; Poulsen, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte; Ueki, Kohjiro; Ingwersen, Steen H; Pedersen, Bente K; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional clinical study compared the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Japanese and Caucasians and investigated the role of demographic, genetic, and lifestyle-related risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasians were enrolled to obtain comparable distributions of high/low BMI values across glucose tolerance states (normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), which were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. BMI in the two cohorts was distributed around the two regional cutoff values for obesity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was higher in Japanese compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indices, whereas β-cell response was higher in Caucasians, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, the insulinogenic indices, and insulin secretion ratios. Disposition indices were similar for Japanese and Caucasians at all glucose tolerance states, indicating similar β-cell response relative to the degree of insulin resistance. The main determinants for differences in metabolic indices were measures of body composition, such as BMI and distribution of adipose tissue. Differences in β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians were not statistically significant following adjustment by differences in BMI. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed similar disposition indices in Japanese and Caucasians and that the major part of the differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians can be explained by differences in body composition.

  2. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, David; Martin, Lisa W.; Leman, Robert; Chandler, Mary; Haywood, L. Julian

    2006-01-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study concluded that rate control with anticoagulation was equivalent overall to rhythm control with cardioversion for long-term survival and that anticoagulation reduced the risk of stroke. We compared baseline and follow-up data for three ethnic groups: Caucasians (n=3,599), African Americans (n=265) and Hispanics (n=132). Caucasians were older and more likely male, African Americans were more likely female and hypertensive, and Hispanics had higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Survival was better for rate control than rhythm control in Caucasians, equivalent in African Americans and better for rhythm control in Hispanics. Outcomes may be influenced by differential baseline characteristics, but low numbers of African Americans and Hispanics warrant caution in data interpretation. BACKGROUND: The AFFIRM study compared a rate-control strategy to a rhythm-control strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients at high risk for stroke or death. It concluded that the rhythm-control strategy offered no survival advantage, and it also confirmed the value of anticoagulation to prevent complications of AF. Data have not previously been available for specific racial ethnic populations. METHODS: We compared baseline and follow-up data for the patients randomized to rate-control versus rhythm-control in three population groups-Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic. RESULTS: Among 4,060 total patients, 3,599 were Caucasian, 265 were African-American and 132 were Hispanic. At baseline, Caucasians were older and had a higher percentage of males, normal ejection fractions, AF as their only cardiac diagnosis, a prior antiarrhythmic drug failure and less congestive heart failure. African Americans were more likely to be female, had more hypertension and qualified for the study with a first episode of AF, compared to Caucasians. Hispanics had more cardiomyopathy at baseline than

  3. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  4. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  5. Comparison of anterior segment morphology following prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy in Caucasian and Chinese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Roland Y; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare anterior segment biometric parameters between Caucasians and Chinese before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Design Prospective clinical cohort study Participants Caucasian and Chinese primary angle closure suspects. Methods Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after LPI were analyzed to measure anterior segment biometric parameters. Paired Student’s t-tests were used for within-ethnic group comparisons. Univariate and linear mixed-effects regression models were used for between-ethnic group comparisons. Main Outcome Measures angle opening distance (AOD500, AOD750); angle recess area (ARA750); iris thickness (IT750, IT2000, ITM); iris curvature (ICURV); anterior chamber area (ACA); anterior chamber volume (ACV); and anterior chamber width (ACW). Results Caucasians had significantly greater preoperative ARA750, ACW, and ICURV and lower preoperative IT2000 compared to Chinese (P<0.05). Ethnic differences in preoperative AOD500, AOD750, IT750, ITCM, ACA, and ACV were insignificant (P>0.05). Significant postoperative increases in AOD500, AOD750, ARA750, ACA, ACV, and ACW along with significant postoperative decrease in ICURV were observed within both ethnic groups (P<0.05). However, the amount of LPI-induced changes in AOD500, AOD750, ARA750, ACA, ACV, ACW, and ICURV did not differ between the two ethnic groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Both Caucasian and Chinese demonstrated opening of anterior chamber angle width (AOD500, AOD750, ARA750), expansion of anterior chamber dimensions (ACA, ACV, ACW), and flattening of iris convexity (ICURV) after LPI. Although certain aspects of anterior segment anatomy differed between Caucasians and Chinese preoperatively, they did not translate into significant ethnic differences in the amount of LPI-induced changes in the anterior segment biometric parameters. PMID:24119221

  6. Differences in subclinical cardiovascular disease between African American and Caucasian women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Elisa Y; Manzi, Susan M; Dyer, Alan R; Kao, Amy H; Danchenko, Natalya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D; Pearce, William; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-02-01

    Racial differences exist in disease rates and mortality in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the frequency and risk factors for subclinical CVD in African American (AA) and Caucasian women with SLE and no prior CVD events. Traditional CVD risk factors and SLE-related factors were assessed in 309 SLE women. Subclinical CVD was assessed by carotid ultrasound to measure intimamedial thickness (IMT) and plaque, and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) was used to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC). AA women had less education and higher levels of body mass index, blood pressure, lipoprotein(a), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, AA women had lower albumin, more and longer duration of corticosteroid use, higher SLE disease activity and damage, and more dsDNA antibodies compared with Caucasian women after adjustment for age and study site. More AA women had carotid plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.65) and higher carotid IMT (0.620 vs 0.605 mm, P = 0.07) but similar CAC compared with Caucasians. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following risk factor variables were significantly different between the racial groups and associated with plaque: blood pressure, current corticosteroid use, SLE disease activity, and SLE damage. All factors contributed to the result, but no individual risk factor fully accounted for the association between race and plaque. In conclusion, the presence of carotid plaque was higher in AA compared with Caucasian women with SLE, in contrast to studies of non-SLE subjects, in which AA have similar or less plaque than Caucasians. A combination of SLE-related and traditional CVD risk factors explained the racial difference in plaque burden. PMID:19138649

  7. Kidney transplantation outcomes in African-, Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Mattiazzi, A; Schultz, D R; Guerra, G; Ladino, M; Ortega, L M; Garcia-Estrada, M; Ramadugu, P; Gupta, C; Kupin, W L; Roth, D

    2012-01-01

    African-American recipients of kidney transplants with lupus have high allograft failure risk. We studied their risk adjusting for: (1) socio-demographic factors: donor age, gender and race-ethnicity; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; donor-recipient race-ethnicity match; (2) immunologic factors: donor type, panel reactive antibodies, HLA mismatch, ABO blood type compatibility, pre-transplant dialysis, cytomegalovirus risk and delayed graft function (DGF); (3) rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Two thousand four hundred and six African-, 1132 Hispanic-, and 2878 Caucasian-Americans were followed for 12 years after transplantation. African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans received more kidneys from deceased donors (71.6%, 57.3% and 55.1%) with higher two HLA loci mismatches for HLA-A (50%, 39.6% and 32.4%), HLA-B (52%, 42.8% and 35.6%) and HLA-DR (30%, 24.5% and 21.1%). They developed more DGF (19.5%, 13.6% and 13.4%). More African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans developed rejection (41.7%, 27.6% and 35.9%) and RLN (3.2, 1.8 and 1.8%). 852 African-, 265 Hispanic-, and 747 Caucasian-Americans had allograft failure (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for transplant era, socio-demographic-immunologic differences, rejection and RLN, the increased hazard ratio for allograft failure of African- compared with Caucasian-Americans became non-significant (1.26 [95% confidence interval 0.78-2.04]). African-Americans with lupus have high prevalence of risk factors for allograft failure that can explain poor outcomes.

  8. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  9. Leptin-receptor polymorphisms relate to obesity through blunted leptin-mediated sympathetic nerve activation in a Caucasian male population.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Kazuko; Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Gavin W; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Socratous, Florentia; Hastings, Jacqueline; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Ogihara, Toshio; Esler, Murray D

    2008-06-01

    Leptin plays a key role in the regulation of body weight through the sympathetic nervous system; however, the contributions of leptin-receptor polymorphisms to obesity and sympathetic nerve activity have not been fully clarified. In the present study, we examined the relationships between leptin-receptor polymorphisms, plasma leptin and whole-body norepinephrine (NE) spillover as an index of sympathetic nerve activity in a Caucasian male cohort. In 129 young healthy normotensive men with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) (19.4-39.5 kg/m(2)), we measured leptin-receptor polymorphisms (Gln223Arg, Lys656Asn, and Lys109Arg), plasma leptin levels, whole-body NE spillover, whole-body NE clearance, BMI and blood pressure (BP) levels in the supine position after overnight fasting. Overweight-obese (BMI>or=25 kg/m(2)) subjects had significantly greater BMI, BP levels, plasma leptin and whole-body NE spillover compared to lean (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects, but the NE clearance was similar. Overweight-obese subjects had significantly higher frequencies of the Arg223 allele and the Arg223 homozygous allele of Gln223Arg and the Asn656 allele of Lys656Asn compared to lean subjects. Subjects carrying the Arg223 homozygous or the Asn656 allele had higher levels of plasma leptin, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but significantly less whole-body NE spillover, especially when they were also overweight-obese. BP levels and whole-body NE clearance were similar between subjects with and without the Arg223 homozygous or Asn656 allele. No differences were found in the distributions of the Arg109 allele of Lys109Arg polymorphism between nonobese and overweight-obese subjects. In addition, BMI, BP, plasma leptin levels, whole-body NE spillover and whole-body NE clearance were similar between those with and without the Arg109 allele. Together, these findings demonstrate that leptin-receptor polymorphisms were related to the incidence of obesity in a Caucasian male

  10. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  11. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  12. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  13. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  14. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  16. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  17. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  18. Acculturation and expressed emotion in Caucasian, Latino, and black relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Vamsi K; de Mamani, Amy G Weisman

    2007-11-01

    High expressed emotion (high EE) in family members (high levels of criticism, emotional overinvolvement, and/or hostility) has been found to be predictive of a poorer course of illness for patients with schizophrenia in many different cultures. Acculturation has also been found to relate to symptom severity and clinical course in a number of disorders (e.g., substance abuse, schizophrenia). There is reason to believe that acculturation may interact with EE, however, this relationship has yet to be examined systematically. The present study evaluated the relationship between acculturation and EE in a sample of 57 Caucasian, Latino, and black caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Drawing from earlier research, it was hypothesized that more acculturated Caucasian and Latino relatives and less acculturated black relatives would be designated as high EE. Hypotheses were partially supported as results demonstrated that greater acculturation was associated with high EE for Latinos and low EE for blacks. PMID:18000456

  19. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  20. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  1. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  2. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants

    PubMed Central

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding. PMID:22625845

  3. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  4. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  5. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Anna E; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  6. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  7. SORL1 is genetically associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Akinori; Koike, Asako; Jun, Gyungah; Wang, Li-San; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Shoji, Mikio; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Asada, Takashi; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Hanyu, Haruo; Higuchi, Susumu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Suga, Masaichi; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Imagawa, Masaki; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Morihara, Takashi; Moriaha, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Takao, Takeo; Nakata, Kenji; Fujisawa, Yoshikatsu; Sasaki, Ken; Watanabe, Ken; Nakashima, Kenji; Urakami, Katsuya; Ooya, Terumi; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Serikawa, Kayoko; Yoshimoto, Seishi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Won, Hong-Hee; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Mook-Jung, Inhee; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Yoshida, Makiko; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Ken; Tsuji, Shoji; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Farrer, Lindsay A; Kuwano, Ryozo

    2013-01-01

    To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5) were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10(-7) in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10(-9)) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10(-8)). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10(-5)) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10(-4)). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.

  8. Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Striking differences exist between countries in the incidence of breast cancer. The causes of these differences are unknown, but because incidence rates change in migrants, they are thought to be due to lifestyle rather than genetic differences. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine breast cancer risk factors in populations with different risks for breast cancer. Methods We compared breast cancer risk factors among three groups of postmenopausal Canadian women at substantially different risk of developing breast cancer - Caucasians (N = 413), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (N = 216), and recent Chinese migrants (N = 421). Information on risk factors and dietary acculturation were collected by telephone interviews using questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken at a home visit. Results Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants weighed on average 14 kg less, were 6 cm shorter, had menarche a year later, were more often parous, less often had a family history of breast cancer or a benign breast biopsy, a higher Chinese dietary score, and a lower Western dietary score. For most of these variables, Western born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had values intermediate between those of Caucasians and recent Chinese migrants. We estimated five-year absolute risks for breast cancer using the Gail Model and found that risk estimates in Caucasians would be reduced by only 11% if they had the risk factor profile of recent Chinese migrants for the risk factors in the Gail Model. Conclusions Our results suggest that in addition to the risk factors in the Gail Model, there likely are other factors that also contribute to the large difference in breast cancer risk between Canada and China. PMID:20053286

  9. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  10. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  11. Dosing Algorithms to Predict Warfarin Maintenance Dose in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schelleman, Hedi; Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Zhen; Christie, Jason; Newcomb, Craig W.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Price, Maureen; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Kealey, Carmel; Thorn, Caroline F.; Samaha, Frederick F.; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical, environmental, and genetic factors can be used to develop dosing algorithms for Caucasians and African Americans that perform better than giving empirical 5 mg/day. Methods From April 2002 through December 2005, 259 warfarin initiators were prospectively followed until they reached maintenance dose. Results The Caucasian algorithm included 11 variables (R2=0.43). This model (51% within 1 mg) performed better compared with 5 mg/day (29% within 5±1 mg). The African American algorithm included 10 variables (R2=0.28). This model predicted 37% of doses within 1 mg of the observed dose; a small improvement compared with 5 mg/day (34%). These results were similar to the results we obtained from testing other (published) algorithms. Conclusions The dosing algorithms in Caucasians explained <45% of the variability and the algorithms in African Americans performed only marginally better than giving 5 mg empirically. PMID:18596683

  12. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture. PMID:24352586

  13. Looking at faces from different angles: Europeans fixate different features in Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Armann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Race categorization of faces is a fast and automatic process and is known to affect further face processing profoundly and at earliest stages. Whether processing of own- and other-race faces might rely on different facial cues, as indicated by diverging viewing behavior, is much under debate. We therefore aimed to investigate two open questions in our study: (1) Do observers consider information from distinct facial features informative for race categorization or do they prefer to gain global face information by fixating the geometrical center of the face? (2) Does the fixation pattern, or, if facial features are considered relevant, do these features differ between own- and other-race faces? We used eye tracking to test where European observers look when viewing Asian and Caucasian faces in a race categorization task. Importantly, in order to disentangle centrally located fixations from those towards individual facial features, we presented faces in frontal, half-profile and profile views. We found that observers showed no general bias towards looking at the geometrical center of faces, but rather directed their first fixations towards distinct facial features, regardless of face race. However, participants looked at the eyes more often in Caucasian faces than in Asian faces, and there were significantly more fixations to the nose for Asian compared to Caucasian faces. Thus, observers rely on information from distinct facial features rather than facial information gained by centrally fixating the face. To what extent specific features are looked at is determined by the face's race. PMID:24796509

  14. Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. )

    1994-07-01

    There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  16. Repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene contribute to Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Martin A; John-Williams, Krista; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Naj, Adam; Whitehead, Patrice; Hamilton, Kara; Carney, Regina M; Wright, Clinton; Crocco, Elizabeth; Gwirtzman, Harry E; Lang, Rosalyn; Beecham, Gary; Martin, Eden R; Gilbert, John; Benatar, Michael; Small, Gary W; Mash, Deborah; Byrd, Goldie; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Züchner, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    Recently, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has been identified to account for a significant portion of Caucasian families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Given the clinical overlap of FTD with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we hypothesized that C9ORF72 expansions might contribute to AD. In Caucasians, we found C9ORF72 expansions in the pathogenic range of FTD/ALS (>30 repeats) at a proportion of 0.76% in AD cases versus 0 in control subjects (p = 3.3E-03; 1182 cases, 1039 controls). In contrast, no large expansions were detected in individuals of African American ethnicity (291 cases, 620 controls). However, in the range of normal variation of C9ORF72 expansions (0-23 repeat copies), we detected significant differences in distribution and mean repeat counts between Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical and pathological re-evaluation of identified C9ORF72 expansion carriers revealed 9 clinical and/or autopsy confirmed AD and 2 FTD final diagnoses. Thus, our results support the notion that large C9ORF72 expansions lead to a phenotypic spectrum of neurodegenerative disease including AD.

  17. Clinicopathological pattern of pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese autopsy patients: comparison with Caucasian series.

    PubMed

    Chau, K Y; Yuen, S T; Wong, M P

    1997-08-01

    The clinicopathological data of adult Chinese patients identified to have 'significant pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)' at autopsy in Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) Hong Kong, from 1990 to 1994 inclusive, were analysed retrospectively. The prevalence of PTE was documented and data were compared with published series of Caucasian patients. The parameters studied included sex-age distribution, associated diseases, symptomatology, site of venous thrombosis, duration of admission and intervals between surgery and death. The rate of PTE was 4.7% (4.5% in males and 5.2% in females). The mean age of PTE patients was significantly higher than that of non-PTE patients (p < 0.001). Two clinicopathological features worthy of note are: (1) as in Caucasian patients, most Chinese patients with 'significant PTE' do not present with leg symptoms although many of them are found to have deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at postmortem; and (2) DVT in these patients is found in the calf veins rather than in the more proximal deep veins. The recently identified racial differences in hemostasis that may contribute to the differences between Chinese and Caucasian people are discussed.

  18. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.

  19. Molecular identification of rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles in Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Silvia; Scarcello, Antonio; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo

    2015-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies on Duffy blood group antigens have identified mutations underlying rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles. FY*Null has a high frequency in Blacks, especially from sub-Saharan Africa, while its frequency is not defined in Caucasians. FY*X allele, associated with Fy(a-b+w) phenotype, has a frequency of 2-3.5% in Caucasian people while it is absent in Blacks. During the project of extensive blood group genotyping in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies, we identified FY*X/FY*Null and FY*A/FY*Null genotypes in a Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia. We speculate on the frequency of FY*X and FY*Null alleles in Caucasian and Black people; further, we focused on the association of FY*X allele with weak Fyb antigen expression on red blood cells and its identification performing high sensitivity serological typing methods or genotyping.

  20. Comprehensive characterization of human genome variation by high coverage whole-genome sequencing of forty four Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Chao; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Zikai; Zhao, Fuping; Liao, Li; Chen, Jun; Lin, Yong; Tian, Qing; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing studies are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the vast pattern of human genomic variations. Here we report the results of a high-coverage whole genome sequencing study for 44 unrelated healthy Caucasian adults, each sequenced to over 50-fold coverage (averaging 65.8×). We identified approximately 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2.8 million short insertions and deletions, and over 500,000 block substitutions. We showed that, although previous studies, including the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 study, have catalogued the vast majority of common SNPs, many of the low-frequency and rare variants remain undiscovered. For instance, approximately 1.4 million SNPs and 1.3 million short indels that we found were novel to both the dbSNP and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 data sets, and the majority of which (∼96%) have a minor allele frequency less than 5%. On average, each individual genome carried ∼3.3 million SNPs and ∼492,000 indels/block substitutions, including approximately 179 variants that were predicted to cause loss of function of the gene products. Moreover, each individual genome carried an average of 44 such loss-of-function variants in a homozygous state, which would completely "knock out" the corresponding genes. Across all the 44 genomes, a total of 182 genes were "knocked-out" in at least one individual genome, among which 46 genes were "knocked out" in over 30% of our samples, suggesting that a number of genes are commonly "knocked-out" in general populations. Gene ontology analysis suggested that these commonly "knocked-out" genes are enriched in biological process related to antigen processing and immune response. Our results contribute towards a comprehensive characterization of human genomic variation, especially for less-common and rare variants, and provide an invaluable resource for future genetic studies of human variation and diseases.

  1. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055

  2. Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

    1989-08-01

    The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer.

  3. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications.

  4. Your Guide to Healthy Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep apnea. This condition occurs more frequently in African Americans, Asians, Native Americans, and Hispanics than in Caucasians. More than one-half of all people who have sleep apnea are not diagnosed. People ...

  5. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  6. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  7. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter concisus from Danish diarrheic patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik; Torpdahl, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C. concisus isolates from Danish diarrheic patients. Multilocus sequence typing using the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD and pgm, as well as genomospecies based on specific differences in the 23S rRNA, was used to characterize 67 isolates (63 fecal and 4 oral), from 49 patients with different clinical presentations (29 with diarrhea, eight with bloody diarrhea, seven with collagenous colitis and five with Crohn's disease). MLST revealed a high diversity of C. concisus with 53 sequence types (STs), of which 52 were identified as 'new' STs. Allele sequences showed more than 90 % similarity between isolates, with only four outliers. Dendrogram profiles of each allele showed a division into two groups, which more or less correlated with genomospecies A and genomospecies B. However, in contrary to previous results, this subgrouping had no association to the clinical severity of disease. PMID:27688814

  9. Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter concisus from Danish diarrheic patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik; Torpdahl, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C. concisus isolates from Danish diarrheic patients. Multilocus sequence typing using the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD and pgm, as well as genomospecies based on specific differences in the 23S rRNA, was used to characterize 67 isolates (63 fecal and 4 oral), from 49 patients with different clinical presentations (29 with diarrhea, eight with bloody diarrhea, seven with collagenous colitis and five with Crohn's disease). MLST revealed a high diversity of C. concisus with 53 sequence types (STs), of which 52 were identified as 'new' STs. Allele sequences showed more than 90 % similarity between isolates, with only four outliers. Dendrogram profiles of each allele showed a division into two groups, which more or less correlated with genomospecies A and genomospecies B. However, in contrary to previous results, this subgrouping had no association to the clinical severity of disease.

  10. Relationship between MRI-Measured Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue and Hip and Spine Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian Participants: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Context: An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Objective: In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. Design: T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38–52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = −0.399 to −0.550, P < 0.001). The inverse associations between BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = −0. 296 to −0.549, P < 0.001). Among body composition measures, skeletal muscle was the strongest correlate of BMD after adjusting for BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268–0.614, P < 0.05), with little additional contribution from weight, SAT, VAT, or total adipose tissue. Conclusion: In this middle-aged population, a negative relationship existed between MRI-measured BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density. PMID:22319043

  11. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  12. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment. PMID:26333608

  13. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  14. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  15. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  16. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  17. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  18. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  19. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

  20. Cephalometric comparisons between Chinese and Caucasian patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Lowe, A A; Zeng, X; Fu, M; Fleetham, J A

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of adult men from different ethnic backgrounds and with obstructive sleep apnea; they were selected by matching age, gender, skeletal pattern, body mass index, and respiratory disturbance index. Pretreatment cephalometric radiographs and overnight polysomnograms of 30 Chinese and 43 Caucasian patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were analyzed to investigate if there were craniofacial and upper airway structural differences between the two ethnic groups. The Chinese group, when compared with the group of Caucasian patients, revealed more severe underlying craniofacial skeletal discrepancies with significantly smaller maxilla and mandibles, more severe mandibular retrognathism, proclined lower incisors, increased total and upper facial heights, and steeper and shorter anterior cranial bases. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in posterior facial height, ratio of upper to lower anterior facial height, and the position of hyoid bone, maxilla, and upper incisors. With regard to soft tissue and upper airway measurements, there were no significant ethnic differences in tongue and soft palate size, vertical length of oropharynx, and anteroposterior dimensions of the upper airway at most of the levels except for a larger super-posterior airway space, a larger nasopharynx and oropharynx cross-sectional area, and a smaller tongue height in the Chinese group. We conclude that there are a number of craniofacial and upper airway structures that differ between the two ethnic groups that may be relevant to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in various ethnic groups.

  1. Facultative skin pigmentation in caucasians: an objective biological indicator of lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation?

    PubMed

    Lock-Andersen, J; Knudstorp, N D; Wulf, H C

    1998-05-01

    To investigate age and gender trends in facultative and constitutive skin pigmentation we measured skin pigmentation non-invasively and objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 653 caucasians (336 females and 317 males; mean age 38 years, range 0-85) who were not using artificial tanning devices. In all subjects, measurements were performed in the late winter and pre-spring period at five sites exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation: the forehead, the upper chest, the upper back and the lateral and medial aspects of the upper arm, and in UV-unexposed buttock skin. Constitutive pigmentation at the buttocks was highest in the first years of life and then decreased substantially during the first two decades of life (P < 0.01). After the age of 25 years, buttock pigmentation remained at a constant level (P = 0.20). There was no gender difference in constitutive pigmentation. Facultative skin pigmentation increased with age for all the measured sites with the highest levels found at the lateral aspect of the upper arm. Based on observations in this study we propose the idea of a 'sun exposure index' (SEI) for individuals, based on objective measurements of skin pigmentation. The SEI is calculated as the increase in facultative pigmentation above the constitutive level and is expressed as a percentage of the constitutive level. The SEI appeared to be related to cumulative lifetime UV exposure and may be used in epidemiological research as an objective estimate of UV exposure at different body sites in caucasians.

  2. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women.

  3. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  4. Is alcohol-related flushing a protective factor for alcoholism in Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Slutske, W S; Heath, A C; Madden, P A; Bucholz, K K; Dinwiddie, S H; Dunne, M P; Statham, D S; Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1995-06-01

    Although alcohol-related flushing seems to be a genetically influenced protective factor for alcoholism in some Asian groups, little is known about whether this is true for Caucasians. The evidence for alcohol-related flushing as a protective factor for the development of alcoholism was examined in a sample of 5831 Australian twins (2041 men, 3790 women) who were administered a structured psychiatric interview. Twin correlations for self-reported adverse alcohol reactions (e.g., "flushing or blushing" and "feeling very sleepy" after drinking 1 or 2 drinks) were modest, suggesting minimal contribution of genetic factors, but when corrected for reliability of measurement, were consistent with moderate heritabilities. In accord with studies examining Asian samples, we found that individuals who experienced adverse reactions after drinking small amounts of alcohol drank less often and slightly less per drinking occasion than those who did not experience adverse reactions. However, those who experienced adverse reactions were more likely to have symptoms of alcoholism and to report a parental history of alcohol problems. We conclude that self-reported alcohol-related flushing is not a protective factor for alcoholism in Caucasians and may be a risk factor. PMID:7573778

  5. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  6. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  7. Prospective study of risk factors for hepatitis C virus acquisition by Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, E Y; Ha, N B; Ahmed, A; Ayoub, W; Daugherty, T; Garcia, G; Cooper, A; Keeffe, E B; Nguyen, M H

    2012-02-01

    Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P < 0.0001). The most common risk factors in Asians were blood transfusions (50%) and acupuncture (50%). Furthermore, 74% of Caucasians and 66% of Hispanics identified more than one major risk factor, while only 20% of Asians reported having more than one risk factor (P < 0.0001). Survey for established risk factors for acquisition of HCV may be more appropriate for risk assessment of Caucasians and Hispanics, but not for Asian Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population. PMID:22239506

  8. Western Cultural Identification Explains Variations in the Objectification Model for Eating Pathology Across Australian Caucasians and Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Charmain S.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Utpala, Ranjani; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; De Paoli, Tara; Loughan, Stephen; Krug, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in trait objectifying measures and eating pathology between Australian Caucasians and Asian women living in Australia and in Hong Kong with high and low levels of western cultural identification (WCI) and to see if exposure to objectifying images had an effect on state-objectification. A further aim was to assess using path analyses whether an extended version of the objectification model, including thin-ideal internalization, differed depending on the level of WCI. Method: A total of 424 participants comprising 162 Australian Caucasians and 262 Asians (n = 183 currently residing in Australia and n = 79 living in Hong Kong) took part in the study. Of the overall Asian sample, 133 individuals were classified as high-WCI and 129 participants as low-WCI. Participants were randomly allocated into one of two conditions, presenting either objectifying images of attractive and thin Asian and Caucasian female models (objectification group, n = 204), or showing neutral images of objects (e.g., chairs, tables; control group, n = 220). Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires assessing objectification processes and eating pathology. Results: Findings revealed that the Caucasian group presented with significantly higher internalization and body surveillance scores than either of the two Asian groups and also revealed higher scores on trait-self-objectification than the low-WCI Asian sample. As regards to the effects of objectifying images on state self-objectification, we found that ratings were higher after exposure to women than to control objects for all groups. Finally, multi-group analyses revealed that our revised objectification model functioned equally across the Caucasian and the high-WCI Asian group, but differed between the Caucasian and the low-WCI Asian group. Conclusion: Our findings outline that individuals with varying levels of WCI might respond differently to self-objectification processes

  9. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal-adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal-adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6-10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min(-1) and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min(-1) in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min(-1) at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal-adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  10. Exercise intensity and oxygen uptake kinetics in African-American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nicola; Tolentino-Silva, Fatima; Nasca, Melita M.; Silva, Marco A.; Gladden, L. Bruce; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exercise intensity on the on- and off-transient kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) was investigated in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. African American (n=7) and Caucasian (n=6) women of similar age, body mass index and weight, performed an incremental test and bouts of square-wave exercise at moderate, heavy and very heavy intensities on a cycle ergometer. Gas exchange threshold (LTGE) was lower in AA (13.6±2.3mL·kg−1min−1) than C (18.6±5.6mL·kg−1min−1). The dynamic exercise and recovery VO2 responses were characterized by mathematical models. There were no significant differences in 1) peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) between AA (28.5±5mL kg−1min−1) and C (31.1±6.6mL kg−1min−1) and 2) VO2 kinetics at any exercise intensity. At moderate exercise, the on- and off- VO2 kinetics was described by a mono-exponential function with similar time constants τ1,on (39.4±12.5s;38.8±15s) and τ1,off (52.7±10.1s;40.7±4.4s) for AA and C, respectively. At heavy and very heavy exercise, the VO2 kinetics was described by a double-exponential function. The parameter values for heavy and very heavy exercise in the AA group were respectively: τ1,on (47.0±10.8;44.3±10s), τ2,on (289±63;219±90s), τ1,off (45.9±6.2;50.7±10s), τ2,off (259±120;243±93s) while in the C group were respectively: τ1,on (41±12;43.2±15s); τ2,on(277±81;215±36s), τ1,off (40.2±3.4;42.3±7.2s), τ2,off (215±133;228±64s). The on- and off-transients were symmetrical with respect to model order and dependent on exercise intensity regardless of race. Despite similar VO2 kinetics, LTGE and gain of the VO2 on-kinetics at moderate intensity were lower in AA than C. However, generalization to the African American and Caucasian populations is constrained by the small subject numbers. PMID:21717119

  11. Parasitic infections of two invasive fish species, the Caucasian dwarf goby and the Amur sleeper, in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Antal, László; Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    In recent years and decades, two new fish species, the Caucasian dwarf goby (Knipowitschia caucasica) and the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glenii) have become members of the Hungarian fish fauna. In a 14-month study on the parasite fauna of these species, the authors detected 11 parasite species in the Caucasian dwarf goby and 17 species in the Amur sleeper. All parasites found in dwarf goby belong to species commonly occurring also in native Hungarian fishes, but three species (Goussia obstinata, Gyrodactylus perccotti and Nippotaenia mogurndae) collected from the Amur sleeper are introduced species new for the Hungarian fauna.

  12. Evaluation of independence assumptions for PCR-based and protein-based genetic markers in New Jersey Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Jankowski, L B; Corey, H W; Swec, N T; Freck-Tootell, S; Pino, J A; Schwartz, R; Kelley, C A; Tarver, M L

    1997-03-01

    Allele frequencies for six PCR-based loci and three protein-based (i.e., enzyme systems) loci were determined in a Caucasian sample population from New Jersey. The loci are LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, HLA-DQA1, PGM1, ESD, and EAP. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, there is little evidence for association of alleles among the nine loci. The allelic frequency data generally are similar to another Caucasian population database. PMID:9068180

  13. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  14. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  15. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena.

  16. Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamkrelidze, Irakli; Shengelia, David; Maisadze, Ferando; Tsutsunava, Tamara; Chichinadze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Within the oceanic area of Tethys, with a typical oceanic crust, in geological past relatively small continental or subcontinental plates (terranes) were situated. The Greater Caucasian, Black Sea - Central Transcaucasian, Baiburt - Sevanian and Iran - Afghanian accretionary terranes, which in geological past represented island arcs or microcontinents, are identified in the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean belt. They are separated by ophiolite sutures (relics of small or large oceanic basins) of different age. During the Late Precambrian, Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic these terranes underwent horizontal displacement in different directions and ultimately they joined the Eurasian continent. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating along with available geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations, allow to trace with confidence the main stages of regional metamorphism, granite formation and, consequently, pre-Alpine continental crust making within the Caucasus. At the pre-Grenville stage (1200 Ma and more) between the Baltica and Gondvana ancient continents, on the oceanic crust of Prototethys accumulation mainly of terrigenous sediments and of basic volcanites took place. At the Grenville stage (1000-800 Ma) subcontinental or primitive continental crust (gneiss-migmatite complex and synmetamorphic grenitoids of sodium series) were formed in suprasubduction conditions by both sides of Proto-Paleotethys and along the northern peripheries of comparatively small oceanic basins of the Arkhiz and Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus. At the Baikalian stage (650-550 Ma) plagiogneissic complex has been cut by Precambrian gabbroids and intruded by large bodies of quartz-diorites. The next, Late Baikalian stage (540-500 Ma) is determined by the intrusion of Cambrian basites and Late Baikalian granitoids and by manifestation of intensive suprasubduction regional metamorphism. Late Baikalian tectogenesis is accompanied by contraction of the small oceanic basin of

  17. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome (Asian variant) in a Caucasian patient.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Chakrabarty, Jennifer H; Kern, William F; Magharyous, Hany; Gehrs, Bradley C; Li, Shibo

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is an aggressive and extremely rare extranodal lymphoma with neoplastic lymphoid cells confined exclusively within intravascular spaces. The histopathologic findings are subtle due to the rarity of the neoplastic cells in blood vessels. Clinical presentations are non-specific and focal space-occupying lesions or lymphoadenopathy are always lacking. It is a diagnostic challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is uncommon and is typically associated with infection, malignancy, and suppressed immune states. Intravascular lymphoma has a strong association with hemophagocytic syndrome in Asian patients, the so-called "Asian variant", but not in Western patients. We report a case of intravascular B-cell lymphoma in a Caucasian patient associated with secondary hemophagocytic syndrome. The patient was diagnosed by core liver biopsy and successfully treated. This case demonstrates the importance of high index of suspicion and astute histopathologic examination in recognition of this unusual clinical and pathologic combination.

  18. Barriers and motivators for strength training among women of color and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Dallman, Amber; Turcotte, Lucie; Patterson, Joan; Napolitano, Melissa A; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined factors associated with adherence to a strength training (ST) intervention in a randomized controlled intervention trial testing whether twice-weekly strength training over 2 years could prevent age-associated increases in body fat in 80 overweight to mildly obese women, aged 25-44 years. Two sets of focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 25 women of color and 24 Caucasian participants, representing 60% of intervention participants. Fifty-five percent of FG participants had low adherence (defined as < or = 80% adherence to twice-weekly gym-based strength training). Demographic data indicated that marital status and childcare responsibilities affected adherence. Participants' perceptions of experiences in the ST intervention did not correspond to adherence levels or vary by race/ethnicity. Major impediments to adherence included competing obligations and related scheduling difficulties; life transitions; and declining or insufficient social motivators.

  19. The effects of racial stressors and hostility on cardiovascular reactivity in African American and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Fang, C Y; Myers, H F

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of race-related stressors and hostility on cardiovascular reactivity in 31 African American and 31 Caucasian men. Participants viewed 3 film excerpts that depicted neutral, anger-provoking (but race-neutral), and racist situations. Participants exhibited significantly greater diastolic blood pressure reactivity to anger-provoking and racist stimuli compared with neutral stimuli. In addition, high hostility was associated with higher recovery systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after exposure to the films. Although the results failed to confirm previous reports of greater reactivity to racism in African Americans, the findings suggest that diastolic blood pressure levels may remain elevated after exposure to racist stimuli. These results indicate that even indirect exposure to interpersonal conflict elicits significant reactivity, which can persist after exposure to the stressor, especially among high-hostile men.

  20. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena. PMID:26160332

  1. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  2. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  3. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  4. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344

  5. Physical activity attitudes, preferences, and practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G

    2006-02-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, running or jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls' physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group.

  6. Food groups and colon cancer risk in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Satia-Abouta, Jessie; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher F; Ammerman, Alice; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-05-01

    The disparities in colon cancer incidence between African-Americans and other U.S. ethnic groups are largely unexplained. This report examines associations of various food groups with colon cancer in African-Americans and Caucasians from a case-control study. Incident cases of histologically confirmed colon cancer, age 40-80 years, (n = 613) and matched controls (n = 996) were interviewed in-person to ascertain potential colon cancer risk factors. Diet over the year before diagnosis or interview date was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated energy-adjusted and non-energy adjusted odds ratios (OR). Controls generally reported higher consumption (daily amount and weekly frequency) of fruits, vegetables and dark green, deep yellow fruits/vegetables, whereas cases consumed more refined carbohydrates and fats, oils and snacks. Regardless of ethnic group or energy adjustment, high and frequent vegetable consumption (particularly dark green vegetables) was protective, consistent with 20-50% reductions in risk. In Caucasians, high refined carbohydrate and red meat consumption (amount and frequency) was associated with a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk in non-energy adjusted models. In African-Americans, frequent intake of dairy foods was associated with a doubling in risk (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4) in non-energy-adjusted models, whereas frequent fruit consumption correlated with a non-significant 30% lower risk. These findings add to growing evidence that plant foods may protect against colon cancer; however, the effects of the other food groups varied by ethnic group and energy adjustment. These results may also explain some of the ethnic differences in colon cancer incidence.

  7. PADI4 genotype is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a large UK Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Marian L; Naseem, Haris; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Gibbons, Laura J; Bowes, John; Wilson, Anthony G; Maxwell, James; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of the peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) gene confer susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in East Asian people. However, studies in European populations have produced conflicting results. This study explored the association of the PADI4 genotype with RA in a large UK Caucasian population. Methods The PADI4_94 (rs2240340) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was directly genotyped in a cohort of unrelated UK Caucasian patients with RA (n=3732) and population controls (n=3039). Imputed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) was used to investigate the association of PADI4_94 with RA in an independent group of RA cases (n=1859) and controls (n=10 599). A further 56 SNPs spanning the PADI4 gene were investigated for association with RA using data from the WTCCC study. Results The PADI4_94 genotype was not associated with RA in either the present cohort or the WTCCC cohort. Combined analysis of all the cases of RA (n=5591) and controls (n=13 638) gave an overall OR of 1.01 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.05, p=0.72). No association with anti-CCP antibodies and no interaction with either shared epitope or PTPN22 was detected. No evidence for association with RA was identified for any of the PADI4 SNPs investigated. Meta-analysis of previously published studies and our data confirmed no significant association between the PADI4_94 genotype and RA in people of European descent (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13, p=0.12). Conclusion In the largest study performed to date, the PADI4 genotype was not a significant risk factor for RA in people of European ancestry, in contrast to Asian populations. PMID:19470526

  8. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2008-06-01

    Evidence from controlled trials suggests that ingestion of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day in the periconceptional period is effective in preventing neural tube defects (NTD). For this reason, most countries recommend that women planning pregnancy take folic acid supplements in the periconceptional period, and some countries even fortify stable foods with folic acid. Denmark exemplifies a country with a relatively conservative attitude with respect to taking action in these matters. In 1999, a national information campaign was launched that recommended women planning pregnancy take 0.4 mg of folic acid periconceptionally, but with the moderation that women who eat a healthy diet do not need to take folic acid supplement. The campaign was repeated during 2001. The results of the latter campaign were evaluated by using data from a national survey among pregnant women conducted simultaneously with the campaign by the Danish National Birth Cohort. An increase in the proportion of folic acid users took place concomitantly with the launching of the information events, but the increase was limited. Among women who did not plan their pregnancy, a small proportion had taken folic acid supplements periconceptionally, and this proportion did not change concomitantly with the campaign. Young age and low education were factors associated with low likelihood of taking folic acid. It seems that different and more efficient actions are needed if a more substantial proportion of Danish women and their fetuses are going to benefit from the knowledge that folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period can prevent NTD.

  9. Can Entrepreneurship Be Taught? A Danish Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeboll, John

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a Japanese study linking practical experience for entrepreneurship students to business start-up. Describes a Danish endeavor to revitalize entrepreneurial culture through educational and industrial development programs. (SK)

  10. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  11. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  12. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in assessing dietary intakes of low-income Caucasian postpartum women living in Sheffield, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Ford, Fiona A; Fraser, Robert B

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing dietary intakes of low-income, Caucasian, English-speaking, postpartum women living in Sheffield, United Kingdom. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional sample of the 'Healthy Start' study; a population-based survey of mothers and infants. Participants completed two FFQs at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) were collected at 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. In the reproducibility study, crude Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.40 (riboflavin) to 0.73 (thiamine), mean value 0.54. In the validation study, crude Pearson correlation coefficients between the FFQ and the measures from the 24HDRs ranged from 0.10 (B12) to 0.55 (manganese), mean value 0.34. Energy-adjustments and corrections for attenuation had no significant effect on the strength of the correlation both observed in the reproducibility and validity study. On average, 68% of the participants were classified correctly, and 3% were misclassified into the extreme opposite quintile of the distribution. The authors conclude that the questionnaire performed well for the majority of nutrients examined and that is a valid tool for ranking individuals according to nutrient distribution.

  13. iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood of Caucasian children and adolescent: the absolute iNKT cell count is stable from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bienemann, K; Iouannidou, K; Schoenberg, K; Krux, F; Reuther, S; Feyen, O; Bienemann, K; Schuster, F; Uhrberg, M; Laws, H-J; Borkhardt, A

    2011-10-01

    Human invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariantly rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) and are involved in a variety of immunoregulatory processes. We assessed the frequency of peripheral blood iNKT cells in 64 healthy Caucasian children from 7 months to 18 years of age and five cord blood samples by flow cytometry. iNKT cells were measured as CD3(+) cells co-expressing TCRVα24 and TCRVβ11 and using the monoclonal antibody 6B11, which recognizes specifically their invariant TCR rearrangement. The absolute number of iNKT cells ranged from 86 to 10,499 (CD3(+) /TCRVα24(+) / TCRVβ11(+)) and 233 to 11,167 (CD3(+) /6B11(+)) iNKT cells per millilitre of blood. This range is stable from birth to adulthood. The relative iNKT cell count was found to be 0.003-0.71% (CD3(+) /TCRVα24/TCRVβ11) and 0.019-0.776% (CD3/6B11) of peripheral blood T cells and shows only a slight increase with age.

  14. ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in a French Caucasian Population of 633 Patients Living in the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. Study Design. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20–2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Conclusion. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes. PMID:25243164

  15. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    PubMed

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  16. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  17. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  18. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  19. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  20. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20600410

  1. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed.

  2. Forwards or backwards? New directions in Danish patients' rights legislation.

    PubMed

    Hartlev, Mette

    2011-09-01

    The Danish Patients' Rights Act from 1998 was the first comprehensive piece of legislation addressing the basic legal values and principles governing the relation between patient and the health care services. Since the adoption of the Act there has been continuous legislative activity in the field, and the objective of the article is to discuss how recent developments in Danish patients' rights legislation shall be interpreted in terms of balancing interests of patients towards interests of society and the health care professions.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Child Welfare Services through the Eyes of African American, Caucasian, and Latino Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to find if differences exist among 88 African American, Caucasian, and Latino families who received child welfare services. Method: A secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data employing standardized measures was used for this study. Family preservation (FP) services were received by 49…

  4. The effect of acute administration of Vitamin D on micro vascular endothelial function in Caucasians and South Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshammari, Faris; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Rodrigues, Sophia; Potnis, Pooja; Akerkar, Siddhesh; Shah, Jinal; Chung, Guyeon; Save, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is a modulator of the immune system. There is some limited evidence that it also increases local blood flow in response to stress. Material/Methods In the present study, we examined 20 age matched subjects; 10 whom were from India and 10 Caucasians from the United States. Subjects were administered 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 for 3 weeks at breakfast. The function of the endothelial cells was evaluated in 2 ways; first, the response to 4 minutes of vascular occlusion was measured with a laser Doppler flow meter and second, the blood flow response to local heat at 42°C for 6 minutes. Results The results of the experiments showed that, as reported previously, the endothelial function in people from India was less than their Caucasian counterparts. The blood flow response to heat was reduced after 3 weeks administration of vitamin D in both groups and the response to vascular occlusion in the Caucasian group. But there was only a 20% reduction in the blood flow response to heat in the Caucasian group and a 50% reduction in the group from India. Conclusions Thus acute doses of vitamin D may increase vascular tone and reduce blood flow to tissue during stressors. Dosages administered for a longer duration may have beneficial effects on endothelial function but this was not examined here. PMID:23917403

  5. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  6. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Racial-Ethnic Matching for African American and Caucasian American Clients and Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sung-Man; Chow, Clifton; Camacho-Gonsalves, Teresita; Levy, Rachel J.; Allen, I. Elaine; Leff, H. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of client-clinician matching on the basis of race-ethnicity on overall functioning, service retention, and total number of sessions attended for African American and Caucasian American adult populations in mental health services. The analysis included 10 published and unpublished studies…

  8. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  9. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-09-30

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA), Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  10. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    PubMed

    Akinboboye, Olakunle

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease. PMID:26056467

  11. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425

  12. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  13. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  14. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  15. Cranial Capacity: New Caucasian Data and Comments on Rushton's Claimed Mongoloid-Caucasoid Brain-Size Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Jensen, Arthur R.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on body weight and cranial capacity for 211 young adult male Caucasians (postsecondary students). The data do not support Rushton's claim for a greater weight-adjusted cranial capacity of Mongoloid males. Speed and efficiency of cortical information processing may be more important for intelligence than brain size. (SLD)

  16. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  17. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  18. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  19. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…

  20. Identification of an interactive effect of beta3- and alpha2b-adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms on fat mass in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Dionne, I J; Turner, A N; Tchernof, A; Pollin, T I; Avrithi, D; Gray, D; Shuldiner, A R; Poehlman, E T

    2001-01-01

    Several adrenoceptor subtypes are expressed in adipocytes, which together exert their influence on adipocyte metabolism. Therefore, we specifically examined the interactive effect of Trp64Arg (beta3) and Glu12/Glu9 (alpha2b) adrenoceptor (AR) polymorphisms on energy metabolism and body composition in healthy women with a wide range of body habitus. We genotyped 909 unrelated women (age 55 +/- 12 [mean +/- SD] years, range 19-87; body weight 88 +/- 22 kg, range 40-167; and BMI 33 +/- 8 kg/m2, range 16-64) for Trp64Arg beta3AR and Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR variants. We examined the independent effect of the Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR variant on body composition and energy balance, in a large cohort of Caucasian women (n = 909). A second goal was to examine the interaction effect of Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR and Trp64Arg beta3AR on the same phenotypes. The obesity-related phenotypes studied were as follows: body weight, BMI, fat mass, visceral fat, fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate (RMR), VO2max, leisure time physical activity, and daily energy intake. Body composition and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radiographic imagery, VO2max by a treadmill test to exhaustion, and RMR by indirect calorimetry. An analysis of covariance indicated that in the entire cohort, there was no significant difference between Glu12/Glu9 alpha2bAR carriers and control subjects for any of the obesity-related phenotypes that were examined. However, we observed a significant interaction effect of the Trp64Arg and Glu12/Glu9 variants on fat mass (P = 0.009) and percent fat (P = 0.016). Age, height, body weight, BMI, fat-free mass, visceral fat, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, physical fitness, and energy intake were not different among groups. Collectively, these findings support an interaction effect of the two adrenoceptor variants on body fatness in Caucasian women, although the physiological mechanism by which they exert this effect remains to be

  1. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  2. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  3. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  4. Role of calpain-10 gene variants in familial type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Elbein, Steven C; Chu, Winston; Ren, Qianfang; Hemphill, Chris; Schay, John; Cox, Nancy J; Hanis, Craig L; Hasstedt, Sandra J

    2002-02-01

    The calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) has been implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) susceptibility by both linkage and association in a Hispanic population from Starr County Texas. Common intronic variants seem to alter CAPN10 mRNA levels and were associated with insulin resistance but not diabetes in Pima Indians. The role of these variants in Caucasian populations is less clear. We found some evidence for linkage of T2DM to chromosome 2q approximately 20 cM proximal to the NIDDM1/CAPN10 locus. To test the hypothesis that CAPN10 is a diabetes susceptibility locus in Caucasian families at high risk for T2DM, we examined the influence of the three previously implicated CAPN10 variants on both diabetes risk and measures of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. We genotyped approximately 700 members of 63 families for 3 variants (SNP-43, SNP-19, and SNP-63). We tested each variant separately and as haplotype combinations for altered transmission from parents to affected children (transmission disequilibrium test), and we tested for an effect of each variant individually on measures of glucose and insulin during a glucose tolerance test in nondiabetic family members. Finally, we looked for an effect of each variant on measures of insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and insulin secretion estimated by frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test and Minimal Model analysis. We could not confirm an increase in risk for T2DM susceptibility for any variant or for any haplotype combination, although we found marginal evidence for an increased risk of the 111/221 haplotype combination (P = 0.036) after ascertainment correction. However, both SNP-19 and SNP-63 increased fasting and/or postchallenge insulin levels, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, SNP-19 had modest effects on insulin sensitivity measured by homeostatic model, and on postchallenge glucose. The reduction in insulin sensitivity was confirmed by analysis of the subset of individuals who underwent iv

  5. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal–adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32–36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6–10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min−1 and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min−1 in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min−1 at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal–adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Key points Asian women have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasian

  6. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  7. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  8. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  9. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 minutes. BREADS AND GRAINS Choose healthy breads, cereals, and pasta, such as: Whole-grain breads and ... grain.) All bran, 100% bran, and Shredded Wheat cereals (Look for cereals with at least 4 grams ...

  10. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  11. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  12. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  13. Breast cancer survival disparity between African American and Caucasian women in Arkansas: A race-by-grade analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Siegel, Eric R.; Medarametla, Srikanth; Makhoul, Issam; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in breast cancer treatment, disparity persists in survival time between African American (AA) and Caucasian women in the US. Tumor stage and tumor grade are the major prognostic factors that define tumor aggressiveness and contribute to racial disparity between AA and Caucasian women. Studying the interaction of race with tumor grade or stage may provide further insights into the role of intrinsic biological aggressiveness in disecting the AA-Caucasian survival disparity. Therefore, the current study was performed to evaluate the interaction of race with tumor grade and stage at diagnosis regarding survival in a cohort of patients treated at the Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR, USA). The cohort included 1,077 patients, 208 (19.3%) AA and 869 (80.7%) Caucasian, diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1997 and December 2005. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated and Cox regressions were performed to analyze the associations of race with breast cancer-specific survival time. Over a mean follow-up time of 1.5 years, AA women displayed increased mortality risk due to breast cancer-specific causes [hazard ratio (HR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23–2.46]. The magnitude of racial disparity varied strongly with tumor grade (race-x-grade interaction; P<0.001). No significant interaction was observed between race and tumor stage or race and age at diagnosis. Among women diagnosed with grade I tumors, the race disparity in survival time after controlling for tumor stage and age was strong (HR, 9.07; 95% CI, 2.11–38.95), but no significant AA-Caucasian disparity was observed among women with higher-grade tumors. The data suggest that, when diagnosed with grade I breast cancer, AA may experience poorer survival outcomes compared with Caucasian patients, regardless of tumor stage or age. The findings potentially provide significant clinical and public health

  14. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  15. The CLU gene rs11136000 variant is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyou; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Jiafeng; Li, Jingbo; Li, Hali; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale genomewide association studies have reported that the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people of Caucasian ancestry. Recently, this association was investigated in Asian populations (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). However, these studies reported either a weak association or no association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD. We believe that this discrepancy may be caused by the relatively small sample size of the previous studies and the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD among different populations. For this study, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases. We selected 18 independent studies (6 studies of Asian populations and 12 of populations of Caucasian ancestry) that evaluated the association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD using a case-control experimental design. We evaluated the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in Caucasian and Asian populations. We then investigated the rs11136000 polymorphism by a meta-analysis in Asian populations using allele, dominant, and recessive models. We identified a significant association between rs11136000 and AD with the allele model (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)) and the dominant model (P = 5.00 × 10(-3)). Meanwhile, a similar genetic risk of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD was observed in Asian and Caucasian populations. Further meta-analysis in pooled Asian and Caucasian populations indicated a more significant association with the allele (P = 8.30 × 10(-24)), dominant (P = 4.46 × 10(-17)), and recessive (P = 3.92 × 10(-12)) models. Collectively, our findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the effect of the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism on AD risk in Asian cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) is consistent with the protective effect observed in Caucasian AD cohorts.

  16. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  17. First reports of esophageal adenocarcinoma with white globe appearance in Japanese and Caucasian patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonai, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ryu; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Better endoscopic diagnosis in case of Barrett’s esophagus is still needed. White globe appearance (WGA) is a novel endoscopic marker for gastric adenocarcinoma, with high sensitivity for differentiating between gastric cancer/high-grade dysplasia and other lesions. We report 2 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma with WGA. In Case 1, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a 10-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 48-year-old Japanese woman with short-segment Barrett’s esophagus. A small (< 1 mm) white globular lesion, typical of WGA, was observed under the epithelium by magnifying narrow-band imaging. A dilated neoplastic gland with eosinophilic material and necrotic epithelial fragments was identified at the site of the WGA by histologic examination. In Case 2, EGD revealed a 5-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 60-year-old Caucasian man with long-segment Barrett’s esophagus. A typical WGA was observed by magnifying narrow-band imaging and similar histologic findings were identified at the site of the WGA. WGA could be a reliable endoscopic finding for target biopsy in esophageal adenocarcinoma, if its specificity is as high as in gastric cancer. The clinical implications of WGA in patients with Barrett’s esophagus should be investigated further. PMID:27747281

  18. PTSD and postpartum mental health in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Morland, Leslie; Matsu, Courtenay; Wright, Tricia

    2009-12-01

    To better understand the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postpartum health, this study investigates the relationship of PTSD and associated perinatal behavioral risk factors in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 54 women (18-35 years of age) were interviewed at their postpartum clinic visit for PTSD, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and substance use. PTSD and subclinical PTSD during the postpartum period were associated with behavioral health risks, with PTSD at the onset of pregnancy being a predictor of postpartum PTSD by a factor of three. Women with PTSD and subclinical PTSD were more likely to also experience stress (73%), anxiety (64%), and depression (73%) during the postpartum period compared to those without PTSD. No significant differences were found by ethnicity for postpartum PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity or PTSD status, one in four women in the sample had a probable mental health disorder or risk behavior of some type during the postpartum period. Given the rates of associated mental health risks with PTSD, these findings suggest further research examining the fluctuations of PTSD symptomatology throughout each pregnancy trimester to determine its role as a potential mediator during the perinatal period. Further research is also needed to elucidate the role of ethnic or cultural differences in trauma and PTSD and perinatal health.

  19. Refractory High Intracranial Pressure following Intraventricular Hemorrhage due to Moyamoya Disease in a Pregnant Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Virginie; Grandin, Cécile; Goffette, Pierre; Fomekong, Edward; Hantson, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage during pregnancy is usually followed by a poor recovery. When caused by moyamoya disease, ischemic or hemorrhagic episodes may complicate the management of high intracranial pressure. A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized seizures and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3 during the 36th week of pregnancy. The fetus was delivered by caesarean section. The brain CT in the mother revealed bilateral intraventricular hemorrhage, a callosal hematoma, hydrocephalus and right frontal ischemia. Refractory high intracranial pressure developed and required bilateral ventricular drainage and intensive care treatment with barbiturates and hypothermia. Magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography revealed a moyamoya syndrome with rupture of the abnormal collateral vascular network as the cause of the hemorrhage. Intracranial pressure could only be controlled after the surgical removal of the clots after a large opening of the right ventricle. Despite an initially low GCS, this patient made a good functional recovery at one year follow-up. Management of refractory high intracranial pressure following moyamoya related intraventricular bleeding should require optimal removal of ventricular clots and appropriate control of cerebral hemodynamics to avoid ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. PMID:20508823

  20. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia dahlia.

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  1. Determination of the coenzyme Q10 status in a large Caucasian study population.

    PubMed

    Onur, Simone; Niklowitz, Petra; Fischer, Alexandra; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang; Laudes, Matthias; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) exists in a reduced (ubiquinol) and an oxidized (ubiquinone) form in all human tissues and functions, amongst others, in the respiratory chain, redox-cycles, and gene expression. As the status of CoQ10 is an important risk factor for several diseases, here we determined the CoQ10 status (ubiquinol, ubiquinone) in a large Caucasian study population (n = 1,911). The study population covers a wide age range (age: 18-83 years, 43.4% men), has information available on more than 10 measured clinical phenotypes, more than 30 diseases (presence vs. absence), about 30 biomarkers, and comprehensive genetic information including whole-genome SNP typing (>891,000 SNPs). The major aim of this long-term resource in CoQ10 research is the comprehensive analysis of the CoQ10 status with respect to integrated health parameters (i.e., fat metabolism, inflammation), disease-related biomarkers (i.e., liver enzymes, marker for heart failure), common diseases (i.e., neuropathy, myocardial infarction), and genetic risk in humans. Based on disease status, biomarkers, and genetic variants, our cohort is also useful to perform Mendelian randomisation approaches. In conclusion, the present study population is a promising resource to gain deeper insight into CoQ10 status in human health and disease.

  2. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy food trends - salvia; Healthy snacks - Chia seeds; Weight loss - Chia seeds; Healthy diet - Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia ... fiber. Some think chia seeds may help with weight loss and other risk factors, but this has not ...

  3. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  4. The Danish National Lymphoma Registry: Coverage and Data Quality

    PubMed Central

    Arboe, Bente; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Clausen, Michael Roost; Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Stoltenberg, Danny; Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Gørløv, Jette Sønderskov; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    Background The Danish National Lymphoma Register (LYFO) prospectively includes information on all lymphoma patients newly diagnosed at hematology departments in Denmark. The validity of the clinical information in the LYFO has never been systematically assessed. Aim To test the coverage and data quality of the LYFO. Methods The coverage was tested by merging data of the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register, respectively. The validity of the LYFO was assessed by crosschecking with information from medical records in subgroups of patients. A random sample of 3% (N = 364) was made from all patients in the LYFO. In addition, four subtypes of lymphomas were validated: CNS lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphomas. A total of 1,706 patients from the period 2000–2012 were included. The positive predictive values (PPVs) and completeness of selected variables were calculated for each subgroup and for the entire cohort of patients. Results The comparison of data from the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register revealed a high coverage. In addition, the data quality was good with high PPVs (87% to 100%), and high completeness (92% to 100%). Conclusion The LYFO is a unique, nationwide clinical database characterized by high validity, good coverage and prospective data entry. It represents a valuable resource for future lymphoma research. PMID:27336800

  5. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  6. An Ongoing Assessment of Osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians in North Carolina: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and is frequently associated with significant disability. Its public health impact is increasing due to the aging of the population and the obesity epidemic. The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project is an ongoing, population-based prospective cohort begun in 1990 to fill knowledge gaps about prevalence, incidence, and progression of OA, and its risk factors, in African American and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina. Critically important phenotypic differences were observed in patterns of multi-joint OA burden, with African Americans much less likely than Caucasians to have hand OA and much more likely to have multiple large joint involvement. Racial differences also exist in systemic bone and joint tissue biomarkers. Novel potentially modifiable risk factors identified in this cohort include selenium and blood lead levels. Selected key findings of this ongoing study will be discussed. PMID:26330661

  7. Assessment of family functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Family Assessment Device.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.

  8. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  9. Prognostic role of high Bmi-1 expression in Asian and Caucasian patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yingjie; Geng, Yiting; Gu, Wendong; Ning, Zhonghua; Jiang, Jingting; Pei, Honglei

    2014-10-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that the B-cell-specific moloney leukemia virus insertion site 1 (Bmi-1) exhibits altered expression in various cancers and may serve as prognostic biomarkers. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of Bmi-1 expression in solid cancers. Studies were recruited by searching PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Thirty-nine articles including 40 studies were involved in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that the Bmi-1 showed the opposite prognostic effect in Asian and Caucasian populations. High Bmi-1 expression as a negative predictor for overall survival (OS) in Asian patients (HR=1.96, 95% CI 1.62-2.36), but a positive predictor in Caucasian populations (HR=0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93). Furthermore, we took a further subgroup analysis based on tumor type in these two populations, respectively. In Asian cases, high expression of Bmi-1 was associated with poor OS in oesophageal carcinoma (HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.52-2.46), gastric cancer (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.85), lung cancer (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.05-2.85), cervical cancer (HR=2.80, 95% CI 2.26-3.47) and colorectal cancer (HR=3.36, 95% CI 2.19-5.15), rather than in breast cancer and HCC. In Caucasian populations, high expression of Bmi-1 was associated with better OS in breast cancer (HR=0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.97), but it showed no significance in oesophageal carcinoma. In conclusion, high Bmi-1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival in Asian patients with oesophageal carcinoma, gastric cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and cervical carcinoma, whereas high level of Bmi-1 can predict better prognosis in Caucasian patients with breast cancer. PMID:25458792

  10. Multiple steno-obstructive vascular lesions and femoral superficial artery dissection in a young Caucasian male with antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cianci, Rosario; Gigante, Antonietta; Barbano, Biagio; Zaccaria, Alvaro; Polidori, Lelio; Borghesi, Francesca; Gasperini, Ludovica; Di Donato, Domenico; Amoroso, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A young Caucasian male was admitted for claudication intermittens, hyposphygmia on the right lower limb, high blood pressure and deterioration of renal function. Instrumental investigations documented right renal artery stenosis, multiple steno-obstructive manifestations of the splanchnic artery system, occlusion of the right external iliac artery and dissection of the left superficial femoral artery. The patient had not been previously diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome. Subsequently, the vascular lesions, because of his thrombophilic state, needed endovascular treatment and anticoagulant therapy. PMID:21686361

  11. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  12. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  13. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  14. African-American and Caucasian disparities in colorectal cancer mortality and survival by data source: An epidemiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Waterbor, John; Hughes, Timothy; Funkhouser, Ellen; Grizzle, William; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    Over the past four decades in the United States, there has been a divergent trend in mortality rates between African-Americans and Caucasians with colorectal cancer (CRC). Rates among Caucasians have been steadily declining, whereas rates among African-Americans have only started a gradual decline in recent years. We reviewed epidemiologic studies of CRC racial disparities between African-Americans and Caucasians, including studies from SEER and population-based cancer registries, Veterans Affairs (VA) databases, healthcare coverage databases, and university and other medical center data sources. Elevated overall and stage-specific risks of CRC mortality and shorter survival for African-Americans compared with Caucasians were reported across all data sources. The magnitude of racial disparities varied across study groups, with the strongest associations observed in university and non-VA hospital-based medical center studies, while an attenuated discrepancy was found in VA database studies. An advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis among African-Americans is a major contributing factor to the racial disparity in survival. Several studies, however, have shown that an increased risk of CRC death among African-Americans remains even after controlling for tumor stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidity. Despite advances in treatment, improvements in the standard of care, and increased screening options, racial differences persist in CRC mortality and survival. Therefore, continued research efforts are necessary to disentangle the clinical, social, biological, and environmental factors that constitute the racial disparity. In addition, results across data sources should be considered when evaluating racial differences in cancer outcomes. PMID:18048968

  15. Prenatal Stress and the Cortisol Awakening Response in African-American and Caucasian Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; Holl, Jane L; Wolfe, Kaitlin A; Grobman, William A; Borders, Ann E B

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Prior studies have shown significant racial disparities in psychosocial stressors for pregnant women. One physiological mechanism by which prenatal stress is expressed is via the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, which itself differs by race. In this study, we examine differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR) for African-American and Caucasian pregnant women during late pregnancy, particularly whether racial disparities are evident after accounting for measures of psychosocial stress. Methods During their third trimester of pregnancy (32-40 weeks of gestation), we asked women to self-collect salivary samples at home over 2 days. We then measured salivary cortisol across the day for 30 pregnant women (18 Caucasian; 12 African-American) to examine the CAR by race and by multiple measures of self-reported psychosocial stress, including perceived discrimination. Results Although the women in our sample showed normative cortisol diurnal rhythms (high on waking, peak 30 min post-waking, lowest at bedtime), we found that African-American women had blunted (smaller) awakening responses compared to Caucasian women (p < 0.05). The CAR was significantly larger in Caucasian women compared to African-American women even after accounting for covariates in a multivariate equation. However, when we added measures of psychosocial stress to the multivariate equation, higher levels of stress were significantly associated with a smaller CAR (p < 0.05), and the association between maternal race and CAR was no longer significant. Conclusions Our results add to a growing body of evidence that racial differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

  16. Association between the Angiogenin (ANG) K17I variant and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk in Caucasian: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lishou; Deng, Xinbo; Ding, Dan; Leng, Huilin; Zhu, Xuepeng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    The study purpose is to perform a meta-analysis to help resolve the debate of whether the Angiogenin (ANG) K17I variant is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk in Caucasian. Three literature databases were searched for eligible studies published up to January 8, 2015: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science using the following search terms: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS and Angiogenin or ANG. Five eligible articles were identified, which reported 6 case-control studies and a total of 2326 cases and 3799 controls. The overall results suggested low frequencies of the K17I variant in Caucasian patients (10/2326, 0.43 %) and controls (6/3799, 0.16 %). There is no difference in the variant frequencies between patients with FALS or SALS (p = 0.069). Analysis of pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that the ANG K17I variant increases the risk for ALS (AT vs. AA: OR 2.65, 95 % CI 1.05-6.66, p = 0.038) and familial ALS (FALS) (AT vs. AA: OR 11.81, 95 % CI 2.11-66.15, p = 0.005) but not for sporadic ALS (SALS) (AT vs. AA: OR 1.63, 95 % CI 0.55-4.82, p = 0.378). The ANG K17I variant is rare in Caucasian patients and controls and increases the risk for ALS and FALS but not for SALS in Caucasian populations. Further well-designed studies with larger samples are needed to validate these results.

  17. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level. PMID:21345504

  18. The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

  19. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  20. Understanding nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian college students: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Blanchard, Chris M; Peng, Chao-Ying J; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking assessment 1 week later. After removing 35 students who reported smoking at the baseline assessment, regressions were used to examine ethnic effects on TPB constructs when predicting nonsmoking intentions. Caucasians had statistically significant higher nonsmoking intentions than African Americans. Further, subjective norms for Caucasians and attitudes for African Americans had small but significant relations to intention, but perceived behavioral control (PBC) was a strongly significant predictor for both ethnic groups. However, the prediction of nonsmoking intentions was not statistically moderated by ethnicity for any of the TPB constructs. This study suggests that the TPB may aid in understanding collegiate nonsmoking intentions and help begin to explain differences in smoking on the basis of ethnicity. Last, because of strong associations shown in this study, PBC should be considered when developing ethnic-specific smoking interventions in college students.

  1. The Clinical Significance of CD4 Counts in Asian and Caucasian HIV-Infected Populations: Results from TAHOD and AHOD

    PubMed Central

    Achhra, Amit C.; Zhou, Jialun; Choi, Jun Yong; Hoy, Jennifer; Zhang, Fujie; Templeton, David J.; Merati, Tuti; Woolley, Ian; Petoumenos, Kathy; Amin, Janaki

    2012-01-01

    The significance of interethnic variation in CD4 counts between Asian and Caucasian populations is not known. Patients on combination antiretroviral therapy from Treat Asia and Australian HIV Observational Databases (TAHOD, predominantly Asian, n = 3356; and AHOD, predominantly Caucasian, n = 2312, respectively) were followed for 23 144 person-years for AIDS/death and all-cause mortality endpoints. We calculated incidence-rates and used adjusted Cox regression to test for the interaction between cohort (TAHOD/AHOD) and time-updated CD4 count category (lagged by 3 months) for each of the endpoints. There were 382 AIDS/death events in TAHOD (rate: 4.06, 95%CI: 3.68–4.50) and 305 in AHOD (rate: 2.39, 95%CI: 2.13–2.67), per 100 person-years. At any given CD4 count category, the incidence-rates of endpoints were found to be similar between TAHOD and AHOD (in the adjusted models, P > .05 for the interaction term between cohort type and latest CD4 counts). At any given CD4 count, risk of AIDS or death was not found to vary by ethnicity, suggesting that the CD4 count thresholds for predicting outcomes defined in Caucasian populations may be equally valid in Asian populations. PMID:21508296

  2. Lesion comparison of multiple sclerosis in hispanic and caucasian patients utilizing an imaging informatics-based eFolder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Shiroishi, Mark; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Genetics have been considered as a leading factor in the prevalence and disease course of MS. We have presented an informatics-based eFolder system for integrating patients' clinical data with MR images and lesion quantification results. The completed eFolder system has been designed and developed in aiding to evaluate disease manifestation differences in Hispanic and Caucasian MS patients. MS lesion data, as shown in MRI, can be extracted by the 3-D automatic lesion detection tool in the eFolder, and data storing and mining tools in eFolder is able to extract and compare data from individual patients. The computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm has been modified and enhanced to include spatial information as detection criteria. For this study, 36 Caucasian MS patients and 36 matched Hispanic patients have been selected. Most recent MR images of the patients are collected, and images are evaluated both by the CAD tool in the eFolder and radiologists. The results are compared between Caucasian and Hispanic patients and statistically evaluated to see if the two populations have significant difference in lesion presentations. The results can be used to evaluate differences in the two groups of patients and to evaluate the new CAD algorithm's performance with radiologists' contours. Significant findings can further evaluate effectiveness of MS eFolder in MS-related research.

  3. PKCα and ERβ Are Associated with Triple-Negative Breast Cancers in African American and Caucasian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonetti, Debra A.; Gao, Weihua; Escarzaga, Diana; Walters, Kelly; Szafran, April; Coon, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer in the United States is higher in Caucasian women compared with African American women, African-American patients have more aggressive disease as characterized by a higher percentage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), high-grade tumors, and a higher mortality rate. PKCα is a biomarker associated with endocrine resistance and poor prognosis and ERβ is emerging as a protective biomarker. Immunohistochemical analysis of ERβ and PKCα expression was performed on 198 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas from 105 African-American and 93 Caucasian patients. PKCα is positively correlated with TNBC in patients of both races and with high tumor grade in African-American patients. Patients with TNBC express less nuclear ERβ compared with all other subtypes. We find no difference in frequency or intensity of PKCα or ERβ expression between African-American and Caucasian patients. PKCα and ERβ are discussed as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:22500240

  4. Individualism-collectivism, self-efficacy, and other factors associated with risk taking among gay Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise.

  5. Association of leukocyte telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with endometrial cancer risk in Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects (n = 139) in a Caucasian population, we assessed the association of relative LTL with the risk of endometrial cancer. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. We also determined the joint effects of LTL with established risk factors of endometrial cancer. The normalized LTL was significantly longer in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.93; range, 0.19-1.62) than in controls (median, 0.70; range, 0.03-2.14) (P < 0.001). When individuals were dichotomized into long and short groups based on the median LTL value in the controls, individuals with long LTL had a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (adjusted OR, 3.84; 95%CI, 2.16-6.85; P < 0.001) compared to those with short LTL. When individuals were categorized into three groups or four groups according to tertile or quartile LTL value in the controls, there was a significant dose-response association between LTL and the risk of endometrial cancer (P < 0.001). Joint effects between LTL and smoking status, body mass index and a history of hypertension or diabetes in elevating endometrial cancer risk were observed. Long telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  6. Genetic loci associated with nonobstructive coronary artery disease in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liming; Taylor, Kent D; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Sopko, George; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Pepine, Carl J; Miller, Virginia M; Rotter, Jerome I; Gulati, Martha; Goodarzi, Mark O; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M

    2016-01-01

    Nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in women is associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes; however, information regarding genetic variants that predispose women to nonobstructive CAD is lacking. Women from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study and the St. James Women Take Heart (WTH) Study were genotyped with the Cardio-MetaboChip. WISE enrolled women with symptoms and signs of ischemia referred for coronary angiography; WTH enrolled asymptomatic, community-based women without heart disease. Analyses were conducted with a case (WISE)--control (WTH) design and multivariate logistic regression models to investigate genetic variation associated with likelihood of nonobstructive CAD. One genetic marker, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2301753 on chromosome 6 in RNF39, achieved chip-wide significance for nonobstructive CAD (P < 9.5 × 10(-7)). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no variants achieved chip-wide significance. However, SNP rs2301753 on chromosome 6 in RNF39 was associated with reduced likelihood of nonobstructive CAD [odds ratio (OR) 0.42 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.29 to 0.68], at a nominal level of P = 5.6 × 10(-6), while SNP rs12818945 in the ATP2B1 locus on chromosome 12 was associated with increased odds for nonobstructive CAD (OR 2.38 and 95% CI of 1.63 to 3.45) and nominal P = 5.8 × 10(-6). The functions of RNF39 and ATP2B1 raise the possibility that genes involved in cardio-dysfunction may contribute to nonobstructive CAD in Caucasian women and may provide insights into novel approaches for therapy and prevention. If replicated, incorporation of these genetic variants into diagnostic evaluation may identify women at high risk for nonobstructive CAD.

  7. A Microsatellite Polymorphism in IGF1 Gene Promoter and Timing of Natural Menopause in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Kotarski, Jan; Halerz-Nowakowska, Barbara; Goździka-Józefiak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genes involved in the IGF-1 aging pathways in the human ovary can be considered strong candidates for predictors of the natural menopause timing. This study evaluates the association between a cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter P1 and age at natural menopause. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, PCR was performed using primers designed to amplify the polymorphic (CA)n repeat of the human IGF1 gene, an allele dose effect for the most common (CA)19 repeats allele, Cox proportional hazard regression models and the Kaplan-Meier cumulative survivorship method with the log-rank test were used to determine statistical significance of studied associations in a sample of 257 Polish women aged 40-58 years. Results: Crude Cox proportional hazard regression analysis confirmed the association between the IGF1 gene polymorphism and the menopause timing (p=0.038). This relationship remained statistically significant after controlling for other menopause confounders in multivariate modelling. Out of the input variables, the (CA)n polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter, age at menarche and smoking status were independent covariates of the natural menopause timing (χ2 =12.845; df=3; p=0.034). The onset of menopause at a younger age was likely associated with the IGF1 genotype variant not carrying the (CA)19 repeats allele, menarche before the age of 12 and a current cigarette smoker status (HR=1.6). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that a common cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF1 gene is an independent predictive factor for age at natural menopause in Caucasian women also after adjusting for other menopause covariates. PMID:25552916

  8. Genetic variation of the whole ICAM4 gene in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kshitij; Almarry, Noorah Salman; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) is the human blood group system no. 16, which comprises 2 antithetical antigens, LWa and LWb and the high prevalence antigen LWab. LW is encoded by the Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 4 (ICAM4) gene. The ICAM4 protein is part of the Rhesus complex in the red cell membrane and is involved in cell-cell adhesion. Methods We developed a method to sequence the whole 1.9 kb ICAM4 gene from genomic DNA in 1 amplicon. We determined the nucleotide sequence of exons 1 to 3, the 2 introns and 402 bp 5′-UTR and 347 bp 3′-UTR in 97 Caucasian and 91 African American individuals. Results Seven variant ICAM4 alleles were found, distinct from the wild type ICAM4 allele (GenBank KF712272), known as LW*05 and encoding LWa. An effect of the LWa/LWb amino acid substitution on the protein structure was predicted by 2 of the 3 computational modeling programs used. Conclusions We describe a practical approach for sequencing and determining the ICAM4 alleles using genomic DNA. LW*05 is the ancestral allele, which had also been observed in a Neandertal sample. All 7 variant alleles are immediate derivatives of the prevalent LW*05 and caused by 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in each allele. Our data were consistent with the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the dbSNP databases, as all SNPs had been observed before. Our study has the advantage over the other databases in that it adds haplotype (allele) information for the ICAM4 gene, clinically relevant in the field of transfusion medicine. PMID:24673173

  9. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  10. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are

  11. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to STAR mutations in a Caucasian patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Casas, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted at the University of North Dakota, the Mercer University School of Medicine and the Memorial University Medical Center to identify the cause of this disease. The patient was admitted to a pediatric endocrinologist at the Sanford Health Center for salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. Lipoid CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, we identified two de novo heterozygous mutations (STAR c.444C>A (STAR p.N148K) and STAR c.557C>T (STAR p.R193X)) in the STAR gene, causing lipoid CAH. New onset lipoid CAH can occur through de novo mutations and is not restricted to any specific region of the world. This Scandinavian family was of Norwegian descent and had lipoid CAH due to a mutation in S TAR exons 4 and 5. Overexpression of the STAR p.N148K mutant in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells supplemented with an electron transport system showed activity similar to the background level, which was ∼10% of that observed with wild-type (WT) STAR. Protein-folding analysis showed that the finger printing of the STAR p.N148K mutant is also different from the WT protein. Inherited STAR mutations may be more prevalent in some geographical areas but not necessarily restricted to those regions. Learning points STAR mutations cause lipoid CAH.This is a pure population from a caucasian family.Mutation ablated STAR activity.The mutation resulted in loosely folded conformation of STAR. PMID:27047663

  12. [Caucasian cryptic species of rodents as models for studying the problem of species and speciation].

    PubMed

    Baskevich, M I; Potapov, S G; Mironova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of species and speciation is considered using as a model the cryptic species of rodents inhabiting the Caucasus, the mountain chain with prominent altitude environmental gradient and insular pattern of mountain habitats. These circumstances open additional possibilities for the choice of species conception (biological or phylogenetic), exploration of ancestry pathways (sympatric or allopatric speciation) of model cryptic species groups, and testing the 'refuge' hypothesis. As model species, sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' (a group of unstriped birch mice) and representatives of the vole subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae) were used. Based on the new data on karyology, nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial gene cytb, multivariate statistical analysis of odontologic traits, and biogeography of sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' and voles from subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae), their evolutionary history is reconstructed and applicable species concepts are examined. For the present sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' the allopatric dispersion is typical, which agrees with the hypothesis of speciation in refuges. The sympatry of Terricola sibling-species in the Caucasus is considered as being secondary, and their phenotypic likeness--as an adaptation to similar environmental conditions. Affirmed coexistence of sibling-species Microtus (Terricola) majori and Microtus (Terricola) daghestanicus in the Caucasus (without their hybridization) supports the biological conception of species. The existence of Sicista allospecies from the group of Caucasian unstriped birch mice is best conformed to the phylogenetic conception. However, the high level of chromosomal differences between sibling-species and, in particular, between extreme variants of common evolutionary line (Sicista kazbegica, Sicista kluchorica) does not contradict the biological conception of species. PMID:26353399

  13. Fibrosis Progression in African Americans and Caucasian Americans with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Terrault, N.A.; Im, K.; Boylan, R.; Bacchetti, P.; Kleiner, D.E.; Fontana, R.; Hoofnagle, J.H.; Belle, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Prior studies suggest the rate of liver fibrosis progression is slower in African-Americans (AA) than Caucasian-Americans (CA) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Using a multi-state Markov model, fibrosis progression was evaluated in a well-characterized cohort of 143 AA and 157 CA adults with untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. In subjects with a history of injection drug use, duration of infection was imputed from a fitted risk model rather than assumed to be the reported first year of use. Results The distribution of Ishak fibrosis stages were 0 (8.7%), 1/2 (55.7%), 3/4 (29.3%) and 5/6 (6.3%), and was similar in AA and CA (p= 0.22). After adjusting for biopsy adequacy, AA had a 10% lower rate of fibrosis progression than did CA, but the difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence intervals = 0.72, 1.12). The overall 20-year estimates of probabilities of progression from stage 0 to stages 1/2, 3/4 and 5/6 were 59.3%, 28.8% and 4.7%. The estimated median time from no fibrosis to cirrhosis was 79 years for the entire cohort, and 74 and 83 years for CA and AA, respectively. In 3-variable models including race and biopsy adequacy, the factors significantly associated with fibrosis progression were age when infected, steatosis, ALT level, and necroinflammatory score. Conclusions The rates of fibrosis progression were slow and did not appear to differ substantially between AA and CA. PMID:19081528

  14. Centenarians – a useful model for healthy aging? A 29-year follow-up of hospitalizations among 40 000 Danes born in 1905

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, Henriette; Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Summary Centenarians surpass the current human life expectancy with about 20–25 years. However, whether centenarians represent healthy aging still remains an open question. Previous studies have been hampered by a number of methodological shortcomings such as a cross-sectional design and lack of an appropriate control group. In a longitudinal population-based cohort, it was examined whether the centenarian phenotype may be a useful model for healthy aging. The study was based on a complete follow up of 39 945 individuals alive in the Danish 1905 birth cohort on January 1, 1977 identified through the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS). Data from the Danish Demographic Database and The Danish National Patient Register (in existence since 1977) were used. The 1905 cohort was followed up from 1977 through 2004 with respect to hospitalizations and number of hospital days. Survival status was available until December 2006. Danish centenarians from the 1905 cohort were hospitalized substantially less than their shorter-lived contemporaries at the same point in time during the years 1977 through 2004. For example, at age 71–74, the proportion of nonhospitalized centenarians was 80.5% compared with 68.4% among individuals who died in their early 80s. This trend was evident in both sexes. As a result of their lower hospitalization rates and length of stay in hospital compared with their contemporaries, who died at younger ages, Danish centenarians represent healthy agers. Centenarians constitute a useful study population in the search for fixed traits associated with exceptional longevity, such as genotype. PMID:19627266

  15. [Danish physicians' attitude to capital punishment. A questionnaire study].

    PubMed

    Tulinius, A C; Andersen, P M; Holm, S

    1989-09-01

    The attitudes of the Danish medical profession to capital punishment and participation in the procedure of capital punishment were illustrated by means of a questionnaire investigation. A total of 1,011 questionnaires were sent to a representative section of Danish doctors. Out of the 591 who replied, 474 considered that capital punishment is not an acceptable form of punishment while 76 considered that capital punishment is acceptable. Twenty doctors were willing to participate actively in executions although medical participation of this type has been condemned both by the Nordic Medical Associations and also by the World Medical Association.

  16. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  17. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  18. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  19. Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

  20. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  1. Keeping Kids Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Sharon; And Others

    This pamphlet offers a collection of items relating to child health in the day care setting. Included is an overview of a collaborative project to develop a comprehensive set of national standards for health, nutrition, safety, and sanitation in child care programs. Contents of the project's resource kit, "Keeping Kids Healthy and Parents at…

  2. Healthy Single Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Shirley M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of healthy single-parent families. Single parents and their children reported fairly high levels of both physical and mental health. Communication, social support, socioeconomic status, religiousness, and problem solving were also correlated with the mental and physical health of parents and children. (Author/BL)

  3. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  4. Raising Healthy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Carol; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Notes that teaching social and emotional skills can have a long-term positive effect on academic achievement. The University of Washington's Raising Healthy Children Project tries to reduce children's risk of developing problems in adolescence by providing interventions that bond students to family and school. The program features staff…

  5. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  6. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  8. Pastoral Techniques in the Modern Danish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Klaus; Dalgaard, Susanne; Madsen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, therapeutic techniques have played an increasingly significant role in Danish educational thinking. One way in which this therapeutic thinking discloses itself is in the ever-growing use of educational-therapeutic games as part of the educational practice. Inspired by Foucault, we argue that educational-therapeutic games can be…

  9. The Irreversible Process of University "Democratization": The Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mogens N.

    1988-01-01

    The Danish experience with university democratization suggests that the process is irreversible and that its progress is determined by how the initial change was begun two decades ago. It is also proposed that government attempts to intervene and revoke traditional institutional autonomy threaten to invalidate the progress made. (Author/MSE)

  10. Management in Danish Universities: New Legislation and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jorgen Gulddahl

    1995-01-01

    Organizational changes in Danish higher education following 1993 legislation are examined. The new law delegates more power from the state to the universities, but is also more traditional in that it changes collective decision structures to a more authoritarian model. Problems and unforeseen complexities created by this situation in a…

  11. Outside the Box: The Danish Folkehojskole as Educational Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Travelling between various Scandinavian adult educational institutions in 1978, the author, John Collins, picked up a couple of hitchhikers--Danish students returning to their school after a short vacation period. As they neared the Funen Island harbour village, which was their destination, the students invited Collins to visit their school. What…

  12. The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-08-01

    The methodological advances in epidemiology have facilitated the use of the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in ways not previously described systematically. We reviewed the CRS and its use as a research tool in epidemiology. We obtained information from the Danish Law on Civil Registration and the Central Office of Civil Registration, and used existing literature to provide illustrative examples of its use. The CRS is an administrative register established on April 2, 1968. It contains individual-level information on all persons residing in Denmark (and Greenland as of May 1, 1972). By January 2014, the CRS had cumulatively registered 9.5 million individuals and more than 400 million person-years of follow-up. A unique ten-digit Civil Personal Register number assigned to all persons in the CRS allows for technically easy, cost-effective, and unambiguous individual-level record linkage of Danish registers. Daily updated information on migration and vital status allows for nationwide cohort studies with virtually complete long-term follow-up on emigration and death. The CRS facilitates sampling of general population comparison cohorts, controls in case-control studies, family cohorts, and target groups in population surveys. The data in the CRS are virtually complete, have high accuracy, and can be retrieved for research purposes while protecting the anonymity of Danish residents. In conclusion, the CRS is a key tool for epidemiological research in Denmark.

  13. Independent School Success Challenging the Danish Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has had a long history of placing a high priority on education and public schooling. It is a declared goal of the Danish welfare system to provide comprehensive schooling, where children from different socioeconomic backgrounds can go to school together and have the same opportunities through education. It is also a declared goal for…

  14. Reduced endothelial function in the skin in Southeast Asians compared to Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Sott; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Shetye, Gauri; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Pathak, Kunal; Shenoy, Samruddha; Dave, Bhargav; Cho, Sungkwan; Chen, Wei-Ti; Nevgi, Bhakti; Moniz, Harold; Alshaharani, Mastour; Malthane, Swapnil; Desai, Rajavi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The reaction of vascular endothelial cells to occlusion and heat in Southeast Asian Indians (SAI) compared to Caucasians (C) has not been studied, although genetic differences are found in endothelial cells between the races. Material/Methods Ten C and Ten SAI (<35 years old) male and female subjects participated. There was no difference in the demographics of the subjects except that the SAI group had been in the United States for 6 months; C was natives to the US. Endothelial function was assessed by the response of the circulation (BF) to local heating and the response to vascular occlusion. The effects of local heat on circulation in the skin on the forearm was assessed by applying heat for 6 minutes at temperatures, 38, 40 and 42°C on 3 separate days. On different days, vascular occlusion was applied for 4 minutes to the same arm and skin blood flow was measured for 2 minutes after occlusion; skin temperature was either 31°C or 42°C. Results When occlusion was applied at a skin temperature of 31°C, the BF response to occlusion was significantly lower in the SAI cohort compared to C (peak BF C=617±88.2 flux, SAE=284±73 flux). The same effect was seen at skin temperatures of 42°C. The circulatory response to heat was also significantly less in SAI compared to C at each temperature examined (p<0.05)(for temperatures of 38, 40 and 42°C, peak blood flow for C was 374.7±81.2, 551.9±91.3 and 725.9±107 flux respectively and 248.5±86.2, 361.4±104.3 and 455.3±109.7 flux respectively for SAI. (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus there seems to be big differences in these 2 populations in endothelial response to these stressors. The difference may be due to genetic variations between the 2 groups of subjects. PMID:22207113

  15. Healthy mental ageing.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2006-09-01

    Healthy mental ageing may be defined as the absence of the common disabling mental health problems of older people, especially cognitive decline and depression, accompanied by the perception of a positive quality of life. Older people are particularly prone to negative effects on mental health due to poor physical health. Modifiable aspects of lifestyle have been shown to be associated with healthy mental ageing. These include increased physical activity, intellectual stimulation (including education), avoidance of smoking and various aspects of diet. There is reasonably strong evidence that the treatment of hypertension will decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, and moderate alcohol intake may also have some benefits on cognition. These modifiable lifestyle factors may benefit from deliberate individual and population health promotion strategies to maximize mental health in old age, although to date intervention trials have not been performed to support the evidence obtained from observational studies. PMID:16953981

  16. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  17. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses.

  18. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. PMID:25680495

  19. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  20. Ethnicity and health care in cervical cancer survival: comparisons between a Filipino resident population, Filipino-Americans, and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have assessed and compared cervical cancer survival between developed and developing countries, or between ethnic groups within a country. Fewer still have addressed how much of the international or interracial survival differences can be attributed to ethnicity or health care. To determine the role of ethnicity and health care, 5-year survival of patients with cervical cancer was compared between patients in the Philippines and Filipino-Americans, who have the same ethnicity, and between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians, who have the same health care system. Cervical cancer databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 were used. Age-adjusted 5-year survival estimates were computed and compared between the three patient groups. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, potential determinants of survival differences were examined. Overall 5-year relative survival was similar in Filipino-Americans (68.8%) and Caucasians (66.6%), but was lower for Philippine residents (42.9%). Although late stage at diagnosis explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans, excess mortality prevailed after adjustment for stage, age, and morphology in multivariate analysis [relative risk (RR), 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.55]. Excess mortality decreased, but persisted, when treatments were included in the multivariate models (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.41-2.23). A moderate, marginally significant excess mortality was found among Caucasians compared with Filipino-Americans (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47). The differences in cervical cancer survival between patients in the Philippines and in the United States highlight the importance of enhanced health care and access to diagnostic and treatment facilities in the Philippines.

  1. Monitoring landscape changes in Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) habitat in Iran during the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Asef; Fakheran, Sima; Soffianian, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is on the 'red' list of species of high conservation concern as nearest threatened (NT) and also in level (I) of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The black grouse distribution range in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran region, Northwest of Iran, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. Management of forest and grassland structures is important for black grouse population survival. The main goals of this study were to monitor and quantify the landscape pattern changes in Caucasian black grouse habitat in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve in two periods of 14 years (1987-2001) and 10 years (2001-2011). For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived by spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3, including NP (number of habitat patches), LPI (largest patch index) and TE (total edge). The results indicated that the proportion of forest decreased from 39.95 to 31.95% and the proportion of grassland decreased from 44.45 to 38.44% in the 24-year span. NP of forests increased in the first period and decreased in the second period of study. TE of dense forest at altitude above 1800 m decreased. Reduction of forest edge is an indicator of reduction in habitat availability for Caucasian black grouse which use the forest edge for living, lekking and hatching in upland. Our results provided quantitative data on habitat loss and fragmentation in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat. PMID:26088757

  2. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  3. The prognostic value of four interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms in caucasian women with breast cancer – a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Although IL-1 gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, their influence on survival of Caucasian breast cancer patients remains to be shown. Methods We studied the influence of four common gene polymorphisms (IL1A -889C/T, IL1B -511C/T, IL1B +3953E1/E2, and IL1RN long/2) of the IL-1 family on survival in 262 Caucasian patients with breast cancer by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The combined effect of the four gene polymorphisms on overall survival was studied by haplotype analysis. Results In the present study 38 cases of cancer related death and a median time of follow-up (range) of 55.3 (0.4–175.8) months was observed. IL1RN 2/2 (homozygous mutant) gene polymorphism was associated with shortened disease free and overall survival in a univariate (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.002, Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 3.6 [1.6–8.0] and p = 0.05, Odds Ratio = 3.0 [1.1–9.3], respectively). Presence of the homozygous mutant genotype of the IL1A -889 and IL1B +3953 gene polymorphism was associated with overall survival in the univariate (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively), but not in the multivariate analysis. No association was observed between all possible haplotype combinations and overall survival. Conclusion Carriage of the mutant alleles of IL1RN was independently associated with shortened disease free and overall survival rates in Caucasian patients with breast cancer. PMID:19267917

  4. Comparison of Anthropometric Data Between Asian and Caucasian Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but less is known about the role of ethnicity in OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interethnic difference of obesity-related phenotypes in OSA and to reveal the role of ethnicity in OSA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library using the key words “sleep apnea,” “body mass index,” “neck circumference,” “waist circumference,” “waist to hip ratio,” etc. Inclusion criteria were adults over 18 years of age, and studies that included polysomnography, obesity-related parameters, and a clear demarcation of ethnicity in the patient population. Included studies were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. The following information was collected for controls and OSA: number, age, gender, country, ethnicity (Asian or Caucasian), study design, apnea-hypopnea index/respiratory disturbance index, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), and/or waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results A total of 8,312 publications were retrieved with a subsequent 19 manuscripts that met the selection criteria. A total of 2,966 patients were included for analysis. The main findings were as follows: There was no difference in BMI, WC, and WHR between patients with OSA and controls after accounting for publication bias; Patients with OSA have greater NC than controls (standard mean difference, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.14); and There was no difference in NC between Asian and Caucasians patients (P=0.178). Conclusion OSA might not be related with BMI, WC, and WHR. Only NC demonstrated a strong association with OSA, and this finding was not different between Asians and Caucasians. PMID:26976019

  5. Clinical and Immunologic Manifestations of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in a Miami Population Compared to a Midwestern US Caucasian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Marcos E.; Perez, Magdalena; Pignac-Kobinger, Judith; Marx, Emily Triana; Tozman, Elaine M.; Greidinger, Eric L.; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional study of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was performed to determine if there were identifiable differences in the clinical expression of MCTD associated with race or ethnicity. Methods Miami, Florida, and Midwestern US (Missouri) Caucasian MCTD cohorts were studied. Clinical and laboratory features of the 2 MCTD cohorts were compared. A concurrently collected cohort of Sm-positive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was studied as a control. Disease activity and severity and functional status were measured. CD4+CD25high-expressing T-regulatory cells were enumerated and serum soluble L selectin was measured as biomarkers of disease activity. Results The Miami and Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups, while differing from the SLE group, were largely similar; however, gastroesophageal reflux, sclerodactyly, and malar rash were significantly more frequent in the Missouri MCTD group and alopecia was more frequent in the Miami MCTD group. Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between the Miami MCTD and Miami SLE groups despite similar disease duration, activity, severity and functional status. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), hand swelling, synovitis, myositis, and sclerodactyly were all significantly more common in RNP-positive MCTD versus Sm-positive SLE subjects. Conclusion Ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of end-organ involvement in the Miami MCTD versus the Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups. Clinical and laboratory features of all MCTD groups were clearly different from the SLE group, despite similar disease activity, disease severity, and functional status. Disease activity measures appeared to behave similarly as valid measures of disease activity in SLE and MCTD. PMID:18260175

  6. The psychological effects of Hurricane Andrew on ethnic minority and Caucasian children and adolescents: a case study.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T; Frary, R; Cunningham, P; Weddle, J D; Kaiser, L

    2001-02-01

    The impact of Hurricane Andrew on 212 African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic elementary and middle school children was examined at 6 months postdisaster. Using self-report instruments, this case study examined the predictive utility of several hypothesized mediators of children's reactions to disaster. Results showed higher levels of intrusive symptomatology for girls and for elementary school children as compared with their middle school counterparts. No differences were found with reference to race. The lack of findings concerning race is addressed, as well as implications for future studies.

  7. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  8. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  9. Healthy Post-Play Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  10. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  11. Visceral adipose tissue is not increased in Pima Indians compared with equally obese Caucasians and is not related to insulin action or secretion.

    PubMed

    Gautier, J F; Milner, M R; Elam, E; Chen, K; Ravussin, E; Pratley, R E

    1999-01-01

    Pima Indians are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic compared with Caucasians. We investigated whether abdominal fat distribution was different between Pimas and Caucasians and whether differences in the amount of visceral fat explained metabolic differences between the groups. Total body fat (absorptiometry) and abdominal fat distribution at L4-L5 (magnetic resonance imaging) were compared in 20 Pima Indians (10 men/10 women) and 20 age-, sex- and BMI-matched Caucasians. Insulin action was measured as glucose disposal during a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic glucose clamp and insulin secretion was assessed in response to oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. By design, percent body fat was similar in Pimas and Caucasians. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were also similar in the two groups (151+/-16 vs 139+/-15 cm2 and 489+/-61 vs 441+/-7 cm2 respectively). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pimas than Caucasians in the fasting state (27+/-6 vs 11+/-2 mU/ml; p < 0.01) and after a 75-g oral glucose load (area under the curve 19975+/-2626 vs 9293+/-1847 mU x l(-1) x 180 min(-1); p < 0.005). Glucose disposal was lower in Pimas than Caucasians during both steps of the clamp and negatively correlated (after adjustment for percent body fat and sex) with visceral adipose tissue in Caucasians (partial r = -0.51, p = 0.03), but not in Pima Indians (r = -0.03, p = 0.92). Insulin secretion was not related to visceral fat independently of percent body fat in either group. We conclude that a relative increase in visceral fat does not explain insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in Pima Indians. PMID:10027574

  12. Effect of TNF-α genetic variants and CCR5Δ32 on the vulnerability to HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Caucasian Spaniards

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is thought to be involved in the various immunogenetic events that influence HIV-1 infection. Methods We aimed to determine whether carriage of the TNF-α-238G>A, -308G>A and -863 C>A gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and the CCR5Δ32 variant allele influence the risk of HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Caucasian Spaniards. The study group consisted of 423 individuals. Of these, 239 were uninfected (36 heavily exposed but uninfected [EU] and 203 healthy controls [HC]) and 184 were HIV-1-infected (109 typical progressors [TP] and 75 long-term nonprogressors [LTNP] of over 16 years' duration). TNF-α SNP and the CCR5Δ32 allele were assessed using PCR-RFLP and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white blood cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using the χ 2 test and the Fisher exact test. Haplotypes were compared by logistic regression analysis. Results The distribution of TNF-α-238G>A, -308G>A and -863 C>A genetic variants was non-significantly different in HIV-1-infected patients compared with uninfected individuals: -238G>A, p = 0.7 and p = 0.3; -308G>A, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; -863 C>A, p = 0.7 and p = 0.4, for genotype and allele comparisons, respectively. Haplotype analyses, however, indicated that carriers of the haplotype H3 were significantly more common among uninfected subjects (p = 0.04). Among the infected patients, the distribution of the three TNF-α genetic variants assessed was non-significantly different between TP and LTNP: -238G>A, p = 0.35 and p = 0.7; -308G>A, p = 0.7 and p = 0.6: -863 C>A, p = 0.2 and p = 0.2, for genotype and allele comparisons, respectively. Haplotype analyses also indicated non-significant associations. Subanalyses in the LTNP subset indicated that the TNF-α-238A variant allele was significantly overrepresented in patients who spontaneously controlled plasma viremia compared with those who had a detectable plasma viral load

  13. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  14. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  15. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  16. [Healthy pharmaceutical policy].

    PubMed

    González Pier, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Today, the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing a profound transition. Globalization and technological advancement represent the principal pressures for change in the market, where it is increasingly more difficult for this type of industry to efficiently recoup the growing cost of innovation. Mexico needs to analyze the policy implications of these change factors and promote, in the pharmaceutical market, policies that maximize health gains on invested resources. Pharmaceutical policy offers a rare example for a complementary approach between a sound health policy and an efficient economic policy; that is, a "healthy pharmaceutical policy."

  17. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities.

  18. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  19. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  20. Cross-Sectional Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Community Sample of Single African American and Caucasian Men

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted self-interviews were completed with a random sample of 163 unmarried Caucasian and African American men in a large metropolitan area. Almost a quarter (24.5%) of these men acknowledged committing an act since the age of 14 that met standard legal definitions of attempted or completed rape; an additional 39% had committed another type of sexual assault involving forced sexual contact or verbal coercion. An expanded version of the Malamuth et al. [1991] confluence model was examined using path analysis. The number of sexual assaults perpetrated by participants was associated with the direct or indirect effects of childhood sexual abuse, adolescent delinquency, alcohol problems, sexual dominance, positive attitudes about casual sexual relationships, and pressure from peers to engage in sexual relationships. Additionally, empathy buffered the relationship between sexual dominance and perpetration. The pattern of results was highly similar for African American and Caucasian men. The implications of these findings for sexual assault measurement are discussed and suggestions are made for alternative treatment programs. PMID:26435555

  1. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Becker, Emily M.; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N.; Birmaher, Boris B.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Suveg, Cynthia M.; March, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7–17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement. PMID:25293650

  2. Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Evan; Kaur, Sonya S.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Machin, Daniel R.; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk of acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health to measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, gender, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized via β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (p=0.04) with concurrently lower language (p=0.02), memory (p=0.03), and attention-executive functioning (p=0.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics. PMID:25720950

  3. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene is not associated with refractive error and ocular biometrics in a Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Schache, M.; Chen, C.Y.; Dirani, M.; Baird, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variants in the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene are associated with refractive error and ocular biometric measures in a Caucasian cohort. Methods A case-control association study using 818 Caucasian adults (37.2% male, 62.8% female; average age: 51.21±17.17 years) was undertaken. All individuals were genotyped for 16 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) across the MET gene region. Myopia was defined as –0.5 DS or worse in both eyes and divided into high myopia (≤–6.0 DS) and low/moderate myopia (–0.5 DS to –5.99 DS). Hypermetropia was defined as at least +1.0 DS in both eyes. Genotyping results were analyzed using PLINK, comparing cases (all myopia, high myopia, low/moderate myopia, and hypermetropia) to controls (emmetropia). Association tests were also performed using the quantitative traits of refraction, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. Results No statistically significant genetic associations were detected for any of the 16 tSNPs with refractive error (myopia and hypermetropia) or ocular biometric measures. Conclusions These data indicate there is likely no genetic association of the MET gene with myopia, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature in this cohort. PMID:20011629

  4. Factors Associated with Underestimation of Weight Status among Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans—DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Arai, Shoshana; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe weight misperception and to examine the influence of sociodemographic factors on underestimation of weight status in Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design Data from 886 non-pregnant adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey administered in English, Spanish, and Korean, were analyzed. The actual weight status derived from the participants’ body mass index (BMI) categories and their perceived weight status were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore if underestimation of weight status was associated with ethnicity, gender, and education level. Results Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Koreans represented 19.4%, 26.8%, 27.4%, and 26.4% of the total sample of 886. Overall, 2 in 3 participants correctly perceived their weight status, but 42% of Latinos underestimated their weight status and 22% of Koreans overestimated their weight status. Latino ethnicity, male, and low education (≤ high school) were related to greater underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). In contrast, Korean ethnicity was related to less underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). Conclusions Misperception of weight status should be counted in any efforts to develop a weight management intervention for Latino and Korean Americans. PMID:26118149

  5. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Ester Mm; Thönissen, Brenda Ejt; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-03-15

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total, 44 articles were included. The quality of the selected studies was independently assessed by the first two authors using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 6, toll-like receptor 9, and toll-like receptor 10 appear to have some association with childhood asthma in Caucasians. The evidence for a relation of CD14 with childhood asthma is limited. In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence yet for a role of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to childhood asthma. Future studies should include haplotype analysis and take environmental factors into account to further clarify the role of CD14 and toll-like receptors on childhood asthma.

  6. Disclosure of Sexual Assault: Characteristics and Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among African American and Caucasian Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Tkatch, Rifky; Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana

    2010-01-01

    Although the general trauma literature links disclosure of abuse to positive psychological and physical health outcomes, findings for sexual assault survivors are mixed. Supportive responses can reaffirm self-worth; however, negative responses can increase feelings of shame and isolation. This study examined the effects of disclosure in a community sample of Caucasian and African American sexual assault survivors who completed computer-assisted self-interviews. Among the 58.6% of survivors who had disclosed to someone (n = 136), 96% had disclosed to at least 1 informal and 24% at least 1 formal support provider. The experiences of African American and Caucasian survivors were similar in many ways. Participants received more positive than negative responses from others, although only negative responses were related to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and particularly so for African American participants. Regretting disclosure and disclosure to formal providers were also related to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Suggestions are made for programs to decrease negative responses to disclosure. PMID:20373205

  7. GWAS of blood cell traits identifies novel associated loci and epistatic interactions in Caucasian and African-American children.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Glessner, Joseph T; Zhang, Haitao; Hou, Cuiping; Wei, Zhi; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Mentch, Frank D; Guo, Yiran; Kim, Cecilia; Xia, Qianghua; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Thomas, Kelly A; Qiu, Haijun; Grant, Struan F A; Furth, Susan L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sleiman, Patrick M A

    2013-04-01

    Hematological traits are important clinical indicators, the genetic determinants of which have not been fully investigated. Common measures of hematological traits include red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) count. We carried out a genome-wide association study of the eight common hematological traits among 7943 African-American children and 6234 Caucasian children. In African Americans, we report five novel associations of HBE1 variants with HCT and MCHC, the alpha-globin gene cluster variants with RBC and MCHC, and a variant at the ARHGEF3 locus with PLT, as well as replication of four previously reported loci at genome-wide significance. In Caucasians, we report a novel association of variants at the COPZ1 locus with PLT as well as replication of four previously reported loci at genome-wide significance. Extended analysis of an association observed between MCH and the alpha-globin gene cluster variants demonstrated independent effects and epistatic interaction at the locus, impacting the risk of iron deficiency anemia in African Americans with specific genotype states. In summary, we extend the understanding of genetic variants underlying hematological traits based on analyses in African-American children.

  8. Molecular basis of congenital lp(a) deficiency: a frequent apo(a) 'null' mutation in caucasians.

    PubMed

    Ogorelkova, M; Gruber, A; Utermann, G

    1999-10-01

    High plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a covalent low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] complex, are associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. Heritability of Lp(a) levels is high and the major locus determining Lp(a) concentrations is the apo(a) gene. We here demonstrate that a G-->A substitution at the +1 donor splice site of the apo(a) kringle (K) IV type 8 intron occurs with a high frequency ( approximately 6%) in Caucasians but not in Africans and is associated with congenital deficiency of Lp(a) in plasma. This mutation alone accounts for a quarter of all 'null' apo(a) alleles in Caucasians. RT-PCR analysis based on apo(a) illegitimate transcription in lympho- blastoid cells demonstrated that the donor splice site mutation results in an alternative splicing of the K IV type 8 intron and encodes a truncated form of apo(a). Expression of the alternatively spliced cDNA analogue in HepG2 cells showed that the truncated apo(a) form is secreted but is unable to form the covalent Lp(a) complex. Immunoprecipitated plasma apo(a) from homozygotes for the mutation was almost completely fragmented. Taken together, our data indicate that a failure in complex formation followed by fast degradation in plasma of the truncated free apo(a) is one mechanism which underlies the null Lp(a) type associated with the donor splice site mutation.

  9. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  10. Effects of age, ethnicity and menopause on ambulatory blood pressure: Japanese-American and Caucasian school teachers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Brown, D E; Sievert, L L; Aki, S L; Mills, P S; Etrata, M B; Paopao, R N; James, G D

    2001-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements of 120 female teachers of Japanese-American or Caucasian ethnicity working in public schools located in Hilo, Hawaii, were recorded. BP was measured at 15-min intervals during waking hours and 30-min intervals during sleep over a 24-hr period that included a full work day. These measurements were averaged during three daily settings: at work, at home while awake ("home"), and during sleep. ANCOVAs using ethnicity as a predictor variable of BP, with age and the body mass index (BMI) as covariates, show a significant interaction effect between age and ethnicity in some daily settings. Among Japanese-Americans partial correlations between age and systolic BP controlling for the BMI are significant in these settings, while among Caucasians none of the correlations are significant. Menopausal status is not significantly related to BP when age is controlled in analyses. There was no significant ethnic difference in number of symptoms reported, including frequency of "hot flushes/flashes," within the past two weeks. Those who reported hot flushes had significantly elevated BP in waking settings but not during sleep. The greater increase in BP with age in Japanese-Americans may be related to their elevated risk for development of hypertension. The lack of a significant relationship between menopausal status and BP may be due to the high rate of usage of hormonal replacement therapy in this sample, as well as an unusually high rate of hysterectomy. PMID:11400219

  11. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men’s Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke W.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys’ antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys’ vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline—and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences—may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior. PMID:27014508

  12. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  13. Recent changes in Danish law on drugs and drug offences.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J; Laursen, L

    1998-09-01

    The article recounts changes in Danish Drug Law and Enforcement since the beginning of the 1990s and relates them to general trends in Danish criminal policy during the period. In addition to the implementation of EU directives, e.g. on money laundering and growth hormones, legislation has been passed to curb conspicuous dealing of drugs in the streets of Copenhagen. This part of the legislation is seen as a reaction to public fears and reactions to visible aliens dealing in drugs in a conspicuous way, albeit in minor quantities. The legal changes imply a considerable rise in penalties for repeated dealings in minor quantities and easier access to deportation of aliens. The latter has been criticized as potential violation of the human rights of aliens. This and other recent changes in criminal law and related legislation is seen as an indication of politicians' concerns with voters' anxieties, possibly at the edge of moral panics. PMID:9742273

  14. [Dark visions and adaptation in Danish ophthalmology 1889-1940].

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    The scotopticometer is a small, light and handy instrument from 1935, which was developed in Denmark by Carsten Edmund Zeuthen (1897-1973) and Hans Ulrik Møller (1894-1954) for the measurement of dark vision without the use of a dark chamber. The prerequisites are Jannik Bjerrum's contrast letters from 1889 and Marius Tscherning's photometric neutral-gray filter-glasses with a logaritmic scale (Ph 1-8); both Bjerrum (1851-1920) and Tscherning (1854-1939) were Danish ophthalmologists. Tescherning's basic experiments and theories are reported, based on a study of his scientific publications, scientific protocols, letters and scrapbook. Tscherning inspired many young Danish scientists to further studies of dark adaptation, which is still an important topic (traffic, military, art, illumination, gerontology).

  15. Lexical selectivity in danish toddlers with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Objective : To study if Danish children with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in their early lexicon at 18 months of age. Design : A cross-sectional study. Participants : Thirty-four children with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 35 children without cleft palate, matched for gender and age. Methods : All participants were video recorded at 18 months of age during play interaction with a parent. The video recordings were transcribed according to the International Phonetic Alphabet and an individual consonant inventory was established for each participant. The video recordings were also analyzed with respect to word productions, establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results : At 18 months of age Danish children with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children with cleft palate was almost perfectly reflected in their early lexicon at 18 months. The early lexicon of children with cleft palate differed from the early lexicon of their noncleft peers. Conclusions and Implications : Danish toddlers with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in the early lexicon as it has been described for English-speaking toddlers with and without cleft palate, even though some qualitative differences were found.

  16. [Healthy children and sports].

    PubMed

    Backx, F J; Erich, W B

    1990-08-01

    Sport can be considered as an excellent alternative for unhealthy consumption habits and can compensate far the outcome of a sedentary lifestyle. The youngster can improve technique, coordination and flexibility in an easy way by training programs. Specific weight training programs are not recommended for those under the age of fifteen years. Regular exercise programs at young ages have positive effects on the general education, and during life habitual exercise training reduce the severity of cardiovascular and other diseases. It promotes the fitness of the body and the mind. Sport, a lifetime, must be part of a healthy lifestyle and must be encouraged younger ages. Health effects in a long term depend on exercise programs lasting years.

  17. Introduction to Danish (nationwide) registers on health and social issues: structure, access, legislation, and archiving.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Daasnes, Camilla; Thaulow, Ivan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Danish registers contain information on many important health and social issues. Because all Danish citizens have a unique personal identification number, linkage at the individual level between these nationwide registers and other data sources is possible and feasible. In this paper we briefly introduce selected Danish registers and the data structure and requirements forgetting access to data at Statistics Denmark, which is the main provider of register data. We introduce the Danish Data Archive and briefly present the Act on Processing of Personal Data, which is the legal foundation for analyses of register-based data in Denmark.

  18. A comparison of cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Birmingham, England.

    PubMed

    Dhanjal, T S; Lal, M; Haynes, R; Lip, G

    2001-12-01

    Indo-Asians in the UK are at an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); this may be a reflection of their cardiovascular risk factor profile as well as of a more sedentary lifestyle. We hypothesised that Indo-Asians in Malaysia and the UK may exhibit a similar cardiovascular risk factor and physical activity profile, which would be more adverse compared with caucasians. We studied 70 consecutive Indo-Asian patients admitted to hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n=42; 35 males; mean age 60.6 years, SD 11.8); and Birmingham, England (n=28; 20 males; mean age 60.8 years, SD 12.9). Both groups of Indo-Asian patients were compared with 20 caucasian patients (13 males; mean age 62.7 years, SD 9.4) admitted with myocardial infarction from Birmingham. There was a higher prevalence of diabetes among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians (p=0.0225). By contrast, caucasians had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (p=0.0113), peripheral vascular disease (p=0.0008), regular alcohol consumption (p<0.0001) and family history of CAD (p=0.0041). There were no significant differences in mean age, body mass index or blood pressures. There was a significantly lower leisure activity score (p=0.001) and total physical activity score (p=0.003) among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians. This survey has demonstrated differences in cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients. The high prevalence of diabetes, as well as the lower physical activity and sedentary lifestyles among Indo-Asians, in both Malaysia and the UK, may in part contribute to the high incidence of CAD in this ethnic group.

  19. CoQ10 and Endothelial Function in Asians from Korea compared to Asians born in the United States and US Born Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Laymon, Michael; Lee, Haneul; Yim, Jong; Harnandez, Erin; Dequine, Donny; Thorsen, Lindsay; Lovell, Kennith; Andrade, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background The vascular endothelium is the interface between the blood and vascular smooth muscle in arteries. It is easily damaged by oxidative stress. Recent studies show that Asians are more susceptible than Caucasians to impairment of endothelial function. This study examined endothelial function in US-born Caucasians, Asians from Korea, and US-born Asians (almost all Korean decent) and examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on endothelial function. Material/Methods Twenty Caucasians and 30 Asians participated (<35 years old, males and females). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 44°C and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. In the US-born subjects, the experiments were repeated after 2-week administration of CoQ10 or a placebo. Results When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 44°C, the skin blood flows were significantly higher in Caucasians than both Asian groups Asians. Likewise after vascular occlusion, the blood flow response was greater in Caucasians compared to Asians. Asians born in Asia had the lowest response of the 3 groups of subjects. Administering CoQ10 for 2 weeks eliminated much of the difference between the groups, whereas there was no difference with a placebo. Conclusions These findings suggest that Asians either born in Asia or the US may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians. This may be explained, in part, by genetic variations causing increased oxidative stress from westernized diets in Asians. Co enzyme Q10 administration narrows the difference between the groups. PMID:23666274

  20. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663585

  1. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Christiansen, R L; Gunn, S M; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    Children, 4-6 years old, 153 Caucasian and 50 African-American, from a pre-school and kindergarten programme in a low income industrial area, who participated in a voluntary oral health examination, were questioned and examined for signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and of oral parafunctions. Most of the CMD signs and symptoms were mild. Eight per cent had recurrent (at least 1-2 times per week) TMJ pain, and 5% had recurrent neck pain, African-American children more often than Caucasian children (P < 0.05). Seventeen per cent had recurrent headache. Three per cent had recurrent earache. Pain or tiredness in the jaws during chewing was reported by 25% of the children, more often by African-American than by Caucasian children (P < 0.001) and more often by girls than by boys (P < 0.05). Pain at jaw opening occurred in 10% of the children, more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian group (P < 0.001). Thirteen per cent of the children had problems in opening the mouth. Deviation during opening was observed in 17% and reduced opening in 2%. Reduced lateral movements, locking or luxation were not observed in any child. Palpation pain was found in the lateral TMJ area in 16%, in the posterior TMJ area in 25%, in the temporalis and masseter areas in 10%, and pain for all regions was found more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian children (P < 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722749

  2. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461

  3. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rasmussen, Sanne; Jørgensen, Niels

    2010-04-15

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and < or =14 0.5-L bottles of cola/week) compared with low intake (< or =100 mg/day, no cola intake) were not associated with semen quality. High cola (>14 0.5-L bottles/week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI: 92, 160), respectively, compared with 56 mill/mL (95% CI: 50, 64) and 181 mill (95% CI: 156, 210) in non-cola-drinkers, which could not be attributed to the caffeine they consumed because it was <140 mg/day. Therefore, the authors cannot exclude the possibility of a threshold above which cola, and possibly caffeine, negatively affects semen quality. Alternatively, the less healthy lifestyle of these men may explain these findings.

  4. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein.

    PubMed

    Fuerst-Waltl, B; Sørensen, M K

    2010-11-01

    Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving in Danish Holsteins. Records of Danish Holstein heifer calves born in the years 1998 to 2007 were extracted from the Danish Cattle database (Danish Cattle, Skejby, Denmark). The following periods (P) were defined for analyses: P1=d 1 to 30, P2=d 31 to 180, P3=d 181 to 365, P4=d 366 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following periods, whereas their records were kept for preceding periods. After further data editing, more than 840,000 calves and heifers born in the years 1998 to 2007 were investigated. Mortality rates were 3.23, 2.66, 0.97, 1.92, and 9.36% for the defined periods P1 to P5, respectively. For the estimation of genetic parameters, linear and threshold sire models were applied. Effects accounted for were the random effects herd × year × season and sire as well as the fixed effects year × month, number of dam's parity (parities >5 were set to 5), calf size, and calving ease. In total, the pedigree consisted of 4,643 sires and 20,821 animals. Heritabilities for the linear model were low, ranging from 0.006 (P3) to 0.042 (P5). Heritabilities estimated by threshold models showed a wider range, from not significantly different from zero for periods with low frequencies to 0.082 for P1. The mortality rate until first calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine

  5. Differential endothelial cell gene expression by African Americans versus Caucasian Americans: a possible contribution to health disparity in vascular disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease continue to be perplexing worldwide health challenges. This study addresses the possibility that genetic differences affecting the biology of the vascular endothelium could be a factor contributing to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer among African Americans (AA) compared to Caucasian Americans (CA). Methods From self-identified, healthy, 20 to 29-year-old AA (n = 21) and CA (n = 17), we established cultures of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) and applied microarray profiling. BOEC have never been exposed to in vivo influences, and their gene expression reflects culture conditions (meticulously controlled) and donor genetics. Significance Analysis of Microarray identified differential expression of single genes. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis examined expression of pre-determined gene sets that survey nine biological systems relevant to endothelial biology. Results At the highly stringent threshold of False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0, 31 single genes were differentially expressed in AA. PSPH exhibited the greatest fold-change (AA > CA), but this was entirely accounted for by a homolog (PSPHL) hidden within the PSPH probe set. Among other significantly different genes were: for AA > CA, SOS1, AMFR, FGFR3; and for AA < CA, ARVCF, BIN3, EIF4B. Many more (221 transcripts for 204 genes) were differentially expressed at the less stringent threshold of FDR <.05. Using the biological systems approach, we identified shear response biology as being significantly different for AA versus CA, showing an apparent tonic increase of expression (AA > CA) for 46/157 genes within that system. Conclusions Many of the genes implicated here have substantial roles in endothelial biology. Shear stress response, a critical regulator of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis, may be different between AA and CA. These results potentially have direct implications for the role of

  6. Physical Activity Modifies the Effect of LPL, LIPC and CETP polymorphisms on HDL-C Levels and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Tariq; Chasman, Daniel I.; Buring, Julie E.; Lee, I-Min; Ridker, Paul M; Everett, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Whether these associations are modified by physical activity, which increases HDL-C levels and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is uncertain. Methods and Results In a prospective cohort study of 22,939 apparently healthy Caucasian US women, we selected 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes that demonstrated genome-wide association (P<5×10−8) with HDL-C levels and sought evidence of effect modification according to levels of physical activity (PA). PA modified the effects on HDL-C of 7 SNPs at 3 loci, and the strongest evidence of effect was observed for rs10096633 at LPL, rs1800588 at LIPC and rs1532624 at CETP (each P-interaction <0.05). The per-minor-allele increase in HDL-C for rs1800588 at LIPC and rs1532624 at CETP was greater in active than inactive women, whereas the reverse was observed for rs10096633 at LPL. Minor-allele carrier status at the LPL SNP was associated with a reduced risk of MI in active (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.23–0.76) but not amongst inactive women (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83–1.44; P-interaction=0.007). By contrast, carrier status at the CETP SNP was associated with a reduced risk of MI regardless of activity level (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.92; P-interaction=0.71). No association between LIPC SNP carrier status and MI risk was noted Conclusions The effects of common variants in the LPL, LIPC and CETP genes on HDL-C levels are modified by PA. For a common variant in LPL, the impact on MI varied by activity level, while the effects of a common variant in CETP on MI risk did not. PMID:21252145

  7. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  8. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. Results At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P = 0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0 = no improvement; 10 = maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0 = not satisfied; 10 = maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment

  9. Trends in lifestyle coronary risk factors in the Danish MONICA population 1982-1992.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, L U; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Osler, M; Madsen, M; Jørgensen, T; Schroll, M

    2002-03-01

    Myocardial infarction incidence rate declined 3-5% per year during 1982-1992 in the Danish study population of the WHO MONICA Project. We examined whether smoking habits, alcohol intake, dietary habits and physical activity levels changed in the population during the same period. Data from 6695 men and women of ages 30, 40, 50 and 60 y, examined in 1982-4, in 1986-7, and in 1991-2, were analysed to estimate trends. A summary healthy eating index and six scores derived by factor analysis were used to analyse food frequency data. The percentage of smokers declined 1.6% per year in men, and 1.0% per year in 30-, 40- and 50-y-old women, but increased 0.9% per year in 60-y-old women. The percentages of heavy cigarette smoking men and women nevertheless remained constant and close to 30%. Total alcohol intake declined among 30-y-olds, but appeared constant in other age groups. However, among 60-y-old men and among women over 30, the percentage of wine-drinkers rose from 6-11% in 1982-4 to 9-18% in 1991-2. Only 60-y-old men became more physically active at work and only 30-y-old women more so in leisure times. The percentage of individuals with a low healthy eating index decreased and the percentage with a high index increased. More importantly, dietary factor scores showed trends suggesting that very profound and potentially beneficial changes in dietary habits occurred. Lifestyle in the DAN-MONICA population changed in several ways that may have contributed to the declining incidence of myocardial infarction during the 1980s.

  10. Managing a Bone Healthy Lifestyle After Attending Multifaceted Group Education.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annesofie Lunde; Lomborg, Kirsten; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Wind, Gitte

    2016-09-01

    We examined patients with osteoporosis implementation of recommendations regarding a bone healthy lifestyle after the patients attended multifaceted osteoporosis group education (GE). Our findings suggest that GE can support and influence patients' transfer of preventive actions. Still patients are challenged by concerns related to social roles and physical ability. We investigated if and how patients implemented knowledge from attending multifaceted osteoporosis GE in their daily lives. An interpretive description design using ethnographic field work was applied. In all 14 women and three men diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended multifaceted GE at a Danish hospital participated. Data consisted of field work and individual interviews in the participants' everyday environment after completion of GE. After attending multifaceted GE, participants experienced increased attention to and reflected more on how to implement osteoporosis preventive actions or activities. Participants who felt confident on how to act and experienced a clear need and motivation, or who could make the preventive activity into a social event, demonstrated an increased implementation of the preventive activity. On the contrary, attending GE was in some cases not sufficient to overcome social and physical concerns, or to eliminate uncertainty about recommendations or to make participants identify with the osteoporosis diagnosis, which thus impeded implementation of a bone healthy lifestyle. Attending multifaceted GE can support and influence participants' transfer of preventive actions into daily life. Being aware of how concerns about valued social roles and physical ability interfere with the implementation of medical recommendations obviously needs attention during GE. PMID:27146664

  11. Population data on 6 short tandem repeat loci in a sample of Caucasian-Mestizos from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yunis, J J; García, O; Uriarte, I; Yunis, E J

    2000-01-01

    Blood samples from 409-452 unrelated Colombian Caucasian-Mestizo individuals were amplified and typed for six short tandem repeat (STR) markers (HUMF13A01, HUMFES/FPS, HUMVWA, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTH01). The allele frequencies, genotype frequencies, heterozygosity, mean paternity exclusion chance, polymorphism information content, discrimination power, assumption of independence within and between loci and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were determined. The results demonstrate that all markers conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. In addition, the results demonstrate the assumption of independence within and between the loci analysed. The mean exclusion chance (MEC) was 0.9851 for all six STR loci analysed and the discrimination power (DP) was 0.9999973. Therefore, this Colombian population database can be used in identity testing to estimate the frequency of a multiple PCR-based locus DNA profile in forensic cases as well as in paternity testing. PMID:10876992

  12. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  13. Hb Bibba or alpha 2 136(H19)Leu-->Pro beta 2 in a Caucasian family from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Prchal, J T; Adler, B; Wilson, J B; Baysal, E; Qin, W B; Molchanova, T P; Pobedimskaya, D D; Kazanetz, E G; Huisman, T H

    1995-01-01

    Several members of a large Caucasian family who presented with a congenital Heinz body hemolytic anemia were found to be carriers of the unstable Hb Bibba or alpha 2 136(H19)Leu-->Pro beta 2. Identification by protein analysis was hampered by the instability of the variant which complicated its isolation from shipped blood samples. Moreover, the detection of the CTG-->CCG mutation at codon 136 of the alpha 2 gene required the substitution of dGTP by dITP during the DNA sequencing process to prevent the occurrence of secondary structures and compressions in the sequencing gel. The first Hb Bibba heterozygote, characterized in 1968 (1), is believed to be a member of this family. The clinical expression of the disease is surprisingly variable.

  14. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents.

  15. Population data on 6 short tandem repeat loci in a sample of Caucasian-Mestizos from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yunis, J J; García, O; Uriarte, I; Yunis, E J

    2000-01-01

    Blood samples from 409-452 unrelated Colombian Caucasian-Mestizo individuals were amplified and typed for six short tandem repeat (STR) markers (HUMF13A01, HUMFES/FPS, HUMVWA, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTH01). The allele frequencies, genotype frequencies, heterozygosity, mean paternity exclusion chance, polymorphism information content, discrimination power, assumption of independence within and between loci and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were determined. The results demonstrate that all markers conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. In addition, the results demonstrate the assumption of independence within and between the loci analysed. The mean exclusion chance (MEC) was 0.9851 for all six STR loci analysed and the discrimination power (DP) was 0.9999973. Therefore, this Colombian population database can be used in identity testing to estimate the frequency of a multiple PCR-based locus DNA profile in forensic cases as well as in paternity testing.

  16. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  17. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  18. Genetic association study of NF-κB genes in UK Caucasian adult and juvenile onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chinoy, Hector; Li, Charles K.-C.; Platt, Hazel; Fertig, Noreen; Varsani, Hemlata; Gunawardena, Harsha; Betteridge, Zoe; Oddis, Chester V.; McHugh, Neil J.; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Ollier, William E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Treatment-resistant muscle wasting is an increasingly recognized problem in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). TNF-α is thought to induce muscle catabolism via activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Several genes share homology with the NF-κB family of proteins. This study investigated the role of NF-κB-related genes in disease susceptibility in UK Caucasian IIM. Methods. Data from 362 IIM cases [274 adults, 49 (±14.0) years, 72% female; 88 juveniles, 6 (±3.6) years, 73% female) were compared with 307 randomly selected Caucasian controls. DNA was genotyped for 63 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from NF-κB-related genes. Data were stratified by IIM subgroup/serotype. Results. A significant allele association was observed in the overall IIM group vs controls for the IKBL-62T allele (rs2071592, odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.21, 1.89, corrected P = 0.0086), which strengthened after stratification by anti-Jo-1 or -PM-Scl antibodies. Genotype analysis revealed an increase for the AT genotype in cases under a dominant model. No other SNP was associated in the overall IIM group. Strong pairwise linkage disequilibrium was noted between IKBL-62T, TNF-308A and HLA-B*08 (D′ = 1). Using multivariate regression, the IKBL-62T IIM association was lost after adjustment for TNF-308A or HLA-B*08. Conclusion. An association was noted between IKBL-62T and IIM, with increased risk noted in anti-Jo-1- and -PM-Scl antibody-positive patients. However, the IKBL-62T association is dependent on TNF-308A and HLA-B*08, due to strong shared linkage disequilibrium between these alleles. After adjustment of the 8.1 HLA haplotype, NF-κB genes therefore do not independently confer susceptibility in IIM. PMID:22210660

  19. Comparing bone microarchitecture by trabecular bone score (TBS) in Caucasian American women with and without osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Leib, E; Winzenrieth, R; Lamy, O; Hans, D

    2014-09-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have shown the ability of the TBS to discriminate between those with and without fractures in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of TBS to discriminate between those with and without fractures in a large female Caucasian population in the USA. This was a case-control study of 2,165 Caucasian American women aged 40 and older. Patients with illness or taking medications known to affect bone metabolism were excluded. Those in the fracture group (n = 289) had at least one low-energy fracture. BMD was measured at L1-L4, TBS calculated directly from the same DXA image. Descriptive statistics and inferential tests for difference were used. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were created to investigate possible association between independent variables and the status of fracture. Odds ratios per standard deviation decrease (OR) and areas under the ROC curve were calculated for discriminating parameters. Weak correlations were observed between TBS and BMD and between TBS and BMI (r = 0.33 and -0.17, respectively, p < 0.01). Mean age, weight, BMD and TBS were significantly different between control and fracture groups (all p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was noted for BMI or height. After adjusting for age, weight, BMD, smoking, and maternal and family history of fracture, TBS (but not BMD) remained a significant predictor of fracture: OR 1.28[1.13-1.46] even after adjustment. In a US female population, TBS again was able to discriminate between those with and those without fractures, even after adjusting for other clinical risk factors.

  20. Association between TLR3 rs3775291 and resistance to HIV among highly exposed Caucasian intravenous drug users

    PubMed Central

    Huik, Kristi; Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Karki, Tõnis; Marsh, Kristina; Jarlais, Don Des; Uusküla, Anneli; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-01-01

    Background TLR3 recognizes dsRNA and triggers immune responses against RNA and DNA viruses. A polymorphism in TLR3, rs3775291 (Leu412Phe), has been associated with the increased susceptibility to enteroviral myocarditis, protection against tick-borne encephalitis virus and HIV-1 infection. We investigated Caucasian intravenous drug users (IDUs) and blood donors in order to evaluate the associations between TLR3 genotypes and susceptibility to HIV infection. Materials and methods A total of 345 Caucasian IDUs were recruited, 50% of them were HIV positive, 89% HCV and 77% HBV positive. Based on their history of needle sharing, 20 of the HIV negative IDUs were classified as highly exposed HIV seronegatives (HESNs), 68 as non-HESNs and 85 as unexposed. The control group consisting of 497 blood donors tested negative for all three viruses. TLR3 rs3775291 were determined by using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay. Results The TLR3 rs3775291 T allele frequency was similar among the HIV negative and HIV positive IDUs and blood donors – 36%, 31% and 34%, respectively. The frequency of persons possessing at least one TLR3 rs3775291 T allele was significantly higher in HESNs compared with blood donors and HIV positive IDUs (80% vs. 55%; p = 0.037 and 80% vs. 53%; p = 0.031, respectively). In the univariate analysis, persons who possessed at least one T allele had reduced odds of being HIV seropositive (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09–0.90). This association remained significant (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.07–0.87) after the adjustment for other co-variates (HCV, HBV serostatus and duration of intravenous drug use). Conclusions The TLR3 rs3775291 T allele has a protective effect against HIV infection among HESNs IDUs. PMID:23962581

  1. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  2. Significant association between rare IPO11-HTR1A variants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lingjun; Saba, Laura; Lin, Xiandong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Kesheng; Krystal, John H; Tabakoff, Boris; Luo, Xingguang

    2015-10-01

    We comprehensively examined the rare variants in the IPO11-HTR1A region to explore their roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. Five hundred seventy-three to 1,181 rare SNPs in subjects of European descent and 1,234-2,529 SNPs in subjects of African descent (0 < minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05) were analyzed in a total of 49,268 subjects in 21 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric disorders. Associations between rare variant constellations and diseases and associations between individual rare variants and diseases were tested. RNA expression changes of this region were also explored. We identified a rare variant constellation across the entire IPO11-HTR1A region that was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Caucasians (T5: P = 7.9 × 10(-31) ; Fp: P = 1.3 × 10(-32) ), but not with any other disorder examined; association signals mainly came from IPO11 (T5: P = 3.6 × 10(-10) ; Fp: P = 3.2 × 1 0(-10) ) and the intergenic region between IPO11 and HTR1A (T5: P = 4.1 × 10(-30) ; Fp: P = 5.4 × 10(-32) ). One association between ADHD and an intergenic rare variant, i.e., rs10042956, exhibited region- and cohort-wide significance (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) ) and survived correction for false discovery rate (q = 0.006). Cis-eQTL analysis showed that, 29 among the 41 SNPs within or around IPO11 had replicable significant regulatory effects on IPO11 exon expression (1.5 × 10(-17) ≤P < 0.002) in human brain or peripheral blood mononuclear cell tissues. We concluded that IPO11-HTR1A was a significant risk gene region for ADHD in Caucasians.

  3. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in neuromyelitis optica: a prospective study of 13 Caucasian patients and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bălaşa, Rodica; Maier, Smaranda; Bajko, Zoltan; Motataianu, Anca; Crişan, Alexandra; Bălaşa, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a homogenous disease that can be diagnosed by an association of clinical, neuroimaging and serological aspects. We analysed our 4 years NMO series with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) during the disease course. We included consecutive adult Caucasian patients who were diagnosed with definite NMO, or cases of NMO-IgG seropositive LETM considered as limited forms of NMO. Patients included were negative for other diseases (autoimmune, infectious, etc.). We report the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), brain and spine MRI, CSF, NMO-IgG, treatment, motor and visual outcome. Thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the mean follow-up period was 3.74 ± 1.8 years. The initial motor deficit was severe with the mean value of motor functional parameter of 4.46 ± 1 and improved at discharge to 2.53 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). With treatment, the outcome after LETM attack was good in 10 patients, with a significant improvement of the EDSS mainly upon motor deficit, while visual function had a very slight amelioration. The CSF analysis was normal in 8 cases; spinal MRI showed evidence of LETM in all patients while brain MRI was normal in 7. NMO-IgG is a biomarker for NMO that is of diagnostic value in cases of isolated LETM. LETM has a better outcome than ON in NMO Caucasians. Spinal MRI is essential for NMO diagnosis in the presence of LETM and the absence of multiple brain MRI lesions. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy reduces the frequency of attacks. PMID:25944511

  4. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass.

  5. Global healthy backpack initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Kapila; Jacobs, Karen; Fernando, Dulitha

    2012-01-01

    Schoolbag use by children is a global common concern.. Children carry school books and other amenities in their school bags. Global evidence indicates that daily load carried by school children may have negative health implications. Backpack as a school bag model, is the healthiest way of load carriage for school children. Several initiatives have been launched world over to minimize unhealthy consequences resulting from schoolbags. Based on a situation analysis, Sri Lanka implemented a national healthy schoolbag campaign by joint efforts of Ministries of Health and Education. Actions were contemplated on; strategies for bag weight reduction, introduction of an ergonomically modeled schoolbag and bag behaviour change. New strategies were introduced with awareness campaigns to policy makers, bag manufacturers, parents, teachers and children. Four million schoolchildren benefitted. In 2000, the backpack strategy of "Pack it Light, Wear it Right" was started as a public health initiative in the United States by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Over the last eleven years, thousands of occupational therapy practitioners and students participated in educational programs and outreach activities. In 2004, modeled after the success AOTA initiative, the Icelandic Occupational Therapy Association launched a national backpack awareness initiative. This article shares examples of practices that could be implemented in any context to the promote health of children.

  6. [The healthy life].

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Luz, A; Medeiros, A; Macedo, E

    1997-01-01

    This study is based on a comparison of the habits and opinions of a group of pupils on entering the Damaia Preparatory School (5th and 6th years of education) and of the same group on leaving this School. Its aim is to contribute towards an adequate education for health at school in order to promote healthy living habits. The study was based on the comparison of data obtained from two random samples, chosen from the same group of pupils when entering (n1 = 36 out of a total of 368) and leaving (n2 = 32 out of a total of 164) the above mentioned school. The collection of data was carried out by means of a multiple-choice questionnaire given to a total of 532 pupils. The results demonstrated that the frequencies have changed in the following way: a) bathing has increased; b) tea drinking has decreased; c) the image of the teacher as a smoker has become less frequent; d) the number of pupils who have tried alcoholic beverages has increased; e) mother's smoking habits have increased. The other trends that were found in the study showed that there were no significant changes in either the behaviour or opinions that had been studied.

  7. Diet and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid

    2005-12-01

    In the future there will be more people aged 65 years and over ('older adults'). Although the exact mechanisms underlying normal ageing are not fully understood, ageing is generally associated with an increase in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis. It is becoming clear that it is possible to prevent, slow or reverse the onset of many these by modifying lifestyle factors such as diet. Studies of older adults in a range of countries have highlighted a number of areas in which dietary quality could be improved. It is important to identify dietary patterns in addition to specific dietary components that offer protection against chronic disease. The challenge in the area of diet and healthy ageing is twofold: first, there is a need to improve the diet of older adults; and second, as most chronic diseases begin earlier in life, there is a need to encourage other age groups to adapt their diet so they can enter old age in better health.

  8. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  9. Gender, Contraceptives and Individual Metabolic Predisposition Shape a Healthy Plasma Lipidome.

    PubMed

    Sales, Susanne; Graessler, Juergen; Ciucci, Sara; Al-Atrib, Rania; Vihervaara, Terhi; Schuhmann, Kai; Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bickle, Marc; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Ekroos, Kim; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery. PMID:27295977

  10. Gender, Contraceptives and Individual Metabolic Predisposition Shape a Healthy Plasma Lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Susanne; Graessler, Juergen; Ciucci, Sara; Al-Atrib, Rania; Vihervaara, Terhi; Schuhmann, Kai; Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bickle, Marc; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Ekroos, Kim; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery. PMID:27295977

  11. Critical Perspectives on Danish Early Childhood Education and Care: Between the Technical and the Political

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Anders Skriver; Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses trends in contemporary Danish early childhood education and care (ECEC). Data are sourced from various policy documents, along with material from ongoing research projects in which the authors are involved. It is claimed that contemporary policy on Danish day care services has a tendency to emphasize narrow curriculum…

  12. Danish Majority Children's Reasoning about Exclusion Based on Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Signe J.; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated 282 eight- to twelve-year-old Danish majority children's judgments and justifications of exclusion based on gender and ethnicity (i.e., Danish majority children and ethnic-minority children of a Muslim background). Children's judgments and reasoning varied with the perpetrator of the exclusion and the social identity of the…

  13. Towards an Understanding of "Udeskole:" Education outside the Classroom in a Danish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Mygind, Erik; Randrup, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of Danish public, private and independent schools have introduced regular compulsory education outside the classroom for children aged 7-16 as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day--known in Danish as "udeskole." An analysis of this form of outdoor education, its impacts and provision has been…

  14. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Interwar Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational testing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international testing community and the emerging Danish practice of…

  15. Measuring Prejudicial Attitudes in a Situational Context: A Report on a Danish Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaples, Ernest A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of white Danish university students toward blacks and Mediterranean foreign workers. The Situational Attitude Scale (SAS) was translated into Danish Forms A (no reference to race), B (black) and C (Mediterranean foreign worker) and administered to 274 white students at Copenhagen and Aarhus…

  16. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  17. Mergers between Governmental Research Institutes and Universities in the Danish HE Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities and examines the consequences of the changes seen…

  18. The History We Need: Strategies of Citizen Formation in the Danish History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2015-01-01

    Teaching history in schools can be a significant policy instrument for shaping the identities of future citizens. The Danish curriculum for teaching history of 2009 aims at strengthening a sense of "Danishness" which calls for theoretical analysis. Focusing on this particular case, the paper develops a political theoretical frame for…

  19. Codeswitching for Humour and Ethnic Identity: Written Danish-American Occasional Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolen, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    Individual bilingual language performance in occasional songs is examined with focus on the use of Danish and English by a female member of a Danish-American organization in both song-writing and organizational written recordkeeping. The findings confirm the hypothesis of a conditioning effect of features of genre and social role on the…

  20. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  1. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... cities. Ask a dentist or doctor if your water has fluoride in it. If it doesn’t, ask about other kinds of fluoride (such as fluoride varnish or drops) that can help keep your baby’s teeth healthy. 2. Check and clean your baby’s teeth. CHECK your baby’s teeth. Healthy ...

  2. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... cities. Ask a dentist or doctor if your water has fluoride in it. If it doesn’t, ask about other kinds of fluoride (such as fluoride varnish or drops) that can help keep your baby’s teeth healthy. Back to Top Check and clean your baby’s teeth. CHECK your baby’s teeth. Healthy ...

  3. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  4. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  5. Everyday Exercise for Healthy Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sull, Theresa M.

    2005-01-01

    Caring for young children is physically and emotionally demanding, but both parents and teachers experience great satisfaction when they help children develop in healthy ways. Wise caregivers know that they must keep themselves healthy as well, by including exercise in their daily routine. A trip to the gym does not always fit into a schedule…

  6. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior.

  7. Eat healthily, stay healthy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

  8. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in hemodialysed patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Bloudickova, Silvie; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pikhart, Hynek; Viklicky, Ondrej; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The possible association between the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism was found in some, but not all studies. We have analysed the APOE genotypes in 995 haemodialysed patients (cases) and a sample of 6242 healthy individuals (controls) in the Czech Republic. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of APOE alleles between the cases and controls, with more carriers of the APOE2 allele in ESRD patients (15.9%) than in controls (12.2%) (p=0.005). The odds ratio of ESRD for the APOE2 allele, compared with APOE3E3 homozygotes, was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.13-1.67). The strength of the association increased with the time spent on haemodialysis: the odds ratios of all-cause ESRD in patients dialysed for 8 or more years, 1-8 years and less than one year (non-survivors) were 1.27 (0.94-1.71), 1.41 (1.09-1.81) and 1.94 (0.88-4.18), respectively. This study suggests that the APOE2 allele is a possible genetic risk factor for all-cause ESRD in Caucasians. PMID:19565203

  9. Gene Expression Profiling in Monocytes and SNP Association Suggest the Importance of the Gene for Osteoporosis in Both Chinese and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang-Ding; Xiao, Peng; Lei, Shu-Feng; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Guo, Yan-Fang; Deng, Fei-Yan; Tan, Li-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Zhen; Chen, Fu-Rong; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized mainly by low bone mineral density (BMD). Many cytokines and chemokines have been related with bone metabolism. Monocytes in the immune system are important sources of cytokines and chemokines for bone metabolism. However, no study has investigated in vivo expression of a large number of various factors simultaneously in human monocytes underlying osteoporosis. This study explored the in vivo expression pattern of general cytokines, chemokines, and their receptor genes in human monocytes and validated the significant genes by qRT-PCR and genetic association analyses. Expression profilings were performed in monocyte samples from 26 Chinese and 20 Caucasian premenopausal women with discordant BMD. Genome-wide association analysis with BMD variation was conducted in 1000 unrelated Caucasians. We selected 168 cytokines, chemokines, osteoclast-related factors, and their receptor genes for analyses. Significantly, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gene was upregulated in the low versus the high BMD groups in both Chinese and Caucasians. We also revealed a significant association of the STAT1 gene with BMD variation in the 1000 Caucasians. Thus we conclude that the STAT1 gene is important in human circulating monocytes in the etiology of osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:19594299

  10. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  11. A Comparison Between Caucasians and African Americans in Willingness to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials: The Roles of Knowledge, Distrust, Information Sources, and Religiosity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604

  12. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  13. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  14. The Relating Level of Teacher Candidates Based on Scientific Information with Their Daily Lives: A Case of Ataturk and Caucasian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine and compare candidate teachers' level of relating scientific information with their daily lives. The teachers were studying in the 1st and 4th classes in Atatürk and Caucasian Universities, Education Faculty, Elementary School Science Teaching Department during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research…

  15. Lung cancer risk in relation to genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase among African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    London, S J; Smart, J; Daly, A K

    2000-05-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase participates in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, an important carcinogen in tobacco smoke. Two relatively common polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene that influence enzyme activity have been described. An association between genetic variation in microsomal epoxide hydrolase and lung cancer risk has been reported in one of two studies of Caucasians. We examined the relation between these two polymorphisms and lung cancer risk among 337 incident cases and 700 population controls of African-American and Caucasian ethnicity enrolled in a case-control study in Los Angeles County. African-Americans, homozygous for the exon 3 variant allele conferring reduced activity, were at decreased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.62). When data from both the exon 3 and exon 4 polymorphisms were combined into indices of predicted microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity, a decreased risk was seen among African-American subjects with very low predicted activity OR=0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.83). No comparable association was seen among Caucasians. Although the three published results for Caucasians are somewhat variable, the association among African-Americans in these data provides some support for the hypothesis that genetically reduced microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity may be protective against lung cancer.

  16. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  17. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  18. [Sandfly virus meningitis in a Danish traveller returning from Tuscany].

    PubMed

    Nissen, Nanna Bang; Jespersen, Sanne; Vinner, Lasse; Fomsgaard, Anders; Laursen, Alex

    2011-10-01

    We report the first case of Sandfly virus meningitis in a Danish traveller returning from Tuscany. A 52 year-old man was admitted with headache, fever and photophobia. Spinal fluid showed evidence of aseptic meningitis. Indirect immuno-fluorescence assays showed presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies reactive against Toscana virus, and Phlebovirus RNA was detected in blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The patient recovered spontaneously. Since Sandfly virus is a very common cause of meningitis in the Mediterranean countries, it is important to be aware of this disease in travellers returning from these areas.

  19. [Technology use in connection with delivery in Danish maternity departments].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, T

    1990-12-01

    With the object of obtaining information about the technology use employed in Danish maternity departments, a questionnaire was sent to the 58 maternity departments which existed in Denmark in May 1989. These maternity departments covered 99% of the 55,660 births in Denmark (in 1987). Deliveries at home (a total of 511) and delivers in departments with less than four deliveries annually (a total nine) were responsible for the remaining 1%. 100% of the departments returned a completed questionnaire. The following percentages are based on the deliveries included in this investigation. The review revealed that 93.5% of Danish women are delivered in departments with access to carditocographic equipment (CTG), 34% in departments where this is offered routinely to all parturient women. Sixteen departments which did not possess CTG equipment all had fewer than 400 deliveries per annum and 12 of these stated that they wished they had had CTG. Only four of the 58 maternity departments (managing 3.4% of the deliveries in 1987) never employ human placental lactogen (HPL) or oestriol (O3) analyses. The most commonly employed hormone parameter is HPL which is undertaken on appropriate indications in 51 of 54 departments and routinely in the remaining three. Scalp-pH is carried out in 13 of the Danish maternity departments. Thus 41.7% of all the parturient women have access to this analysis. However, only 20% are delivered in maternity departments where this test is employed frequently. Cord-blood-pH is employed routinely in 31.7% of the neonates. Measurement of intrauterine pressure is employed in six out of the 58 maternity departments which are responsible for 25% of Danish deliveries. It is concluded that the slightly increased employment of technology use during delivery in 1989 as compared with practice in 1984 may primarily be due to the closing of several small maternity units during the past five years. In general, the use of technologies are less intensive than in

  20. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  1. Milk fatty acid composition and production performance of Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cows fed different amounts of linseed and rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M K; Hymøller, L; Brask-Pedersen, D B; Weisbjerg, M R

    2012-07-01

    Fat supplements are used in diets for dairy cows to increase energy intake and milk production and the fatty acid composition of the feed affects milk fatty acid composition. A total of 74 Danish Holstein and 41 Danish Jersey cows were divided into 4 groups and the cows within each group were fed a mixed ration supplemented with 0, 3.5, 6.8, or 10.2% of dry matter of a linseed:rapeseed (1:3) mixture during lactation wk 6 to 30. Milk yield, fat, and lactose contents were not affected by treatments for Danish Holsteins, whereas these parameters increased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed to Danish Jerseys. For both breeds, milk protein content decreased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed. The milk fatty acid composition showed higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and lower concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat from Danish Jerseys compared with Danish Holsteins. Increased amounts of oilseeds in feed increased milk fat concentration of all C18 fatty acids except C18:2 n-6, whereas the content of C6 to C14, C11 to C17, and in particular, C16, decreased. This effect was more pronounced for Danish Holsteins than for Danish Jerseys. The apparent recovery of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 decreased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed; however, this was most likely due to increased amounts of fatty acid from feed used for other energy demands than milk production. It was concluded that up to 6.8% of oilseed supplementation can be fed without production problems and, in many cases, with positive production responses, including an improved milk fatty acid profile.

  2. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  3. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  4. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population.

  5. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population. PMID:22895295

  6. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  7. Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'.

  8. Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

  9. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-04-12

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects.

  10. Outcome of sterilization by steam autoclaves in Danish dental offices.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, F; Reinholdt, J

    1988-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of autoclaves and the use of biologic indicators for sterilization control, and to look for predictor variables for improperly functioning autoclaves in Danish dental offices. The study population comprised 314 Danish dental offices (participation rate 94%); 177 from the public Child Dental Service (CDS) and 137 from private practice. A minor questionnaire and five biologic indicators (Attest Biological Indicator for Steam Sterilization, 3M) were sent to the participants. CDS offices were found more inclined to use biologic indicators than PP offices (P less than 0.00001). Among CDS autoclaves 2.3% (95% confidence limit: 0.9-5.7%) failed to sterilize compared to 7.3% (95% confidence limit: 4.0-12.9) of the PP autoclaves. This difference is not statistically significant, but the confidence intervals indicate a possible true difference in favor of a better outcome in the CDS offices. Looking at the whole sample no other predictor variable for inadequate sterilization could be determined as differences were statistically insignificant with regard to years of professional experience, age and brand of autoclave, and use of biological control. Recommendations from an official body stating the approved types of sterilization control in dental offices would be of value. PMID:3162602

  11. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on white matter microstructure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tost, Heike; Alam, Tajvar; Geramita, Matthew; Rebsch, Christine; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Dickinson, Dwight; Verchinski, Beth A; Lemaitre, Herve; Barnett, Alan S; Trampush, Joey W; Weinberger, Daniel R; Marenco, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    The BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, a possible risk variant for mental disorders, is a potent modulator of neural plasticity in humans and has been linked to deficits in gray matter structure, function, and cognition. The impact of the variant on brain white matter structure, however, is controversial and remains poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the effects of BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on white matter microstructure in a sample of 85 healthy Caucasian adults. We demonstrate decreases of fractional anisotropy and widespread increases in radial diffusivity in Val/Val homozygotes compared with Met-allele carriers, particularly in prefrontal and occipital pathways. These data provide an independent confirmation of prior imaging genetics work, are consistent with complex effects of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism on human brain structure, and may serve to generate hypotheses about variation in white matter microstructure in mental disorders associated with this variant. PMID:23132269

  12. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on White Matter Microstructure in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Heike; Alam, Tajvar; Geramita, Matthew; Rebsch, Christine; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Dickinson, Dwight; Verchinski, Beth A; Lemaitre, Herve; Barnett, Alan S; Trampush, Joey W; Weinberger, Daniel R; Marenco, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, a possible risk variant for mental disorders, is a potent modulator of neural plasticity in humans and has been linked to deficits in gray matter structure, function, and cognition. The impact of the variant on brain white matter structure, however, is controversial and remains poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the effects of BDNF Val66Met genotype on white matter microstructure in a sample of 85 healthy Caucasian adults. We demonstrate decreases of fractional anisotropy and widespread increases in radial diffusivity in Val/Val homozygotes compared with Met-allele carriers, particularly in prefrontal and occipital pathways. These data provide an independent confirmation of prior imaging genetics work, are consistent with complex effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on human brain structure, and may serve to generate hypotheses about variation in white matter microstructure in mental disorders associated with this variant. PMID:23132269

  13. Comparative pharmacogenetic analysis of risk polymorphisms in Caucasian and Vietnamese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prediction of therapeutic outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Vu Hoang, Phuong Thu; Ambroise, Jérôme; Dekairelle, Anne-France; Durant, Jean-François; Butoescu, Valentina; Dang Chi, Vu Luan; Huynh, Nghia; Nguyen, Tan Binh; Robert, Annie; Vermylen, Christiane; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Aims Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common of all paediatric cancers. Aside from predisposing to ALL, polymorphisms could also be associated with poor outcome. Indeed, genetic variations involved in drug metabolism could, at least partially, be responsible for heterogeneous responses to standardized leukemia treatments, hence requiring more personalized therapy. The aims of this study were to (a) to determine the prevalence of seven common genetic polymorphisms including those that affect the folate and/or thiopurine metabolic pathways, i.e. cyclin D1 (CCND1-G870A), γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH-C452T), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C), thymidylate synthase promoter (TYMS-TSER), thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT*3A and TPMT*3C) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA-C94A), in Caucasian (n = 94, age < 20) and Vietnamese (n = 141, age < 16 years) childhood ALL and (b) to assess the impact of a multilocus genetic risk score (MGRS) on relapse-free survival (RFS) using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Results The prevalence of MTHFR-677TT genotype was significantly higher in Caucasians (P = 0.008), in contrast to the prevalence of TYMS-TSER*3R/3R and ITPA-94AA/AC genotypes which were significantly higher in Vietnamese (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Compared with children with a low MGRS (≤3), those with a high MGRS (≥4) were 2.06 (95% CI = 1.01, 4.22; P = 0.04) times more likely to relapse. Adding MGRS into a multivariate Cox regression model with race/ethnicity and four clinical variables improved the predictive accuracy of the model (AUC from 0.682 to 0.709 at 24 months). Conclusion Including MGRS into a clinical model improved the predictive accuracy of short and medium term prognosis, hence confirming the association between well determined pharmacogenotypes and outcome of paediatric ALL. Whether variants on other genes associated with folate metabolism can substantially improve the

  14. Evaluation of the Association of IGF2BP2 Variants With Type 2 Diabetes in French Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Duesing, Konsta; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Charpentier, Guillaume; Marre, Michel; Tichet, Jean; Hercberg, Serge; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Gibson, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We performed a comprehensive genetic association study of common variation spanning the IGF2BP2 locus in order to replicate the association of the “confirmed” type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants rs4402960 and rs1470579 in the French Caucasian population and to further characterize the susceptibility variants at this novel locus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We genotyped a total of 21 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the IGF2BP2 locus in our type 2 diabetes case-control cohort comprising 3,093 French Caucasian subjects. RESULTS—IGF2BP2 variants rs4402960 and rs1470579 were not associated with type 2 diabetes in the present study (P = 0.632 and P = 0.896, respectively). Meta-analysis of genotype data from over 34,000 subjects demonstrated that our inability to replicate rs4402960/rs1470579 was consistent with the findings from several previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets that were underpowered to detect this modest association signal (odds ratio [OR] 1.14). We obtained novel evidence that rs9826022, a borderline rare variant (5% minor allele frequency) in the 3′ downstream region, was associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.0002; OR 1.53 [95% CI 1.22–1.91]). This result was corroborated by the meta-analysis of 10,542 genotypes from the current study and GWAS datasets using both fixed (P = 9.47 × 10−6; 1.30 [1.16–1.46]) and random effects (P = 0.001; 1.30 [1.11–1.52)] calculations. CONCLUSIONS—We were unable to replicate the confirmed rs4402960/rs1470579 susceptibility variants but found novel evidence for a rare variant in the 3′ downstream region of IGF2BP2. Further genetic and functional studies are required to identify the etiological IGF2BP2 variants. PMID:18430866

  15. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Abatih, E N; Ersbøll, A K; Lo Fo Wong, D M A; Emborg, H D

    2009-05-01

    In Denmark, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in animals, animal products and humans, is routinely monitored. This study aimed at determining whether the observed variations in the prevalence of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs at slaughter were random or clustered in space and time. Data on E. coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (VetStat). Space-time interaction was assessed using the space-time K-function and detection and location of significant space-time clusters was done using the space-time scan statistic. The space-time K-function analysis provided evidence of space-time interactions in ampicillin resistant E. coli (AREC) isolates in both Funen and Jutland, and Zealand. Significant space-time clusters of resistant E. coli isolates were found in the north eastern part of Jutland and Funen and in the southern part of Zealand. Seasonality was found to have a highly significant effect on space-time clustering in Funen and Jutland. The clusters of ampicillin resistant E. coli appeared at the same time as the national consumption of ampicillin in pigs increased, however antimicrobial consumption at the herd level did not appear to have any effects on space-time clustering in this study. The results could serve as a platform to highlight areas where more investigations on the occurrence and spread of ampicillin resistant E. coli in pig herds should be initiated.

  16. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  17. MedlinePlus: Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... in America (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: The benefits of social prescribing. Article: Healthy ...

  18. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps < .001). Second, MAAS scores showed satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability in 100 retested healthy university students. Finally, MAAS sample mean scores as well as individuals' scores demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability across a 6 months interval in the adult community (retested N = 407), intraclass correlations ≥ .74. MAAS scores displayed significantly stronger long-term test-retest reliability than scores measuring psychological distress (z = 2.78, p = .005). Test-retest reliability estimates did not differ within demographic and socioeconomic strata. Scores on the Danish MAAS were psychometrically validated in healthy adults. MAAS's inattentiveness scores reflected a unidimensional construct, long-term reliable disposition, and a factor of independent significance for predicting psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Early vocabulary development in Danish and other languages: a CDI-based comparison.

    PubMed

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O; Basbøll, Hans

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the trajectory of Danish children's early lexical development relative to other languages, by comparing a Danish study based on the Danish adaptation of The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to 17 comparable CDI-studies. The second objective is to address the feasibility of cross-linguistic CDI-comparisons. The main finding is that the developmental trend of Danish children's early lexical development is similar to trends observed in other languages, yet the vocabulary comprehension score in the Danish children is the lowest across studies from age 1 ; 0 onwards. We hypothesize that the delay is related to the nature of Danish sound structure, which presents Danish children with a harder task of segmentation. We conclude that CDI-studies are an important resource for cross-language studies, but reporting of studies needs to be standardized and the availability of published data improved in order to make comparisons more straightforward. PMID:18588717

  20. Comparison of United States and Danish strains of Jerseys for yield traits.

    PubMed

    Metzger, J S; Hansen, L B; Norman, H D; Wolfe, C W; Pedersen, J

    1994-05-01

    Eleven US and 11 Danish young bulls were AI sampled in the US and Denmark. The milking daughters of these sires provided an opportunity for comparison of the US and Danish Jersey populations. Danish age and month of calving and DIM adjustment factors were developed so that Danish and US records could be compared on a standardized basis (305-d lactation, mature equivalent). Least squares and animal model analyses were used to estimate strain differences and effects of heterosis. Jerseys from the US had superiority over Danish Jerseys of approximately 1000 kg for milk and 17 kg for protein. However, Danish Jersey had an advantage of 20 kg for fat. Estimates of heterosis from crosses of US and Danish Jerseys were 1.5 to 3% of the mean for milk, fat, and protein yields. Correlations of EBV from official genetic evaluations of the US and Denmark were high, > or = .78, for the project bulls, providing little evidence of an interaction of genotype and environment.

  1. Effect of ethnic origin (Caucasians versus Turks) on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases: a WHO-ILAR COPCORD urban study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Davatchi, Fereydoun; Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash; Gholami, Jaleh; Hossein Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Barghamdi, Mojgan; Noorolahzadeh, Elham; Khabazi, Ali-Reza; Salesi, Mansour; Salari, Amir-Hossein; Karimifar, Mansoor; Essalat-Manesh, Kamal; Hajialiloo, Mehrzad; Soroosh, Mohsen; Farzad, Farhad; Moussavi, Hamid-Reza; Samadi, Farideh; Ghaznavi, Koorosh; Asgharifard, Homa; Zangiabadi, Amir-Hossein; Shahram, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Akbarian, Mahmood; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Rasker, Johannes J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and rheumatic disorders in Caucasians and Turks in an identical environment. Subjects were selected randomly for an interview from Tehran's 22 districts. The Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases questionnaire was filled in, positive cases were examined, and if needed, laboratory or X-ray tests were performed. A total of 4,096 houses were visited, and 10,291 persons were interviewed. They were 71.4% Caucasians and 23.1% Turks with similar distribution of age and gender. Musculoskeletal complaints of the past 7 days were detected in 40.8% of Caucasians and 45.5% of Turks (p < 0.001). In Caucasians, the total of musculoskeletal complaints in men was 33.8% (95% CI, 31.4-36.2%) versus 48.3% in women (95% CI, 45.7-50.8%). In Turks, the total of musculoskeletal complaints in men was 36.6% (95% CI, 32.2-41.1%) versus 55.8% in women (95% CI, 55.8-60.6%). The data of Caucasians versus Turks were as follows: knee pain 20.2% (95% CI, 18.2-22.1) versus 24.1% (95% CI, 20.5-27.6), with p < 0.001; dorso-lumbar spine pain 15.1% (95% CI, 13.6-16.6) versus 18.4% (95% CI, 15.1-21.8), with p < 0.001; shoulder pain 10.7% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9) versus 12.3% (95% CI, 9.7-14.8), with p = 0.025; osteoarthritis 14.1% (95% CI, 12.8-15.2) versus 16.4% (95% CI, 14.3-18.6), p = 0.04; and knee osteoarthritis 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8-14.1) versus 15.3% (95% CI, 13.3-17.4), with p < 0.001). There were no significant differences regarding the prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet's disease, fibromyalgia, and gout. Although musculoskeletal complaints were more frequent in Turks than in Caucasians, the prevalence of rheumatic disorders was rather similar except for knee osteoarthritis.

  2. Longitudinal study of perceived negative impact in African American and Caucasian mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for diagnosis of ASD at age two. Analyses included data from two time points, when child participants were approximately 9 and 14 years old. Linear mixed model analyses were used to examine the relationship between the primary outcome variable, mothers' perceived negative impact across time, and hypothesized predictors. Negative impact increased significantly from late childhood to into adolescence. However, African American mothers with lower education reported significantly lower levels of perceived negative impact at both time points. Findings show that for some families, the transition to adolescence is a period in which mothers experience increased amounts of negative impact and highlight the importance of examining the influence of socioeconomic variables. Furthermore, data suggest that there may be cultural differences mediating the relationship between maternal education, ethnicity, and perceived negative impact. Implications for the importance of including families from varying levels of socioeconomic status in ASD research are discussed.

  3. N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism increases cotinine levels in Caucasian children exposed to secondhand smoke: the CCAAPS birth cohort.

    PubMed

    LeMasters, G K; Khurana Hershey, G K; Sivaprasad, U; Martin, L J; Pilipenko, V; Ericksen, M B; Burkle, J W; Lindsey, M A; Bernstein, D I; Lockey, J E; Gareri, J; Lubetsky, A; Koren, G; Biagini Myers, J M

    2015-04-01

    Cotinine is a proxy for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Genetic variation along nicotine and cotinine metabolic pathways may alter the internal cotinine dose, leading to misinterpretations of exposure-health outcome associations. Caucasian children with available SHS exposure and hair cotinine data were genotyped for metabolism-related genes. SHS-exposed children had 2.4-fold higher hair cotinine (0.14±0.22 ng mg(-1)) than unexposed children (0.06±0.05 ng mg(-1), P<0.001). SHS-exposed children carrying the NAT1 minor allele had twofold higher hair cotinine (0.18 ng mg(-1) for heterozygotes and 0.17 ng mg(-1) for homozygotes) compared with major allele homozygotes (0.09 ng mg(-1), P=0.0009), even after adjustment for SHS dose. These findings support that NAT1 has a role in the metabolic pathway of nicotine/cotinine and/or their metabolites. The increased cotinine levels observed for those carrying the minor allele may lead to SHS exposure misclassification in studies utilizing cotinine as a biomarker. Additional studies are required to identify functional single-nucleotide polymorphism(s) (SNP(s)) in NAT1 and elucidate the biological consequences of the mutation(s).

  4. Recruitment and enrollment of African Americans and Caucasians in a health promotion trial for persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mona; Cooper, Lisa A; Appel, Lawrence J; Yu, Airong; Charleston, Jeanne; Gennusa, Joseph; Dickerson, Faith; Daumit, Gail L

    2015-01-01

    African Americans with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to experience inadequate representation in clinical trials. Persons with SMI, regardless of race, have an increased burden of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and tobacco smoking. Having SMI and being African American, however, is each associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality compared to the general population. There is a critical need, therefore, to adapt health promotion interventions for African Americans with SMI. We sought to examine overall recruitment into a randomized clinical trial of CVD prevention among persons with SMI, and to examine racial differences in interest, enrollment, and potential barriers to participation. Although similar levels of interest in participation were seen between African Americans and Caucasians in signing screening consent, 9.6% fewer African Americans enrolled due to inability to complete initial data collection. Further work is needed to better understand the nature of the barriers encountered by African Americans with SMI who otherwise may be interested in participating within clinical trials.

  5. The Y-STR genetic diversity of an Idaho Basque population, with comparison to European Basques and US Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg

    2011-12-01

    Fifty unrelated Basque males from southwest Idaho were typed for the 17 Y-STR loci in the Yfiler multiplex kit (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA H4.1 and DYS385a/b). In total, 42 haplotypes were identified, with no more than two individuals sharing a single haplotype. The haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9935, and gene diversity (D) over loci was 0.457 ± 0.137. The Idaho Basque population was compared to the source population from the Basque autonomous region of Northern Spain and Southern France, as well as a United States Caucasian population. The haplotype diversity for the immigrant Basque sample is within 0.4% of the haplotype diversity of the European Basques (0.9903); thus the power of discrimination is similar for each population. The Idaho Basque population has less diversity in 9 out of 16 loci (considering DYS385a/b together) and 3% less diversity across all loci, compared to the European Basque population. A multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) was created using pairwise R(ST) values to compare the Idaho Basques to other populations. Based upon R(ST) and F(ST) measures, no significant differentiation was found between the Idaho and source European Basque population. PMID:22276968

  6. Benefits from an uncertainty management intervention for African-American and Caucasian older long-term breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mishel, Merle H; Germino, Barbara B; Gil, Karen M; Belyea, Michael; Laney, Iris Carlton; Stewart, Janet; Porter, Laura; Clayton, Margaret

    2005-11-01

    In a randomized controlled design, this study tested the efficacy of a theoretically based uncertainty management intervention delivered to older long-term breast cancer survivors. The sample included 509 recurrence-free women (360 Caucasian, 149 African-American women) with a mean age of 64 years (S.D.=8.9 years) who were 5-9 years post-treated for breast cancer. Women were randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care control condition. The intervention was delivered during four weekly telephone sessions, in which study nurses guided cancer survivors in the use of audiotaped cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage uncertainty about recurrence, and a self-help manual designed to help women understand and manage long-term treatment side effects and other symptoms. Treatment outcome data on uncertainty management were gathered at pre-intervention and 10-months afterward. Repeated measures MANOVA evaluating treatment group, ethnic group, and treatment by ethnic interaction effects indicated that training in uncertainty management resulted in improvements in cognitive reframing, cancer knowledge, patient-health care provider communication, and a variety of coping skills. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of theory-based interventions for cancer survivors that target triggers of uncertainty about recurrence and in terms of ethnic differences in response to the intervention. PMID:15712339

  7. Host Genetics, Steatosis and Insulin Resistance among African Americans and Caucasian Americans with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, A. Danielle; Feingold, Eleanor; Wahed, Abdus S.; Kleiner, David E.; Belle, Steven H.; Conjeevaram, Hari S.; Zmuda, Joseph; Liang, T. Jake; Yee, Leland J.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is the accumulation of fat in liver cells. Insulin resistance (IR) occurs when normal amounts of insulin do not stimulate insulin activity in cells. Both conditions have been described in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and are thought to be biologically related. This study examined the association of genetic variants with steatosis and IR among 167 African Americans and 184 Caucasian Americans with HCV genotype-1. Steatosis was defined as at least 5% of fat in cells on liver biopsy. IR was quantified as a score greater than 2 from the Homeostasis Model Assessment, version 2.2 (HOMA2-IR). Associations were investigated by estimating odds ratios separately by race. Statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) were observed for variants in interleukin-10 (IL10), leptin receptor (LEPR), interleukin-6 (IL6) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) for both outcomes. Some significant interactions were observed between IL10, LEPR andTGF-β1 polymorphisms and HOMA2-IR scores when examining steatosis. The interaction of HOMA2-IR and IL10 was consistent in both races whereas for LEPR and TGF-β1 the interactions were statistically significant in only one of the racial groups. These results could imply that some IL10, LEPR and TGF-β1 polymorphisms may modify an association between steatosis and IR. PMID:19401628

  8. Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Christensen, Louise; Skov, Kate; Chang, Chi-Chih; Damholdt, Malene F; Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants' engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations.

  9. Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Christensen, Louise; Skov, Kate; Chang, Chi-Chih; Damholdt, Malene F; Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants' engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations. PMID

  10. Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Christensen, Louise; Skov, Kate; Chang, Chi-Chih; Damholdt, Malene F.; Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants’ engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations. PMID

  11. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols.

    PubMed

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Boye Kyhl, Henriette; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Husby, Steffen; Barington, Torben; Main, Katharina M; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine-disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is particularly vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals therefore is of concern for pregnant women. We investigated current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between 8 and 30 weeks of gestation and analysed for metabolites of ten phenols, seven parabens and 16 phthalate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry representing 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in the urine sample collected from most women who participated. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite(s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups, suggesting combined exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DIs) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable DI (TDI) and with hazard quotients below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the estimated DI of phthalates and BPA for an individual was below TDI, our results still raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure. The true cumulative risk for the foetus may therefore be underestimated.

  12. Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants modulate personality traits in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Dlugos, Andrea M.; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2013-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major Depression, and vulnerability of Major Depression is associated with personality traits relating to positive and negative affect. This study aimed to investigate associations between MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms and personality traits of positive and negative emotionality in healthy volunteers, to elucidate mechanisms underlying personality and the risk for depression. Healthy Caucasian volunteers (N = 150) completed the Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), which includes independent superfactors of Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality. Participants were genotyped for 8 MAOA and 12 MAOB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analyses for both SNPs and haplotypes were performed using the permutation approach implemented in PLINK. Negative Emotionality was significantly associated with the two highly linked MAOB polymorphisms rs10521432 and rs6651806 (p < 0.002). Findings were extended in haplotype analyses. For MAOB the 4-SNP haplotype GACG formed from rs1799836, rs10521432, rs6651806 and rs590551 was significantly related to lower Negative Emotionality scores (p < 0.002). MAOA was not related to personality in this study. Our finding provides the first evidence that MAOB polymorphisms influence levels of negative emotionality in healthy human volunteers. If confirmed, these results could lead to a better understanding of personality traits and inter-individual susceptibility developing psychiatric disorders such as major depression. PMID:19657584

  13. Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants modulate personality traits in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Andrea M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major Depression, and vulnerability of Major Depression is associated with personality traits relating to positive and negative affect. This study aimed to investigate associations between MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms and personality traits of positive and negative emotionality in healthy volunteers, to elucidate mechanisms underlying personality and the risk for depression. Healthy Caucasian volunteers (N = 150) completed the Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), which includes independent superfactors of Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality. Participants were genotyped for 8 MAOA and 12 MAOB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analyses for both SNPs and haplotypes were performed using the permutation approach implemented in PLINK. Negative Emotionality was significantly associated with the two highly linked MAOB polymorphisms rs10521432 and rs6651806 (p < 0.002). Findings were extended in haplotype analyses. For MAOB the 4-SNP haplotype GACG formed from rs1799836, rs10521432, rs6651806 and rs590551 was significantly related to lower Negative Emotionality scores (p < 0.002). MAOA was not related to personality in this study. Our finding provides the first evidence that MAOB polymorphisms influence levels of negative emotionality in healthy human volunteers. If confirmed, these results could lead to a better understanding of personality traits and inter-individual susceptibility developing psychiatric disorders such as major depression.

  14. Medical informatic research management in academia - the Danish setting.

    PubMed

    Kjær Andersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The condition that the Danish universities have been subject to severe changes through the last decade has had huge consequences for management of research at the level of a discipline as Medical Informatics. The presentation pinpoints some of the instruments, which is on top of the management agenda in the new academic reality in Denmark. Performance contracts, organizational structure, general management, research constraints, ranking and performance issues, economy linked to production, ownership, and incitements are issues affecting the way research are done. The issue of effective research management is to navigate in this reality, ensure inspiration and influx from other environments dealing with medical informatics problems, in theory as well as in praxis - and shield the individual researcher from emerging bureaucracy, leaving room for creativity.

  15. The legal basis for the Danish Committee on Scientific Dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Brydensholt, H H

    2000-01-01

    The author, a High Court Judge, has chaired the Danish Committee on Scientific Dishonesty (DCSD) since its establishment in 1992. The Committee has worked in the health sector, but from 1999 the scope has been broadened to cover all fields of science. The article describes how the work is organised and the experiences gained. It is stressed, that the difficulty in connection with scientific dishonesty is, first and foremost, to organise a system suitable for investigating cases effectively, professionally, and with proper respect to the fundamental legal rights of the parties involved. The Committee has also spent much effort in determining what can be termed scientific dishonesty and what falls outside this category but which may, nevertheless, be characterised as breaching of good scientific practice. It is emphasised that these rules are not arbitrarily established by the Committee, but formulated in accordance with norms general accepted by opinion leaders in the scientific community.

  16. [Hallucinogenic psilocybine containing mushrooms. Toxins contained in Danish wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Lassen, J F; Ravn, H B; Lassen, S F

    1990-01-29

    A number of the wild Danish mushrooms contain the hallucinogenic agent psilocybin which resembles LSD in many ways. The commonest of these are the "liberty cap" or "magic mushrooms" (Psilocybe semilanceata). On the basis of experience from USA and western Europa, increase in employment of this mushrooms as a hallucinogenic intoxicant may be anticipated in Denmark. The history, epidemiology, botany and pharmacology of the mushroom are reviewed. Clinical pictures and treatment are described for: 1) Acute poisoning with psilocybin-containing fungi, 2) Late sequelae of consumption of psilocybin-containing fungi and 3) Poisoning with more poisonous fungi on account of incorrect identification. General practitioners, duty roster doctors, doctors in casualty departments and in acute psychiatric departments should be aware of these problems. Intoxication with psilocybin may be confused with panic anxiety or euphoria in persons with mydriasis and other sympathomimetic symptoms. The possibility of more serious mushroom poisoning on account of incorrect identification should be borne in mind.

  17. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  18. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  19. Measurement of the emanation of radon-222 from Danish soils.

    PubMed

    Damkjaer, A; Korsbech, U

    1985-10-01

    The radon-222 emanation from 70 samples of Danish soils, subsoils, and sedimentary rocks has been measured. Two methods have been employed. The first one is to follow the growth of the radon concentration in a radon-tight sample container by transferring small air samples to a scintillation flask detection system. The second one is to measure the equilibrium gamma-activities of lead-214 and bismuth-214 in the sample when the sample container is open and, subsequently, when it is closed. Based on the measured emanation rates the samples are grouped in three classes: 1) less than 5 atoms . sec-1 . kg-1, 2) from 5 to 10 atoms . sec-1 . kg-1, and 3) more than 10 atoms . sec-1 . kg-1. In class 3) some diatomitic clays have shown emanation rates as large as 100 atoms . sec-1 . kg-1.

  20. Communities of color? Client-to-client racial concordance in the selection of mental health programs for Caucasians and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Naoru; Rothbard, Aileen B; Smith, Tony E; Mayer, Jeremy D

    2011-12-01

    A discrete-choice logit model was applied to study the determinants of mental health provider choice using data from a large urban county in the Northeast US. The study subjects were 9,544 adult Medicaid recipients who received outpatient treatment from the 20 Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) programs in 2001. In addition to a conventional set of variables representing client and provider characteristics, the regression model included several interaction terms to examine whether racial concordance level among patients influences the choice of an outpatient program. The results revealed that racial concordance among the clients seems to be a factor in choosing a program. In particular, Caucasian clients are much more likely to select a program with a higher percentage of Caucasian clients, even though they have to travel further. More generally, our results suggest that program choice may be driven more by the racial composition of the clients served than by spatial proximity to the program.

  1. Homozygosis for (12) CA repeats in the first intron of the human IFN-gamma gene is significantly associated with the risk of aplastic anaemia in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Carlo; Capasso, Mario; Svahn, Johanna; Marrone, Agnese; Haupt, Riccardo; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Giordani, Lucia; Longoni, Daniela; Pillon, Marta; Pistorio, Angela; Di Michele, Paola; Iori, Anna Paola; Pongiglione, Carola; Lanciotti, Marina; Iolascon, Achille

    2004-09-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mediates the final damage of the stem cell compartment in Aplastic Anaemia (AA). Normal subjects homozygous for 12 (CA) repeats of polymorphism variable number of dinucleotide (CA) repeat (VNDR) in position 1349 of the IFN-gamma gene (IFNG) were shown to overproduce IFN-gammain vitro. We studied the distribution of polymorphism VNDR 1349 of IFNG in 67 Caucasian AA patients and in normal controls. Genotype (CA)12-12, (homozygosis for allele 2) and the single allele 12 were significantly more frequent (P = 0.005 and 0.004 respectively) in patients versus controls. The polymorphism was equally distributed in AA patients regardless of their response to immunosuppression. Homozygosity for 12 (CA) repeats of polymorphism VNDR 1349 of IFNG is strongly associated with the risk of AA in Caucasian subjects.

  2. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  3. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  4. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  5. The Danish health care system from a British perspective.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jeremy

    2002-02-01

    The organisation and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The evaluation was based on reading an extensive amount of selected documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a one-week visit to health care authorities, providers and key persons. The present paper includes the main findings by one of the panel members. The dominance of tax financing helps to achieve control over the level of health care expenditure, as well as securing equity in financing the services. The reliance on local government for financing and running health care has both advantages and disadvantages, and the split between county and municipal responsibility leads to problems of co-ordination. The remuneration of general practitioners by a mix of capitation payment and fee for services has the advantage of capping expenditure whilst leaving the GPs with an incentive to compete for patients by providing them with good services. The GP service is remarkably economical. The hospital sector displays much strength, but there seem to be problems with respect to: (i) perceived lack of resources and waiting lists; (ii) impersonal care, lack of continuity of care and failures in communication between patients and staff; (iii) management problems and sometimes demotivated staff. The relationship between patients and providers is facilitated by free access to GPs and absence of any charges for hospital treatment. The biggest threat is continuation of avoidable illness caused by poor health habits in the population. The biggest opportunity is to strengthen public health measures to tackle these poor health habits.

  6. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  7. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M. X.; Maestre, G.; Tsai, W. Y.; Liu, X. H.; Feng, L.; Chung, W. Y.; Chun, M.; Schofield, P.; Stern, Y.; Tycko, B.; Mayeux, R.

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein-E epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-epsilon 4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-epsilon 4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR=7.3, 95% CI=2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-epsilon 3/epsilon 3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR=0.6, 95% Ci=0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-epsilon 4 homozygous and APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-epsilon 4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-epsilon 4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-epsilon 4 in some populations. PMID:8644717

  8. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  9. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  10. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, caucasians, and hispanics in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.X.; Liu, X.H.; Stern, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein-E {epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-{epsilon}4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR = 7.3, 95% CI = 2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-{epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR = 1.6,95% CI = 1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygous and APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-{epsilon}4 in some populations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Identification of the uncommon allele HLA-A*7403 in a Caucasian renal transplant cadaveric donor: extension of the exon 4 sequence.

    PubMed

    Canossi, A; Del Beato, T; Piazza, A; Liberatore, G; Ozzella, G; Tessitore, A; Adorno, D

    2007-06-01

    This report describes the unknown exon 4 sequence of the rare A*7403 allele, identified in a Caucasian renal transplant cadaveric donor from Italy. This sequence is identical to that of the only known A*7401 exon 4, and this result allowed us to confirm the hypothesis of the generation of A*7403 allele from the ancestor A*7402 by point mutation in exon 2.

  12. Discovery of a new gene pool and a high genetic diversity of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia.

    PubMed

    Prospero, S; Lutz, A; Tavadze, B; Supatashvili, A; Rigling, D

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and possible origins of the plant pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia, a region within the centre of origin of the host species Castanea sativa. A total of 427 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity was detected, but the overall Georgian population was dominated by three haplotypes which were present in most individual populations. Two of them have not been previously found in Europe. Bayesian clustering analysis and principal component analysis could not identify their source population, neither in Asia nor in North America. On the other hand, one haplotype is frequent in Central Europe and probably naturally invaded Caucasian Georgia from neighbouring Turkey. Seventy-three haplotypes were unique to specific populations, and 66 of them were represented by a single isolate. Allele patterns suggest that most of these haplotypes emerged locally through sexual recombination between haplotypes of the Georgian and the central European gene pool. Due to the high incidence of haplotypes not otherwise present in Europe, Caucasian Georgia represents an additional source of diversity for the European C. parasitica population.

  13. Genetic variability of HLA in the Dariusleut Hutterites. A comparative genetic analysis of the Hutterities, the Amish, and other selected Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K; Holmes, T M; Schlaut, J; Marchuk, L; Kovithavongs, T; Pazderka, F; Dossetor, J B

    1980-03-01

    There are three endogamous subdivisions of the Hutterite population, a North American religious isolate. These individuals live on communal farms, and residence is strictly patrilocal. We report on the distributions of HLA-A and B alleles and haplotypes in 203 married women from one subdivision--the Dariusleut--in Alberta, Canada. We demonstrate that there is significant linkage disequilbrium among a large fraction of the distinct haplotypes in the Dariusleut Hutterite data; there is a restriction in the number of distinct haplotypes present in the Dariusleut; the Hutterites and the Old Order Amish (Lancaster County, Pennsylvania) are the most genetically distant pair of populations in an ensemble of 11 Caucasian populations; and, finally, the Old Order Amish and the Hutterites are approximately as distant from the Indiana Amish as they are from the eight other Caucasian populations, which are tightly clustered in the space of gene frequencies. These results are consistent with the fact that the Amish and the Hutterites are genetic isolates with small numbers of founders. Certain haplotypes show significant linkage disequilibrium in these as well as in other Caucasian samples. Thus, some of the linkage disequilibrium antedates the formation of these Anabaptist sects. PMID:7386460

  14. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  15. Efficacy of Orlistat as an Adjunct to Behavioral Treatment in Overweight African American and Caucasian Adolescents with Obesity-related Co-morbid Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Calis, Karim A.; Uwaifo, Gabriel I.; Sebring, Nancy G.; Fallon, Erica M.; Frazer, Teresa E; Hubbard, Van S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study compared the efficacy of orlistat as an adjunctive treatment for obesity between African American and Caucasian adolescents. 20 obese adolescents with obesity-related co-morbid conditions underwent measurements of body composition, glucose homeostasis by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), and fasting lipids before and after 6-months’ treatment with orlistat 120mg TID in conjunction with a comprehensive behavioral program. Weight (p< 0.05), BMI (p<0.001), total cholesterol (p<0.001), LDL cholesterol (p<0.001), fasting insulin (p<0.02) and fasting glucose (p<0.003) were lower after treatment. Insulin sensitivity, measured during the FSIGT, improved significantly (p<0.02), as did fasting indices such as the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (p<0.01). African American subjects exhibited significantly less improvement in weight (p<0.05), BMI (p<0.01), waist circumference (p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Improvements in cholesterol were not significantly different between African Americans and Caucasians. We conclude that Caucasians lost more weight and had greater improvements in insulin sensitivity than African Americans, but both exhibited improvements in plasma lipids. The true benefit of orlistat treatment over a comprehensive behavioral program remains to be determined in placebo-controlled trials. PMID:15112907

  16. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  17. The Danish Folk High School: Key to the Success of Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucault-Mohammed, Clara

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Danish Folk High School that was developed with the ideas of Nikolai Grundtvig. His primary purpose was to deepen the students' understanding of themselves as human beings and to magnify their concept of life. (JOW)

  18. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities. PMID:22952336

  19. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities.

  20. Healthy Schools, Healthy Futures: The Case for Improving School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Alan C.

    This book addresses the school as a worksite for faculty, staff, and administrators; as a learning site for students; and as an important site for creating a healthy, productive environment. Born out of a commitment to health education as an essential strategy for maintaining public health, this book contends that the physical condition of the…