Science.gov

Sample records for healthy danish caucasian

  1. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.

  2. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Anastasia V; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G; Proudlock, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients.

  3. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Anastasia V.; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G.; Proudlock, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients. PMID:27928300

  4. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age.

  5. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  6. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes modulate postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in a healthy Caucasian population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) plays an important role in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Five polymorphisms (1131T>C, c.-3A>G, c.56C>G, IVS3+476G>A, c.1259T>C) in the APOA5 gene define three common haplotypes (APOA5'1, APOA5'2 and APOA5'3) in Caucasian individuals. Our aim was to de...

  7. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  8. Thorough QT study of the effect of intravenous amisulpride on QTc interval in Caucasian and Japanese healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Georg; Fox, Gabriel; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Camm, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim The D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride has shown promising efficacy against postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) at low doses. We investigated whether intravenous amisulpride has an effect on the QTc interval in a formal Thorough QT study (TQT). Methods This was a randomized, double‐blind, placebo and positive‐controlled, four‐way crossover study. Forty healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects were included to receive a single administration of 5 mg and 40 mg of i.v. amisulpride or a single oral dose of moxifloxacin or placebo per period. Results The therapeutic dose of 5 mg amisulpride was associated with a slight, transient increase in mean ΔΔQTcF, from 2.0 ms prior to dosing to a peak of 5 ms (90% CI: 2.8, 7.1 ms) at 8 min, decreasing to 2.1 ms at 30 min after dosing. The supra‐therapeutic dose of 40 mg given at twice the infusion rate was associated with prolongation in ΔΔQTcF peaking at 23.4 ms (90% CI: 21.3, 25.5 ms) at the end of infusion (8 min), returning below 10 ms within 1.5 h. Assay sensitivity was confirmed; ΔΔQTcF had increased by 12.3 ms (90% CI 10.1, 14.6 ms) at 4 h post‐dose. The PK‐PD relationship revealed no differences between Caucasian and Japanese subjects (p‐value > 0.5). Conclusions Amisulpride has a plasma concentration‐dependent effect on the QTc interval. The proposed therapeutic dose for management of PONV does not lead to a prolongation of QTcF above the threshold of regulatory concern, while such effect could not be excluded for the supratherapeutic dose. PMID:27618796

  9. Sleep and Respiration in 100 Healthy Caucasian Sleepers—A Polysomnographic Study According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine Standards

    PubMed Central

    Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Hackner, Heinz; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    T, Högl B, Schönwald SV, Hackner H, Gabelia D, Biermayr M, Frauscher B. Sleep and respiration in 100 healthy Caucasian sleepers—a polysomnographic study according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine standards. SLEEP 2015;38(6):867–875. PMID:25515109

  10. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of alcohol at pseudo-steady state in Caucasian and expatriate Japanese healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zoethout, Remco W M; de Kam, Marieke L; Dahan, Albert; Cohen, Adam F; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2012-11-01

    In general, Japanese and Caucasians differ in their response to alcohol. To investigate these differences the alcohol clamping method can be used. This strictly controlled infusion regimen provides a reliable tool to study contrasts in central nervous system (CNS) effects and/or alcohol disposition. In this study, twelve Japanese and twelve Caucasian healthy volunteers received two concentrations of intravenous alcohol or placebo using the alcohol clamp. Infusion rates during the steady state phase were used to compare alcohol clearance between the subgroups. Central nervous system (CNS) effects were frequently measured throughout the clamp. On average, significantly lower amounts of alcohol were needed to maintain similar stable concentrations in the Japanese group. However, these differences disappeared when values were corrected for lean body mass. The most pronounced pharmacodynamic differences between the groups were observed on body sway and on the visual analogue scale for subjective alcohol effects, mainly at the highest dose level. The alcohol clamp seems a useful method to compare differences in alcohol metabolism between groups. Some CNS effects of alcohol differed clearly between Japanese and Caucasians, but others did not, even though alcohol levels were stable and similar between the two groups.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children.

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-03-30

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates in faecal microbiota exists.

  12. The inhibition by levocetirizine and fexofenadine of the histamine-induced wheal and flare response in healthy Caucasian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schoepke, Nicole; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study compared inhibition by one 5 mg dose of levocetirizine with two 60 mg doses of fexofenadine separated by 12 h of histamine-induced wheal and flare responses in 9 Caucasian and 9 Japanese healthy male volunteers. Levocetirizine was more inhibitory than fexofenadine on wheal, flare and pruritus (p < 0.005). Variability, evaluated from the standard deviation of inhibition, ranged from 14% to 23.2% for levocetirizine and 65.4% to 112.4% for fexofenadine. Levocetirizine had a faster onset of action (30-90 min versus 2 h), shorter time to maximum effect (3-4 versus 3-6 h) and longer duration of action (at least 24 h versus ~12 h) than fexofenadine. The plasma levels of levocetirizine rose more quickly, reached higher levels, were more consistent and decreased slower than those of fexofenadine. There were no clinically significant ethnic differences in responsiveness to the drugs.

  13. Moxifloxacin-induced QTc interval prolongations in healthy male Japanese and Caucasian volunteers: a direct comparison in a thorough QT study

    PubMed Central

    Morganroth, Joel; Wang, Yaning; Thorn, Michael; Kumagai, Yuji; Harris, Stuart; Stockbridge, Norman; Kleiman, Robert; Shah, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Aim We investigated whether moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongations in Japanese and Caucasian healthy male volunteers were significantly different. Methods A two period, randomized, crossover, ICH-E14-compliant thorough QT (TQT) study compared placebo-corrected changes in QTc interval from baseline (ΔΔQTcF) and concentration–effect relationships following administration of placebo and 400 mg moxifloxacin to 40 healthy male volunteers from each ethnic population. The point estimates of ΔΔQTcF for each population, and the difference between the two, were calculated at a geometric mean Cmax of moxifloxacin using a linear mixed effects model. The concentration–effect slopes of the two populations were also compared. Equivalence was concluded if the two-sided 90% confidence interval of the difference in ΔΔQTcF was contained within −5 ms to +5 ms limits and the ratio of the slopes was between 0.5 and 2. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two populations studied, Japanese vs. Caucasians, respectively, for moxifloxacin Cmax (3.27 ± 0.6 vs. 2.98 ± 0.7 µg ml–1), ΔΔQTcF (9.63 ± 1.15 vs. 11.46 ± 1.19 ms at Cmax of 3.07 µg ml–1) and concentration–response slopes (2.58 ± 0.62 vs. 2.34 ± 0.64 ms per µg ml–1). The difference in the two ΔΔQTcF of −1.8 (90% CI −4.6, 0.9) and the ratio of the two slopes (1.1; 90% CI 0.63, 1.82) were within pre-specified equivalence limits. Conclusions Moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongations did not differ significantly between the Japanese and Caucasian subjects. However, before our findings are more widely generalized, further studies in other populations and with other QT-prolonging drugs are needed to clarify whether inter-ethnic differences in QT sensitivity exist and whether ethnicity of the study population may affect the outcome of a TQT study. PMID:26011050

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18–56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92–0.95; pain rating r = 0.93–0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87–0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity

  15. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning.

  16. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. Methods We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. Results During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Conclusions In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors. PMID:27701463

  17. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  18. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics. In vitro and animal studies have shown weak estrogenic and other endocrine disrupting effects of parabens, including reduced testosterone levels in exposed male rats. The knowledge of paraben exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl paraben was only measurable in urine from 7% of the men. Methyl- and n-propyl parabens were also measurable in the majority of serum and seminal plasma samples, whereas the other parabens could only be detected in some of the samples. In all the three matrices significant correlations between the parabens were seen. Furthermore, urinary paraben concentrations correlate to the paraben concentrations in both serum and seminal plasma.

  19. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorative secondary outcome analysis on data from 784 children from the OPUS School Meal Study, a cluster-randomised cross-over trial where children received school meals for 3 months and habitual lunch for 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of each dietary period, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD, IGF-1 or OC. However, season-modified effects were observed with 25(OH)D, i.e. children completing the school meal period in January/February had higher 25(OH)D status (5·5 (95 % CI 1·8, 9·2) nmol/l; P = 0·004) than children completing the control period in these months. A similar tendency was indicated in November/December (4·1 (95 % CI -0·12, 8·3) nmol/l; P = 0·057). However, the effect was opposite in March/April (-4·0 (95 % CI -7·0, -0·9) nmol/l; P = 0·010), and no difference was found in May/June (P = 0·214). Unexpectedly, the school meals slightly increased PTH (0·18 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods are needed.

  20. Racial influences associated with weight-related beliefs in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D

    2007-01-01

    This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.

  1. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-02-01

    This study presents Danish data for Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Education and estimated verbal intelligence (DART score) had a significant impact on the RAVLT trial 1-5 score but not on other RAVLT measures. The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States.

  2. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  3. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  4. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites.

  5. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  6. Proportionality in Asian and North American Caucasian faces using neoclassical facial canons as criteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy T; Farkas, Leslie G; Ngim, Rexon C K; Levin, L Scott; Forrest, Christopher R

    2002-01-01

    Nine projective linear measurements were taken to determine morphometric differences of the face among healthy young adult Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thais (60 in each group) and to assess the validity of six neoclassical facial canons in these populations. In addition, the findings in the Asian ethnic groups were compared to the data of 60 North American Caucasians. The canons served as criteria for determining the differences between the Asians and Caucasians. In neither Asian nor Caucasian subjects were the three sections of the facial profile equal. The validity of the five other facial canons was more frequent in Caucasians (range: 16.7-36.7%) than in Asians (range: 1.7-26.7%). Horizontal measurement results were significantly greater in the faces of the Asians (en-en, al-al, zy-zy) than in their white counterparts; as a result, the variation between the classical proportions and the actual measurements was significantly higher among Asians (range: 90-100%) than Caucasians (range: 13.3-48%). The dominant characteristics of the Asian face were a wider intercanthal distance in relation to a shorter palpebral fissure, a much wider soft nose within wide facial contours, a smaller mouth width, and a lower face smaller than the forehead height. In the absence of valid anthropometric norms of craniofacial measurements and proportion indices, our results, based on quantitative analysis of the main vertical and horizontal measurements of the face, offers surgeons guidance in judging the faces of Asian patients in preparation for corrective surgery.

  7. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  8. Haematological studies on pre-menopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Sanders, T A

    1990-09-01

    Full blood counts, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate, erythrocyte folate concentrations and nutrient intakes were estimated in twenty-three Indian vegetarian, twenty-two Caucasian omnivores and eighteen Caucasian vegetarian women aged 25-40 years. Energy and copper intakes were lower in the Indian women than in the Caucasians. Intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin C and folate were greater and the proportion of energy derived from fat was lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores. Vitamin B12 and protein intakes were lower in both vegetarian groups than in the omnivores. Fe intake was similar in all the groups but haem Fe provided one-quarter of the Fe intake of the omnivores. Haemoglobin concentrations were generally inside the normal range in all groups, but were lower in the Indians as were mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Higher MCV, MCH and lower erythrocyte (RBC) counts were observed in Caucasian vegetarians compared with the Caucasian omnivores. In both groups of vegetarians, concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and ferritin were markedly lower than in the omnivores. RBC folate concentrations were lower in the Indians than in either of the Caucasian groups when subjects taking supplements were excluded. It is concluded that vegetarians need to ensure they have adequate intakes of Fe and vitamin B12.

  9. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  10. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  11. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kitahara, Takashi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Witt, Pamela S; Simion, F Anthony; Takema, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    We compared age-related changes in wrinkles in eight areas of facial skin (forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, corner of the eye, lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) and sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females and of Japanese females. The subjects studied included 85 healthy Caucasian females (ages 20-69 years) living in Cincinnati in the U.S. and 70 Japanese females (ages 20-69 years) living in Tokyo. Photos of the face in frontal and in oblique 45 degrees views were analyzed. Wrinkles in the face and sagging in the subzygomatic area were graded on Japanese photoscales, respectively, by the same experienced observer. The wrinkle score increased with age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years, the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were similar at advanced ages between the two groups, while the wrinkle scores in lower areas of the face (lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) were markedly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in each age group, and reached an upper limit at advanced ages in Caucasian females. The sagging score also increased with age in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. The sagging score was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in the groups aged 40 years or more. These results suggest more marked wrinkle formation in all areas of the face in younger age groups of Caucasian females living in North America than in Japanese females living in Tokyo. In particular, Caucasian females showed marked age-related wrinkle formation in the lower areas of the face, probably due to sagging in the subzygomatic area, which suggests a higher susceptibility to sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females.

  12. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  13. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms [6] has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students [15]; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant

  14. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  15. In vivo and in vitro characterization of CYP2E1 activity in Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kim, R B; Yamazaki, H; Chiba, K; O'Shea, D; Mimura, M; Guengerich, F P; Ishizaki, T; Shimada, T; Wilkinson, G R

    1996-10-01

    Chlorzoxazone's disposition after oral administration was determined in 20 young healthy Caucasian men and a similar group of Japanese men. The drug's plasma concentrations were significantly higher and its rate of elimination slower in Japanese compared to Caucasian men. Accordingly, chlorzoxazone's oral clearance was smaller (40%) in Japanese men and a similar difference (30%) was still apparent after normalizing for body weight (3.74 +/- 1.23 versus 5.05 +/- 1.41 ml.min-1.kg-1, P < .05). This slower elimination was associated with a reduced (fractional) clearance by 6-hydroxylation (2.34 +/- 1.04 ml.min-1.kg-1 versus 3.23 +/- 1.10, P < .05). Because such metabolism is mediated by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), these findings suggest a lower level of the enzyme's catalytic activity in Japanese men. This was confirmed by in vitro studies with microsomes prepared from livers of individuals representative of the two racial groups. CYP2E1 levels were lower (61% P < .002) and CYP2E1-mediated chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (22%, P < .001) and aniline 4-hydroylase (35%, P < .0001) activities were reduced in Japanese preparations compared to those from Caucasians. No relationships were found between measures of CYP2E1 activity, both in vivo and in vitro, and genomic polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene identified by Rsal/Pstl and Dral restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Collectively, these data show an interracial difference in CYP2E1 activity. Because this enzyme is importantly involved in the activation of environmental procarcinogens, such a difference may account, in part, for the lower rate of some cancers, e.g., lung cancer, in Japanese compared to Caucasians men.

  16. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  17. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  18. Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension.

    PubMed

    Ioi, Hideki; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko; Counts, Amy L

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine Japanese cephalometric norms in the antero-posterior and vertical dimension, and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Japanese and Caucasian norms. Radiographs were obtained from 25 healthy Japanese males (aged 25.1 +/- 2.7 years) and 24 healthy Japanese females (aged 23.6 +/- 1.3 years). Inclusion criteria were an ANB angle between 2 and 5 degrees, a normal occlusion with minor or no crowding, all teeth present except third molars, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Two angular and five linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal hard tissue analysis, one angular and six linear measurements for the dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for the soft tissue analysis. The mean and standard deviations for the hard and soft tissue measurements were determined for each gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine the mean differences for each cephalometric measurement between the Japanese and the Caucasians. In the antero-posterior dimension, the Japanese subjects had a significantly more retruded chin position (P < 0.001), typically protruding mandibular incisors, and protruded lip positions compared with the Caucasian norms. In the vertical dimension, the Japanese had a significantly steeper mandibular plane (P < 0.01). The Japanese females had a significantly larger lower face height and increased dental height (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that these cephalometric measurements might be helpful to formulate treatment plans for Japanese patients.

  19. The Danish System Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  20. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  1. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  2. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. PMID:27822105

  3. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians when considering the formation of regression equations for prediction of body density. Accordingly, a group of 7 negroes and 7 caucasians were matched somatotypically and a comparison was made of their body density values obtained using a hydrostatic weighing technique and a closed-circuit helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes. The results show that if somatotype is taken into account then no significant difference in body density values is found between negro and caucasian professional football players. The players do not have to be placed in separate groups but it remains to be seen whether or not these results apply to general members of the population. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7317724

  4. Caucasian facial L* shifts may communicate anti-ageing efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zedayko, T; Azriel, M; Kollias, N

    2011-10-01

    An ageing study was conducted to capture skin colour parameters in the CIELab system from Caucasians of both genders and all available adult ages. This study produced a linear correlation between L* and age for a Caucasian population between 20 and 59 years of age as follows: (L* value) = -0.13 × (Age in years) + 63.01. Previous studies have addressed age-related changes in skin colour. This work presents a novel consumer correlated quantitative linear model of skin brightness by which to communicate age-related changes. Two product assessment studies are also presented here, demonstrating the ability of anti-ageing products to deliver on objective and subjective improvements in skin brightness. It was determined to be possible to use the fundamental Caucasian L*-age correlation to describe product benefits in a novel quantitative and consumer-relevant fashion, through the depiction of a 'years back' calculation.

  5. Exploring factors influencing alcohol consumption patterns among Chinese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Li, H Z; Rosenblood, L

    1994-07-01

    Past research on alcohol consumption patterns comparing Chinese and Caucasians indicates that significant group differences exist. Chinese, as a group, consume significantly less alcohol than their Caucasian counterparts. Explanations for these differences have been controversial. Some argue that it is due to cultural differences, whereas others contend that it is because of physiological differences. The present study explores this controversy using a new approach: model testing via path analysis. With a sample size of 178 Canadian Chinese and 161 Caucasian university students, the present study found that in both ethnic groups, cultural norms rather than physical symptoms were a significant predictor of alcohol consumption patterns. This finding strongly suggests that alcohol consumption behavior can be better understood by a social/psychological rather than a biomedical approach. To effect changes in alcohol assumption patterns, it is suggested that cultural interpretations of alcohol use should be examined.

  6. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  7. Danish Cultural Identity and the Teaching of Danish to Foreigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Hedwig

    2006-01-01

    Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)

  8. Lipid droplet dynamics and insulin sensitivity upon a 5-day high-fat diet in Caucasians and South Asians.

    PubMed

    Gemmink, Anne; Bakker, Leontine E H; Guigas, Bruno; Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2017-02-14

    A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), 19-25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat). Triglyceride extractions and Western Blots for lipid droplet and mitochondrial proteins were performed. Intramyocellular lipid content and HFHC-diet response were similar between ethnicities (group effect: P = 0.094; diet effect: +~30%, P = 0.044). PLIN5 protein content increased upon the HFHC-diet (P = 0.031) and tended to be higher in South Asians (0.87 ± 0.42 AU vs. 1.35 ± 0.58 AU, P = 0.07). 4-HNE tended to increase in South Asians upon the HFHC-diet (interaction effect: P = 0.057). In Caucasians ΔPLIN5 content correlated with ΔRd (Caucasians: r = 0.756, P = 0.011; South Asians: r = -0.085, P = 0.816), while in South Asians Δ4-HNE associated with ΔPLIN5 content (Caucasians: r = 0.312, P = 0.380; South Asians: r = 0.771, P = 0.003). These data indicate that in Caucasians, PLIN5 may be protective against HFHC-diet induced insulin resistance, which for reasons not yet understood is not observed in South Asians, who possess increased lipid peroxidation levels.

  9. Lipid droplet dynamics and insulin sensitivity upon a 5-day high-fat diet in Caucasians and South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gemmink, Anne; Bakker, Leontine E. H.; Guigas, Bruno; Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Meinders, A. Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2017-01-01

    A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m2, 19–25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat). Triglyceride extractions and Western Blots for lipid droplet and mitochondrial proteins were performed. Intramyocellular lipid content and HFHC-diet response were similar between ethnicities (group effect: P = 0.094; diet effect: +~30%, P = 0.044). PLIN5 protein content increased upon the HFHC-diet (P = 0.031) and tended to be higher in South Asians (0.87 ± 0.42 AU vs. 1.35 ± 0.58 AU, P = 0.07). 4-HNE tended to increase in South Asians upon the HFHC-diet (interaction effect: P = 0.057). In Caucasians ΔPLIN5 content correlated with ΔRd (Caucasians: r = 0.756, P = 0.011; South Asians: r = −0.085, P = 0.816), while in South Asians Δ4-HNE associated with ΔPLIN5 content (Caucasians: r = 0.312, P = 0.380; South Asians: r = 0.771, P = 0.003). These data indicate that in Caucasians, PLIN5 may be protective against HFHC-diet induced insulin resistance, which for reasons not yet understood is not observed in South Asians, who possess increased lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:28195217

  10. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  11. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  12. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  13. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  14. Maturity and Regrowth Influences on Quality of Caucasian Bluestem Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’], appears adapted to the mid-Atlantic region. Three experiments (Exp.), one with sheep and two with steers were conducted to assess hay quality. In Exp. 1, initial growth was cut at early boot, anthesis, and post-anthesis and...

  15. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  16. Population Polymorphism of IFNL3 and IFNL4 Genes of Type 3 Interferon Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Representatives of Caucasian and Mongoloid Races.

    PubMed

    Malov, I V; Malov, S I; Savilov, E D; Gantulga, D; Stepanenko, L A; Ogarkov, O B; Nyamkhuu, D; Aitov, K A; Nyamdawa, P; Kolesnikov, S I

    2016-07-01

    The frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of IFNL3 gene (rsl12979860 and rs8099917) and dinucleotide polymorphism of IFNL4 gene (ss469415590) were estimated in healthy inhabitants of Mongolia and Irkutsk regions taking into account their races. Population and genetic studies were performed in 1520 conventionally healthy volunteers (blood donors), representatives of Caucasian and Mongoloid races. Significant race-related differences in the incidence of IFNL3 and IFNL4 gene polymorphisms associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus were found in healthy volunteers.

  17. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of different formulations of ONO-5334, cathepsin K inhibitor, in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.

  18. Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N; Overvad, Kim; Cold, Søren; Moesgaard, Sven; Larsen, Erik H; Dragsted, Lars O

    2008-06-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (SD 4.26) years; 36% reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 microg, 200 microg or 300 microg Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQO1 or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

  19. Racial disparities in stroke awareness: African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Alkadry, Mohamad G; Bhandari, Ruchi; Wilson, Christina S; Blessett, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the existence of racial disparities in incidence, mortality, and morbidity related to stroke. Awareness of risk factors could substantially lower the probability of stroke incidence. Awareness of stroke warning signs and treatment options could significantly alter the outcome of a stroke if patients immediately seek emergency help. This article examines the disparities in awareness of stroke risk factors, stroke signs, and action to be taken when stroke occurs. Survey results from 422 Caucasian Americans and 368 African Americans in West Virginia were analyzed. Significant disparities in recognition of cholesterol, smoking, prior stroke, and race as stroke risk factors were observed. The study also found a significant and substantial difference in awareness of stroke signs. There was also a significant difference in the way African Americans and Caucasians would respond to a stroke. The study found no evidence of disparities in recognition of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, alcoholism, and family history.

  20. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  1. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients. PMID:27822116

  2. Hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA): the first report outside the Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Kennerknecht, Ingo; Plümpe, Nina; Edwards, Steve; Raman, Rajiva

    2007-01-01

    Prosopagnosia (PA) or face blindness is characterized by a deficiency in identifying familiar faces. Almost all reports are single cases or collections of unrelated patients who acquired prosopagnosia after brain injuries, strokes or atrophy of at least the right occipito-temporal cortex. Until 2001, the inborn form - in the absence of any brain lesions - was described in fewer than 20 probands exclusively of Caucasian origin. We recently found that in the German Caucasian population, congenital prosopagnosia has a very high prevalence of at least 2.5% and that it is genetically determined. It is best described by autosomal-dominant inheritance in the more than 50 families investigated. We therefore introduced the term non-syndromic hereditary PA for the congenital form of a monosymptomatic or isolated PA. This surprisingly high frequency in the Caucasian population prompted us to extend our search to other ethnic groups. We performed a questionnaire-based screening among 198 native Indian students at Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi. In a then selected subset, we found after further detailed diagnostic interviews one Bengali female student with visual agnosia for face recognition only. Several other members of her large family reported the same impairment of face recognition. The segregation pattern of PA in this family is also compatible with autosomal-dominant inheritance.

  3. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  4. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  5. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  6. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  7. A Case of Nonuremic Calciphylaxis in a Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Nishant; Miller, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of nonuremic calcific arteriolopathy (NUCA) in an 82-year-old Caucasian woman from rural Australia. The patient had no history of kidney disease or dialysis. NUCA is rare disease suspected on cutaneous and clinical features and diagnosed by characteristic findings on skin biopsy and vasculature imaging. Calcification induced microvascular occlusion in the absence of renal failure may not be immediately apparent. Clinical suspicion and appropriate investigations are essential for making a diagnosis. A diagnosis of NUCA may be missed given the rarity of the disease, and dermatologists and patients alike would benefit from a greater awareness of this disease. PMID:28191356

  8. Late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in a Caucasian woman.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dharmesh R; Knepper, Laurie; Jones, H Royden

    2008-01-01

    We describe a 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a 19-year history of an evolving amyotrophy confined to her dominant right arm and hand. Although this atypical case of a late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in some respects mimics Hirayama disease or O'Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, it does not conform precisely with either of those disorders. We compare this individual's difficulties and clinical temporal profile to other disorders considered in the differential diagnoses with regard to her evolving clinical setting.

  9. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  10. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  11. The use of spectrophotometry to estimate melanin density in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, T; Muller, H K; Blizzard, L; Ashbolt, R; Phillips, G

    1998-03-01

    The density of cutaneous melanin may be the property of the skin that protects it from damage by solar radiation, but there is not an accepted, noninvasive method of measuring it. To determine whether the density of cutaneous melanin can be estimated from reflectance of visible light by the skin, reflectance of 15-nm wavebands of light by the skin of the inner upper arm of each of 82 volunteers was measured at 20-nm intervals with a Minolta 508 spectrophotometer. A 3-mm skin biopsy was then taken from the same site, and four nonserial sections of it were stained with Masson Fontana for melanin. The melanin content of the basal area was calculated using the NIH Image analysis system. We show that cutaneous melanin in Caucasians can be estimated by the difference between two measurements of reflectance of visible light by the skin: those at wavelengths 400 and 420 nm. This new spectrophotometric measurement was more highly correlated (r = 0.68) with the histological measurements of cutaneous melanin than was skin reflectance of light of wavelength 680 nm (r = 0.33). Reflectances in the range of 650-700 nm have been used previously in skin cancer research. This relatively accurate measurement of melanin is quick and noninvasive and can be readily used in the field. It should provide improved discrimination of individual susceptibility to epidermal tumors in Caucasians and information about melanin's biological role in the causation of skin cancer.

  12. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  13. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  14. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  15. MicroRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    08-1-0379 TITLE: MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL... MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women Hua Zhao Health Research Inc. Buffalo, NY 14263 So far...identified several SNPs in microRNA processing genes and microRNA genes are associated with breast cancer risk in either Caucasian Americans or

  16. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  17. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian…

  18. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care. PMID:21194477

  19. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  20. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL.

  1. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene promoter and the risk of alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease in Caucasian Spaniard men.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Teresa; Vidal, Francesc; Broch, Montserrat; Olona, Montserrat; Aguilar, Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; López-Dupla, Miguel; Quer, Joan-Carles; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Richart, Cristóbal

    2010-05-01

    Controversy surrounds the possible influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene promoter on the risk for alcoholic liver disease. Our aim was to determine whether the SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter are associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and for alcoholic liver disease in male Spaniards. The -627 C>A SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter was assessed in a cohort of 344 Caucasian Spanish men, 168 alcoholics, and 176 nonalcoholics. The alcoholic group comprised 79 individuals without liver histopathologic abnormalities and 89 patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. The nonalcoholic group was made of 62 healthy controls and 114 patients with chronic nonalcoholic liver disease. Genotyping was performed using PCR and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared by using the chi(2) test. Overall, no differences in either genotype and allele distribution was observed when comparing the four patient categories defined (P=0.62 and P=0.33, respectively). Subset analyses showed no differences in the genotype and allele distributions between all alcoholic and all nonalcoholic subjects (P=0.55 and P=0.29, respectively). This study failed to detect significant associations of the IL-10 -627C>A SNP and alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease in a cohort of Caucasian male Spaniards.

  2. African American and Caucasian Attempters Compared for Suicide Risk Factors: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare African American and Caucasian substance dependent suicide attempters for risk factors for suicidal behavior. One hundred and fifty-eight African American and 95 Caucasian substance dependent patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed and their family history of suicidal behavior recorded. Patients…

  3. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  4. Cognitive Effects of College: Differences between African American and Caucasian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2003-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of African American and Caucasian students from 18 4-year institutions, objective tests were used to estimate the cognitive effects of race in college, while applying statistical controls for an extensive set of confounding influences. Found that Caucasian students scored higher than African Americans on standardized…

  5. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  6. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hua Zhao, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Roswell...Park Cancer Institute Buffalo , NY 14263 REPORT DATE: June 2012 TYPE OF REPORT...microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1

  7. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  8. Mental Health Values Differences between Native American and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John D.; Suan, Lance V.

    1990-01-01

    Used the Mental Health Values Questionnaire to compare concepts of mental health in 66 Native American and 93 Caucasian American college students. Caucasian Americans tend more strongly to associated unconventional experiences of reality, such as visions, with poor mental health, whereas Native Americans were more likely to view such experiences…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  10. Soft tissue evaluation of contemporary Caucasian and African American female facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Sutter, R E; Turley, P K

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that esthetic Caucasian profiles exhibit fuller lips than the norm for their race, while esthetic African American profiles are similar to those of esthetic Caucasians. The present study was undertaken to compare the profiles of female Caucasian and African American models and their nonmodel counterparts. Four groups of 30 subjects were evaluated: Caucasian models [CM], Caucasian controls [CC], African American models [AM], and African American controls [AC]. The models' profiles were photographed from current fashion magazines, the photos were scanned, and 17 landmarks were digitized. Each profile was standardized for size and oriented along the N'-Sn' line on a Macintosh 6115CD computer. Control photographs were processed in a similar manner. Twenty-six variables were measured for each profile. Means, ranges, and standard deviations were computed along with unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-tests (p<0.05) to evaluate group differences. The results showed that for the AM and AC profiles, all but two of the 26 variable were similar. For the CM and CC profiles, eight variables demonstrated significant differences. Between-race comparisons demonstrated greater numbers of parameters that were significantly different: CM/AM with 18 and CM/AC, CC/AC, and CC/AM with 22 each. Most of the differences involved the lips. Vertical soft tissue proportions for the four groups did not follow a 40/20/40 ratio. Caucasian and African American models displayed significantly different profile characteristics. The African American models and controls showed similar profile features, whereas greater differences were observed between Caucasian models and controls. Based on our study, the African American profile currently presented in the mass media is not "Caucasian-like." In fact, it appears that Caucasian models display more ethnic features than African American models do Caucasian features, suggesting that previously held concepts of facial beauty may no

  11. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace.

  12. Alterations of the USP26 gene in Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Stouffs, Katrien; Lissens, Willy; Tournaye, Herman; Van Steirteghem, André; Liebaers, Inge

    2006-12-01

    The Ubiquitin Specific Protease 26 gene is a testis-specific gene that is located on the X chromosome. Sequence variants of this gene were previously reported in men with azoospermia caused by defects at the level of spermatogenesis. Especially a cluster of three changes (c.370_371insACA, c.494T>C and c.1423C>T) was frequently observed. To further define the role of this cluster of sequence variants in the USP26 gene, we have now analysed 202 control samples and 146 patients of Caucasian origin with cryptozoospermia or oligozoospermia. The detection method was based on a restriction reaction, by which the change c.494T>C can be detected. In none of the patients, the change c.494T>C was observed. Only in one man with normal spermatogenesis this sequence variant was detected. Sequencing can confirm the presence of the three changes of the USP26 gene. These data indicate that the cluster of changes is not restricted to men with severe testicular dysfunction.

  13. Arterial stiffness profiles: investigating various sections of the arterial tree of African and Caucasian people.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Reimann, Manja

    2011-01-01

    In Africans, arterial stiffness progression seems more pronounced compared to Caucasians. We compared the arterial stiffness profiles of different age groups and focused on muscular arteries and two more central arterial segments in African and Caucasian people from South Africa. In African (N = 374) and Caucasian (N = 376) participants (20-70 years), we measured carotid-radial (C-R) and carotid-dorsalis pedis (C-DP) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic characteristic impedance (Zao). Major findings were that normotensive and high-normal/hypertensive (HT) Caucasians indicated increased trends of C-R PWV with aging (P = .029 and P = .067), not seen in the African groups (P = .122 and P = .526). Both ethnic groups showed significant increases of C-DP PWV and Zao with aging. High-normal/hypertensive Africans had significantly stiffer arteries than hypertensive Caucasians for almost all age groups, and for all stiffness measures. African C-R PWV correlated significantly with blood pressure (BP), but not with age. Opposite results were observed for Caucasians. In conclusion, the stiffness of muscular arteries is already elevated in young Africans, in both those with normal or elevated BP. This is possibly due to an earlier deterioration during childhood, or perhaps already present from birth. Also, in Caucasians stiffness seems more age-related, while in Africans it seems to be more pressure-related.

  14. Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Teaching Styles: Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Mother-Father-Daughter Triads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    Chinese-American girls perform as well as Chinese-American boys at higher levels of mathematics. Caucasian-American girls perform significantly less well than Caucasian-American boys. This study, designed to examine factors involved in this differential, contrasts 25 first generation Chinese-American mother-father pairs and 27 Caucasian-American…

  15. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min-Qiang; Li, Yue-Ping; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Yang; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC) patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER]) database. Methods Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Results A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054), and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767). However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better OS when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, whereas there was no significant difference in the OS between Chinese and Caucasian patients with EAC. Conclusion The presenting demographic features, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of EC patients differed between Chinese and Caucasian patients residing in the US. Chinese patients diagnosed with EAC tended to share similar clinical features with their Caucasian counterparts, and the Chinese patients with ESCC had better OS than their Caucasian counterparts. PMID:27799791

  16. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be a Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU ...

  17. Healthy Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nutrition Environment Physical Activity Obesity Prevention Chronic Conditions Data & Statistics State Programs Professional Development & Training Tools & Resources Multimedia INFOGRAPHICS Parents for Healthy ...

  18. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  19. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

  20. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  1. Intensity of Oxidative Stress in Mongoloid and Caucasian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Vlasov, B Ya; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Vanteeva, O A

    2016-10-01

    Specific features of LPO were studied in Mongoloid and Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The intensity of LPO in Mongoloid patients was lower than in Caucasians: the level of primary and intermediate products was by lower 1.53 and 1.83 times, while total antioxidant activity was elevated by 1.44 times, which was also supported by oxidative stress coefficient (1.35 in Mongoloids and 2.32 in Caucasians). These differences suggest that differentiated approach is required for the treatment of these patients.

  2. [Genetic and morphological variation in a partially isolated population of Caucasian shrew sorex Satunini (Mammalia)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, O O; Sychova, V B

    2011-09-01

    Morphological and genetic variation at microsatellite loci of Caucasian shrew Sorex satunini Ogn. is examined and compared with that of the common shrew S. araneus L. Genetic distance at microsatellite loci between the common shrew and Caucasian shrew proved to be threefold higher than between chromosome races of the common shrew. The Caucasian shrew manifested low polymorphism in studies of both microsatellites and morphometric mandibular traits. The heterozygote deficit was also typical. These properties may be a consequence of partial isolation of the population and gene drift.

  3. T cell receptor repertoire differences between African Americans and Caucasians associated with polymorphism of the TCRBV3S1 (V{beta}3.1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Inocencio, J.; Glass, D.N.; Hirsch, R.

    1995-05-01

    The generation of TCR diversity occurs primarily through rearrangement of germline DNA. Genetic polymorphism of the TCR chains appears to be a rarer mechanism for generating repertoire differences between races. Flow cytometric analysis of the TCR V{beta} repertoire in a population of healthy African Americans (n = 30) and Caucasians (n = 30) revealed a significant difference in the frequency of cells bearing V{beta}3.1, but not V{beta}2, V{beta}5.1, V{beta}5.2-5.3, V{beta}6.7, V{beta}8.1-8.2, V{beta}12.1, V{beta}13.3, or V{beta}19. African Americans had a significantly lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, in both the CD4{sup +} (2.55 {+-} 0.36% vs 4.85 {+-} 0.43%, p = 0.0001) and the CD8{sup +} (3.03 {+-} 0.54% vs 5.32 {+-} 0.57%, p = 0.004) population than did Caucasians, and this difference was independent of the age of the individuals. Analysis of genomic DNA revealed that the observed differences in frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells correlated with a recently described polymorphism of the recombination signal sequence of the TCRBV3S1 gene. Allele 1, associated with a lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in African Americans (0.68 vs 0.43), whereas allele 2, associated with a higher frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in Caucasians (0.31 vs 0.56). This study demonstrates the potential for TCR repertoire differences, based on genetic polymorphism, between African Americans and Caucasians. 31 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Evaluation and validity of the Danish version of the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire AS-20

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nafisa; Sørensen, Mette S; Sørensen, Torben L; Mortzos, Panteleimon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with strabismus is important in evaluating the clinical benefits of strabismus treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) into Danish and evaluate its reliability and validity in adult patients with strabismus in Denmark. Methods The AS-20 was translated into Danish in accordance with standard international adopted methods. We presented the questionnaire to 64 adults with strabismus and to 13 non-strabismic adult controls. We tested the reliability of the Danish version by reassuring test–retest reliability, estimated the internal consistency, and analyzed the validity (discriminatory power) of the questionnaire by comparing patient scores with scores from control individuals. Results The Danish AS-20 produced high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α values) for both subscales (psychosocial: 0.95 and functional: 0.85). We found good discriminatory power of the AS-20. The patients scored significantly lower not only on AS-20 composite score (median =63, interquartile range [IQR] =44–79) compared to healthy individuals (median =98, IQR =93–100) (P<0.0001) but also on all individual questions in both subscales (psychosocial: 1–10 and functional: 11–20). Conclusion The Danish version of AS-20 shows high reliability and validity, and in our opinion, AS-20 is therefore a suitable instrument for evaluating self-perceived psychosocial and functional influence of strabismus. PMID:26770057

  5. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  6. Natural Uranium Tissue Content of Three Caucasian Males.

    PubMed

    Kathren, Ronald L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-09-01

    Uranium content and concentrations were measured in the tissues of three Caucasian male whole body donors to the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries with no known intake other than from natural environmental sources. Average total body uranium content in the three cases was 81.3 ± 22.3 μg, of which 37.2 ± 2.1 μg (46%) was in the skeleton. The skeleton had a mean concentration of 3.79 ± 0.45 μg U kg(-1) wet weight and 11.72 ± 1.49 μg U kg(-1) ash. Distribution was in bone volume and not predominately on bone surfaces. Soft tissue concentrations ranged over about an order of magnitude, averaging about 0.5 μg kg wet weight for all tissues except the thoracic lymph nodes, which averaged 32.3 times the mean for soft tissue of the three cases. Observed thyroid tissue concentrations were about an order of magnitude greater than the average soft tissue concentration in two of the three background cases, suggestive of a possible long-term depot in this organ. Kidney content of uranium averaged 0.38 ± 0.21 μg for the three cases, an order of magnitude lower than the 7 μg recommended for Reference Man. The lower content and concentration in the kidney do not support a significant long-term depot for uranium in that organ. Assuming equilibrium between intake and excretion, the tissue data suggest a transfer coefficient from blood to skeleton of 0.14 with a residence half-life in the skeleton of 4,950 d (13.56 y), significantly greater than the 1,500 d (4.1 y) half-time proposed by ICRP.

  7. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  8. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  9. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  10. Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution following Weight Loss in African American and Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and C women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27–30 kg/m2. They were placed on a weight loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI < 25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among C, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in C compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in C. PMID:21527894

  11. Biological and Genomic Differences of ERG Oncoprotein-Stratified Prostate Cancers from African and Caucasian Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    for AfricanAmerican ( AA ) men as compared to Caucasian Americans (CA). Biological basis for this disparity has not been established. Oncogenic...underlying biological or genetic differences of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and/or progression between African American ( AA ) and Caucasian American (CA...positive and ERG negative CaP. It is anticipated that molecular determinants of aggressive CaP in AA men include somatic mutations (TMPRSS2-ERG

  12. Differences in breast cancer characteristics and outcomes between Caucasian and Chinese women in the US.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan-Na; Song, Chuan-Gui; Ouyang, Qian-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Ye, Fu-Gui; Ma, Fang-Jing; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-05-20

    Chinese breast cancer patients living in the United States (US) can experience different disease patterns than Caucasians, which might allow for predicting the future epidemiology of breast cancer in China. We aimed to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of Caucasian and Chinese female breast cancer patients residing in the US. The study cohort consisted of 3868 Chinese and 208621 Caucasian women (diagnosed from 1990 to 2009) in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Compared with the Caucasian patients, the US-residing Chinese patients had a younger age at diagnosis and a higher family income, remained married longer, and more frequently lived in metropolitan areas. Other tumor characteristics were similarly distributed between the two races. Compared with the Caucasians, the Chinese patients had a significantly improved overall survival (OS) but similar breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Our analysis suggested that US-residing Chinese patients had significant differences in age, family income, marital status and area of residence, compared with their Caucasian counterparts. No significant disparities were noted in BCSS between the two races, whereas the Chinese patients had a significantly better OS. These findings warrant further investigation and should be considered in the screening and treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  14. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis. PMID:27672306

  15. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  16. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Tammy E; Maroni, Paul D; Ferucci, Paul G; Dayton, Robert; Barnes, Stephen; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Ogden, Lorraine G; Wähälä, Kristiina; Sackett, Holly M; Gray, Karen J

    2005-06-01

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19-65 y old). A secondary goal was to compare plasma and prostatic fluid concentrations of 5 isoflavonoids: genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. Baseline plasma levels of isoflavonoids were quantitated in 45 men by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Participants then consumed a soy beverage daily for 1 wk, and post-soy isoflavonoid levels were quantitated in plasma and prostatic fluid. Equol was the only metabolite that appeared to be influenced by routine dietary habits. Stratified analyses revealed that men who had consumed > or =30 mg soy isoflavones/d for at least 2 y had 5.3-times the probability of producing equol than men who had consumed < or =5 mg/d (P = 0.014). Additionally, those men who consumed animal meat regularly had 4.7-times the probability of producing equol than men who did not consume meat (P = 0.023). Equol production was not linked to age, BMI, or the consumption of yogurt, dairy, fruit, or American-style fast food. Daidzein and its metabolites (but not genistein) were typically present at higher levels in prostate fluid than plasma (median = 4-13 times that in plasma). In conclusion, our data suggest that the ability of Caucasian men to produce equol is favorably influenced by the long-term consumption of high amounts of soy and the consumption of meat. Last, the high concentrations of isoflavonoids in prostatic fluid increases the potential for these compounds to have direct effects in the prostate.

  18. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  19. Effects of an overnight intravenous lipid infusion on intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity in African-American versus Caucasian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Boesch, Chris; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explain the predisposition for insulin resistance among African American (AA) adolescents, this study aimed to: 1) examine changes in intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity with intralipid (IL) infusion; and 2) determine whether the increase in IMCL is comparable between AA and Caucasian adolescents. Materials and Methods Thirteen AA and 15 Caucasian normal-weight adolescents (BMI <85th) underwent a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, on two occasions in random order, after an overnight 12-hr infusion of: 1) 20% IL and 2) normal saline (NS). IMCL was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tibialis anterior muscle before and after IL infusion. Results During IL infusion, plasma TG, glycerol, FFA and fat oxidation increased significantly, with no race differences. Hepatic insulin sensitivity decreased with IL infusion with no difference between the groups. IL infusion was associated with a significant increase in IMCL, which was comparable between AA (Δ 105%; NS: 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. IL: 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol/kg wet weight) and Caucasian (Δ 86%; NS: 2.8 ± 2.1 vs. IL: 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol/kg wet weight), with similar reductions (P<0.01) in insulin sensitivity between the groups (Δ −44%: NS: 9.1 ± 3.3 vs. IL: 5.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in AA) and (Δ−39%: NS: 12.9 ± 6.0 vs. IL: 7.9 ± 3.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in Caucasian) adolescents. Conclusions In healthy adolescents, an acute elevation in plasma FFA with IL infusion is accompanied by significant increases in IMCL and reductions in insulin sensitivity with no race differential. Our findings suggest that AA normal-weight adolescents are not more susceptible than Caucasians to FFA-induced IMCL accumulation and insulin resistance. PMID:23122836

  20. Effects of advancing gestation and non-Caucasian race on ductus arteriosus gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Waleh, Nahid; Barrette, Anne Marie; Dagle, John M.; Momany, Allison; Jin, Chengshi; Hills, Nancy K.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Reese, Jeff; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify genes affected by advancing gestation and racial/ethnic origin in human ductus arteriosus (DA). Study design We collected three sets of DA tissue (n=93, n=89, n=91; total = 273 fetuses) from second trimester pregnancies. We examined four genes, with DNA polymorphisms that distribute along racial lines, to identify "Caucasian" and "Non-Caucasian" DA. We used RT-PCR to measure RNA expression of 48 candidate genes involved in functional closure of the DA, and used multivariable regression analyses to examine the relationships between advancing gestation, "Non-Caucasian" race, and gene expression. Results Mature gestation and Non-Caucasian race are significant predictors for identifying infants who will close their patent DA when treated with indomethacin. Advancing gestation consistently altered gene expression in pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction (e.g., calcium-channels, potassium-channels, and endothelin signaling), contractile protein maturation, tissue remodeling, and prostaglandin and nitric oxide signaling in all three tissue sets. None of the pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction appeared to be altered in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Two genes, SLCO2A1 and NOS3, (involved with prostaglandin reuptake/metabolism and nitric oxide production, respectively) were consistently decreased in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Conclusions Prostaglandins and nitric oxide are the most important vasodilators opposing DA closure. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin production, but not nitric oxide production. Because decreased SLCO2A1 and NOS3 expression can lead to increased prostaglandin and decreased nitric oxide concentrations, we speculate that prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation may play a more dominant role in maintaining the "Non-Caucasian" PDA, making it more likely to close when inhibited by indomethacin. PMID:26265282

  1. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  2. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  3. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081

  4. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  5. Bone density, microarchitecture and stiffness in Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhang, Zhendong; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Nickolas, Thomas L; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic Americans of Caribbean origin are a fast-growing subset of the US population, but there are no studies on bone density, microstructure and biomechanical integrity in this minority group. In this study, we aimed to compare Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women with respect to these characteristics. Thirty-three Caribbean Hispanics were age-matched to thirty-three Caucasian postmenopausal women. At the lumbar spine, the Hispanic women had significantly lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD). At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), there were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analyses indicated that at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower bone volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate–plate, plate–rod and rod–rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women. The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to lower whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. In conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia. PMID:26273525

  6. Fatalism and health promoting behaviors in Chinese and Korean immigrants and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise E; Sherman, Kerry A; Shaw, Laura-Kate E; Costa, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Fatalism has been associated with non-adherence to health behavior in the past. This study compared fatalism of Chinese and Korean immigrants with native-born Caucasians (N = 309) and examined whether the relationship between fatalism and exercise, nutrition and medical screening would be moderated by ethnicity. Chinese reported higher fatalism than Caucasians and Koreans. Higher fatalism was associated with greater exercise among Chinese and Koreans, but less reported exercise among Caucasians. Caucasian participants had higher scores for nutrition and medical screening compared with Chinese and Korean immigrants. These findings indicate that fatalism is more prevalent among Chinese immigrants; however, there is no evidence of a detrimental effect of fatalism on exercise, nutrition or medical screening among the Asian immigrants. Caucasians with higher fatalism may be at greater risk of future illnesses, given the association between fatalism and sedentary behavior in this group. Differences between cultural groups in the adoption of health behavior justify the development and assessment of targeted interventions to optimize health promoting behaviors.

  7. The Future of the Danish Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    as a natural consequence of being a co-founder of the United Nations, focused on promoting peace and stability in the world, as a relatively large...Soviet invasion to a more expeditionary course of deploying forces to promote peace and stability around the globe. As a result, Danish defense policy...Danish government including the armed forces. As a consequence Defense Agreement 2010 – 2014 was replaced by Defense Agreement 2013 – 2017 including

  8. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up.

  9. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs.

  11. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  12. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  13. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  14. Evaluation and comparison of nasal airway flow patterns among three subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups using computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-31

    Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity.

  15. A pilot study evaluating the contribution of SLC19A1 (RFC-1) 80G>a polymorphism to Alzheimer's disease in Italian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Tannorella, Pierpaola; Tognoni, Gloria; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bongioanni, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Siciliano, Gabriele; Sorbi, Sandro; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism have been frequently suggested as risk factors for sporadic AD. A common c.80G>A polymorphism (rs1051266) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1 gene, commonly known as RFC-1 gene) was investigated as AD risk factor in Asian populations, yielding conflicting results. We screened a Caucasian population of Italian origin composed of 192 sporadic AD patients and 186 healthy matched controls, for the presence of the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism, and searched for correlation with circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12. No difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies was observed between AD patients and controls. No correlation was observed among the genotypes generated by the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 either in the whole cohort of subjects or after stratification into clinical subtypes. Present results do not support a role for the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism as independent risk factor for sporadic AD in Italian Caucasians.

  16. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  17. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  18. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  19. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-05-09

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor.

  20. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  1. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  2. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  3. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  4. Ocular presentation of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma in a Caucasian man.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Emily; Fogarty, Helen; Fortune, Anne; Keegan, David

    2016-04-26

    Natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma-nasal subtype, is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, most common in South East Asia, and can have an ophthalmological presentation. This report describes a 51-year-old Caucasian man with uveitis, recurrent retinal detachment and paraneoplastic features subsequently diagnosed as NK/T-cell lymphoma.

  5. Differences in bone quality and strength between Asian and Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kepley, A L; Nishiyama, K K; Zhou, B; Wang, J; Zhang, C; McMahon, D J; Foley, K F; Walker, M D; Edward Guo, X; Shane, E; Nickolas, T L

    2017-02-01

    This is a cross-sectional study to assess differences in bone quality in young Asian and Caucasian (n = 30/group) men between 25 and 35 years. We found that Asians had smaller bones, thicker and denser cortices, and more plate-like trabeculae, but stiffness did not differ between groups.

  6. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture.

  7. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  8. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  9. Intake and Digestibility Among Caucasian Bluestem, Big Bluestem, and Switchgrass Compared with Bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season perennial grasses, mainly bermudagrass, have been a major source of hay for ruminant systems across the upper southern USA. This study compares the quality of Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’] (CBS) with ‘Kanlow’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)...

  10. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed,…

  11. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared to…

  12. Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  13. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  14. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  15. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  16. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  17. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  18. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society.

  19. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  20. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  1. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  2. Kidney transplantation outcomes in African-, Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Mattiazzi, A; Schultz, D R; Guerra, G; Ladino, M; Ortega, L M; Garcia-Estrada, M; Ramadugu, P; Gupta, C; Kupin, W L; Roth, D

    2012-01-01

    African-American recipients of kidney transplants with lupus have high allograft failure risk. We studied their risk adjusting for: (1) socio-demographic factors: donor age, gender and race-ethnicity; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; donor-recipient race-ethnicity match; (2) immunologic factors: donor type, panel reactive antibodies, HLA mismatch, ABO blood type compatibility, pre-transplant dialysis, cytomegalovirus risk and delayed graft function (DGF); (3) rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Two thousand four hundred and six African-, 1132 Hispanic-, and 2878 Caucasian-Americans were followed for 12 years after transplantation. African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans received more kidneys from deceased donors (71.6%, 57.3% and 55.1%) with higher two HLA loci mismatches for HLA-A (50%, 39.6% and 32.4%), HLA-B (52%, 42.8% and 35.6%) and HLA-DR (30%, 24.5% and 21.1%). They developed more DGF (19.5%, 13.6% and 13.4%). More African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans developed rejection (41.7%, 27.6% and 35.9%) and RLN (3.2, 1.8 and 1.8%). 852 African-, 265 Hispanic-, and 747 Caucasian-Americans had allograft failure (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for transplant era, socio-demographic-immunologic differences, rejection and RLN, the increased hazard ratio for allograft failure of African- compared with Caucasian-Americans became non-significant (1.26 [95% confidence interval 0.78-2.04]). African-Americans with lupus have high prevalence of risk factors for allograft failure that can explain poor outcomes.

  3. Maternal leptin concentrations are similar in African Americans and Caucasians in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Laura D; Powers, Robert W; Adotey, Mary; Gallaher, Marcia J; Markovic, Nina; Ness, Roberta B; Roberts, James M

    2007-01-01

    Leptin concentrations were measured in African American women in order to assess leptin's role in the increased frequency and severity of preeclampsia. In addition, leptin concentrations were measured in women who delivered small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. A case-control study of African American and Caucasian women with normal pregnancies, preeclampsia, or SGA infants was done. Plasma leptin was quantitated by radio-immunoassay. The previously recognized pattern of increased leptin concentrations in preeclampsia was replicated. Leptin concentrations did not differ by race in any diagnostic category, and concentrations in women with SGA infants were not higher than those in healthy women. Differences in the frequency and severity of preeclampsia in African Americans cannot be explained by higher leptin concentrations.

  4. Increasing Staff Mobility--A Danish Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Recent Danish government proposals to increase the national and international mobility of scientists are reviewed, including a formalized sabbatical system in the universities, new rules for obtaining leaves of absence with or without salary, and plans for increased mobility between public and private sectors. (MSE)

  5. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  6. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  7. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  8. Healthy Places for Healthy People 2016 Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Application form for the 2016 round of Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance to help communities work with health care partners to revitalize downtowns and neighborhoods while helping residents live healthier lives.

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  10. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  11. The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Gimsing, Peter; Holmström, Morten O; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfelt; Andersen, Niels Frost; Gregersen, Henrik; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Plesner, Torben; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Frederiksen, Mikael; Frølund, Ulf; Helleberg, Carsten; Vangsted, Annette; de Nully Brown, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry (DMMR) is a population-based clinical quality database established in January 2005. The primary aim of the database is to ensure that diagnosis and treatment of plasma cell dyscrasia are of uniform quality throughout the country. Another aim is to support research. Patients are registered with their unique Danish personal identification number, and the combined use of DMMR, other Danish National registries, and the Danish National Cancer Biobank offers a unique platform for population-based translational research. Study population All newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering MM, solitary plasmacytomas, and plasma cell leukemia in Denmark are registered annually; ~350 patients. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with polyneuropathy have been registered since 2014. Main variables The main registered variables at diagnosis are patient demographics, baseline disease characteristics, myeloma-defining events, clinical complications, prognostics, first- and second-line treatments, treatment responses, progression free, and overall survival. Descriptive data Up to June 2015, 2,907 newly diagnosed patients with MM, 485 patients with smoldering MM, 64 patients with plasma cell leukemia, and 191 patients with solitary plasmacytomas were registered. Registration completeness of new patients is ~100%. A data validation study performed in 2013–2014 by the Danish Myeloma Study Group showed >95% data correctness. Conclusion The DMMR is a population-based data validated database eligible for clinical, epidemiological, and translational research. PMID:27822103

  12. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  13. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  14. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  15. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

  16. Differences in gene mutations between Chinese and Caucasian cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Baoying

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cystic fibrosis (CF) is rarely seen in Asian populations. We diagnosed two CF cases. One of them had a novel mutation c.870‐1G>C in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. There have been 38 Chinese CF patients reported in literature from 1974 until the present (2016), 25 different mutations were identified. Only one of these mutations (R553X) is in the Caucasian CF screening panel. The mutations identified in Chinese CF patients are very different from the common Caucasian gene mutations. The CFTR gene mutation spectrum for the Chinese population requires further investigation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:E11–E14. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27717243

  17. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants.

    PubMed

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang

    2012-08-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of 3 weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Furthermore, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared with infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing during infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding.

  18. Association of CYP1B1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hampton, John M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, we examined eight CYP1B1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in relation to invasive breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 cases and 1,470 controls; all women were Caucasian. Among the individual SNPs, one (rs9341266) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (ptrend = 0.021), although the association was no longer significant after adjusting for multiple tests. A marginally significant haplotype effect was identified (pglobal = 0.015), with significant associations identified for 2 uncommon haplotypes comprising 4% of the controls. Results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1B1 has at most a minor influence on breast cancer susceptibility among Caucasian women. PMID:19293312

  19. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  20. Association of CYP1B1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yifan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Newcomb, Polly A; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hampton, John M; Chanock, Stephen J; Haines, Jonathan L; Egan, Kathleen M

    2009-04-01

    CYP1B1 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, we examined eight CYP1B1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to invasive breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 cases and 1,470 controls; all women were Caucasian. Among the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms, one (rs9341266) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (P(trend) = 0.021), although the association was no longer significant after adjusting for multiple tests. A marginally significant haplotype effect was identified (P(global) = 0.015), with significant associations identified for 2 uncommon haplotypes comprising 4% of the controls. Results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1B1 has at most a minor influence on breast cancer susceptibility among Caucasian women.

  1. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  2. A new distribution of Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach) in the Kahramanmaras region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Mahmut D; Ok, Tolga

    2004-01-01

    Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach) is a relict tree species having limited natural distribution in Turkey. In this study, a new distribution of this species in the Kahramanmaras region was explained. This distribution occurs in Onsenhopuru and Yavuzlar villages and Yesilyore town of Turkoglu district, at elevations between 600 and 640 m along Orcan stream, and continues about 4 km. In this area, Caucasian wingnut had about 100 trees. This distribution area of the species, quite important for biodiversity, should be protected and the existing individuals should be evaluated as a gene resource. Especially vegetative reproduction of the species should be started and the seedlings obtained should be used at the margins of lakes and streams, parks and large gardens, avenues, boulevards, and streets in the region.

  3. Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further

  4. Association between Apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebral palsy is not confirmed in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Gai L; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N; Haan, Eric A; Priest, Kevin; Dekker, Gustaaf A; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2008-11-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and has been implicated in the growth and repair of injured neurons. Two small studies have suggested an association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy. We investigated if APOE genotype is associated with an increased risk for cerebral palsy, influences the type of cerebral palsy or interacts with prenatal viral infection to influence risk of cerebral palsy. The population-based case-control study comprised newborn screening cards of 443 Caucasian patients with cerebral palsy and 883 Caucasian matched controls. APOE genotyping was performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spots. Allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ between cases and controls and combined frequencies were 0.10 (epsilon2), 0.76 (epsilon3), 0.14 (epsilon4), 0.03 (epsilon2/epsilon2), 0.10 (epsilon2/epsilon3), 0.03 (epsilon2/epsilon4), 0.02 (epsilon4/epsilon4), 0.21 (epsilon3/epsilon4), 0.61 (epsilon3/epsilon3). APOE genotype was correlated with cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy, gestation at birth and the presence of viral nucleic acids detected in previous work. Analysis by gestational age (all gestational ages, >/=37, 32-36 and <32 weeks) and type of cerebral palsy (all types, diplegia, hemiplegia and quadriplegia) showed no association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy in this Caucasian population. An association between prenatal viral infection, APOE genotype and cerebral palsy was not demonstrated. These results did not confirm an association between APOE genotype, cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy and prenatal infection in a Caucasian population. Given the low frequency of APOE epsilon2 and some of the heterozygote and homozygote combinations in this study, a larger study is assessing this further.

  5. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    O’Neal W Jr; African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council. The Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: a review . Ethn Dis. 2003;13(4):414-28. 6...sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...between men and women. Men have a greater maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (Men: 44.6 ± 1.2 vs. Women 36.1 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min), waist circumference (Men

  6. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data indicate that obese men and women have several characteristics consistent with poor...next two years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how

  7. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    obesity. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES obesity, insulin sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , 9 African Americans, Caucasians...mortality of any ethnic group in the United States, and AA women have a higher prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data...years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how different

  8. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  9. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  10. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  11. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... Quinoa is rich in protein . It has almost twice the amount of protein found in oats, and ...

  12. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  13. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  14. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  15. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?✩

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel E.K.; Carter, Michele M.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive. PMID:17606230

  16. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  17. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.10).

  18. Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. )

    1994-07-01

    There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  20. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  1. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.

  2. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  3. Lung diffusing capacity in sub-Saharan Africans versus European Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Simaga, Bamodi; Forton, Kevin; Motoji, Yoshiki; Naeije, Robert; Faoro, Vitalie

    2017-01-10

    Single breath measurements of lung diffusing capacity (DL) for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) were performed in age-, sex-, weight- and height-matched 32 sub-Saharan Africans (13 women) and 32 Caucasian Europeans, and repeated in 14 of each group at 80% of maximum exercise capacity. In Africans versus Caucasians respectively, DLNO was 153±31 vs 176±38ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001) and 210±48 vs 241±52ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01) while hemoglobin-adjusted DLCO was 29±6 vs 34±6ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001), and 46±11 vs 51±13ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01). However there were no differences in DLCO/alveolar volume(VA) (KCO) and DLNO/VA(KNO). The sitting-to-standing height ratio was lower in the Africans. Differences in lung volume with respect to body height explain lower DLNO and DLCO in sub-Saharan Africans as compared to Caucasian Europeans.

  4. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  5. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  6. Molecular identification of rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles in Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Silvia; Scarcello, Antonio; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo

    2015-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies on Duffy blood group antigens have identified mutations underlying rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles. FY*Null has a high frequency in Blacks, especially from sub-Saharan Africa, while its frequency is not defined in Caucasians. FY*X allele, associated with Fy(a-b+w) phenotype, has a frequency of 2-3.5% in Caucasian people while it is absent in Blacks. During the project of extensive blood group genotyping in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies, we identified FY*X/FY*Null and FY*A/FY*Null genotypes in a Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia. We speculate on the frequency of FY*X and FY*Null alleles in Caucasian and Black people; further, we focused on the association of FY*X allele with weak Fyb antigen expression on red blood cells and its identification performing high sensitivity serological typing methods or genotyping.

  7. Stereoselective disposition of hexobarbital and its metabolites: relationship to the S-mephenytoin polymorphism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A; Prakash, C; O'Shea, D; Blair, I A; Wilkinson, G R

    1994-02-01

    In vitro studies with human liver preparations suggest that the metabolism of hexobarbital involves CYP2CMP--the determinant of the S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation polymorphism, but no in vivo evidence of interphenotypic differences exist. The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of hexobarbital and its metabolites were, therefore, investigated following oral administration of a differentially labelled pseudoracemate that allowed determination of the fate of the individual enantiomers. Studies were undertaken in 10 Caucasian and nine Chinese healthy subjects known to be either extensive (EM) or poor (PM), metabolizers of mephenytoin. No inter-racial differences were observed in any of the measured parameters within a given phenotype. However, pronounced stereoselectivity in disposition was noted in EMs with R-(-)-hexobarbital's oral clearance being five- to six-fold greater than that for the S-(+)-enantiomer. By contrast, the S-(+)-isomer was eliminated twice as fast as R-(-) hexobarbital in PMs and, in addition, the oral clearances of both enantiomers were significantly reduced compared with their values in EMs. Formation of 3'-hydroxy- and 3'-ketohexobarbital and 1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid were the major identified routes of metabolism for each enantiomer in both phenotypes. Furthermore, these pathways were found to co-segregate with the mephenytoin polymorphism and in EMs they were primarily responsible for the observed stereoselectivity in disposition. These findings, therefore, confirm the stereoselectivity in hexobarbital's disposition in humans and identify the major pathways of metabolism involved. Additionally, the results indicate that CYP2CMP is a major determinant of the in vivo metabolism of both of hexobarbital's enantiomers but especially that of the R-(-)-enantiomer.

  8. Comprehensive characterization of human genome variation by high coverage whole-genome sequencing of forty four Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Chao; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Zikai; Zhao, Fuping; Liao, Li; Chen, Jun; Lin, Yong; Tian, Qing; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing studies are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the vast pattern of human genomic variations. Here we report the results of a high-coverage whole genome sequencing study for 44 unrelated healthy Caucasian adults, each sequenced to over 50-fold coverage (averaging 65.8×). We identified approximately 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2.8 million short insertions and deletions, and over 500,000 block substitutions. We showed that, although previous studies, including the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 study, have catalogued the vast majority of common SNPs, many of the low-frequency and rare variants remain undiscovered. For instance, approximately 1.4 million SNPs and 1.3 million short indels that we found were novel to both the dbSNP and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 data sets, and the majority of which (∼96%) have a minor allele frequency less than 5%. On average, each individual genome carried ∼3.3 million SNPs and ∼492,000 indels/block substitutions, including approximately 179 variants that were predicted to cause loss of function of the gene products. Moreover, each individual genome carried an average of 44 such loss-of-function variants in a homozygous state, which would completely "knock out" the corresponding genes. Across all the 44 genomes, a total of 182 genes were "knocked-out" in at least one individual genome, among which 46 genes were "knocked out" in over 30% of our samples, suggesting that a number of genes are commonly "knocked-out" in general populations. Gene ontology analysis suggested that these commonly "knocked-out" genes are enriched in biological process related to antigen processing and immune response. Our results contribute towards a comprehensive characterization of human genomic variation, especially for less-common and rare variants, and provide an invaluable resource for future genetic studies of human variation and diseases.

  9. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055

  10. Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological Differences

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Q. A.; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients (n = 266) were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, p = 0.008). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences.

  11. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  12. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  13. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  14. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann.

  15. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  16. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II), and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV). Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. PMID:27822109

  17. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-02

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.

  18. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Caucasians and African-Americans: the GATE Study.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N F; Austin, H; Dilley, A; Whitsett, C; Evatt, B L; Hooper, W C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, comprehensively, medical and genetic attributes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a multiracial American population. The Genetic Attributes and Thrombosis Epidemiology (GATE) study is an ongoing case-control study in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to examine racial differences in VTE etiology and pathogenesis. Between 1998 and 2001, 370 inpatients with confirmed VTE, and 250 control subjects were enrolled. Data collected included blood specimens for DNA and plasma analysis and a medical lifestyle history questionnaire. Comparing VTE cases, cancer, recent surgery, and immobilization were more common in caucasian cases, while hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease were more prevalent in African-American cases. Family history of VTE was reported with equal frequency by cases of both races (28-29%). Race-adjusted odds ratios for the associations of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were 3.1 (1.5, 6.7) and 1.9 (0.8, 4.4), respectively. Using a larger external comparison group, the odds ratio for the prothrombin mutation among Caucasians was a statistically significant 2.5 (1.4, 4.3). A case-only analysis revealed a near significant interaction between the two mutations among Caucasians. We found that clinical characteristics of VTE patients differed across race groups. Family history of VTE was common in white and black patients, yet known genetic risk factors for VTE are rare in African-American populations. Our findings underscore the need to determine gene polymorphisms associated with VTE in African-Americans.

  19. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment.

  20. Study of light propagation in Asian and Caucasian skins by means of the Boundary Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Massudi, R.

    2009-09-01

    Boundary Element Method (BEM) is explored to study transport of light in Asian and Caucasian skins. Precision of the method is compared with the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and it is observed that BEM offers more precise results and requires shorter running times. Reflection and penetration of different wavelengths from those skins are calculated. Maximum penetration depths are calculated using BEM and the results are compared with those obtained using MC and FDM. The method can simply be used to study transport of light in different types of tissues.

  1. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  2. Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Tetens, Inge

    2017-03-16

    The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18-75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised 'unhealthy', 'somewhat healthy' and 'healthy'. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough 'to a high degree', 'to some degree' or 'not at all/only partly'. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets.

  3. CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Beuten, Joke; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Byrne, John J; Balic, Ivana; Crandall, AnaLisa C; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Thompson, Ian M; Price, Douglas K; Leach, Robin J

    2008-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.96]. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian men with more aggressive PCa, the prevalence of several SNPs (rs2567206, rs2551188, rs2617266, rs10012 and rs1056836) was significantly associated with the disease status. A common C-G-C-C-G-A haplotype for rs2567206-rs2551188-rs2617266-rs10012-rs1056836-rs1800440 showed an inverse association with PCa risk in Hispanic Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.04-0.95) and with aggressive disease status (i.e. Gleason score >or=7) in non-Hispanic Caucasian cases (OR = 0.64, P = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.47-0.89). In the non-Hispanic Caucasian cases, a second major haplotype T-A-T-G-C-A was positively associated with the high-grade disease status (OR = 1.77, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 1.24-2.53). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 may modify the risk for PCa and support the role of CYP1B1 as a candidate gene for PCa.

  4. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  5. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  6. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men's Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys' antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys' vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline-and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences-may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior.

  7. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    PubMed Central

    Philip, T.; Lenoir, G. M.; Bryon, P. A.; Gerard-Marchant, R.; Souillet, G.; Philippe, N.; Freycon, F.; Brunat-Mentigny, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  8. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  9. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm(3) ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners.

  10. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  11. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Yancy, Haile F; Mason, Jacquline A; Peters, Sharla; Thompson, Charles E; Littleton, George K; Jett, Marti; Day, Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expression of 14 genes which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Cell lines derived from AA and CAU patients were analyzed to demonstrate alterations in the transcription of genes known to be involved in cancer and the metastatic process. Total RNA was isolated from cell lines and analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. Differential expression of the 14 targeted genes between a spectrum model (6 breast cancer cell lines and 2 non-cancer breast cell lines) and a metastasis model (12 metastatic breast cancer cell lines) were demonstrated. Additionally, an in vitro comparison of the expression established differences in 5 of the 14 biomarker genes between African American and Caucasian breast cell lines. Results from this study indicates that altered expression of the genes Atp1b1, CARD 10, KLF4, Spint2, and Acly may play a role in the aggressive phenotype seen in breast cancer in African American women. PMID:17472751

  12. Analysis of soft tissue display during enjoyment smile. Part II: elder Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katja; Hu, Xiulian; Nack, Claudia; Nahles, Günter; Mehrhof, Jürgen; Nahles, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic parameters in elder patients are essential in esthetic oral rehabilitation. To date, no study has quantified the amount and frequency of soft tissue display in the papilla area in patients over 50 years of age. Photographic examination of 42 fully dentate patients with a mean age of 59 years was performed during enjoyment smile. Digital processing and measurement of the tooth, gingiva, and papilla display revealed that over 90% of subjects displayed soft tissue in the papilla area of the anterior teeth and first premolar during enjoyment smile regardless of their sex. The frequency of the display in descending order follows: maxillary lateral incisor (96%), central incisor (94%), canine (94%), first premolar (91%), second premolar (85%), and first molar (39%). The mean amount of papilla display was 3.4 mm (0 to 10 mm). There was no significant difference in the amount of papilla display between sexes for anterior teeth, premolars, or first molar (P = .97, P = .79, and P = .48, respectively). Elder caucasians showed significantly less gingiva in the area of the premolars and molars but not in the anterior region. The amount of papilla display is significantly less in elder caucasians in the anterior and premolar region. The mean amount of soft tissue display decreased with age but the frequency of papilla display was more than 90% in the anterior region and greater than 70% in the premolar region, suggesting that pink esthetics is an issue in patients over 50 years of age.

  13. White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R; Donaldson, L

    1998-01-01

    The request for scientifically appropriate terminology in research on race, ethnicity, and health has largely bypassed the term White. This and other words, such as Caucasian, are embedded in clinical and epidemiological discourse, yet they are rarely defined. This commentary analyzes the issue from the perspective of the epidemiology of the health of minority ethnic and racial groups in Europe and the United States. Minority groups are usually compared with populations described as White, Caucasian, European, Europid, Western, Occidental, indigenous, native, and majority. Such populations are heterogeneous, the labels nonspecific, and the comparisons misleading. Terminology that reflects the research purpose-for examples, reference, control, or comparison--is better (unlike White, these terms imply no norm, allowing neither writers nor readers to make stereotyped assumptions about the comparison populations. This paper widens the debate on nomenclature for racial and ethnic groups. Many issues need exploration, including whether there is a shared understanding among the international research community of the terms discussed. PMID:9736867

  14. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…

  15. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  16. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  17. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  18. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  19. Healthy Eating and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  20. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  1. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  2. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  3. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  4. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  5. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  6. Variations in mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency between African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders: implications for reentry services.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Wallace, John M; Davis, Larry E; Fernandes, Giselle T; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-06-01

    The incarceration of young people is a growing national problem. Key correlates of incarceration among American youth include mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency. The present study uses a statewide sample of incarcerated youth to examine racial differences in African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders' outcomes related to mental health, substance use, and delinquency. The data indicate that relative to Caucasian offenders, African American offenders report lower levels of mental health problems and substance use but higher levels of delinquent behavior such as violence, weapon carrying, and gang fighting. The data further reveal that African American offenders are more likely than Caucasian offenders to be victims of violence and to experience traumatic events such as witnessing injury and death. Recognition of these patterns may help to improve postrelease services by tailoring or adapting preexisting programs to patterns of risk factors and their relative magnitudes of effect.

  7. Western Cultural Identification Explains Variations in the Objectification Model for Eating Pathology Across Australian Caucasians and Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Charmain S.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Utpala, Ranjani; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; De Paoli, Tara; Loughan, Stephen; Krug, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in trait objectifying measures and eating pathology between Australian Caucasians and Asian women living in Australia and in Hong Kong with high and low levels of western cultural identification (WCI) and to see if exposure to objectifying images had an effect on state-objectification. A further aim was to assess using path analyses whether an extended version of the objectification model, including thin-ideal internalization, differed depending on the level of WCI. Method: A total of 424 participants comprising 162 Australian Caucasians and 262 Asians (n = 183 currently residing in Australia and n = 79 living in Hong Kong) took part in the study. Of the overall Asian sample, 133 individuals were classified as high-WCI and 129 participants as low-WCI. Participants were randomly allocated into one of two conditions, presenting either objectifying images of attractive and thin Asian and Caucasian female models (objectification group, n = 204), or showing neutral images of objects (e.g., chairs, tables; control group, n = 220). Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires assessing objectification processes and eating pathology. Results: Findings revealed that the Caucasian group presented with significantly higher internalization and body surveillance scores than either of the two Asian groups and also revealed higher scores on trait-self-objectification than the low-WCI Asian sample. As regards to the effects of objectifying images on state self-objectification, we found that ratings were higher after exposure to women than to control objects for all groups. Finally, multi-group analyses revealed that our revised objectification model functioned equally across the Caucasian and the high-WCI Asian group, but differed between the Caucasian and the low-WCI Asian group. Conclusion: Our findings outline that individuals with varying levels of WCI might respond differently to self-objectification processes

  8. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly.

  9. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  10. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    PubMed Central

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundlyamong minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, runningor jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls’physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group. PMID:16397158

  11. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  12. Hispanic Americans and African Americans with multiple sclerosis have more severe disease course than Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Rachel E; Antezana, Ariel O; Bacon, Tamar; Kister, Ilya

    2016-11-01

    Whether disease course in Hispanic Americans (HA) with multiple sclerosis (MS) is different from Caucasian Americans (CA) or African Americans (AA) is unknown. We compared MS severity in the three main ethnic populations in our tertiary MS clinics using disease duration-adjusted rank score of disability: Patient-Derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P-MSSS). The age- and gender-adjusted P-MSSS was significantly higher in HA (3.9 ± 2.6) and AA (4.5 ± 3.0) compared to CA (3.4 ± 2.6; p < 0.0001 for both). Adjusting for insurance did not change these results. These findings suggest that HA, as AA, have more rapid disability accumulation than CA.

  13. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344

  14. Four Caucasian patients with mutations in the fukutin gene and variable clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vuillaumier-Barrot, S; Quijano-Roy, S; Bouchet-Seraphin, C; Maugenre, S; Peudenier, S; Van den Bergh, P; Marcorelles, P; Avila-Smirnow, D; Chelbi, M; Romero, N B; Carlier, R Y; Estournet, B; Guicheney, P; Seta, N

    2009-03-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is frequent in Japan, due to a founder mutation of the fukutin gene (FKTN). Outside Japan, FKTN mutations have only been reported in a few patients with a wide spectrum of phenotypes from Walker-Warburg syndrome to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2M). We studied four new Caucasian patients from three unrelated families. All showed raised serum CK initially isolated in one case and muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical studies and haplotype analysis led us to search for mutations in FKTN. Two patients (two sisters) presented with congenital muscular dystrophy, mental retardation, and posterior fossa malformation including cysts, and brain atrophy at Brain MRI. The other two patients had normal intelligence and brain MRI. Sequencing of the FKTN gene identified three previously described mutations and two novel missense mutations. Outside Japan, fukutinopathies are associated with a large spectrum of phenotypes from isolated hyperCKaemia to severe CMD, showing a clear overlap with that of FKRP.

  15. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena.

  16. Angiographic profile in childhood moyamoya disease. A study of 8 Caucasian Indian children.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, P N; Arya, B Y; Vasudev, M K

    1991-11-01

    The cerebral angiograms of 8 patients with childhood moyamoya disease showed that the common findings were stenosis/occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and the proximal segments of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries and basal moyamoya. The volume of basal moyamoya and its collateral supply depended upon the stage of the disease. Leptomeningeal collaterals were frequent in the later stages. Stenotic lesions in the posterior circulation were seen in a majority (75%) of patients. A feature unique to the study was evidence of intracranial small-vessel disease and stenotic cervical internal carotid artery in half of the cases. The disease in the ethnic caucasian Indians seems largely similar to the classical disease frequently reported in the Japanese literature.

  17. Features of the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasus Mountain System is a part of the Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone (AHICZ) which lasted throughout Eurasia from Western Mediterranean to Western Pacific. This belt has been formed after closure of the Mesozoic Tethys and is marked by mountains building processes, appearance of riftogenic structures, numerous late Cenozoic basaltic plateaus, and chain of often within-continental andesite-latite volcanic arcs, which trace suture zones of the continental plates collision. Caucasus Mountains are located in eastern part of the proper Alpine Zone in zone of Arabian-Eurasian syntaxis and appeared as a result of submeridional pressure which generated by oncoming moving of these plates. The Great Caucasus is represent the south border of the Eurasian plate, uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (Thrust). The latter is a part of super-regional deep-seated fault ranged from the Kopetdag through Caspian Sea, Caucasus and Crimea; very likely, that its further continuation is Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. This superfault separates areas of Alpine convergence from Eurasian plate sensu stricto. The Caucasus occurred between Black and Caspian seas with passive margins and oceanic crust, covered by sediments of 10-15 km thick. Depressions of the seas form large "downfall", or caldrons which cut off pre-Pliocene structures of Caucasus and Kopetdag. These seas are, probably, small remnants of the Tethys which gradually shallowing in the Miocene (Zonenshain, Le Pichon, 1986). New essential deepening of the Black Sea and South-Caspian deep began in the Pliocene- Quaternary; it occurred simultaneously with uprising of Crimea and Caucasus, which were not marked in relief before (Grachev, 2000). Large positive isostatic anomaly beneath the Trans-Caucasian Transverse Uplift (TCTU) of the Great Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus, which stretch out to Arabian plate, occurred between "subsides" Black and especially Caspian seas with neutral to negative isostatic

  18. Lateral intercrural suture in the caucasian nose: Decreased domal divergence angle in endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Mocelin, Marcos; Soares, Caio Márcio Correia; Pasinato, Rogério; Frota, Andreia Ellery

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to improve nasal tip definition such as cartilage resection, tip grafts, or sutures. Objctive: To evaluate the outcome of lateral intercrural suture at the lower lateral cartilage by endonasal rhinoplasty with a basic technique without delivery in decreasing the angle of domal divergence and improving the nasal tip definition. Method: This prospective study was performed in 64 patients in which a suture was made on the board head of the lower lateral cartilage in the joint between the dome and lateral crus, using polydioxanone (PDS) with sharp, curved needle. Results: In all of the cases, better definition of the nasal tip was achieved by intercrural suturing for at least 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Lateral intercrural suture of the lower lateral cartilage provides improved nasal tip definition and can be performed by endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery in the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991941

  19. [The phylogeography of the Yersinia pestis vole strains isolated from the natural foci of caucasian region].

    PubMed

    Platonov, M E; Evseeva, V V; Svetoch, T E; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Dentovskaia, S V; Kulichenko, A N; Anisimov, A P

    2012-01-01

    57 Y pestis bv. caucasica strains were assayed using molecular typing. The results of these assays indicated the presence within this biovar of the three separate clonal clusters and necessity of detachment of the Leninakan mountain mesofocus (subfocus) from the structure of Transcaucasian-highland focus into self-supporting one, as well as inclusion of a part of the Pre-Araks low-mountain natural plague focus in the capacity of the subfocus along with Pre-Sevan mountain and Zanzegur-Karabakh mountain subfoci into the structure of Transcaucasian-highland focus. It was shown that the strains circulating in the East-Caucasian highland plague focus were the most ancient branch of bv. caucasica or even of the entire Y pestis phylogenetic tree.

  20. Replication of Caucasian Loci Associated with Osteoporosis-related Traits in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Mok; Ikegawa, Shiro; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Deng, Hong-Wen; Koh, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Most reported genome-wide association studies (GWAS) seeking to identify the loci of osteoporosis-related traits have involved Caucasian populations. We aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of osteoporosis-related traits among East Asian populations from the bone mineral density (BMD)-related loci of an earlier GWAS meta-analysis. Methods A total of 95 SNPs, identified at the discovery stage of the largest GWAS meta-analysis of BMD, were tested to determine associations with osteoporosis-related traits (BMD, osteoporosis, or fracture) in Korean subjects (n=1,269). The identified SNPs of osteoporosis-related traits in Korean subjects were included in the replication analysis using Chinese (n=2,327) and Japanese (n=768) cohorts. Results A total of 17 SNPs were associated with low BMD in Korean subjects. Specifically, 9, 6, 9, and 5 SNPs were associated with the presence of osteoporosis, non-vertebral fractures, vertebral fractures, and any fracture, respectively. Collectively, 35 of the 95 SNPs (36.8%) were associated with one or more osteoporosis-related trait in Korean subjects. Of the 35 SNPs, 19 SNPs (54.3%) were also associated with one or more osteoporosis-related traits in East Asian populations. Twelve SNPs were associated with low BMD in the Chinese and Japanese cohorts. Specifically, 3, 4, and 2 SNPs were associated with the presence of hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and any fracture, respectively. Conclusions Our results identified the common SNPs of osteoporosis-related traits in both Caucasian and East Asian populations. These SNPs should be further investigated to assess whether they are true genetic markers of osteoporosis. PMID:27965945

  1. Lactase haplotype frequencies in Caucasians: association with the lactase persistence/non-persistence polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C B; Hollox, E J; Poulter, M; Wang, Y; Rossi, M; Auricchio, S; Iqbal, T H; Cooper, B T; Barton, R; Sarner, M; Korpela, R; Swallow, D M

    1998-05-01

    A genetic polymorphism is responsible for determining that some humans express lactase at high levels throughout their lives and are thus lactose tolerant, while others lose lactase expression during childhood and are lactose intolerant. We have previously shown that this polymorphism is controlled by an element or elements which act in cis to the lactase gene. We have also reported that 7 polymorphisms in the lactase gene are highly associated and lead to only 3 common haplotypes (A, B and C) in individuals of European extraction. Here we report the frequencies of these polymorphisms in Caucasians from north and south Europe and also from the Indian sub-continent, and show that the alleles differ in frequency, the B and C haplotypes being much more common in southern Europe and India. Allelic association studies with lactase persistence and non-persistence phenotypes show suggestive evidence of association of lactase persistence with certain alleles. This association was rather more clear in the analysis of small families, where haplotypes could be determined. Furthermore haplotype and RNA transcript analysis of 11 unrelated lactase persistent individuals shows that the persistence (highly expressed) allele is almost always on the A haplotype background. Non-persistence is found on a variety of haplotypes including A. Thus it appears that lactase persistence arose more recently than the DNA marker polymorphisms used here to define the main Caucasian haplotypes, possibly as a single mutation on the A haplotype background. The high frequency of the A haplotype in northern Europeans is consistent with the high frequency of lactase persistence.

  2. Osteoporotic Caucasian and South Asian women: a qualitative study of general practitioners' support.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Jim; Ludwig, Alison Frances

    2008-09-01

    Health professionals face two complicated but contradictory epidemics: obesity and osteoporosis (OP). While obesity is obvious, OP progresses silently affecting one in two UK women. Both South Asian and Caucasian women are at OP risk. This study compared experiences of osteoporotic Caucasian and South Asian women in a purposive sample of 21 volunteers from south east England, aged 43 to 82 years. The women had been diagnosed for eight months to 40 years. Long disease duration was marked by complacent OP dialogue, although OP was objectionable and marked a loss of quality of life. Inductive content analysis of transcripts showed that 'uncertainty'--about one another and about what constituted helpful self-care--affected both GPs and patients. Instead, support groups and the media supported learning about OP care. Beyond providing drug prescriptions, women reported desiring, but rarely feeling, that GPs fully supported their preferences for self-care. Self-care often included specialist exercise classes. Some younger women led their GPs to better understand the range of self-care options. GPs were seen as being unsure about how and when to discuss physical activity (PA). In conclusion, women with OP in this sample are sensitive to their GP's hesitance about offering detailed PA recommendations. Regardless of ethnicity, younger women undertook PA based on personal initiative. Positive PA experiences stimulated an interest in discussing PA with GPs, and these dialogues broke the silence surrounding OP care. By providing important information regarding the OP patient experience, the findings highlight the unmet desire of OP sufferers for better and closer attention from GPs.

  3. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  4. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  5. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  6. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research A Healthy Mouth For Your Baby Healthy teeth are important—even ... fact sheet can help you keep your baby’s mouth healthy and give him a healthy start! 1. ...

  7. Lipoprotein (a) and other prothrombotic risk factors in Caucasian women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Results of a multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Manuela; Sonntag, Barbara; Klamroth, Robert; Heinecke, Achim; Scholz, Carola; Langer, Claus; Scharrer, Inge; Greb, Robert R; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike

    2005-05-01

    From 1998 to 2003, 133 Caucasian women aged 17-40 years (median 29 years) suffering from unexplained recurrent miscarriage (uRM) were consecutively enrolled. In patients and 133 age-matched healthy controls prothrombotic risk factors (factor V (FV) G1691A, factor II (FII) G20210A, MTHFR T677T, 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, lipoprotein (Lp) (a), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), antithrombin (AT), antiphospholipid/anticardiolipin (APA/ACA) antibodies) as well as associated environmental conditions (smoking and obesity) were investigated. 70 (52.6%) of the patients had at least one prothrombotic risk factor compared with 26 control women (19.5%; p<0.0001). Body mass index (BMI; p=0.78) and smoking habits (p=0.44) did not differ significantly between the groups investigated. Upon univariate analysis the heterozygous FV mutation, Lp(a) > 30 mg/dL, increased APA/ACA and BMI > 25 kg/m(2) in combination with a prothrombotic risk factor were found to be significantly associated with uRM. In multivariate analysis, increased Lp(a) (odds ratio (OR): 4.7/95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-10.7), the FV mutation (OR:3.8/CI:1.4-10.7), and increased APA/ACA (OR: 4.5/CI: 1.1-17.7) had independent associations with uRM.

  8. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  9. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Child Welfare Services through the Eyes of African American, Caucasian, and Latino Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to find if differences exist among 88 African American, Caucasian, and Latino families who received child welfare services. Method: A secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data employing standardized measures was used for this study. Family preservation (FP) services were received by 49…

  11. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  12. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  13. Cultural diversity and saccade similarities: culture does not explain saccade latency differences between Chinese and Caucasian participants.

    PubMed

    Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.

  14. Body Image and Disordered Eating among Asian American and Caucasian College Students: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…

  15. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  16. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  17. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA). Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  18. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for…

  19. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  20. A comparative study of sertraline dosages, plasma concentrations, efficacy and adverse reactions in Chinese versus Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Hong Ng, Chee; Norman, Trevor R; Naing, Khin Ohnmar; Schweitzer, Isaac; Kong Wai Ho, Brian; Fan, Agnes; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-03-01

    This prospective 6-week study examined the differences in dosage and steady state plasma concentrations of sertraline in Chinese versus Caucasian depressed patients. Two groups of Chinese patients from different geographical sites and a group of Caucasian patients were evaluated with clinical measures during an initial dose of 50 mg/day, with subsequent doses adjusted clinically. The results of 17 Australian Chinese (ACHI), 13 Malaysian Chinese (MCHI) and 15 Australian Caucasians (AC) were analysed. Despite controlling for weight, the AC subjects received a significantly higher dose than both the ACHI (P = 0.002) and the MCHI groups (P = 0.012). However, the mean sertraline concentration to dose ratios at weeks 1 and 6 were not significantly different between the three groups. Sertraline was effective and well tolerated in both ethnic groups with few adverse events. Although there was a lack of difference between groups in the pharmacokinetic results, Chinese depressed patients appeared to require lower dosages with consequently lower plasma concentrations of sertraline compared to Caucasian patients to achieve clinical efficacy. Further studies of the dosages, kinetics and adverse effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors linked with genotyping are necessary.

  1. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  2. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425

  3. A Multivariate Comparison of Elderly African Americans and Caucasians Voting Behavior: How Do Social, Health, Psychological, and Political Variables Effect Their Voting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used data from Aging in the Eighties national survey to examine impact of health rating and life satisfaction as well as other socio-psychological characteristics on voting turnout among elderly Caucasian and African Americans. For Caucasians, self-assessment of health was significantly related to voting behavior; whereas among African Americans,…

  4. Cross-Race Preferences for Same-Race Faces Extend beyond the African versus Caucasian Contrast in 3-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Liu, Qinyao; Pascalis, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants…

  5. Psychological defenses of Danish medical students.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Patterns in the psychological defenses of medical students may have implications for the way they handle and respond to the pressures and developmental issues they encounter in medical school and beyond. Using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ40) to assess psychological defenses, a sample of first-year Danish medical students was compared with a sample of students at a short-term boarding school for general education. The medical students scored significantly higher on items connected with pseudo-altruism, denial, and undoing. Trends in the data furthermore suggest a greater use of sublimation, rationalization, and dissociation among medical students. When defense mechanisms were labeled into mature, neurotic, and immature categories, there were no differences between the groups or in the total defense scores.

  6. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  7. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. Study population The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Main variables Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Descriptive data Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. Conclusion The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes. PMID:27822104

  8. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  9. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  10. Differences in radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in African-Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Braga, L.; Renner, J. B.; Schwartz, T. A.; Woodard, J.; Helmick, C. G.; Hochberg, M. C.; Jordan, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine racial differences in tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) radiographic osteoarthritis in African-American (AA) and Caucasian men and women. Method Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate cross-sectional associations between race and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TF-OA) and the presence, severity and location of individual radiographic features of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis [TFJ-OA] (osteophytes, joint space narrowing [JSN], sclerosis and cysts) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ-OA) (osteophytes, JSN and sclerosis), using data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Proportional odds ratios (POR) assessed severity of TF-OA, TFJ and PFJ osteophytes, and JSN, adjusting for confounders. Generalized estimating equations accounted for auto-correlation of knees. Results Among 3187 participants (32.5% AAs; 62% women; mean age 62 years), 6300 TFJ and 1957 PFJ were included. Compared to Caucasians, AA men were more likely to have TF-OA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.86); tri-compartmental TFJ and PFJ osteophytes (aOR = 3.06; 95%CI = 1.96–4.78), and TFJ and PFJ sclerosis. AA women were more likely than Caucasian to have medial TFJ and tri-compartmental osteophytes (aOR = 2.13; 1.55–2.94), and lateral TFJ sclerosis. AAs had more severe TF-OA than Caucasians (adjusted cumulative odds ratio [aPOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.19–3.64 for men; aPOR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.06–2.29 for women) and were more likely to have lateral TFJ JSN. Conclusions Compared to Caucasians, AAs were more likely to have more severe TF-OA; tri-compartmental disease; and lateral JSN. Further research to clarify the discrepancy between radiographic features in OA among races appears warranted. PMID:19735758

  11. Sulfotransferase 2B1b in human breast: differences in subcellular localization in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Nicole A; He, Dongning; Frost, Andra R; Falany, Charles N

    2008-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women; however, the development of post-menopausal BC is significantly lower in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. Hormonal stimulation is important in BC development and differences in the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into estrogens may be involved in the lower incidence of post-menopausal BC in African American women. DHEA sulfation by sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) is important in regulating the conversion of DHEA into estrogens in tissues. SULT2B1b is localized in both cytosol and nuclei of some tissues including cancerous and associated-normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the total expression and subcellular localization of SULT2B1b in African American and Caucasian breast tissues. Cell fractionation, immunoblot analysis and sulfation assays were used to characterize the subcellular expression and activity of SULT2B1b in BC tissues and T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of SULT2B1b showed that African Americans had a significantly greater amount of SULT2B1b in epithelial cells of associated-normal breast tissue as compared to Caucasians. Also, more SULT2B1b in African American associated-normal breast epithelial cells was localized in the nuclei than in Caucasians. Equivalent levels of SULT2B1b were detected in breast adenocarcinoma tissues from both African American and Caucasian women. Nuclei isolation and immunoblot analysis of both BC tissue and human T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated that SULT2B1b is present in nuclei and cytoplasm.

  12. The Immigrant Worker and the Danish Public Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A summary of a survey conducted in 1973 of Danish library services available to immigrant workers and their families, especially those speaking Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and the languages used in Yugoslavia. (Author/KP)

  13. Healthy Birth Practices Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2014-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes this special issue where distiguished authors provide updated evidence-based reviews of the Lamaze International Six Healthy Birth Practices that promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth. This issue is dedicated to Elisabeth Bing on the occasion of her 100th birthday.

  14. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  15. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  16. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  17. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  18. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  19. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed.

  20. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  1. Coronary artery calcifications predict long term cardiovascular events in non diabetic Caucasian hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Noce, Annalisa; Canale, Maria Paola; Capria, Ambrogio; Rovella, Valentina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Splendiani, Giorgio; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Manzuoli, Micol; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcifications are frequent in chronic renal disease and are associated to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The long term predictive value of coronary artery calcifications detected by multi-layer spiral computed tomography for major cardiovascular events was evaluated in non-diabetic Caucasian patients on maintenance hemodialysis free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Two-hundred and five patients on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled into this observational, prospective cohort study. Patients underwent a single cardiac multi-layer spiral computed tomography. Calcium load was quantified and patients grouped according to the Agatston score: group 1 (Agatston score: 0), group 2 (Agatston score 1-400), group 3 (Agatston score 401-1000) and group 4 (Agatston score >1000). Follow-up was longer than seven years. Primary endpoint was death from a major cardiovascular event. Actuarial survival was calculated separately in the four groups with Kaplan-Meier method. Patients who died from causes other than cardiovascular disease and transplanted patients were censored. The “log rank” test was employed to compare survival curves. One-hundred two patients (49.7%) died for a major cardiovascular event during the follow-up period. Seven-year actuarial survival was more than 90% for groups 1 and 2, but failed to about 50% for group 3 and to <10% for group 4. Hence, Agatston score >400 predicts a significantly higher cardiovascular mortality compared with Agatston score <400 (p<0.0001); furthermore, serum Parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/l were associated to a lower survival (p < 0.05). Extended coronary artery calcifications detected by cardiac multi-layer spiral computed tomography, strongly predicted long term cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetic Caucasian patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Moreover, it was not related to conventional indices of atherosclerosis, but to other non-traditional risk factors, as serum Parathyroid

  2. The Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities national program.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Sarah L; Bussel, Jamie B

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation announced a bold and unprecedented commitment of $500 million to reverse the epidemic of childhood obesity by 2015, especially in communities at greatest risk based on income, race, ethnicity, and geographic location. To support this work, the foundation launched an array of complementary initiatives aimed at building the evidence base, testing advocacy approaches, and supporting on-the-ground action to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), a 5-year $33.4 million national program, was one of the foundation's earliest such investments. Building on previous successes, HKHC was designed to address the policies, systems, and environments that make it easier for low-income children and their families to engage in physical activity and play and to access healthy food in their communities. As part of its strategy, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 50 multidisciplinary partnerships across the country, with a special focus on 15 southern states where health disparities were most significant. The selection of Active Living By Design to lead the HKHC National Program Office and Transtria, LLC, to lead the evaluation leveraged these organizations' experience in addressing the systemic issues that contribute to physical inactivity and unhealthy eating, using a broader healthy community lens. Key elements of HKHC included funding, ongoing technical assistance and consultation, a peer learning network, and participatory evaluation. The successes of the HKHC grant program are well documented in this journal as well as through case studies and case reports, spotlights, leadership profiles, and other products available at www.healthykidshealthycommunities.org and http://www.transtria.com/hkhc.php.

  3. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal–adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32–36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6–10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min−1 and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min−1 in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min−1 at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal–adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Key points Asian women have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasian

  4. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  5. The CLU gene rs11136000 variant is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyou; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Jiafeng; Li, Jingbo; Li, Hali; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale genomewide association studies have reported that the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people of Caucasian ancestry. Recently, this association was investigated in Asian populations (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). However, these studies reported either a weak association or no association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD. We believe that this discrepancy may be caused by the relatively small sample size of the previous studies and the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD among different populations. For this study, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases. We selected 18 independent studies (6 studies of Asian populations and 12 of populations of Caucasian ancestry) that evaluated the association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD using a case-control experimental design. We evaluated the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in Caucasian and Asian populations. We then investigated the rs11136000 polymorphism by a meta-analysis in Asian populations using allele, dominant, and recessive models. We identified a significant association between rs11136000 and AD with the allele model (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)) and the dominant model (P = 5.00 × 10(-3)). Meanwhile, a similar genetic risk of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD was observed in Asian and Caucasian populations. Further meta-analysis in pooled Asian and Caucasian populations indicated a more significant association with the allele (P = 8.30 × 10(-24)), dominant (P = 4.46 × 10(-17)), and recessive (P = 3.92 × 10(-12)) models. Collectively, our findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the effect of the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism on AD risk in Asian cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) is consistent with the protective effect observed in Caucasian AD cohorts.

  6. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  7. Maine Caucasian population DNA database using twelve short tandem repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Kupferschmid, T D; Calicchio, T; Budowle, B

    1999-03-01

    A population study of Caucasians residing in Maine was conducted using the AmpF1STR Profiler PCR Amplification Kit and the AmpF1STR Profiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems Division (ABD) of Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA). The kits contain the reagents necessary to amplify 12 different STR loci and the gender marker Amelogenin using two multiplex PCR, each containing nine STR loci. Thus, there is an overlap of six STR loci. The 12 STR loci are TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, and D7S820. These loci represent 12 of the 13 core loci selected by the CODIS STR standardization project. Dye-labeled amplification products were separated and detected using the capillary electrophoresis instrument ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer. Allele frequencies were determined for the 12 STR loci. Statistical analysis of the data included Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium (HWE) analysis, pairwise independence testing, power of discrimination (PD), and probability of exclusion (PE).

  8. Determination of the coenzyme Q10 status in a large Caucasian study population.

    PubMed

    Onur, Simone; Niklowitz, Petra; Fischer, Alexandra; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang; Laudes, Matthias; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) exists in a reduced (ubiquinol) and an oxidized (ubiquinone) form in all human tissues and functions, amongst others, in the respiratory chain, redox-cycles, and gene expression. As the status of CoQ10 is an important risk factor for several diseases, here we determined the CoQ10 status (ubiquinol, ubiquinone) in a large Caucasian study population (n = 1,911). The study population covers a wide age range (age: 18-83 years, 43.4% men), has information available on more than 10 measured clinical phenotypes, more than 30 diseases (presence vs. absence), about 30 biomarkers, and comprehensive genetic information including whole-genome SNP typing (>891,000 SNPs). The major aim of this long-term resource in CoQ10 research is the comprehensive analysis of the CoQ10 status with respect to integrated health parameters (i.e., fat metabolism, inflammation), disease-related biomarkers (i.e., liver enzymes, marker for heart failure), common diseases (i.e., neuropathy, myocardial infarction), and genetic risk in humans. Based on disease status, biomarkers, and genetic variants, our cohort is also useful to perform Mendelian randomisation approaches. In conclusion, the present study population is a promising resource to gain deeper insight into CoQ10 status in human health and disease.

  9. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Vela, Kaci C.; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dento-skeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the US population and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation present in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion by using multivariate reduction methods. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 292 Class II Caucasian adults (126 males, 166 females; ages 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals to reduce genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first three components represented variations in mandibular horizontal and vertical position, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation, respectively. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. CONCLUSIONS A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of genetic and environmental etiology of Class III malocclusion. PMID:23810043

  10. Differential expression of cathepsins K, S and V between young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Juliette; De Quéral, Delphine; Leblanc-Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Kurfurst, Robin; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lecaille, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous aging translates drastic structural and functional alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Multiple mechanisms are involved, including changes in protease levels. We investigated the age-related protein expression and activity of cysteine cathepsins and the expression of two endogenous protein inhibitors in young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that the expression of cathepsins K, S and V, as well as cystatins A and M/E within keratinocytes is reduced in photoprotected skin of aged women. Furthermore, the overall endopeptidase activity of cysteine cathepsins in epidermis lysates decreased with age. Albeit dermal elastic fiber and laminin expression is reduced in aged skin, staining of nidogen-1, a key protein in BM assembly that is sensitive to proteolysis by cysteine, metallo- and serine proteases, has a similar pattern in both young and aged skin. Since cathepsins contribute to the hydrolysis and turnover of ECM/basement membrane components, the abnormal protein degradation and deposition during aging process may be related in part to a decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity.

  11. Inherited Variants in the Chemokine CCL2 Gene and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness in a Caucasian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Oh, William K.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Pomerantz, Mark; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kantoff, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Though C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and invasion, the role of inherited variation in the CCL2 gene in prostate cancer progression and metastases remains unanswered. This study is aimed to determine the influence of CCL2 germline variants on prostate cancer aggressiveness. Experimental Design We performed an association study between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCL2 gene and prostate cancer clinicopathologic variables in a large hospital based Caucasian patient cohort (N =4073). Results Genetic variantion at CCL2 is associated with markers of disease aggressiveness. Three SNPs, each in strong linkage disequilibrium, are associated with a higher (>7) biopsy Gleason score: CCL2-1811 A/G, −2835A/C and +3726 T/C (P =0.01, 0.03 and 0.04 respectively). The CCL2 −1811 G allele is addionally associated with advanced pathologic stages in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (P = 0.04). In haplotype analysis, we found that the frequency of a common haplotype, H5, was higher among patients with D’Amico good risk features (Ppermutation = 0.04). Conclusions These results support the influence of CCL2 variants on prostate cancer development and progression. PMID:21135144

  12. First reports of esophageal adenocarcinoma with white globe appearance in Japanese and Caucasian patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonai, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ryu; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Better endoscopic diagnosis in case of Barrett’s esophagus is still needed. White globe appearance (WGA) is a novel endoscopic marker for gastric adenocarcinoma, with high sensitivity for differentiating between gastric cancer/high-grade dysplasia and other lesions. We report 2 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma with WGA. In Case 1, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a 10-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 48-year-old Japanese woman with short-segment Barrett’s esophagus. A small (< 1 mm) white globular lesion, typical of WGA, was observed under the epithelium by magnifying narrow-band imaging. A dilated neoplastic gland with eosinophilic material and necrotic epithelial fragments was identified at the site of the WGA by histologic examination. In Case 2, EGD revealed a 5-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 60-year-old Caucasian man with long-segment Barrett’s esophagus. A typical WGA was observed by magnifying narrow-band imaging and similar histologic findings were identified at the site of the WGA. WGA could be a reliable endoscopic finding for target biopsy in esophageal adenocarcinoma, if its specificity is as high as in gastric cancer. The clinical implications of WGA in patients with Barrett’s esophagus should be investigated further. PMID:27747281

  13. The contribution of the DFNB1 locus to neurosensory deafness in a Caucasian population

    SciTech Connect

    Maw, M.A.; Allen-Powell, D.R.; Goodey, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    Classical studies have demonstrated genetic heterogeneity for nonsyndromic autosomal recessive congenital neurosensory deafness, with at least six loci postulated. Linkage analysis in two consanguineous Tunisian kindreds has demonstrated that one such deafness locus, DFNB1, maps near chromosome 13 markers D13S175, D13S143, and D13S115. We tested these markers for cosegregation with deafness in 18 New Zealand and 1 Australian nonconsanguineous kindreds, each of which included at least two siblings with nonsyndromic presumed congenital sensorineural deafness and that had a pedigree structure consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. When all families were combined, a peak two-point lod score of 2.547 ({theta} = .1) was obtained for D13S175, 0.780 ({theta} = .2) for D13S143, and 0.644 ({theta} = .3) for D13S115. While there was no statistically significant evidence for heterogeneity at any of the three loci tested, nine families showed cosegregation of marker haplotypes with deafness. These observations suggest that the DFNB1 locus may make an important contribution to autosomal recessive neurosensory deafness in a Caucasian population. In the nine cosegregating families, phenotypic variation was observed both within sibships (in four families), which indicates that variable expressivity characterizes some genotypes at the DFNB1 locus, and between generations (in two families), which suggests allelic heterogeneity. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Response to Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Obese and Non-obese Caucasian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Roxana Aguirre; Nader, Nicole; Weaver, Amy; Singh, Ravinder; Kumar, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in obese children. Obese children tend to respond poorly to vitamin D supplementation. The objective of the study was to compare the response to vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IU once daily for 12 weeks) between obese and non- obese Caucasian adolescents. Methods The study design was open label non-randomized. It was carried out at a single center. Eighteen obese adolescents (age 12-18 years) and the same number of age, gender and season matched non-obese adolescents received Vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) orally for 12 weeks. Total serum 25(OH) D, PTH, calcium and phosphorus were measured at baseline and at the end of the 12 week period. Results The mean baseline 25 (OH)D level was higher in the non-obese subjects compared to the obese subjects (mean, 28.9 vs. 25.2 ng/mL, p=0.029). The increment in 25(OH) D levels following vitamin D supplementation was significantly lower in the obese adolescents (mean change, 5.8 vs. 9.8 ng/mL, p=0.019). Conclusions Higher doses of vitamin D are required to treat vitamin D deficiency in obese adolescents than in their non-obese peers. PMID:23128469

  15. Clonal Diversity and Clone Formation in the Parthenogenetic Caucasian Rock Lizard Darevskia dahli

    PubMed Central

    Vergun, Andrey A.; Martirosyan, Irena A.; Semyenova, Seraphima K.; Omelchenko, Andrey V.; Petrosyan, Varos G.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Tokarskaya, Olga N.; Korchagin, Vitaly I.; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  16. Changes in the Caucasian male facial profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D D; Turley, P K

    1998-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) measure changes in the young adult Caucasian male profile through time and (2) describe the male profile depicted in current fashion magazines. Profile photographs (n = 116) of male models collected from leading fashion magazines of the last 65 years were analyzed. They were reproduced as slides, and the images were scanned and projected onto a computer monitor. Soft tissue landmarks were digitized and the profiles were corrected for size differences. Six linear, nine angular, and three proportional parameters were measured. Anteroposterior lip position, lip curl, and vermilion area showed statistically significant correlations (r > or = 31, p < 0.01) with the progression of time. Other angular measurements and vertical facial proportions did not change significantly (r < or = 17, p > 0.05). The results showed that (1) the male profile depicted in fashion magazines has changed significantly with time and the changes were in the area of the lips; and (2) there was a trend of increasing lip protrusion, lip curl, and vermilion display. We conclude that similar to the female profile, the esthetic male profile has changed with time.

  17. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  18. In vivo Kinematics of the Knee after a Posterior Cruciate-Substituting Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comparison between Caucasian and South Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Hosseini, Ali; Nha, Kyung-Wook; Park, Sang-Eun; Tsai, Tsung Yuan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study compared in vivo kinematic differences between Caucasian and South Korean patients after a posterior-substituting total knee arthroplasty (PS-TKA). Materials and Methods In vivo motions of 9 Caucasian and 13 South Korean knees with a PS-TKA during weight bearing single leg lunge were determined using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Normalized tibiofemoral condylar motions and articular contact locations were analyzed. Results Femoral condylar motions of the two groups showed a similar trend in anteroposterior translation, but the South Korean patients were more anteriorly positioned than the Caucasian patients at low flexion and maximal flexion angles in both medial and lateral compartments (p<0.05). Mediolateral femoral condyle translations were similar between the two groups. For tibiofemoral articular contact kinematics, the South Korean patients had significantly more anterior contact locations at the medial compartment at low flexion angles, and more lateral contact locations at the lateral compartment at 0° and 90° flexion compared to the Caucasian patients (p<0.05). The South Korean patients had significantly larger distances between the medial and lateral contact locations at 60° and 90° flexion compared to the Caucasian patients (p<0.05). Conclusions The study revealed that while the Caucasian and South Korean knees had similar femoral condylar motions, after PS-TKA the South Korean patients showed different articular contact point kinematics compared to the Caucasian patients. PMID:27274467

  19. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  20. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  1. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe anemia and possible organ damage from iron overload, respectively. Healthy Choices for People Living with Thalassemia ... Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Related Information UDC System About Us File Formats Help: How ...

  2. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... undercooked meat and fish processed meats, such as hot dogs and deli meats soft, unpasteurized cheeses, such ...

  3. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  4. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... look to maintain health and wellness. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  5. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern Appalachians ( ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species, and climate change. Top of Page How is a Healthy Watershed ...

  6. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole grains, fruits, vegetables, healthy fats, low-fat dairy and lean protein. But women also have special ... Three servings of low-fat or fat-free dairy products including low-fat or fat-free milk, ...

  7. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  8. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000336.htm Healthy grocery shopping To use the sharing features on this page, ... a conscious decision about eating that food. Smart Shopping Avoid buying snack foods in bulk and shopping ...

  9. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  10. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main variables Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. Conclusion The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research. PMID:27822098

  11. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  12. Assessment of family functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Family Assessment Device.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.

  13. Vascular function, cerebral cortical thickness, and cognitive performance in middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Evan P; Kaur, Sonya S; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Machin, Daniel R; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2015-04-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk for acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health with measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, sex, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized by β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (P=.04) with concurrently lower language (P=.02), memory (P=.03), and attention-executive functioning (P=.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics.

  14. An Ongoing Assessment of Osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians in North Carolina: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and is frequently associated with significant disability. Its public health impact is increasing due to the aging of the population and the obesity epidemic. The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project is an ongoing, population-based prospective cohort begun in 1990 to fill knowledge gaps about prevalence, incidence, and progression of OA, and its risk factors, in African American and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina. Critically important phenotypic differences were observed in patterns of multi-joint OA burden, with African Americans much less likely than Caucasians to have hand OA and much more likely to have multiple large joint involvement. Racial differences also exist in systemic bone and joint tissue biomarkers. Novel potentially modifiable risk factors identified in this cohort include selenium and blood lead levels. Selected key findings of this ongoing study will be discussed. PMID:26330661

  15. Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus in Chinese: the differences from Caucasian and its application in the extended transsphenoidal approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuntao; Pan, Jun; Qi, Songtao; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Xi'an; Wu, Kuncheng

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, the transsphenoidal approach has been extensively used surgically to treat parasellar, suprasellar, clival, and even petrous lesions. Extended pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus (SS) is considered an indispensable element for the extended transsphenoidal (ETS) approach. Because most anatomical studies of the ETS approach use Caucasian subjects, the present study aims to clarify the pneumatic extension types in Chinese individuals as well as any differences from those in Caucasians and analyze these differences with respect to the application of the ETS approach. A total of 200 computed tomography (CT) images of SSs and 18 adult cadaveric heads were selected for observation and measurement. The conchal, presellar, and sellar types comprised 6, 28.5, and 65.5% of subjects, respectively; according to the extra extension, the prevalence of the lateral, clival, lesser wing, and combined extension sinus types was 11.4, 21.4, 0.8, and 48.1% of subjects, respectively. The percentages of pneumatization of the anterior and posterior clinoid processes, pterygoid process, and optic strut were 5.0, 1.0, 22.3, and 7.0%, respectively. Onodi cells were observed in 61.1% of the sides of the cadaveric heads, including 30.6% with good pneumatization with identifiable optical or ICA bulges. These features were related to poor lateral and clival gasification in Chinese compared with Caucasians, which might make extended surgery more dangerous. However, the anterior pneumatization, especially the higher presentation of Onodi cells, ensures that the anterior ETS approach can be performed safely in Chinese patients. In general, measurements showing smaller sinus volumes and thicker bones with identifiable bone landmarks that are hard to find compared with those in Caucasians suggest increased surgical risks in the Chinese population. In this situation, carefully analysis of presurgical CT and magnetic resonance imaging scans is important. Furthermore, in the ETS

  16. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  18. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  19. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your ... as a laptop, might enhance sperm quality. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things ...

  20. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  1. Five novel missense mutations of the Lewis gene (FUT3) in African (Xhosa) and Caucasian populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pang, H; Liu, Y; Koda, Y; Soejima, M; Jia, J; Schlaphoff, T; Du Toit, E D; Kimura, H

    1998-06-01

    Five novel missense mutations, viz., C304 A, T370 G, G484 A, G667 A, and G808 A, in the Lewis gene (FUT3) were detected in African (Xhosa) and Caucasian individuals in South Africa. These single base substitutions may result in changes in amino acid residues from Gln102 to Lys in the 304 mutation, Ser124 to Ala in the 370 mutation, Asp162 to Asn in the 484 mutation, Gly223 to Arg in the 667 mutation, and Val270 to Met in the 808 mutation. Out of the five novel mutations identified in this investigation, four new alleles (le484,667, le484,667,808, Le304, and Le370) were determined in the Xhosa population and two new alleles (le202,314,484 and Le304) in the Caucasian population. The determination of alpha(1,3/1,4)fucosyltransferase activity, after transfection of plasmids containing the new alleles into COS7 cells, suggested that alleles le484,667 and le484,667,808 encoded an inactive enzyme, and that alleles Le304 and Le370 encoded a functional enzyme. In addition, we also examined the incidence of five common alleles, Le59, le59,508 le59,1067, le202,314, and le1067 in two populations by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method and compared differences in the allele frequencies of FUT3 among three ethnic groups (Orientals, Africans, and Caucasians).

  2. Individualism-collectivism, self-efficacy, and other factors associated with risk taking among gay Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise.

  3. Gene polymorphisms of novel immunotolerant molecule BTLA: distribution of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in Polish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Anna; Woszczyk, Dariusz; Strzała, Tomasz; Szczepańska, Anna; Tomkiewicz, Anna; Frydecka, Irena; Karabon, Lidia

    2015-02-01

    B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is one of the members of immunoglobulin superfamily which, like CTLA-4 and PD-1, is involved in down regulation of immune response. Despite the important role of BTLA in maintaining immune homeostasis, relatively little studies were devoted to the relationship of polymorphisms in the gene encoding BTLA with susceptibility to autoimmune disease and cancer. Moreover, all published works were done in Asian populations. BTLA gene is located on chromosome 3 in q13.2 and consists of five exons. The aim of this study was to investigate the alleles, genotypes and haplotypes frequency of selected BTLA gene polymorphisms in Caucasian population originating from Poland. For this study, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen on the basis of literature data. Additionally, the tag dSNP under linkage equilibrium r (2) > 0.8 and available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) for Caucasian population of rare alleles at a frequency greater than 5 % have been chosen using the NCBI database. The ten BTLA SNPs investigated were: rs1844089, rs2705535, rs9288952, rs9288953, rs1982809, rs2633580, rs2705511, rs2705565, rs76844316, rs16859633. For all SNPs selected on the basis of literature data the significantly different distributions of genotypes between Asian and Caucasian populations were observed.

  4. Lesion comparison of multiple sclerosis in hispanic and caucasian patients utilizing an imaging informatics-based eFolder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Shiroishi, Mark; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Genetics have been considered as a leading factor in the prevalence and disease course of MS. We have presented an informatics-based eFolder system for integrating patients' clinical data with MR images and lesion quantification results. The completed eFolder system has been designed and developed in aiding to evaluate disease manifestation differences in Hispanic and Caucasian MS patients. MS lesion data, as shown in MRI, can be extracted by the 3-D automatic lesion detection tool in the eFolder, and data storing and mining tools in eFolder is able to extract and compare data from individual patients. The computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm has been modified and enhanced to include spatial information as detection criteria. For this study, 36 Caucasian MS patients and 36 matched Hispanic patients have been selected. Most recent MR images of the patients are collected, and images are evaluated both by the CAD tool in the eFolder and radiologists. The results are compared between Caucasian and Hispanic patients and statistically evaluated to see if the two populations have significant difference in lesion presentations. The results can be used to evaluate differences in the two groups of patients and to evaluate the new CAD algorithm's performance with radiologists' contours. Significant findings can further evaluate effectiveness of MS eFolder in MS-related research.

  5. Education and self-rated health: An individual and neighborhood level analysis of Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health.

  6. Do Asian renal transplant patients need another mycophenolate mofetil dose compared with Caucasian or African American patients?

    PubMed

    Li, Pengmei; Shuker, Nauras; Hesselink, Dennis A; van Schaik, Ron H N; Zhang, Xianglin; van Gelder, Teun

    2014-10-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is used to prevent acute rejection following solid organ transplantation in transplant centers all over the world. Patients from different ethnic backgrounds are treated with this drug, for which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has not become the standard of practice in most centers. Whether or not some ethnic groups require a different MMF dose has been a topic of debate in recent years. In this review, it is shown that Asian patients, compared with Caucasian patients, with a comparable MMF dose reach higher mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. Also clinical experience points toward more adverse events in case of treatment with 1 g MMF bid in Asian patients, and therefore, for this ethnic group, a lower maintenance dose seems justified. In contrast, African American patients reach similar drug concentrations as Caucasians patients receiving the same MMF dose, but due to immunological reasons, they require a higher MMF dose to reach comparable acute rejection incidences. When TDM is performed, clinicians can correct the dose and compensate for interethnic differences in drug exposure. Otherwise, it is important to choose the right dose. This optimal dose is 20-46% lower in Asian transplant recipients than in Caucasian or African American patients.

  7. Phenol sulphotransferase SULT1A1 polymorphism: molecular diagnosis and allele frequencies in Caucasian and African populations.

    PubMed Central

    Coughtrie, M W; Gilissen, R A; Shek, B; Strange, R C; Fryer, A A; Jones, P W; Bamber, D E

    1999-01-01

    Sulphation, catalysed by members of the sulphotransferase (SULT) enzyme family, is an important component of the body's chemical defence mechanism, but also acts to bioactivate mutagens such as hydroxylated aryl and heterocyclic amines. A major human sulphotransferase, SULT1A1 (P-PST), metabolizes and/or bioactivates many drugs, iodothyronines and hydroxylated aromatic amines. The enzyme activity varies widely within the population and is under genetic control. We have developed an assay detecting a G-->A transition in SULT1A1 that causes an Arg213-->His substitution associated with low SULT activity and altered enzyme properties, and have used it to assess the SULT1A1 genotype in Caucasian (n=293) and African (Nigerian, n=52) populations. We show that the mutant SULT1A1*2 allele is present at frequencies of 0.321 and 0.269 in the Caucasian and African populations respectively. We also demonstrate a significant age-related difference in SULT1A1 genotype within our Caucasian population, with increasing incidence of SULT1A1*1 homozygosity and decreasing incidence of SULT1A1*2 homozygosity with increasing age, indicating a potential association of SULT1A1*1 allozyme(s) with protection against cell and/or tissue damage during aging. PMID:9854023

  8. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children. PMID:25299657

  9. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  10. Liberalization in the Danish waste sector: an institutional perspective.

    PubMed

    Kørnøv, Lone; Hill, Amanda Louise; Busck, Ole; Løkke, Søren

    2016-12-01

    The push for creating a more competitive and liberalized system for traditional public services, including waste management, has been on the European agenda since the late 1980s. In 2008, changes were made in EU waste legislation allowing source-separated industrial/commercial waste that is suitable for incineration to be traded within the European market. This change has had broad implications for the Danish waste sector, which is characterized by institutionalized municipal control with all streams of waste and municipal ownership of the major treatment facilities allowing the municipal sector to integrate combustible waste in local heat and power generation. This article, applying an institutional approach, maps the institutions and actors of the Danish waste sector and analyses how the regulatory as well as normative pressure to liberalize has been met and partly neutralized in the institutional and political context. The new Danish regulation of 2010 has thus accommodated the specific requirement for liberalization, but in fact only represents a very small step towards a market-based waste management system. On the one hand, by only liberalizing industrial/commercial waste, the Danish Government chose to retain the main features of the established waste system favouring municipal control and hence the institutionalized principles of decentralized enforcement of environmental legislation as well as welfare state considerations. On the other hand, this has led to a technological and financial deadlock, particularly when it comes to reaching the recycling targets of EU, which calls for further adjustments of the Danish waste sector.

  11. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  12. Polymorphisms of STK15 (Aurora-A) gene and lung cancer risk in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian; Gong, Yubo; Huang, Maosheng; Lu, Charles; Spitz, Margaret R; Wu, Xifeng

    2007-02-01

    STK15/Aurora-A is a centrosome-localized serine/threonine kinase that functions primarily in centrosome maturation and mitotic spindle assembly. In a large lung cancer case-control study of 1401 cases and 1397 controls including three ethnic groups, we examined the associations between two non-synonymous SNPs (Phe31Ile and Val57Ile) of the STK15 gene and lung cancer risk. There were statistically significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes (P<0.0001) and haplotypes (P<0.0001) by ethnicity for the Phe31Ile, but not the Val57Ile variant. Caucasians with the homozygous variant Phe31Ile genotype (Ile/Ile) were at a significantly reduced risk for lung cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.41-0.96]. The variant allele of Val57Ile was not associated with lung cancer risk overall. However, men with the homozygous variant genotype (Ile/Ile) had a reduced lung cancer risk as compared with men with the wild-type genotype (Val/Val) (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.19-0.94). When we performed joint analysis of these two polymorphisms, compared with the reference group (TT+GG, 40.99% of controls), homozygous Ile31 allele/wild-type Val57 allele (AA+GG) carriers (5.45% of controls) exhibited a reduced lung cancer risk (OR=0.78, 95% CI=0.63-0.97). This is the first epidemiological study to report significant associations between STK15 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk.

  13. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to STAR mutations in a Caucasian patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Casas, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted at the University of North Dakota, the Mercer University School of Medicine and the Memorial University Medical Center to identify the cause of this disease. The patient was admitted to a pediatric endocrinologist at the Sanford Health Center for salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. Lipoid CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, we identified two de novo heterozygous mutations (STAR c.444C>A (STAR p.N148K) and STAR c.557C>T (STAR p.R193X)) in the STAR gene, causing lipoid CAH. New onset lipoid CAH can occur through de novo mutations and is not restricted to any specific region of the world. This Scandinavian family was of Norwegian descent and had lipoid CAH due to a mutation in S TAR exons 4 and 5. Overexpression of the STAR p.N148K mutant in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells supplemented with an electron transport system showed activity similar to the background level, which was ∼10% of that observed with wild-type (WT) STAR. Protein-folding analysis showed that the finger printing of the STAR p.N148K mutant is also different from the WT protein. Inherited STAR mutations may be more prevalent in some geographical areas but not necessarily restricted to those regions. Learning points STAR mutations cause lipoid CAH.This is a pure population from a caucasian family.Mutation ablated STAR activity.The mutation resulted in loosely folded conformation of STAR. PMID:27047663

  14. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  15. Genetic loci associated with nonobstructive coronary artery disease in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Liming; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Sopko, George; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Pepine, Carl J.; Miller, Virginia M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gulati, Martha; Goodarzi, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in women is associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes; however, information regarding genetic variants that predispose women to nonobstructive CAD is lacking. Women from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study and the St. James Women Take Heart (WTH) Study were genotyped with the Cardio-MetaboChip. WISE enrolled women with symptoms and signs of ischemia referred for coronary angiography; WTH enrolled asymptomatic, community-based women without heart disease. Analyses were conducted with a case (WISE) - control (WTH) design and multivariate logistic regression models to investigate genetic variation associated with likelihood of nonobstructive CAD. One genetic marker, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2301753 on chromosome 6 in RNF39, achieved chip-wide significance for nonobstructive CAD (P < 9.5 × 10−7). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no variants achieved chip-wide significance. However, SNP rs2301753 on chromosome 6 in RNF39 was associated with reduced likelihood of nonobstructive CAD [odds ratio (OR) 0.42 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.29 to 0.68], at a nominal level of P = 5.6 × 10−6, while SNP rs12818945 in the ATP2B1 locus on chromosome 12 was associated with increased odds for nonobstructive CAD (OR 2.38 and 95% CI of 1.63 to 3.45) and nominal P = 5.8 × 10−6. The functions of RNF39 and ATP2B1 raise the possibility that genes involved in cardio-dysfunction may contribute to nonobstructive CAD in Caucasian women and may provide insights into novel approaches for therapy and prevention. If replicated, incorporation of these genetic variants into diagnostic evaluation may identify women at high risk for nonobstructive CAD. PMID:26534935

  16. Healthy human gut phageome

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20–50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  17. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  18. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nis; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Schielke, Katja Christina; Bek, Toke; Grauslund, Jakob; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andresen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database To monitor the development of diabetic eye disease in Denmark and to evaluate the accessibility and effectiveness of diabetic eye screening programs with focus on interregional variations. Target population The target population includes all patients diagnosed with diabetes. Denmark (5.5 million inhabitants) has ~320,000 diabetes patients with an annual increase of 27,000 newly diagnosed patients. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy (DiaBase) collects data on all diabetes patients aged ≥18 years who attend screening for diabetic eye disease in hospital eye departments and in private ophthalmological practice. In 2014–2015, DiaBase included data collected from 77,968 diabetes patients. Main variables The main variables provide data for calculation of performance indicators to monitor the quality of diabetic eye screening and development of diabetic retinopathy. Data with respect to age, sex, best corrected visual acuity, screening frequency, grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy at each visit, progression/regression of diabetic eye disease, and prevalence of blindness were obtained. Data analysis from DiaBase’s latest annual report (2014–2015) indicates that the prevalence of no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy is 78%, 18%, and 4%, respectively. The percentage of patients without diabetic maculopathy is 97%. The proportion of patients with regression of diabetic retinopathy (20%) is greater than the proportion of patients with progression of diabetic retinopathy (10%). Conclusion The collection of data from diabetic eye screening is still expanding in Denmark. Analysis of the data collected during the period 2014–2015 reveals an overall decrease of diabetic retinopathy compared to the previous year, although the number of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes has been increasing in Denmark. DiaBase is a useful tool to observe the quality of screening

  19. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  20. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  1. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  2. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  3. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  4. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  5. Keeping Kids Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Sharon; And Others

    This pamphlet offers a collection of items relating to child health in the day care setting. Included is an overview of a collaborative project to develop a comprehensive set of national standards for health, nutrition, safety, and sanitation in child care programs. Contents of the project's resource kit, "Keeping Kids Healthy and Parents at…

  6. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cooking spray for this cooking method. Using herbs and spices Creating meals with herbs, spices and other natural flavorings is one of ... salt or fat. Healthy flavor boosts include: Fresh herbs. Choose herbs that look bright and aren't ...

  7. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  8. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  9. Leaching of bentazon from Danish agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Kjær, Jeanne; Brüsch, Walter; Olsen, Preben

    2013-04-01

    Bentazone (CAS No. 25057-89-0) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for a variety of crops. Rapid photo degradation occurs in soil and water; however, bentazone is very mobile in soil and moderately persistent in the environment. Bentazone has been reported to occur in surface water, groundwater and drinking water at concentrations of a few micro g per L or less. With its high affinity for the water compartment in the soil media, it does not seem to accumulate in the subsurface. Results from 12 evaluations/applications on six intensive-monitored and agricultural fields (two sandy and four loamy soils) in the Danish Pesticide Leaching risk Assessment Programme (PLAP) verified these findings. Bentazone was applied in the timeframe May - beginning of June. It was detected in 1 m depth (suctions cups and drains) at all the PLAP-fields. In 4 out of 12 applications, the average concentration of the period after the first detection until July the following year, was found to exceed 0.1 micro g per L in 1 meters depth. At all of the fields groundwater level was dropping at the time of bentazon application. This seemed to result in detection in groundwater at the loamy but not the sandy fields, which indicate the prescence of rapid preferential transport in the macropore systems of the loamy fields and a piston-alike transport in the sandy fields. Even though detections in 1 m depth indicated a relative high mass of bentazon leaching as a puls through sandy soil, bentazon was not found below this depth. The degree of detections in the groundwater at the loamy fields seemed to be impacted by the hydraulic contact to deeper fracture systems in the soil. At the loamy fields with a good hydraulic contact, bentazon was detected in groundwater from both vertical and horisontal filters shortly after application - also in concentrations exceeding 0.1 micro g per L. By applying bentazon on different crops, results clearly showed that the leaf-area-index at application and the ability

  10. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  11. Outside the Box: The Danish Folkehojskole as Educational Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Travelling between various Scandinavian adult educational institutions in 1978, the author, John Collins, picked up a couple of hitchhikers--Danish students returning to their school after a short vacation period. As they neared the Funen Island harbour village, which was their destination, the students invited Collins to visit their school. What…

  12. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  13. The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-08-01

    The methodological advances in epidemiology have facilitated the use of the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in ways not previously described systematically. We reviewed the CRS and its use as a research tool in epidemiology. We obtained information from the Danish Law on Civil Registration and the Central Office of Civil Registration, and used existing literature to provide illustrative examples of its use. The CRS is an administrative register established on April 2, 1968. It contains individual-level information on all persons residing in Denmark (and Greenland as of May 1, 1972). By January 2014, the CRS had cumulatively registered 9.5 million individuals and more than 400 million person-years of follow-up. A unique ten-digit Civil Personal Register number assigned to all persons in the CRS allows for technically easy, cost-effective, and unambiguous individual-level record linkage of Danish registers. Daily updated information on migration and vital status allows for nationwide cohort studies with virtually complete long-term follow-up on emigration and death. The CRS facilitates sampling of general population comparison cohorts, controls in case-control studies, family cohorts, and target groups in population surveys. The data in the CRS are virtually complete, have high accuracy, and can be retrieved for research purposes while protecting the anonymity of Danish residents. In conclusion, the CRS is a key tool for epidemiological research in Denmark.

  14. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  15. Monitoring landscape changes in Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) habitat in Iran during the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Asef; Fakheran, Sima; Soffianian, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is on the 'red' list of species of high conservation concern as nearest threatened (NT) and also in level (I) of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The black grouse distribution range in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran region, Northwest of Iran, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. Management of forest and grassland structures is important for black grouse population survival. The main goals of this study were to monitor and quantify the landscape pattern changes in Caucasian black grouse habitat in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve in two periods of 14 years (1987-2001) and 10 years (2001-2011). For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived by spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3, including NP (number of habitat patches), LPI (largest patch index) and TE (total edge). The results indicated that the proportion of forest decreased from 39.95 to 31.95% and the proportion of grassland decreased from 44.45 to 38.44% in the 24-year span. NP of forests increased in the first period and decreased in the second period of study. TE of dense forest at altitude above 1800 m decreased. Reduction of forest edge is an indicator of reduction in habitat availability for Caucasian black grouse which use the forest edge for living, lekking and hatching in upland. Our results provided quantitative data on habitat loss and fragmentation in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat.

  16. Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W

    2006-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.

  17. Nine-locus Y-STR profiles of Afrikaner Caucasian and mixed ancestry populations from Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Liezle; Benjeddou, Mongi; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, Maria; Leat, Neil

    2008-07-01

    Samples were collected from 108 Afrikaner males and 114 males of mixed ancestry. The term mixed ancestry is being used to denote a complex community which was established with contributions from Asians, Caucasians and Indigenous populations and constitutes a significant proportion of the Cape Town metropolitan population. Allele and haplotype frequencies were determined for nine Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and the duplicated locus DYS385). Unique haplotypes were obtained for 64 Afrikaner males and 90 males of mixed ancestry. Both population groups shared the same most common haplotype.

  18. Localized morphological brain differences between English-speaking Caucasians and Chinese-speaking Asians: new evidence of anatomical plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kochunov, P; Fox, P; Lancaster, J; Tan, L H; Amunts, K; Zilles, K; Mazziotta, J; Gao, J H

    2003-05-23

    Deformation field morphometry was applied to magnetic resonance images to detect differences in brain shape between English-speaking Caucasians and Chinese-speaking Asians. Anatomical differences between these two groups were limited to gyri in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, which are known (through functional imaging studies) to differentiate Chinese speakers from English speakers. We interpret these anatomical differences as evidence of neural plasticity shaped by the process of language acquisition during childhood. While anatomical plasticity due to manual skill acquisition (e.g. in musicians) has been established, to our knowledge this is the first report of a brain anatomical difference attributable to a learned cognitive strategy.

  19. Ethnic group-related differences in CpG hypermethylation of the GSTP1 gene promoter among African-American, Caucasian and Asian patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Enokida, Hideki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Urakami, Shinji; Igawa, Mikio; Ogishima, Tatsuya; Pookot, Deepa; Li, Long-Cheng; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Kawahara, Motoshi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kane, Christopher J; Carroll, Peter R; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2005-08-20

    The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PC) is approximately 2-fold higher among African-Americans as compared to Caucasians and very low in Asian. We hypothesize that inactivation of GSTP1 genes through CpG methylation plays a role in the pathogenesis of PC, and its ability to serve as a diagnostic marker that differs among ethnic groups. GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation and its correlation with clinico-pathological findings were evaluated in 291 PC (Asian = 170; African-American = 44; Caucasian = 77) and 172 benign prostate hypertrophy samples (BPH) (Asian = 96; African-American = 38; Caucasian = 38) using methylation-specific PCR. In PC cells, 5-aza-dC treatment increased expression of GSTP1 mRNA transcripts. The methylation of all CpG sites was found in 191 of 291 PC (65.6%), but only in 34 of 139 BPH (24.5%). The GSTP1 hypermethylation was significantly higher in PC as compared to BPH in each ethnic group (p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis (PC vs. BPH) showed that African-Americans had a higher hazard ratio (HR) (13.361) compared to Caucasians (3.829) and Asian (8.603). Chi-square analysis showed correlation of GSTP1 hypermethylation with pathological findings (pT categories and higher Gleason sum) in Asian PC (p < 0.0001) but not in African-Americans and Caucasian PC. Our results suggest that GSTP1 hypermethylation is a sensitive biomarker in African-Americans as compared to that in Caucasians or Asian, and that it strongly influences tumor progression in Asian PC. Ours is the first study investigating GSTP1 methylation differences in PC among African-American, Caucasian and Asian.

  20. Polymorphisms in KCNE1 or KCNE3 are not associated with Ménière disease in the Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colleen A; Della Santina, Charley C; Meyer, Nicole C; Smith, Nancy B; Myrie, Oluwaseun A; Stone, Edwin M; Fukushima, Kuni; Califano, Joseph; Carey, John P; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J; Minor, Lloyd B; Smith, Richard J H

    2010-01-01

    Ménière disease (MD) is a complex disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the symptom triad of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus. Its reported incidence is 1-2 per 1,000 in Caucasians and 0.03-0.37 per 1,000 in Japanese. Doi et al. [Doi et al. (2005); ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 67:289-293] recently reported that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNE1 and KCNE3 are associated with MD in Japanese subjects. Consistent with this possibility, these two genes encode potassium channels that are expressed in the stria vascularis and endolymphatic sac, respectively, and their role in ion transport suggests that they may be important in inner ear homeostasis. To establish whether a similar association exists in the Caucasian MD population, we sequenced the coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of both genes in 180 Caucasian persons with MD and 180 matched Caucasian controls. Neither of the two reported SNPs was significantly associated with MD when compared to the Caucasian controls (KCNE1, P = 0.55; KCNE3, P = 0.870). Comparison of allele frequencies between the Japanese MD population and our study population revealed no significant difference between groups (KCNE1, P = 0.90; KCNE3, P = 0.862), suggesting that the significant differences reported in the Japanese study arose from their control population. Six additional SNPs in both KCNE1 and KCNE3 were genotyped and none was associated with MD. Population stratification within our MD and Caucasian control population was excluded. Our data show that SNPs in KCNE1 and KCNE3 are not associated with MD in Caucasians.

  1. Paying for healthy rivers.

    PubMed

    Pigram, J J J

    2002-01-01

    Concerted efforts are being made at state and federal levels to restore Australia's rivers and waterways to a healthy condition. Yet, there is little consensus on what constitutes a "healthy river" and even less on how to achieve this, or how far to go towards restoration. Some advocate removal of storages and weirs along rivers to revert to some natural state. Others, particularly water users, question the trade-offs involved in leaving more water in the rivers and how the costs of restoration are to be met. At present it seems that the major share of the costs is borne by irrigators, with the wider community essentially enjoying a "free-ride". This situation is justified on the basis of the impactor pays principle whereby water diversions, primarily for irrigation, are held to have contributed most to degradation of the river systems. The altemative-beneficiary pays principle--is of more relevance where demands are made on resource users to mitigate environmental impacts or bring about environmental improvements, eg. healthy rivers, where the beneficiaries are the wider public and the general community. Many resource users are voluntarily undertaking action on private land to conserve biodiversity and achieve sustainability. In these circumstances, the cost-sharing principle should apply, with governments, interest groups and the community contributing to the investment required to attain the desired resource condition objectives.

  2. Healthy Aging in China.

    PubMed

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  3. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  4. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses.

  5. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  6. Effect of TNF-α genetic variants and CCR5Δ32 on the vulnerability to HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Caucasian Spaniards

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is thought to be involved in the various immunogenetic events that influence HIV-1 infection. Methods We aimed to determine whether carriage of the TNF-α-238G>A, -308G>A and -863 C>A gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and the CCR5Δ32 variant allele influence the risk of HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Caucasian Spaniards. The study group consisted of 423 individuals. Of these, 239 were uninfected (36 heavily exposed but uninfected [EU] and 203 healthy controls [HC]) and 184 were HIV-1-infected (109 typical progressors [TP] and 75 long-term nonprogressors [LTNP] of over 16 years' duration). TNF-α SNP and the CCR5Δ32 allele were assessed using PCR-RFLP and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white blood cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using the χ 2 test and the Fisher exact test. Haplotypes were compared by logistic regression analysis. Results The distribution of TNF-α-238G>A, -308G>A and -863 C>A genetic variants was non-significantly different in HIV-1-infected patients compared with uninfected individuals: -238G>A, p = 0.7 and p = 0.3; -308G>A, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; -863 C>A, p = 0.7 and p = 0.4, for genotype and allele comparisons, respectively. Haplotype analyses, however, indicated that carriers of the haplotype H3 were significantly more common among uninfected subjects (p = 0.04). Among the infected patients, the distribution of the three TNF-α genetic variants assessed was non-significantly different between TP and LTNP: -238G>A, p = 0.35 and p = 0.7; -308G>A, p = 0.7 and p = 0.6: -863 C>A, p = 0.2 and p = 0.2, for genotype and allele comparisons, respectively. Haplotype analyses also indicated non-significant associations. Subanalyses in the LTNP subset indicated that the TNF-α-238A variant allele was significantly overrepresented in patients who spontaneously controlled plasma viremia compared with those who had a detectable plasma viral load

  7. Stereotype confirmation concern and fear of negative evaluation among African Americans and Caucasians with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Anderson, Page L.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of negative evaluation is a central component of social anxiety. The current study examines the relation between fear of negative evaluation and fears of confirming stereotypes about a social group to which one belongs among people diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Participants (N = 94) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who self-identified as either African American (n = 41) or Caucasian (n = 53) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns and fear of negative evaluation. Results from hierarchical logistical regression showed that stereotype confirmation concerns predicted fear of negative evaluation for both racial groups, with greater concern predicting greater fear. This association was moderated by race, B = −.24, t = −2.67, p < .01, such that stereotype confirmation concerns had a stronger association with fear of negative evaluation for Caucasians (b = .38, p < .01) than for African Americans (b = .14, p < .05). This study is the first to directly examine the relation between stereotypes and fear of negative evaluation within a socially anxious sample. Although we cannot identify the specific social group to which each participant’s stereotype confirmation concerns apply, this study provides quantitative evidence that the social context within which socially anxious individuals view themselves impacts their fear of negative evaluation and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:24746163

  8. Hispanic ethnicity and Caucasian race: Relations with posttraumatic stress disorder's factor structure in clinic-referred youth.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Ateka A; Claycomb, Meredith A; Byllesby, Brianna M; Layne, Christopher M; Kaplow, Julie B; Steinberg, Alan M; Elhai, Jon D

    2015-09-01

    The severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is linked to race and ethnicity, albeit with contradictory findings (reviewed in Alcántara, Casement, & Lewis-Fernández, 2013; Pole, Gone, & Kulkarni, 2008). We systematically examined Caucasian (n = 3,767) versus non-Caucasian race (n = 2,824) and Hispanic (n = 2,395) versus non-Hispanic ethnicity (n = 3,853) as candidate moderators of PTSD's 5-factor model structural parameters (Elhai et al., 2013). The sample was drawn from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, currently the largest national data set of clinic-referred children and adolescents exposed to potentially traumatic events. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we tested the invariance of PTSD symptom structural parameters by race and ethnicity. Chi-square difference tests and goodness-of-fit values showed statistical equivalence across racial and ethnic groups in the factor structure of PTSD and in mean item-level indicators of PTSD symptom severity. Results support the structural invariance of PTSD's 5-factor model across the compared racial and ethnic groups. Furthermore, results indicated equivalent item-level severity across racial and ethnic groups; this supports the use of item-level comparisons across these groups.

  9. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  10. A Comparison of African-American versus Caucasian Men Screened for an Alcohol Administration Laboratory Study: Recruitment and Representation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ogle, Richard L.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A.; Sims, Calvin M.

    2011-01-01

    African-Americans are under-represented in alcohol research, especially alcohol administration laboratory studies. Specific recruitment of African-Americans into laboratory studies, however, may also inadvertently affect the generalizability of the findings. In the current study, we compared all African-American young adult men (n = 53) who volunteered and met criteria for an alcohol administration study to a sample (n = 50) of Caucasian men recruited for the same study. Groups were compared on variables including demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and other substance use, consequences of use and psychopathology. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men reported less drinking frequency and quantity, less use of other substances and fewer negative consequences, but their alcohol and drug use was more likely to be associated with various measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that even when recruiting participants using criteria that should minimize differences (i.e. all participants were “social drinkers”), differences on key variables were evident. These differences may have important implications for alcohol research. PMID:21277094

  11. Polymorphism of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (rs4340) and Diabetic Nephropathy in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Šeruga, M; Makuc, J; Završnik, M; Cilenšek, I; Ekart, R; Petrovič, D

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of endstage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several environmental and genetic factors predict the development and progression of DN. The renin-angiotensin system was demonstrated to be involved in the development of DN. We evaluated the association between rs4340 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and DN in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 276 Slovenian patients with T2DM who had DN, and 375 patients without clinical signs of DN. Genetic analysis was performed with either standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (for rs4340). Results were analyzed using the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found no association between rs4340 and DN. Cystatin C was significantly higher in the DN+ group (p <0.001) than in the DN group. Cystatin C was a better marker for the estimation of renal function than estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to the modification diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation mL/ min. We concluded that there was no association between the rs4340 of the ACE gene and DN in Caucasian patients who have T2DM. PMID:28289586

  12. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Becker, Emily M.; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N.; Birmaher, Boris B.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Suveg, Cynthia M.; March, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7–17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement. PMID:25293650

  13. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T; Becker, Emily M; Ginsburg, Golda S; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N; Birmaher, Boris B; Sakolsky, Dara J; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M; Kendall, Philip C; Suveg, Cynthia M; March, John S

    2015-10-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7-17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement.

  14. Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Evan; Kaur, Sonya S.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Machin, Daniel R.; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk of acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health to measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, gender, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized via β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (p=0.04) with concurrently lower language (p=0.02), memory (p=0.03), and attention-executive functioning (p=0.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics. PMID:25720950

  15. Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Caucasian male patient: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Noij, Daniel P.; van Der Linden, Petrus W.G.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic cancer. As it often presents at an advanced stage, it generally has a poor prognosis. Spontaneous regression is a rare finding in HCC, and is often associated with tumour ischemia or a systemic inflammatory response. We herein present the case of a Caucasian patient with spontaneous regression of advanced HCC, not associated with either mechanism. Our patient was a 74-year old Caucasian male who presented with advanced biopsy-proven HCC, with α-fetoprotein levels of >16,600 kU/l. On computed tomography examination, multiple metastases were identified. Due to the poor performance status and as the patient declined treatment, he was referred to a general practitioner for supportive palliative care. Six months later, the patient was alive and feeling well. He had suffered a cerebrovascular accident with ensuing partial hemiparesis, and had been initiated on enalapril, furosemide and curcumin. On re-evaluation, the lung lesions had disappeared, whereas both the liver and peritoneal lesions had decreased in size. Following a review of the literature, the conclusion was that this case of spontaneous regression of advanced HCC was not caused by ischemia, inflammation, or any other previously reported mechanism. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous regression of HCC. PMID:28357099

  16. Cross-Sectional Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Community Sample of Single African American and Caucasian Men

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted self-interviews were completed with a random sample of 163 unmarried Caucasian and African American men in a large metropolitan area. Almost a quarter (24.5%) of these men acknowledged committing an act since the age of 14 that met standard legal definitions of attempted or completed rape; an additional 39% had committed another type of sexual assault involving forced sexual contact or verbal coercion. An expanded version of the Malamuth et al. [1991] confluence model was examined using path analysis. The number of sexual assaults perpetrated by participants was associated with the direct or indirect effects of childhood sexual abuse, adolescent delinquency, alcohol problems, sexual dominance, positive attitudes about casual sexual relationships, and pressure from peers to engage in sexual relationships. Additionally, empathy buffered the relationship between sexual dominance and perpetration. The pattern of results was highly similar for African American and Caucasian men. The implications of these findings for sexual assault measurement are discussed and suggestions are made for alternative treatment programs. PMID:26435555

  17. Comparison of MHC Class I Risk Haplotypes in Thai and Caucasian Psoriatics Reveals Locus Heterogeneity at PSORS1

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Philip E.; Nair, Rajan P.; Hiremagalore, Ravi; Kullavanijaya, Preya; Kullavanijaya, Prisana; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Lim, Henry W.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that psoriasis in Japan and Thailand is associated with two different MHC haplotypes—those bearing HLA-Cw6 and those bearing HLA-Cw1 and HLA-B46. In an independent case-control sample from Thailand, we confirmed association of psoriasis with both haplotypes. No association was seen in Thai HLA-Cw1 haplotypes lacking HLA-B46, nor was HLA-Cw1 associated with psoriasis in a large Caucasian sample. To assess whether these risk haplotypes share a common origin, we sequenced genomic DNA from a Thai HLA-Cw1-B46 homozygote across the ~300 kb MHC risk interval, and compared it to sequence of a HLA-Cw6-B57 risk haplotype. Three small regions of homology were found, but these regions share equivalent sequence similarity with one or more clearly non-risk haplotypes, and they contain no polymorphism alleles unique to all risk haplotypes. Differences in psoriasis phenotype were also observed, including lower risk of disease, greater nail involvement, and later age at onset in HLA-Cw1-B46 carriers compared to HLA-Cw6 carriers. These findings suggest locus heterogeneity at PSORS1, the major psoriasis susceptibility locus in the MHC, with HLA-Cw6 imparting risk in both Caucasians and Asians, and an allele other than HLA-Cw1 on the HLA-Cw1-B46 haplotype acting as an additional risk variant in East Asians. PMID:20604894

  18. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  19. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis in schizophrenic Caucasians: confirming clues for associations with human leukocyte class I and II antigens.

    PubMed

    Dettling, M; Cascorbi, I; Opgen-Rhein, C; Schaub, R

    2007-10-01

    Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CA) is still among the least understood adverse drug reactions in psychopharmacology. In particular, its genetic background is far from being clarified. Within the framework of a case-control study, we performed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping and haplotype analyses in 42 non-Jewish Caucasian schizophrenic patients (N=42) suffering from CA and 75 non-Jewish Caucasian schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine without developing CA. While controlling for age (P<0.0001) and sex (P=0.835), testing of the alleles from both HLA-loci resulted in borderline results for Cw2 (P=0.085, odds ratio (OR)=0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-1.23), Cw7 (P=0.058, OR=2.0, 95% CI: 0.87-4.63) and DRB5*0201 (P=0.005, adjusted OR=22.15). For haplotype analysis, we obtained significant association results with CA for the two-locus haplotypes HLA-Cw-B (P=0.022) and HLA-DRB5-DRB4 (P=0.050), and for the three-locus haplotype HLA-Cw-B-DRB5 (P=0.030). The complex nature of CA implies that many genes might play a role, but currently, only HLA associations with CA are identified as clinically relevant.

  20. Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating Eating well after stroke is key to your recovery. Choosing healthy foods can help you keep up ... get the nutrition you need for your stroke recovery.  Eat your biggest meal early in the day ...

  1. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  2. Comparison of the response to treatment between Asian and Caucasian men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: long-term results from the combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung-Ha; Lee, Seung Hwan; Roehrborn, Claus G; Siami, Paul F; Major-Walker, Kim; Wilson, Timothy H; Montorsi, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study was a 4-year, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy and safety of dutasteride and tamsulosin, alone or in combination, in men with moderate-to-severe benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this post-hoc investigation, we analyzed primary and secondary end-points from the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study in Asian (n = 325) and Caucasian men (n = 4259). The incidence of acute urinary retention or benign prostatic hyperplasia-related surgery did not differ significantly between treatment groups in the Asian subpopulation. In Caucasian men, the incidence of acute urinary retention/benign prostatic hyperplasia-related surgery was significantly lower in the combination therapy group compared with the tamsulosin monotherapy group (P < 0.001), but not compared with dutasteride monotherapy. Combination therapy significantly increased the time to benign prostatic hyperplasia clinical progression and resulted in improved International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum urinary flow rate, quality of life, and reduced prostate volume in Asian and Caucasian men who received combination therapy compared with tamsulosin monotherapy. Combination therapy also significantly improved (P < 0.05) time to benign prostatic hyperplasia clinical progression, International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum urinary flow rate and quality of life versus dutasteride in the Caucasian subpopulation. The adverse-event profile was comparable between subpopulations. In conclusion, Asian and Caucasian men respond similarly to these treatments, despite apparent racial differences in 5α-reductase activity.

  3. Comparative analysis of geodynamic activity of the Caucasian and Eastern Mediterranean segments of the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelidze, Tamaz; Eppelbaum, Lev

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone (AHCZ) underwent recent transverse shortening under the effect of collisional compression. The process was accompanied by rotation of separate microplates. The Caucasian and Eastern Mediterranean regions are segments of the of the AHCZ and are characterized by intensive endogenous and exogenous geodynamic processes, which manifest themselves in occurrence of powerful (with magnitude of 8-9) earthquakes accompanied by development of secondary catastrophic processes. Large landslides, rock falls, avalanches, mud flows, etc. cause human deaths and great material losses. The development of the aforesaid endogenous processes is set forth by peculiarities of the deep structure of the region and an impact of deep geological processes. The Caucasus is divided into several main tectonic terranes: platform (sub-platform, quasi-platform) and fold-thrust units. Existing data enable to perform a division of the Caucasian region into two large-scale geological provinces: southern Tethyan and northern Tethyan located to the south of and to the north of the Lesser Caucasian ophiolite suture, respectively. The recent investigations show that the assessments of the seismic hazard in these regions are not quite correct - for example in the West Caucasus the seismic hazard can be significantly underestimated, which affects the corresponding risk assessments. Integrated analysis of gravity, magnetic, seismic and thermal data enables to refine the assessment of the seismic hazard of the region, taking into account real rates of the geodynamic movements. Important role play the last rheological constructions. According to Reilinger et al. (2006) tectonic scheme, the West flanking of the Arabian Plate manifests strike-slip motion, when the East Caucasian block is converging and shortening. The Eastern Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region located in the midst of the progressive Afro-Eurasian collision. The recent increasing geotectonic

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  6. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, WC; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, MJ; Aaron, S; Marciniuk, DD; Maltais, F; O’Donnell, DE; Goldstein, R; Sin, D; Chan-Yeung, M; Manfreda, J; Anthonisen, NR; Tate, RB; Sears, MR; Siersted, HC; Becklake, MR; Ernst, P; Bowie, DM; Sweet, L; Van Til, L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from healthy lifelong nonsmokers in two population-based studies. METHOD: Both studies similarly used random population sampling, conducted using validated epidemiological protocols in the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease study, and the Lung Health Canadian Environment study. Spirometric lung function data were available from 3042 subjects in the COLD study, which was completed in 2009, and from 2571 subjects in the LHCE study completed in 1995. A total of 844 subjects 40 to 90 years of age, and 812 subjects 20 to 44 years of age, were identified as healthy, asymptomatic, lifelong nonsmokers, and provided normative reference values for spirometry. Multiple regression models were constructed separately for Caucasian men and women for the following spirometric parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio, with covariates of height, sex and age. Comparison with published regression equations showed that the best agreement was obtained from data derived from random populations. RESULTS: The best-fitting regression models for healthy, never-smoking, asymptomatic European-Canadian men and women 20 to 90 years of age were constructed. When age- and height-corrected FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were compared with other spirometry reference studies, mean values were similar, with the closest being derived from population-based studies. CONCLUSION: These spirometry reference equations, derived from randomly selected population-based cohorts with stringently monitored lung function measurements, provide data currently lacking in Canada. PMID:22187687

  7. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  8. [Dark visions and adaptation in Danish ophthalmology 1889-1940].

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    The scotopticometer is a small, light and handy instrument from 1935, which was developed in Denmark by Carsten Edmund Zeuthen (1897-1973) and Hans Ulrik Møller (1894-1954) for the measurement of dark vision without the use of a dark chamber. The prerequisites are Jannik Bjerrum's contrast letters from 1889 and Marius Tscherning's photometric neutral-gray filter-glasses with a logaritmic scale (Ph 1-8); both Bjerrum (1851-1920) and Tscherning (1854-1939) were Danish ophthalmologists. Tescherning's basic experiments and theories are reported, based on a study of his scientific publications, scientific protocols, letters and scrapbook. Tscherning inspired many young Danish scientists to further studies of dark adaptation, which is still an important topic (traffic, military, art, illumination, gerontology).

  9. Recent changes in Danish law on drugs and drug offences.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J; Laursen, L

    1998-09-01

    The article recounts changes in Danish Drug Law and Enforcement since the beginning of the 1990s and relates them to general trends in Danish criminal policy during the period. In addition to the implementation of EU directives, e.g. on money laundering and growth hormones, legislation has been passed to curb conspicuous dealing of drugs in the streets of Copenhagen. This part of the legislation is seen as a reaction to public fears and reactions to visible aliens dealing in drugs in a conspicuous way, albeit in minor quantities. The legal changes imply a considerable rise in penalties for repeated dealings in minor quantities and easier access to deportation of aliens. The latter has been criticized as potential violation of the human rights of aliens. This and other recent changes in criminal law and related legislation is seen as an indication of politicians' concerns with voters' anxieties, possibly at the edge of moral panics.

  10. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time.

  11. Struggles for health and safety in the Danish construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An encouraging trend of reductions in accidents and fatalities in the Danish construction industry, brought about by the combined sustained efforts of unions, management, and government, is suffering a reverse. While some large construction companies have achieved excellent safety records through effective internal programs combining rewards and penalties as incentives, the overall picture is worsening as government eases pressures on small and medium-sized enterprises by relaxing occupational health and safety regulations.

  12. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  13. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. Results At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P = 0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0 = no improvement; 10 = maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0 = not satisfied; 10 = maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment

  14. BMI1, Stem Cell Factor Acting as Novel Serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Parray, Aijaz; Zhong, Weixiong; Karnes, R. Jeffery; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rhim, Johng S.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Saleem, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model), human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i) secreted by CaP cells, (ii) increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii) detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Conclusions/Significance BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy) for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients. PMID:23308129

  15. A longitudinal study of serum insulin and insulin resistance as predictors of weight and body fat gain in African American and Caucasian children

    PubMed Central

    Sedaka, Nicole M.; Olsen, Cara H.; Yannai, Laura E.; Stutzman, William E.; Krause, Amanda J.; Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Condarco, Tania A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Susan Z; Hubbard, Van S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of insulin and insulin resistance (IR) on children’s weight and fat gain is unclear. Objective To evaluate insulin and IR as predictors of weight and body fat gain in children at high-risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that baseline IR would be positively associated with follow-up BMI and fat mass. Subjects/Methods 249 healthy African American and Caucasian children, age 6–12y, at high-risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight, were followed for up to 15y with repeated BMI and fat mass measurements. We examined baseline serum insulin and HOMA-IR as predictors of follow-up BMI Z score and fat mass by DEXA in mixed model longitudinal analyses accounting for baseline body composition, pubertal stage, sociodemographic factors, and follow-up interval. Results At baseline, 39% were obese (BMI ≥95th percentile for age/sex). Data from 1,335 annual visits were examined. Children were followed for an average of 7.2±4.3y, with a maximum follow up of 15 years. After accounting for covariates, neither baseline insulin nor HOMA-IR was significantly associated with follow up BMI (p’s>.26), BMIz score (p’s>.22), fat mass (p’s>.78), or fat mass percentage (p’s>.71). In all models, baseline BMI (p<.0001), body fat mass (p<.0001), and percentage fat (p<.001) were strong positive predictors for change in BMI and fat mass. In models restricted to children without obesity at baseline, some but not all models had significant interaction terms between body adiposity and insulinemia/HOMA-IR that suggested less gain in mass among those with greater insulin or insulin resistance. The opposite was found in some models restricted to children with obesity at baseline. Conclusions In middle childhood, BMI and fat mass, but not insulin or IR, are strong predictors of children’s gains in BMI and fat mass during adolescence. PMID:27534840

  16. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms, smoking and breast cancer risk in a Finnish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Pia; Heikinheimo, Liisa; Kataja, Vesa; Eskelinen, Matti; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Uusitupa, Matti; Vainio, Harri; Metsola, Katja; Hirvonen, Ari

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the associations between two CYP1A1 polymorphisms (Ile462Val and Thr461Asn) and one CYP1B1 polymorphism (Leu432Val) and breast cancer risk. The study population consisted of 483 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy population controls, all of homogenous Finnish origin. No statistically significant overall associations were found between the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genotypes and breast cancer risk. However, a significant increase in the breast cancer risk was seen for women who had smoked 1-9 cigarettes/day and carried the CYP1B1 432Val allele; the OR was 2.6 (95% CI 1.07-6.46) for women carrying the Leu/Val genotype and 5.1 (95% CI 1.30-19.89, P for trend 0.005) for women with the Val/Val genotype compared to similarly smoking women homozygous for the 432Leu allele. Furthermore, when CYP1B1 genotypes were combined with the previously analyzed N-acetyl transferase (NAT2) genotypes, a significant increase in breast cancer risk was found among women who had at least one CYP1B1 432Val allele together with the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03-2.24) compared to women carrying a combination of CYP1B1 Leu/Leu and NAT2 rapid acetylator genotypes. This risk was seen to be confined to ever smokers; the OR was 2.46 (95% CI 1.11-5.45) for ever smokers carrying at least one CYP1B1 432Val allele together with the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype compared to ever smokers with the CYP1B1 Leu/Leu and NAT2 rapid acetylator genotype combination. Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 polymorphism may be an important modifier of breast cancer risk in Finnish Caucasian women who have been exposed to tobacco smoke and/or carry the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype.

  17. AKT1 G205T genotype influences obesity-related metabolic phenotypes and their responses to aerobic exercise training in older Caucasians.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Witkowski, Sarah; Ludlow, Andrew T; Roth, Stephen M; Hagberg, James M

    2011-03-01

    As part of the insulin signalling pathway, Akt influences growth and metabolism. The AKT1 gene G205T (rs1130214) polymorphism has potential functional effects. Thus, we determined whether the G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training. Following dietary stabilization, healthy, sedentary, 50- to 75-year-old Caucasian men (n = 51) and women (n = 58) underwent 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Before and after completing the intervention, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure percentage body fat, computed tomography to measure visceral and subcutaneous fat, and oral glucose tolerance testing to measure glucose total area under the curve (AUC), insulin AUC and insulin sensitivity. Taqman assay was used to determine AKT1 G205T genotypes. At baseline, men with the GG genotype (n = 29) had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) values (P = 0.026) and higher percentage body fat (P = 0.046), subcutaneous fat (P = 0.021) and insulin AUC (P = 0.003) values than T allele carriers (n = 22). Despite their rather disadvantageous starting values, men with the GG genotype seemed to respond to exercise training more robustly than men with the T allele, highlighted by significantly greater fold change improvements in insulin AUC (P = 0.012) and glucose AUC (P = 0.035). Although the GG group also significantly improved VO2 max with training, the change in VO2 max was not as great as that of the T allele carriers (P = 0.037). In contrast, after accounting for hormone replacement therapy use, none of the variables differed in the women at baseline. As a result of exercise training, women with the T allele (n = 20) had greater fold change improvements in fasting glucose (P = 0.011), glucose AUC (P = 0.017) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.044) than GG genotype women (n = 38). Our results suggest that the AKT1 G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training in

  18. [Risk of cancer among Danish electricity workers. A cohort study].

    PubMed

    Johansen, C; Olsen, J H

    1999-04-05

    We report the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of employees identified from all 99 Danish utility companies. Personal data, and information on employment and exposure to magnetic fields and asbestos were obtained from manual files at the companies, the Danish Supplementary Pension Fund and the public payroll administration. A total of 32,006 individuals with more than three months of employment were linked with the files of the Danish Cancer Registry. Overall, 3008 cancers were observed, with 2825 expected, yielding a small but significantly increased risk of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.10). No excess was observed for all leukemias or for cancers of the brain or breast among men or women. There was no association of electromagnetic field exposure with risk of these cancers even when the level and length of exposure to magnetic fields were taken into account. Increased risks for cancers of the lung and pleural cavity were seen mainly for workers whose jobs involve exposure to asbestos. Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposures to magnetic fields in the electric utility industry and the risk for cancer.

  19. Parenting behaviors of African American and Caucasian families: parent and child perceptions, associations with child weight, and ability to identify abnormal weight status.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the agreement between parent and child perceptions of parenting behaviors, the relationship of the behaviors with the child's weight status, and the ability of the parent to correctly identify weight status in 176 parent-child dyads (89 Caucasian and 87 African American). Correlational and regression analyses were used. Findings included moderate to weak correlations in child and parent assessments of parenting behaviors. Caucasian dyads had higher correlations than African American dyads. Most parents correctly identified their own and their child's weight status. Parents of overweight children used increased controlling behaviors, but the number of controlling behaviors decreased when the parent expressed concern with their child's weight.

  20. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TA-8995, a selective cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John; Lawson, Matt; Fowler, David; Maruyama, Nobuko; Mito, Seiji; Tomiyasu, Koichi; Kinoshita, Shuji; Suzuki, Chisa; Kawaguchi, Atsuhiro; Round, Patrick; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve; Weber, Werner; van Deventer, Sander; Kastelein, John J P

    2014-01-01

    Aims Two double-blind, randomized studies were conducted to assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral TA-8995, a new cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, in healthy subjects. Methods Study 1: Subjects received single doses of TA-8995 or placebo (fasted). Doses were 5, 10, 25, 50 (fed/fasted), 100 and 150 mg (Caucasian males, 18–55 years), 25 mg (Caucasian males, > 65 years and Caucasian females, 18–55 years), 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg (Japanese males, 18–55 years). Study 2: Caucasian males (18–55 years) received 1, 2.5, 10 or 25 mg once daily TA-8995 or placebo for 21–28 days. Blood and urine for pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics were collected. Tolerability was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms and laboratory safety tests. Results Peak TA-8995 concentrations occurred approximately 4 h post-dose. Mean half-lives ranged from 81 to 166 h, without an obvious dose relationship. Exposure increased less than proportionally to dose. TA-8995 was not excreted in urine. Following 2.5 to 25 mg once daily dosing, TA-8995 demonstrated nearly complete inhibition of CETP activity (92–99%), increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) by 96 to 140% and decreased low density liporotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) by 40% to 53%. There were dose-related increases in apolipoproteins A-1 and E, HDL2-C and HDL3-C, and decreases in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein A. There was no evidence of significant effects of age, gender, ethnicity or food on pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. All doses were well tolerated. Conclusions TA-8995 is a potent CETP inhibitor and warrants further investigation. PMID:24628035

  1. Prevalence of the Rhesus-negative phenotype in Caucasian patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

    PubMed

    Cerny, T; Fey, M F; Oppliger, R; Castiglione, M; Nachbur, B; Gertsch, M; Gasser, A; Joss, R A; Thatcher, N; Lind, M

    1992-09-30

    We report that the Rhesus (Rh)-negative phenotype is more prevalent in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) than in the normal Caucasian population (SCLC: 25% Rh-negative vs. 15% expected, p less than 0.0001). This finding has been validated for a Central and a Northern European population (Switzerland and UK). In contrast, the Rh-negative phenotype is no more frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer patients or in heavy smokers with coronary heart disease than in the general population. There was a normal distribution of the ABO blood group phenotype in all patients studied. Whilst the significance of this observation is unclear, we hypothesize that a genetic predisposition to the development of SCLC may be linked to a hitherto unidentified gene on chromosome 1p near the Rh locus. Our observation may perhaps allow further progress to be made in understanding genetic mechanisms of SCLC carcinogenesis.

  2. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry.

  3. MAP2K3 is associated with body mass index in American Indians and Caucasians and may mediate hypothalamic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Li; Traurig, Michael; Hanson, Robert L.; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Kobes, Sayuko; Muller, Yunhua L.; Malhotra, Alka; Huang, Ke; Perez, Jessica; Gale, Alex; Knowler, William C.; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    To identify genes that affect body mass index (BMI) in American Indians who are predominately of Pima Indian heritage, we previously completed a genome-wide association study in 1120 American Indians. That study also included follow-up genotyping for 9 SNPs in 2133 additional subjects. A comprehensive follow-up study has subsequently been completed where 292 SNPs were genotyped in 3562 subjects, of which 128 SNPs were assessed for replication in 3238 additional subjects. In the combined subjects (n = 6800), BMI associations for two SNPs, rs12882548 and rs11652094, approached genome-wide significance (P = 6.7 × 10−7 and 8.1 × 10−7, respectively). Rs12882548 is located in a gene desert on chromosome 14 and rs11652094 maps near MAP2K3. Several SNPs in the MAP2K3 region including rs11652094 were also associated with BMI in Caucasians from the GIANT consortium (P = 10−2–10−5), and the combined P-values across both American Indians and Caucasian were P = 10−4–10−9. Follow-up sequencing across MAP2K3 identified several paralogous sequence variants indicating that the region may have been duplicated. MAP2K3 expression levels in adipose tissue biopsies were positively correlated with BMI, although it is unclear if this correlation is a cause or effect. In vitro studies with cloned MAP2K3 promoters suggest that MAP2K3 expression may be up-regulated during adipogenesis. Microarray analyses of mouse hypothalamus cells expressing constitutively active MAP2K3 identified several up-regulated genes involved in immune/inflammatory pathways and a gene, Hap1, thought to play a role in appetite regulation. We conclude that MAP2K3 is a reproducible obesity locus that may affect body weight via complex mechanisms involving appetite regulation and hypothalamic inflammation. PMID:23825110

  4. The pattern of factor IX germ-line mutation in Asians is similar to that of Caucasians.

    PubMed Central

    Bottema, C D; Ketterling, R P; Yoon, H S; Sommer, S S

    1990-01-01

    To begin documenting the pattern of germ-line mutations in different human races, we have delineated the mutation in nine Korean families with hemophilia B by direct genomic sequencing of the regions of likely functional significance in the factor IX gene. An evaluation of these mutations in combination with previously described point mutations in the factor IX gene of Asians indicates that transitions predominate followed by transversions and microdeletions/insertions. Transitions at the dinucleotide CpG are a dramatic hot spot of mutation. This pattern of mutation is very similar to that observed in Caucasians with hemophilia B, despite the many differences between Asians (mostly Koreans) and Caucasians in diet, environment and cultural life-styles. The similarity may reflect the predominance of endogenous processes or ubiquitous mutagens rather than specific mutagens in the environment. The following additional conclusions emerge: (1) The missense mutations in Asians occur at evolutionarily conserved amino acids. When combined with the previous data this makes it likely that more than two-thirds of the missense mutations which could possibly occur at nonconserved amino acids do not cause hemophilia B. (2) Surprisingly, a change in the sixth base of the intron 2 donor splice-junction sequence is associated with severe disease in HB 74/77. (3) Direct carrier testing of nine Korean families demonstrates that the stability of DNA at ambient temperature in blood with the anticoagulant ACD solution B makes it feasible for a diagnostic laboratory to perform such testing at a distance of 7,000 miles. Carrier testing revealed that the mutation in HB78 arose in his mother's germ-line.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2220823

  5. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  6. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men.

    PubMed

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e., below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure.

  7. The Effect of a Whey Protein Supplement on Bone Mass in Older Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Jane E.; Brindisi, Jennifer; Sullivan, Rebecca R.; Mangano, Kelsey M.; Larocque, Sarah; Kotler, Belinda M.; Simpson, Christine A.; Cusano, Anna Maria; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Kleppinger, Alison; Reynolds, Jesse; Dziura, James; Kenny, Anne M.; Insogna, Karl L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: It has been assumed that the increase in urine calcium (Ca) that accompanies an increase in dietary protein was due to increased bone resorption. However, studies using stable Ca isotopes have found that dietary protein increases Ca absorption without increasing bone resorption. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderately high protein diet on bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of protein supplementation daily for 18 months. Setting: The study was conducted at two institutional research centers. Participants: Two hundred eight older women and men with a body mass index between 19 and 32 kg/m2 and a self-reported protein intake between 0.6 and 1.0 g/kg participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were asked to incorporate either a 45-g whey protein or isocaloric maltodextrin supplement into their usual diet for 18 months. Main Outcome Measure: BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition, and markers of skeletal and mineral metabolism were measured at baseline and at 9 and 18 months. Results: There were no significant differences between groups for changes in L-spine BMD (primary outcome) or the other skeletal sites of interest. Truncal lean mass was significantly higher in the protein group at 18 months (P = .048). C-terminal telopeptide (P = .0414), IGF-1 (P = .0054), and urinary urea (P < .001) were also higher in the protein group at the end of the study period. There was no difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate at 18 months. Conclusion: Our data suggest that protein supplementation above the recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g/kg) may preserve fat-free mass without adversely affecting skeletal health or renal function in healthy older adults. PMID:25844619

  8. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor repertoire analysis in a Caucasian Spanish cohort with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Ruth; Campillo, Jose A; Legaz, Isabel; Valdés, Mariano; Salama, Hortensia; Boix, Francisco; Hernández-Martínez, A M; Eguia, Jorge; González-Martínez, G; Moya-Quiles, Maria R; Minguela, Alfredo; García-Alonso, Ana; Carballo, Fernando; Muro, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Immunological molecules are implicated in inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]). Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are also genetically variable proteins involved in immune function. They are expressed by NK cells and certain T lymphocytes, regulate specificity and function by interaction with HLA Class I molecules, may be either inhibitory or activating and are polymorphic both in terms of alleles and haplotype gene content. Genetic associations between activating KIRs and certain autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have been reported; however, a possible association between KIR and IBD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between KIR repertoire and IBD pathologies in a Spanish cohort. KIR variability was analyzed using PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP). Inhibitory KIR2DL5 was found more frequently in UC and IBD patient groups than in healthy controls (P = 0.028 and P = 0.01, respectively), as was activating KIR2DS1 (P = 0.02, Pc > 0.05, UC vs. Controls; P = 0.001, Pc = 0.01, IBD vs Controls; P = 0.01, Pc > 0.05, Controls vs CR), KIR2DS5 (P = 0.0028, Pc = 0.04, Controls vs UC; P = 0.0001, Pc = 0.0017, Controls vs IBD; P = 0.01, Pc > 0.05, Controls vs CD) and KIR3DS1 (P = 0.012, Pc > 0.05, Controls vs IBD). Our data suggest that imbalance between activating and inhibitory KIR may partially explain the different pathogeneses of these IBDs and that there is a hypothetical role for the telomeric B region (which contains both KIR2DS5 and KIR2DS1) in these diseases.

  9. Eight genes are highly associated with BMD variation in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Reppe, Sjur; Refvem, Hilde; Gautvik, Vigdis T; Olstad, Ole K; Høvring, Per I; Reinholt, Finn P; Holden, Marit; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Jemtland, Rune; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2010-03-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for skeletal fractures which occur in about 40% of women >/=50 years in the western world. We describe the transcriptional changes in 84 trans-iliacal bone biopsies associated with BMD variations in postmenopausal females (50 to 86 years), aiming to identify genetic determinants of bone structure. The women were healthy or having a primary osteopenic or osteoporotic status with or without low energy fractures. The total cohort of 91 unrelated women representing a wide range of BMDs, were consecutively registered and submitted to global gene Affymetrix microarray expression analysis or histomorphometry. Among almost 23,000 expressed transcripts, a set represented by ACSL3 (acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3), NIPSNAP3B (nipsnap homolog 3B), DLEU2 (Deleted in lymphocytic leukemia, 2), C1ORF61 (Chromosome 1 open reading frame 61), DKK1 (Dickkopf homolog 1), SOST (Sclerostin), ABCA8, (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 8), and uncharacterized (AFFX-M27830-M-at), was significantly correlated to total hip BMD (5% false discovery rate) explaining 62% of the BMD variation expressed as T-score, 53% when adjusting for the influence of age (Z-score) and 44% when further adjusting for body mass index (BMI). Only SOST was previously associated to BMD, and the majority of the genes have previously not been associated with a bone phenotype. In molecular network analyses, SOST shows a strong, positive correlation with DKK1, both being members of the Wnt signaling pathway. The results provide novel insight in the underlying biology of bone metabolism and osteoporosis which is the ultimate consequence of low BMD.

  10. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  11. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  13. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... year. Overall, medical spending on adults attributed to obesity topped about $40 ... weight during childhood costs an estimated $3 billion per year. To ...

  14. [The healthy life].

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Luz, A; Medeiros, A; Macedo, E

    1997-01-01

    This study is based on a comparison of the habits and opinions of a group of pupils on entering the Damaia Preparatory School (5th and 6th years of education) and of the same group on leaving this School. Its aim is to contribute towards an adequate education for health at school in order to promote healthy living habits. The study was based on the comparison of data obtained from two random samples, chosen from the same group of pupils when entering (n1 = 36 out of a total of 368) and leaving (n2 = 32 out of a total of 164) the above mentioned school. The collection of data was carried out by means of a multiple-choice questionnaire given to a total of 532 pupils. The results demonstrated that the frequencies have changed in the following way: a) bathing has increased; b) tea drinking has decreased; c) the image of the teacher as a smoker has become less frequent; d) the number of pupils who have tried alcoholic beverages has increased; e) mother's smoking habits have increased. The other trends that were found in the study showed that there were no significant changes in either the behaviour or opinions that had been studied.

  15. Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

  16. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  17. Dental age assessment (DAA) of Afro-Trinidadian children and adolescents. Development of a Reference Dataset (RDS) and comparison with Caucasians resident in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Moze, Kevin; Roberts, Graham

    2012-07-01

    The large number of extant Dental Panoramic Tomographs of Afro-Trinidadian subjects were collected and Tooth Development Stages (TDSs) were assessed for each of the 878 radiographs to provide a Reference Dataset (RDS) of Afro-Trinidadian children and adolescents. The values for each of the 256 TDSs present were statistically significantly different from the values for the same TDSs in the UK Caucasian RDS. A validation study of 50 radiographs of Afro-Trinidadian subjects from 24 boys and 26 girls were assessed to enable calculation of the Dental Age (DA). The DA calculated using the UK Caucasian RDS was statistically significantly different from the chronological age. The same radiographs were used to calculate the Age of Attainment of the individual Tooth Development Stages for females and males in both the UK Caucasian subjects, and the Afro-Trinidadians. The majority of these comparisons showed the TDSs in Afro-Trinidadian subjects to develop earlier than the UK Caucasian subjects by approximately 8 months.

  18. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  19. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  20. Graft-versus-Host Disease after HLA-Matched Sibling Bone Marrow or Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese Populations.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Miyamura, Koichi; Murata, Makoto; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Seo, Sachiko; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Yoshimi, Ayami; Milone, Giuseppe; Wood, William A; Ustun, Celalettin; Hashimi, Shahrukh; Pasquini, Marcelo; Bonfim, Carmem; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2016-04-01

    The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BMT or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BMT was performed in 13% of the Caucasian patients and in 53% of the Japanese patients. On multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grade III or IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the Japanese patients compared with the Caucasian patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.96), which resulted in lower risk of nonrelapse mortality in the Japanese patients (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. The lower risks of nonrelapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among the Japanese patients. In conclusion, our data indicate that irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, resulting in a lower risk of nonrelapse mortality.

  1. The Relating Level of Teacher Candidates Based on Scientific Information with Their Daily Lives: A Case of Ataturk and Caucasian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine and compare candidate teachers' level of relating scientific information with their daily lives. The teachers were studying in the 1st and 4th classes in Atatürk and Caucasian Universities, Education Faculty, Elementary School Science Teaching Department during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research was…

  2. Physiological Reduction in Left Ventricular Contractile Function in Healthy Postpartum Women: Potential Overlap with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sitara G.; Melikian, Narbeh; Mushemi-Blake, Sitali; Dennes, William; Jouhra, Fadi; Monaghan, Mark; Shah, Ajay M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a potentially life-threatening cause of heart failure, commoner in Afro-Caribbean than Caucasian women. Its diagnosis can be challenging due to physiological changes in cardiac function that also occur in healthy women during the early postpartum period. This study aimed to (i) establish the overlap between normal cardiac physiology in the immediate postpartum period and pathological changes in peripartum cardiomyopathy ii) identify any ethnicity-specific changes in cardiac function and cardiac biomarkers in healthy postpartum women. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional study of 58 healthy postpartum women within 48 hours of delivery and 18 matched non-pregnant controls. Participants underwent cardiac assessment by echocardiography and strain analysis, including 3D echocardiography in 40 postpartum women. Results were compared with 12 retrospectively studied peripartum cardiomyopathy patients. Healthy postpartum women had significantly higher left ventricular volumes and mass, and lower ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain than non-pregnant controls. These parameters were significantly more impaired in peripartum cardiomyopathy patients but with overlapping ranges of values. Healthy postpartum women had higher levels of adrenomedullin, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) compared to controls. The postpartum state, adrenomedullin, sFlt1 and the sFlt1:PlGF ratio were independent predictors of LV remodelling and function in healthy postpartum women. Conclusion Healthy postpartum women demonstrate several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular remodelling and reduced function, which are associated with altered levels of angiogenic and cardiac biomarkers. PMID:26859567

  3. Gender, Contraceptives and Individual Metabolic Predisposition Shape a Healthy Plasma Lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Susanne; Graessler, Juergen; Ciucci, Sara; Al-Atrib, Rania; Vihervaara, Terhi; Schuhmann, Kai; Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bickle, Marc; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Ekroos, Kim; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery. PMID:27295977

  4. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) haplotypes in healthy Hungarian and Roma population samples.

    PubMed

    Sipeky, Csilla; Csongei, Veronika; Jaromi, Luca; Safrany, Eniko; Polgar, Noemi; Lakner, Lilla; Szabo, Melinda; Takacs, Istvan; Melegh, Bela

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the VKORC1 haplotype profile in healthy Hungarian and Roma population samples, and to compare our data with other selected populations. Using haplotype tagging SNPs (G-1639A, G9041A and C6009T), we characterized Hungarian (n = 510) and Roma (n = 451) population samples with regard to VKORC1*1, *2, *3 and *4 haplotypes. In the Hungarian samples, the VKORC1*1, *2, *3 and *4 haplotypes accounted for 3, 39, 37 and 21%, respectively and by contrast, in the Roma population samples the VKORC1 variants were 5, 30, 46 and 19%, respectively. Comparing the genotypes of Roma and Hungarian populations, difference was found in the *2/*2 (6.87 vs 13.5%), *2/*4 (13.9 vs 19.2%) and *3*3 (21.9 vs 13.7%) VKORC1 haplotype combinations. Comparing each group with the others, and our data with findings published previously by other groups, the VKORC1 genetic profile in Hungarians was more similar to European Caucasians and Americans with European descent than to Roma samples. Clear differences could be detected between Roma versus Hungarians and European or American Caucasians; the Roma population had only minor similarities with data from India.

  5. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  6. Abnormal lipoprotein(a) levels predict coronary artery calcification in Southeast Asians but not in Caucasians: use of noninvasive imaging for evaluation of an emerging risk factor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhinav; Kasim, Manoefris; Joshi, Parag H; Qian, Zhen; Krivitsky, Eric; Akram, Kamran; Rinehart, Sarah; Vazquez, Gustavo; Miller, Joseph; Rohman, Mohammad Saifur; Voros, Szilard

    2011-08-01

    Subclinical atherosclerosis can be quantified by coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. Due to its high specificity for atherosclerosis, CAC is an excellent phenotypic tool for the evaluation of emerging risk markers. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is atherogenic due to the presence of apoB and may be thrombogenic through its apo(a) component. Lp(a) has been linked to cardiovascular events in Caucasians; however, its link to atherosclerosis in various ethnicities remains unclear. We evaluated the ability of Lp(a) mass to predict subclinical atherosclerosis in Southeast Asians and Caucasians, as measured by CAC. Traditional lipid measurements, Lp(a) measurements, and CAC by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography was performed in 103 consecutive patients in the USA and in 104 consecutive patients in Jakarta, Indonesia. Proportion of positive CAC and median CAC in Southeast Asians and in Caucasians was 61.5% and 63.1%, and 23.5 (interquartile range, 0-270) and 13 (interquartile range, 0-388), respectively. Significantly higher proportion of Southeast Asians had elevated Lp(a) levels, compared to Caucasians (51.0% vs. 29.2%; p = 0.005). In Southeast Asians, Lp(a) remained an independent predictor of CAC with an odds ratio of 4.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.56-15.88; p < 0.0001), but not in Caucasians. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an improvement in area under the curve from 0.81 to 0.86 (p = 0.05) when including Lp(a) in the predictive model in Southeast Asians. This translated to 7% of Southeast Asians reclassified to correct CAC status. Lp(a) measurements may have a role in risk stratification of Southeast Asians. Ethnic variation should be taken into account when considering the use of Lp(a) measurements in risk assessment.

  7. Gender differences in resource use and evaluation of attributes of places of resource use by Native Americans and Caucasians from Western Idaho: relevance to risk evaluations.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  8. Are there differences in performance, metabolism, and quadriceps muscle activity in black African and Caucasian athletes during brief intermittent and intense exercise?

    PubMed

    Temfemo, A; Laparadis, C; Bishop, D; Merzouk, A; Ahmaidi, S

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are any differences in power output (PO) and/or quadriceps muscle (Quad) activity between black African and Caucasian football players during a force-velocity (fv) exercise test, which consisted of performing maximal 6-s sprints against an increasing load. Each subject started the test with a load of 2 kg and then recovered for 5 min before repeating the same test with a load increased by 2 kg. When the pedal frequency did not exceed 130 rev x min(-1), the load was increased by only 1 kg. Each subject attained the load corresponding to his maximal power if an additional increase in load (+1 kg) induced a power decrease. Nine black Africans (mean age 24.2 +/- 3.3 years) and nine Caucasians (24.7 +/- 4.2 years) (matched for stature and aerobic fitness) participated in the fv exercise test. During the test, PO, blood lactate, and the quadriceps electromyography (EMG) root mean square (Quad RMS) were assessed. Higher blood lactate was observed in Caucasians than in black Africans for POs over the load range from 4 kg up to the maximal power. However, PO and Quad RMS values were similar in Caucasians and black Africans. They also had similar lean leg volume (LLV) and consequently produced similar PO/LLV and Quad RMS/LLV values. Overall, our results suggest that Caucasians and black Africans matched for stature, VO(2max), and training background have similar PO and Quad RMS values, but different blood lactate concentrations during brief, intermittent, intense exercise performed on a cycloergometer.

  9. Educational Assessment in Danish Schools. Profiles of Educational Assessment Systems Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelund, Niels

    2005-01-01

    This profile describes the methods used for assessing pupils in Danish schools. The Danish school system is rooted in traditions going back almost 200 years. The per pupil expenditure is the highest of any country at the level of primary education and at the lower secondary level is only exceeded by three countries. Public satisfaction with the…

  10. Towards an Understanding of "Udeskole:" Education outside the Classroom in a Danish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Mygind, Erik; Randrup, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of Danish public, private and independent schools have introduced regular compulsory education outside the classroom for children aged 7-16 as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day--known in Danish as "udeskole." An analysis of this form of outdoor education, its impacts and…

  11. The History We Need: Strategies of Citizen Formation in the Danish History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2015-01-01

    Teaching history in schools can be a significant policy instrument for shaping the identities of future citizens. The Danish curriculum for teaching history of 2009 aims at strengthening a sense of "Danishness" which calls for theoretical analysis. Focusing on this particular case, the paper develops a political theoretical frame for…

  12. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  13. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such as the Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing the size of the reference population for Danish Jerseys. The first ap...

  14. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior.

  15. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  16. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  17. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  18. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  19. [The development of antibiotics use in Danish food production].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2011-11-07

    In the Danish husbandry antimicrobial growth promoters were phased out 1994-2000 and the therapeutic use has been increasingly regulated. Hitherto, a minimum in therapeutic use was reached in 1997. The antimicrobial use in pigs increased by 44% during 2002-2009; a 12% decrease in second half of 2010 was likely due to the announcement of the "yellow card" regulation. From July 2010, a voluntary two years stop of cephalosporins use in pigs was realized, due to increasing occurrence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) resistance in animal and meat isolates; highest levels of ESBL are observed in imported poultry.

  20. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B F; Holt, H M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Bundvad, A; Sogaard, P; Gram, L

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection.

  1. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  2. The Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services

    PubMed Central

    Frischknecht Christensen, Erika; Berlac, Peter Anthony; Nielsen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services (QEMS) is to assess, monitor, and improve the quality of prehospital emergency medical service care in the entire prehospital patient pathway. The aim of this review is to describe the design and the implementation of QEMS. Study population The study population consists of all “112 patient contacts” defined as emergency patients, where the entrance to health care is a 112 call forwarded to one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers in Denmark since January 1, 2014. Estimated annual number of included “112 patients” is 300,000–350,000. Main variables We defined nine quality indicators and the following variables: time stamps for emergency calls received at one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers, dispatch of prehospital unit(s), arrival of first prehospital unit, arrival of first supplemental prehospital unit, and mission completion. Finally, professional level and type of the prehospital resource dispatched to an incident and end-of-mission status (mission completed by phone, on scene, or admission to hospital) are registered. Descriptive data Descriptive data included age, region, and Danish Index for Emergency Care including urgency level. Conclusion QEMS is a new database under establishment and is expected to provide the basis for quality improvement in the prehospital setting and in the entire patient care pathway, for example, by providing prehospital data for research and other quality databases. PMID:27843347

  3. Macroecological signals of species interactions in the Danish avifauna.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Graves, Gary R; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-03-16

    The role of intraspecific and interspecific interactions in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well documented, but the signature of species interactions at coarser spatial scales is unclear. We present evidence that species interactions may be a significant factor in mediating the regional assembly of the Danish avifauna. Because >95% of breeding species (n = 197) are migratory, we hypothesized that dispersal limitation would not be important and that breeding distributions would largely reflect resource availability and autecological habitat preferences. Instead, we detected a striking pattern of spatial segregation between ecologically similar species at two spatial scales with a suite of null models that factored in the spatial distribution of habitats in Denmark as well as population size and biomass of each species. Habitat utilization analyses indicated that community-wide patterns of spatial segregation could not be attributed to the patchy distribution of habitat or to gross differences in habitat utilization among ecologically similar species. We hypothesize that, when habitat patch size is limited, conspecific attraction in concert with interspecific territoriality may result in spatially segregated distributions of ecologically similar species at larger spatial scales. In the Danish avifauna, the effects of species interactions on community assembly appear pervasive and can be discerned at grain sizes up to four orders of magnitude larger than those of individual territories. These results suggest that species interactions should be incorporated into species distribution modeling algorithms designed to predict species occupancy patterns based on environmental variables.

  4. [The early history of the Danish twin registry].

    PubMed

    Harvald, B; Hauge, G

    1999-01-01

    The Danish Twin Registry was initiated at the Copenhagen University Institute for Human Genetics in 1954 by professor Tage Kemp and his assistants, Bent Harvald and Mogens Hauge. The project was until 1960 primarily financed by US National Cancer Institutes. Twin pairs both of same and different sex, born 1870-1910 were drawn from the birth registers and followed-up through the national registers until death or present place of living. Later on same sex pairs born 1911-30 were added. Besided cancer a multitude of other disorders were registered. Intensive studies on identical twins grown up apart were undertaken by Niels Juel-Nielsen, on criminal behaviour by Karl O. Christiansen, on smoking habits by Elisabeth Raaschou-Nielsen, on peptic ulcer by Kaj Gotlieb Jensen, on schizophrenia by Margit Fischer. Among early remarkable results should be mentioned the modest influence of genetic versus environmental factors in most cases of cancer, the strong genetic impact in mental and moral qualities, the approximate genetic/environmental ratio of 50/50 for the orgin of criminal behaviour and a corresponding ratio of 25/75 for life expectancy. In 1971 the Danish Twin Registry was moved to Odense Universty.

  5. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-04-12

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects.

  6. Macroecological signals of species interactions in the Danish avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Graves, Gary R.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The role of intraspecific and interspecific interactions in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well documented, but the signature of species interactions at coarser spatial scales is unclear. We present evidence that species interactions may be a significant factor in mediating the regional assembly of the Danish avifauna. Because >95% of breeding species (n = 197) are migratory, we hypothesized that dispersal limitation would not be important and that breeding distributions would largely reflect resource availability and autecological habitat preferences. Instead, we detected a striking pattern of spatial segregation between ecologically similar species at two spatial scales with a suite of null models that factored in the spatial distribution of habitats in Denmark as well as population size and biomass of each species. Habitat utilization analyses indicated that community-wide patterns of spatial segregation could not be attributed to the patchy distribution of habitat or to gross differences in habitat utilization among ecologically similar species. We hypothesize that, when habitat patch size is limited, conspecific attraction in concert with interspecific territoriality may result in spatially segregated distributions of ecologically similar species at larger spatial scales. In the Danish avifauna, the effects of species interactions on community assembly appear pervasive and can be discerned at grain sizes up to four orders of magnitude larger than those of individual territories. These results suggest that species interactions should be incorporated into species distribution modeling algorithms designed to predict species occupancy patterns based on environmental variables. PMID:20194760

  7. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population.

  8. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  9. Influence of education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses to phenylephrine in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans.

    PubMed

    Thomas, KaMala S; Nelesen, Richard A; Ziegler, Michael G; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-09-01

    Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microg PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning.

  10. PECAM-1 Leu125Val (rs688) Polymorphism and Diabetic Nephropathy in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Završnik, Matej; Kariž, Stojan; Makuc, Jana; Šeruga, Maja; Cilenšek, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) plays a key role in the transendothelial migration of circulating leukocytes during inflammation and in the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity. We hypothesized that genetic variation in PECAM-1 gene could be associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with the level of soluble PECAM-1 in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and Methods. We analyzed the rs688 single nucleotide polymorphism of PECAM-1 gene C373G (Leu125Val) at exon 3, which encodes the first extracellular Ig-like domain that mediates the homophilic binding of PECAM-1, in 276 T2DM subjects with documented DN (cases) and 375 T2DM subjects without DN (controls), using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy. Level of plasma soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) was measured by ELISA in a subpopulation of 120 diabetics with DN. Results. We found no association between the Leu125Val polymorphism and DN in subjects with T2DM. Likewise, the Leu125Val polymorphism was not associated with serum sPECAM-1 levels in a subpopulation of 120 diabetics with DN. Conclusion. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 and the level of sPECAM-1 are not associated with DN in T2DM subjects of Slovenian origin. PMID:28116228

  11. UMOD polymorphism rs12917707 is not associated with severe or stable IgA nephropathy in a large Caucasian cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, as well as in the course of IgA nephropathy progression towards end stage renal failure. UMOD polymorphism rs12917707 is known to associate with end stage renal failure of mixed aetiologies. Methods We tested a large cohort of Caucasian patients for association of rs12917707 with IgA nephropathy showing a benign, stable course and with IgA nephropathy that progressed toward end stage renal failure. Results No association was observed between either groups, and a non-significant trend was observed for more severe IgA nephropathy with the allele reported to protect against end stage renal failure of mixed aetiologies. Conclusion We conclude that UMOD is unlikely to play a role in IgA nephropathy pathogenesis nor progression to end stage renal failure, and suggest that UMOD effects are restricted to some causes of renal disease, e.g. diabetes or hypertension. PMID:25163389

  12. Three novel ANO5 missense mutations in Caucasian and Chinese families and sporadic cases with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lingling; Liu, Yi; Sun, Fanyue; Collins, Michael T.; Blackwell, Keith; Woo, Albert S.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.; Hu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; MIM#166260) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with characteristic cemento-osseous lesions of jawbones, bone fragility, and diaphyseal sclerosis of tubular bones. To date, only five mutations in the proposed calcium-activated chloride channel ANO5/TMEM16E gene have been identified. In this study, we describe two families and two singular patients with three new mutations. One Caucasian family with seven affected members exhibited frequent bone fractures and florid osseous dysplasia (p.Cys356Tyr), while one Chinese family with two affected members suffered from cementoma and purulent osteomyelitis (p.Cys360Tyr). In addition, two different novel mutations (p.Gly518Glu and p.Arg215Gly) were identified in sporadic patients without family history. In vitro studies overexpressing GDD mutations (p.Cys356Tyr and p.Cys360Tyr) showed significantly reduced ANO5 protein. It appears that all GDD mutations known so far locate in an extracellular domain following the first transmembrane domain or in the 4th putative transmembrane domain. Both wild-type and mutant ANO5 protein localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. After Ano5 gene knock-down with shRNA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast precursors we saw elevated expression of osteoblast-related genes such as Col1a1, osteocalcin, osterix and Runx2 as well as increased mineral nodule formation in differentiating cells. Our data suggest that ANO5 plays a role in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:28176803

  13. Influence of Education and Neighborhood Poverty on Pressor Responses to Phenylephrine in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, KaMala S.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Natarajan, Loki; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Although neighborhood disadvantage has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism through which living in impoverished neighborhoods is associated with poor cardiovascular health is not well understood. Additionally, it is not clear whether individual socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighborhood factors to influence cardiovascular outcomes. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the interaction between neighborhood poverty and individual SES on pressor responses to an alpha agonist, Phenylephrine (PE), in an adult sample of 105 African-Americans and 106 Caucasian-Americans. Neighborhood poverty was assessed using census block data gathered from the Census Bureau. Education and occupation were used to assess individual SES. Pressor responsiveness was calculated as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) response to a 100-microgram PE bolus administered intravenously. There was a significant interaction between education and neighborhood poverty on pressor responses. Higher education was associated with smaller BP responses to PE; but only in individuals who lived in neighborhoods in which less than 5% of the residents lived below the poverty line. Occupation was unrelated to pressor responses to PE. These results suggest that neighborhood characteristics play an important role in cardiovascular functioning. PMID:19427353

  14. Spectrum of GJB2 mutations in Turkey comprises both Caucasian and Oriental variants: roles of parental consanguinity and assortative mating.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Mustafa; Duman, Türker; Boğoçlu, Gönül; Incesulu, Armağan; Comak, Elif; Ilhan, Inci; Akar, Nejat

    2003-05-01

    Considerable differences exist for the spectrum of GJB2 mutations in different populations. Screening for the c.35delG mutation in 256 independent probands, 154 multiplex (familial) and 102 simplex (sporadic), coming from different regions of Turkey revealed 37 (14.5%) homozygotes. The allele frequency of c.35delG ranged from 5% to 53% in different cities. Parental consanguinity was noted in 34% of c.35delG homozygotes, yet it was 55% in c.35delG negatives (p=0.034). Further screening for GJB2 mutations in multiplex families demonstrated the presence of c.167delT and L90P mutations as well as a novel complex mutation, c.236_239delTGCAinsAGATCCG, in single alleles, leading to compound heterozygosity with c.35delG. The homozygous E120del mutation was found in another case. The V27I polymorphism was detected in five alleles, one of which was associated with the E114G change. Assortative mating was a significant factor predicting to detect biallelic mutations in the GJB2 gene. These results confirm the overwhelming majority of c.35delG in the Turkish deaf individuals as well as the presence of other changes detected in Caucasian and Asian populations.

  15. Identification of Caucasian CD4 T cell epitopes on the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax. T cell memory.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, J; Carlisle, M; Good, M F

    1993-07-15

    We have identified a population of Caucasians with a defined past history of infection with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Using purified synthetic peptides overlapping the sequence of the circumsporozoite protein, we determined the percentage of individuals whose T cells proliferated or secreted IFN-gamma in response to peptide stimulation, for both this population and a population of nonmalaria-exposed control individuals. A number of peptides were recognized by both groups, but 11 peptides were uniquely recognized by the exposed population, and thus represented malaria-specific T cell epitopes. CD4 T cells were found to be responsible for the proliferative response. Humans last exposed to vivax sporozoites as long ago as 49 yr responded as well or better to these malaria-specific epitopes as individuals exposed within the previous month. Since such malaria-induced memory response may not be a feature of Plasmodium falciparum infections, and since P. falciparum does not have a persisting hypnozoite stage, our data argue that the persistence of T cell memory to vivax epitopes may result from antigenic persistence in the liver.

  16. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Su, L Joseph; Steck, Susan E; Ang, Alfonso; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness using data from a population-based incident CaP study within the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Classification of CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis was based on clinical criteria for 1,049 African-American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian-American (CA) research subjects. Coffee consumption was measured using a modified NCI Dietary History Questionnaire. No significant associations were found between CaP aggressiveness and consumption of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. The OR for high aggressive CaP among consumers of more than 4 cups per day was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.61, 1.39), compared to non-coffee-drinkers. Results stratified by race found no significant associations and no noticeable trends in either AAs (P for trend = 0. 62) or CAs (P for trend = 0.42). In contrast to a recent report on a select population that has less complete information on CaP aggressiveness suggesting that coffee prevents aggressive CaP, this rapid case ascertainment population-based study, in a biracial population with differing risks of CaP did not demonstrate a protective relationship between high coffee consumption and risk of high aggressive CaP.

  17. PECAM-1 Leu125Val (rs688) Polymorphism and Diabetic Nephropathy in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Završnik, Matej; Kariž, Stojan; Makuc, Jana; Šeruga, Maja; Cilenšek, Ines; Petrovič, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) plays a key role in the transendothelial migration of circulating leukocytes during inflammation and in the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity. We hypothesized that genetic variation in PECAM-1 gene could be associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with the level of soluble PECAM-1 in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and Methods. We analyzed the rs688 single nucleotide polymorphism of PECAM-1 gene C373G (Leu125Val) at exon 3, which encodes the first extracellular Ig-like domain that mediates the homophilic binding of PECAM-1, in 276 T2DM subjects with documented DN (cases) and 375 T2DM subjects without DN (controls), using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy. Level of plasma soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) was measured by ELISA in a subpopulation of 120 diabetics with DN. Results. We found no association between the Leu125Val polymorphism and DN in subjects with T2DM. Likewise, the Leu125Val polymorphism was not associated with serum sPECAM-1 levels in a subpopulation of 120 diabetics with DN. Conclusion. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 and the level of sPECAM-1 are not associated with DN in T2DM subjects of Slovenian origin.

  18. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.

  19. Investigation of SNP rs2060546 Immediately Upstream to NTN4 in a Danish Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S.; Houssari, Rayan; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes; Werge, Thomas M.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Bertelsen, Birgitte; Tsetsos, Fotis; Paschou, Peristera; Tümer, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. GTS is a complex disorder, with environmental factors and several genes involved. Although variations within a few genes such as AADAC, NRXN1, SLITRK1, HDC, and IMMP2L have been tentatively associated with GTS (in a small number of patients), the causative genes underlying GTS pathophysiology remain unknown. In a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2060546) near the Netrin-4 (NTN4 - MIM 610401) gene was shown to be associated with GTS [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; p-value = 5.8 × 10-7] thus warranting further investigations. As NTN4 is one of the axon guidance molecules expressed in the central nervous system and it interacts with the encoded proteins of SLIT and WNT genes guiding the growth cone toward its target, it is an attractive candidate susceptibility gene for GTS. In this study we attempted to replicate the association of rs2060546 with GTS by genotyping a Danish cohort of 240 GTS patients and 1006 healthy controls. Our results did not reveal an association (OR = 1.363; p-value = 0.3329) in the Danish cohort alone, which may be due to the small sample size. However, a meta-analysis including the present cohort and a total of 1316 GTS patients and 5023 controls from the GTS GWAS Replication Initiative (GGRI) and the first GTS-GWAS yielded a significant signal (OR = 3.74; p-value = 0.00018) and same direction of effect in the three cohorts. Thus, our study strengthens the evidence of the possible involvement of NTN4 in GTS etiology, suggesting that further studies in even larger samples and functional studies are warranted to investigate the role of this region in GTS pathogenesis. PMID:27920664

  20. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  1. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... about your BMI. What Factors Contribute To a Healthy Weight? Many factors can contribute to a person’s weight. These factors include environment, family history and genetics, metabolism (the way your ...

  2. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps < .001). Second, MAAS scores showed satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability in 100 retested healthy university students. Finally, MAAS sample mean scores as well as individuals' scores demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability across a 6 months interval in the adult community (retested N = 407), intraclass correlations ≥ .74. MAAS scores displayed significantly stronger long-term test-retest reliability than scores measuring psychological distress (z = 2.78, p = .005). Test-retest reliability estimates did not differ within demographic and socioeconomic strata. Scores on the Danish MAAS were psychometrically validated in healthy adults. MAAS's inattentiveness scores reflected a unidimensional construct, long-term reliable disposition, and a factor of independent significance for predicting psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Differences in parental attitudes towards sleep and associations with sleep-wake patterns in Caucasian and Southeast Asian school-aged children in Australia.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Sarah N; Pizzorno, Violeta A; van den Heuvel, Cameron J; Kennedy, J Declan; Martin, A James; Lushington, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Caucasian (N = 47) and Southeast (SE) Asian (N = 36) families completed a questionnaire on their attitudes toward sleep, as well as a 7-day sleep diary for their children aged 5 to 11 years. Cultural differences were found in the perceived importance of sleep, particularly compared to homework and belief of how much sleep a child needs. Differences were also found in sleep-wake behaviors and amount of time spent on homework, with SE Asian children reporting a shift in sleep timing and increased homework load compared to Caucasian counterparts. Parental attitudes toward sleep, perception of sleep need, and homework load were not associated with the regulation of actual sleep behaviors in children, regardless of cultural heritage.

  4. Psychopathy and ethnicity: structural, item, and test generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) in Caucasian and African American Participants.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D J; Kosson, D S; Michie, C

    2001-12-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) is an important measure in both applied and research settings. Evidence for its validity is mostly derived from male Caucasian participants. PCL-R ratings of 359 Caucasian and 356 African American participants were compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT) analyses. Previous research has indicated that 13 items of the PCL-R can be described by a 3-factor hierarchical model. This model was replicated in this sample. No cross-group difference in factor structure could be found using CFA; the structure of psychopathy is the same in both groups. IRT methods indicated significant but small differences in the performance of 5 of the 20 PCL-R items. No significant differential test functioning was found, indicating that the item differences canceled each other out. It is concluded that the PCL-R can be used, in an unbiased way, with African American participants.

  5. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, caucasians, and hispanics in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M.X.; Liu, X.H.; Stern, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein-E {epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) has been consistently associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may be responsible for an earlier age at onset. We have previously reported a diminished association between APOE-{epsilon}4 and AD in African Americans. Using a new method, which allows inclusion of censored information, we compared relative risks by APOE genotypes in an expanded collection of cases and controls from three ethnic groups in a New York community. The relative risk for AD associated with APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygosity was increased in all ethnic groups (African American relative risk [RR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.9; Caucasian RR = 7.3, 95% CI = 2.5-21.6; and Hispanic RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.7), compared with those with APOE-{epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotypes. The risk was also increased for APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous Caucasians (RR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7-5.1) and Hispanics (RR = 1.6,95% CI = 1.1-2.3), but not for African Americans (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). The age distribution of the proportion of Caucasians and Hispanics without AD was consistently lower for APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygous and APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygous individuals than for those with other APOE genotypes. In African Americans this relationship was observed only in APOE-{epsilon}4 homozygotes. These results confirm that APOE genotypes influence the RR of AD in Caucasians and Hispanics. Differences in risk among APOE-{epsilon}4 heterozygote African Americans suggest that other genetic or environmental factors may modify the effect of APOE-{epsilon}4 in some populations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Christensen, Louise; Skov, Kate; Chang, Chi-Chih; Damholdt, Malene F.; Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants’ engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations. PMID

  7. Relationship between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and social status in 2235 Danish men and women.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Kirchhoff, M

    1996-03-01

    The objective was to examine the relationships between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and socioeconomic factors (school education, occupational education, occupation, income, marital status, cohabitation status, housing, social class) in a population survey performed in Copenhagen County during 1982-1984. The participants were selected at random from the census register and comprised 2235 healthy Danish individuals, non-blood donors (1044 men, 1191 women) in cohorts being 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. The participants gave a detailed social and medical history and had a clinical examination including blood samples. In all age-groups, men had significantly higher serum ferritin and alcohol intake than women. In men, there was no relationship between serum ferritin and social class. Significant relationships were observed between ferritin and occupation (unemployed and self-employed men had higher ferritin than those with other occupations) and ferritin and income (in younger men, ferritin displayed a steady increase with income). None of the social variables were related to the prevalence of iron deficiency or iron overload. Alcohol intake was related to occupation and income, but not to social class. In women, none of the social variables showed any significant relationship to ferritin levels or iron overload. The prevalence of small iron stores (serum ferritin < or = 30 micrograms/l) was lower and the intake of alcohol was higher in women from high social classes. In both men and women, serum ferritin displayed highly significant positive correlations with alcohol intake. Likewise, the prevalence of iron overload (serum ferritin > 90th percentile) was closely correlated to alcohol intake. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors per se had a minor influence on serum ferritin levels and iron status in Danes. The distinct association between alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels should be considered in future iron status surveys.

  8. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols.

    PubMed

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Boye Kyhl, Henriette; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Husby, Steffen; Barington, Torben; Main, Katharina M; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine-disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is particularly vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals therefore is of concern for pregnant women. We investigated current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between 8 and 30 weeks of gestation and analysed for metabolites of ten phenols, seven parabens and 16 phthalate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry representing 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in the urine sample collected from most women who participated. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite(s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups, suggesting combined exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DIs) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable DI (TDI) and with hazard quotients below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the estimated DI of phthalates and BPA for an individual was below TDI, our results still raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure. The true cumulative risk for the foetus may therefore be underestimated.

  9. Intimacy in Phone Conversations: Anxiety Reduction for Danish Seniors with Hugvie.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Christensen, Louise; Skov, Kate; Chang, Chi-Chih; Damholdt, Malene F; Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of physical contact in current telecommunications such as text messaging and Internet access. To challenge the limitation and re-embody telecommunication, researchers have attempted to introduce tactile stimulation to media and developed huggable devices. Previous experiments in Japan showed that a huggable communication technology, i.e., Hugvie decreased stress level of its female users. In the present experiment in Denmark, we aim to investigate (i) whether Hugvie can decrease stress cross-culturally, i.e., Japanese vs. Danish participants (ii), investigate whether gender plays a role in this psychological effect (stress reduction) and (iii) if there is a preference of this type of communication technology (Hugvie vs. a regular telephone). Twenty-nine healthy elderly participated (15 female and 14 male, M = 64.52 years, SD = 5.67) in Jutland, Denmark. The participants filled out questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Becks Depression Inventory, had a 15 min conversation via phone or Hugvie and were interviewed afterward. They spoke with an unknown person of opposite gender during the conversation; the same two conversation partners were used during the experiment and the Phone and Hugvie groups were equally balanced. There was no baseline difference between the Hugvie and Phone groups on age or anxiety or depression scores. In the Hugvie group, there was a statistically significant reduction on state anxiety after meeting Hugvie (p = 0.013). The change in state anxiety for the Hugvie group was positively correlated with openness (r = 0.532, p = 0.041) as measured by the NEO-FFI. This indicates that openness to experiences may increase the chances of having an anxiety reduction from being with Hugvie. Based on the results, we see that personality may affect the participants' engagement and benefits from Hugvie. We discuss the implications of the results and further elaborations.

  10. Development and risk behavior among African American, Caucasian, and mixed-race adolescents living in high poverty inner-city neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Bolland, John M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lian, Bradley E; McCallum, Debra M; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Barth, Joan M

    2007-12-01

    Youths growing up in low-income inner-city neighborhoods are at substantial risk for initiating substance use, violent behavior, and sexual intercourse at early ages; these risk behaviors continue at comparatively high rates through adolescence. Hopelessness has been implicated as a risk factor for these behaviors. In this paper, we consider how race influences this process. African Americans form a demographic minority within the United States, but they are often the majority within inner-city neighborhoods. For Caucasians, the opposite typically holds. Mixed-race populations form a minority within both contexts. Using longitudinal data, we examine the relationship between race and risk behaviors in several impoverished inner-city neighborhoods where African Americans form the distinct majority and Caucasians and people of mixed racial heritage form a small minority. We also consider how race moderates the relationship between hopelessness and risk behavior. Our findings show that compared to Caucasian or mixed-race adolescents, African American adolescents are less likely to engage in risk behaviors, and that hopelessness has a less important impact on their behaviors.

  11. Differences between African-American and Caucasian students on enrollment influences and barriers in kinesiology-based allied health education programs.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Cobler, D C; Lam, Eddie T C; Zhang, James; Chitiyo, George

    2012-06-01

    Kinesiology departments have recently started to offer allied health education programs to attract additional students to teacher education units (9). Although allied health professions offer increased work opportunities, insufficient enrollment and training of minority students in these academic fields contribute to underrepresentation in the workforce (3). To improve workforce diversity, kinesiology departments must understand how enrollment influences and barriers differ by race among prospective students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify differences in allied health education enrollment influences and enrollment barriers between minority and Caucasian students. Participants (n = 601) consisted of students enrolled in kinesiology-based allied health education programs. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare group differences in enrollment decision making. "Personal influence," "career opportunity," and "physical self-efficacy" were all significantly stronger enrollment influences among African-American students than among Caucasian students, and "social influence," "experiential opportunity," "academic preparation," and "physical self-efficacy" were all perceived as significantly greater barriers compared with Caucasian students. Findings support the need to recruit African-American students through sport and physical education settings and to market program-based experiential opportunities.

  12. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  13. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated term fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from term and preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ramkumar; Arora, Chander P; Hobel, Calvin J; Fortunato, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study is to document differences in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), and CRH binding protein (CRHBP) gene expression in fetal membranes derived from African Americans and Caucasians in vitro in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and to assess racial disparity in CRH concentrations in the amniotic fluid (AF) of women with spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Fetal membranes (African American, n = 8; Caucasian, n = 8) at term, placed in an organ explant system, were stimulated with LPS. Microarray analysis documented differences in the mRNA expression pattern of CRH, CRHBP, and CRHR1 between races. CRH was measured in AF (a case [PTB]-control [term] study) and culture media. Between races, LPS significantly increased CRH and CRHR1 expression in African Americans and CRHBP in Caucasians, with no differences in controls. CRH was detectable only in LPS-stimulated African American membranes. AF CRH concentrations were higher in PTB compared with controls (P < .001), and no difference was noticed between races (P = .1). AF analysis did not document racial disparity in CRH concentrations in PTB. In fetal membranes, African Americans showed a higher expression and production of CRH in response to an in vitro stimulus.

  14. Dental age assessment of Maltese children and adolescents. Development of a reference dataset and comparison with a United Kingdom Caucasian reference dataset.

    PubMed

    Elshehawi, Waleed; Alsaffar, Hani; Roberts, Graham; Lucas, Victoria; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Reference Data Set for Dental Age Assessment of the Maltese population and compare the mean Age of Attainment to a UK Caucasian Reference Data Set. The Maltese Reference Data Set was developed from 1593 Dental Panoramic Tomograms of patients aged between 4 and 26 years, taken from the radiographic archives of the Dental Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Tooth Development Stages were recorded for all 16 maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth on the left side and both permanent third molars on the right, according to Demirjian's staging method. Summary and percentile data were calculated for each Tooth Development Stage, including the mean Age of Attainment. These means were used to estimate the Dental Age of each subject in the study sample using the simple unweighted average method. The estimated Dental Age was compared to the gold standard of the Chronological Age. Comparison of the Maltese and UK Caucasian Reference Data Set was by a series of t-tests, carried out for each paired Tooth Development Stage by gender. The mean Age of Attainment was slightly higher for the Maltese than the UK Caucasians in both males and females. However there was no statistically significant difference between the Chronological Age and Dental Age for either sex.

  15. Collaborating to support Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities partnerships.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Sarah L; Brennan, Laura K; Bors, Philip A; Bussel, Jamie B; Eng, Eugenia; Leonard, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) (http://www.rwjf.org/en.html) launched Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) in 2008, with a $33.4 million commitment to help reverse the childhood obesity epidemic by 2015. With grant funding and technical assistance, HKHC supported 50 diverse community partnerships focusing on populations at greatest risk for obesity. Active Living By Design served as the national program office, and St. Louis-based Transtria conducted the evaluation. Collaboration fundamentally shaped HKHC's national program design and strategy, the grantee selection process, technical assistance, the HKHC learning network, and evaluation. This article describes the ways in which the concept of collaboration was defined and practiced among the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Active Living By Design, Transtria, and other national partners, and how it shaped the evolving vision for and expectations from HKHC grantees. Collaboration contributed to HKHC grantees' success, helped build the healthy communities movement, and influenced philanthropic practices.

  16. Dietary factors in chronic inflammation: food tolerances and intolerances of a New Zealand Caucasian Crohn's disease population.

    PubMed

    Triggs, Christopher M; Munday, Karen; Hu, Rong; Fraser, Alan G; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2010-08-07

    Diet is known to play a major role in the symptoms of the inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease (CD). Although no single diet is appropriate to all individuals, most CD patients are aware of foods that provide adverse or beneficial effects. This study seeks to categorise foods in relation to their effects on symptoms of CD, in a New Zealand Caucasian population. Four hundred and forty-six subjects from two different centres in New Zealand were recruited into the study. An extensive dietary questionnaire (257 food items in 15 groups) recorded self-reported dietary tolerances and intolerances. Across each of the food groups, there were statistically significant differences among responses to foods. A two-dimensional graphical summary enabled stratification of foods according to the probability that they will be either beneficial or detrimental. A small number of foods are frequently considered to be beneficial, including white fish, salmon and tuna, gluten-free products, oatmeal, bananas, boiled potatoes, sweet potatoes (kumara), pumpkin, soya milk, goat's milk and yoghurt. Foods that are typically considered detrimental include grapefruit, chilli or chilli sauce, corn and corn products, peanuts, cream, salami, curried foods, cola drinks, high energy drinks, beer, and red wine. For a number of the food items, the same item that was beneficial for one group of subjects was detrimental to others; in particular soya milk, goat's milk, yoghurt, oatmeal, kiwifruit, prunes, apple, broccoli, cauliflower, linseed, pumpkin seed, sunflower seed, ginger and ginger products, beef, lamb, liver, and oily fish. It was not possible to identify a specific group of food items that should be avoided by all CD patients. The wide range of detrimental items suggests that dietary maintenance of remission is likely to be difficult, and to exclude a substantial number of foods. Personalised diets may be especially important to these individuals.

  17. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) Intron 1 Variants Are Major Risk Factors for Graves' Disease in Three European Caucasian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata; Franaszczyk, Maria; Kula, Dorota; Krajewski, Paweł; Karamat, Muhammad A.; Simmonds, Matthew J.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Gough, Stephen C. L.; Jarząb, Barbara; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Background The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene is an established susceptibility locus for Graves' disease (GD), with recent studies refining association to two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs179247 and rs12101255, within TSHR intron 1. Methodology and Principal Findings We aimed to validate association of rs179247 and rs12101255 in Polish and UK Caucasian GD case-control subjects, determine the mode of inheritance and to see if association correlates with specific GD clinical manifestations. We investigated three case-control populations; 558 GD patients and 520 controls from Warsaw, Poland, 196 GD patients and 198 controls from Gliwice, Poland and 2504 GD patients from the UK National collection and 2784 controls from the 1958 British Birth cohort. Both rs179247 (P = 1.2×10−2–6.2×10−15, OR = 1.38–1.45) and rs12101255 (P = 1.0×10−4–3.68×10−21, OR = 1.47–1.87) exhibited strong association with GD in all three cohorts. Logistic regression suggested association of rs179247 is secondary to rs12101255 in all cohorts. Inheritance modeling suggested a co-dominant mode of inheritance in all cohorts. Genotype-phenotype correlations provided no clear evidence of association with any specific clinical characteristics. Conclusions We have validated association of TSHR intron 1 SNPs with GD in three independent European cohorts and have demonstrated that the aetiological variant within the TSHR is likely to be in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs12101255. Fine mapping is now required to determine the exact location of the aetiological DNA variants within the TSHR. PMID:21124799

  18. CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk among Caucasians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yong; Liu, Guo-Qing; Miao, Xiong-Ying; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Wei; Zhong, De-Wu

    2012-06-01

    Studies investigating the association between cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) Leu432Val (432 C/G, rs1056836) polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk report conflicting results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CYP1B1 polymorphism and CRC were calculated in a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model when appropriate. The pooled ORs were performed for co-dominant model (GG vs. CC, GC vs. CC), dominant model (GG + GC vs. CC), and recessive model (GG vs. GC + CC). This meta-analysis included ten case-control studies, which included 8,466 CRC cases and 9,301 controls. Overall, the variant genotypes (GG and GC) of the 432 C/G were not associated with CRC risk when compared with the wild-type CC homozygote (GG vs. CC, OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.93-1.10; GC vs. CC, OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.90-1.04), without any between-study heterogeneity. Similarly, no associations were found in the dominant and recessive models (dominant model, OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92-1.05; recessive model, OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.96-1.11). Limiting the analysis to the studies within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results were persistent and robust. When stratifying for country, matched control and source of controls, no evidence of significant association was observed in any subgroup. No publication bias was found in the present study. No association is found between the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and risk of CRC among Caucasians.

  19. Genetic heterogeneity, modes of inheritance, and risk estimates for a joint study of caucasians with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Glenys; Robinson, Wendy P.; Kuhner, Mary K.; Joe, Sharon; MacDonald, Michael J.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Barbosa, Jose; Rich, Stephen S.; Bertrams, Jörg; Baur, Max P.; Partanen, Jukka; Tait, Brian D.; Schober, Edith; Mayr, Wolfgang R.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Lindblom, Bertil; Farid, Nadir R.; Thompson, Christine; Deschamps, Ingeborg

    1988-01-01

    From 11 studies, a total of 1,792 Caucasian probands with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are analyzed. Antigen genotype frequencies in patients, transmission from affected parents to affected children, and the relative frequencies of HLA-DR3 and -DR4 homozygous patients all indicate that DR3 predisposes in a “recessive”-like and DR4 in a “dominant”-like or “intermediate” fashion, after allowing for the DR3/DR4 synergistic effect. Removal of DR3 and DR4 reveals an overall protective effect of DR2, predisposing effects of DR1 and DRw8, and a slight protective effect of DR5 and a predisposing effect of DRw6. Analysis of affected-parent-to-affected-child data indicates that a subset of DR2 may predispose. The non-DR3, non-DR4 antigens are not independently associated with DR3 and DR4; the largest effect is a deficiency of DR2, followed by excesses of DR1, DRw8, and DRw6, in DR4 individuals, as compared with DR3 individuals. HLA-B locus distributions on patient haplotypes indicate that only subsets of both DR3 and DR4 are predisposing. The presence or absence of Asp at position 57 of the DQβ gene, recently implicated in IDDM predisposition, is not by itself sufficient to explain the inheritance of IDDM. At a minimum, the distinguishing features of the DR3-associated and DR4-associated predisposition remain to be identified at the molecular level. Risk estimates for sibs of probands are calculated based on an overall sibling risk of 6%; estimates for those sharing two, one, or zero haplotypes are 12.9%, 4.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. Risk estimates subdivided by the DR type of the proband are also calculated, the highest being 19.2% for sibs sharing two haplotypes with a DR3/DR4 proband. PMID:3057885

  20. Genome-wide Survey of Runs of Homozygosity Identifies Recessive Loci for Bone Mineral Density in Caucasian and Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Xu, Chao; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROHs), in which both parental alleles are identical, have been proposed to have recessive effects on multiple human complex diseases. Osteoporosis is a common complex disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is highly heritable. And recessive loci that contribute to BMD variations have been identified. In this study, we performed a genome-wide ROHs association study using our SNP array data from three GWAS samples including 4,900 subjects from Caucasian and Chinese populations. Significant results were further subjected to replication in 3,747 additional subjects. ROHs associated with BMD were also tested for associations with osteoporotic fractures in a GWAS fracture sample. Combining results from all the samples, we identified 697 autosomal regions with ROHs. Among these, we detected genome-wide significant associations between BMD and 6 ROHs, including ROH1q31.3, 1p31.1, 3q26.1, 11q12.1, 21q22.1 and 15q22.3 (combined P=6.29 × 10−5 − 3.17 × 10 −8). Especially, ROH1p31.1 was found to be associated with increased risk of osteoporotic hip fractures (odds ratio [OR] 3.71, P=0.032). To investigate the functional relevance of the identified ROHs, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in lymphoblast cell lines. Three ROHs, including ROH1p31.1, 11q12.1, and 15q22.3, were found to be significantly associated with mRNA expression levels of their nearby genes (PeQTL < 0.05). In summary, our findings reveal that ROHs could play as recessive-acting determinants contributing to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Further molecular and functional studies are needed to explore and clarify the potential mechanism. PMID:25983029