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Sample records for healthy danish caucasian

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. METHOD This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. RESULTS Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%–55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1–30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. PMID:24152086

  2. Grip strength in healthy caucasian adults: reference values.

    PubMed

    Günther, Christian M; Bürger, Alexander; Rickert, Markus; Crispin, Alexander; Schulz, Christoph U

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to update reference data of handgrip strength for healthy adults of both genders spanning a wide age range and to analyze possible factors of influence. Intraindividual and interindividual variations of grip strength and their relation to several anthropometric factors were analyzed in a standardized manner for 769 healthy adults (women, n = 403; men, n = 366) aged between 20 years and 95 years. Measurements were done in neutral position of arm, forearm, and wrist on setting II of a Baseline digital hydraulic dynamometer (NexGen Ergonomics Inc. Quebec, Canada). Mean strength was about 41% less in women (right 29 kg; left 27 kg) than in men (right 49 kg; left 47 kg) resulting in a ratio of left to right hand slightly above .95 in both genders. During the course of life, hand strength develops comparably in both genders peaking at 35 years of age and decreasing continuously further on. Anthropometric variables such as forearm circumference and length, hand size, or body mass showed a positive correlation with grip strength. Body mass index, type of work, and hand dominance showed only a partial positive correlation or no correlation with grip strength. Gender and age, followed by parameters representing body length and obesity, were observed to have the highest predictive value for handgrip strength and were therefore entered into the generation of prediction equations. We recommend side adjustment of measured values for intraindividual comparison and inclusion of information regarding anthropometric characteristics, as well as using gender- and age-adjusted reference values, whereas hand dominance can be neglected. The regression equations we generated might prove to be useful for clinicians or for those who use normative values within software to provide more accurate predictions of strength scores for specific applications.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%-55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1-30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Galantamine pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability profiles are similar in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinying; Brett, Martin; Van Osselaer, Nancy; Huang, Fenglei; Raoult, Alain; Van Peer, Achiel; Verhaeghe, Tom; Hust, Rita

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of galantamine in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects and assess the safety and tolerability of galantamine in both ethnic groups. Parallel groups of healthy Japanese (n = 13; 6 males and 7 females)and Caucasian (n = 12; 6 males and 6 females) subjects matched for weight and age received single oral doses of galantamine 4 mg, or galantamine 8 mg, or placebo in a double-blind, three-way crossover trial according to a randomized dosing schedule. Concentrations of galantamine and norgalantamine were determined in plasma and urine samples taken up to 48 and 24 hours after dosing, respectively. Safety and tolerability were monitored throughout the trial by recording adverse events, laboratory tests, and cardiovascular parameters. The mean plasma concentration-time profiles of galantamine were very similar after single doses of galantamine (4 and 8 mg), and there was an approximate dose proportionality of galantamine pharmacokinetic parameters in both Caucasian and Japanese ethnic groups. The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters in the two ethnic groups did not show any clinically relevant differences. The ratios for the area under the plasma-concentration curve from time zero to infinity (AUC)0-infinity) in Japanese:Caucasian subjects with 4 and 8 mg doses were 103% (90% confidence interval [CII = 92-116) and 107% (90% CI = 94-121), respectively. Ratios for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values were 107% (90% CI= 90-127) and 108% (90% CI= 95-123), respectively. These ratios and associated 90% CIs were within the 80% to 125% range limit of bioequivalence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that these ratio values demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the two ethnic groups. There was no overt difference in the adverse event profile in Japanese subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. There were no serious adverse events, and no subjects discontinued from the study because of

  5. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.

  6. Comparative investigation of the pharmacokinetics of bosentan in Caucasian and Japanese healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    van Giersbergen, Paul L M; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2005-01-01

    Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist in development for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Japan, whereas it is registered for this indication in Europe and the United States. The present study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of bosentan in Caucasian and Japanese subjects. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending single-dose, 5-way crossover study, 10 healthy Caucasian and 10 Japanese subjects (1:1 male/female ratio) received single doses of 31.25, 62.5, 125, and 250 mg of bosentan or placebo. Pharmacokinetic profiles of bosentan and its pharmacologically active hydroxy metabolite, Ro 48-5033, were determined after each dose of bosentan. The pharmacokinetics of bosentan were similar and dose proportional in both ethnic groups. However, peak plasma concentration values of Ro 48-5033 were significantly greater in Japanese subjects (P < .05). This difference could not be explained by the lower body weight of the Japanese subjects. Females in both groups tended to have higher exposure to both bosentan and Ro 48-5033 than males. The results suggest that, based on pharmacokinetic grounds, no dose adjustment of bosentan is necessary when used to treat Japanese patients in comparison to Caucasian patients.

  7. Contribution of structural brain phenotypes to the variance in resting energy expenditure in healthy Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Hübers, Mark; Granert, Oliver; Muller, Manfred James

    2017-09-21

    Brain gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes are related to weight changes. The impact of structural variations in GM and WM on the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE) and the REE on fat free mass (FFM) association is unknown. The aim of this study was to address this in healthy Caucasian subjects. Cross-sectional data analysis of 493 healthy Caucasian subjects (age range 6 to 80 years; three age groups) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses and detailed brain composition as assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and REE (assessed by indirect calorimetry). REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. FFM was the major determinant of REE (70.6%), individual masses of liver, total brain and heart explained further 2.1% of the variance in REE. Replacing total brain by GM and WM did not change the total R². Nevertheless, GM added more to the variance in REE (5.6%) and corresponding residuals (12.5%) than total brain. Additionally, up to 12% were explained by age and sex (<2%). There was a systematic bias between REE and REEc with positive values in younger subjects but negative values in the older ones. This bias remained after substituting the specific metabolic rate of brain by the specific metabolic rates of GM and WM. In healthy Caucasian subjects, GM and WM contributed to the variance in REE. Detailed brain structures do not explain the bias between REE and REEc. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  8. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Anastasia V; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G; Proudlock, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients.

  9. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Anastasia V.; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G.; Proudlock, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients. PMID:27928300

  10. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age.

  11. A comparison of aesthetic proportions between the healthy Caucasian nose and the aesthetic ideal.

    PubMed

    Leong, Samuel C L; White, Paul S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of septorhinoplasty is to create a nose that is aesthetically pleasing to the patient and to maintain nasal function. Although a small number of population cohort studies have been performed on the ethnic nose, little is known of the aesthetics standards of nasal proportions in the general Caucasian population. The aim of this study was to establish parameters of the average nose in the healthy population and to compare them with those of the aesthetic ideals. Ethical approval was obtained to recruit a cohort of staff and students from the medical school. Two photographs were taken: anterior and right lateral. The following measurements were made: intercanthal width, alar width, length of the nose (nasion-pronasion length), naso-labial angle, nasal tip projection, naso-facial angle and naso-frontal angle. These parameters were compared with published aesthetic ideals. Aesthetic nasal proportions of 50 healthy Caucasians were examined from a cohort of 57 volunteers. Results showed that the average nose did not conform to neo-classical facial canons. The alar width (average 3.6 cm) was significantly wider than the intercanthal width (average 3.0 cm, p<0.05). The nasal width-length ratio was also greater suggesting that the cohort average was shorter and wider than the aesthetic ideal. The Baum ratio was 2.5:1, indicating that the average nasal tip was more projected that the aesthetic ideal (2.8:1). The naso-frontal and naso-facial angles are both more obtuse, and in profile the average nose overall appeared more prominent, as a result of the reduced forehead projection. The only parameter where there appeared to be consistency between the average and the ideal nose was the naso-labial angle. This study shows that many aesthetic parameters from a cohort of healthy subjects differ from the widely used aesthetic standards. Rhinoplasty surgeons should, therefore, give thought to the frame of reference used when discussing aesthetic objectives with their patients.

  12. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of fosfluconazole and fluconazole after single intravenous administration of fosfluconazole in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Satoshi; Tan, Keith; Shaw, Linda; Layton, Gary; Hust, Rita

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the bioavailability of fluconazole (FLCZ) from fosfluconazole (phosphate pro-drug of FLCZ) and to compare the pharmacokinetics of fosfluconazole and FLCZ in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. In a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, single-dose, two-period, crossover study, 12 Japanese and 12 Caucasian healthy subjects received a bolus intravenous injection of 1000 mg fosfluconazole or an intravenous infusion of 800 mg FLCZ in random order. Concentrations of fosfluconazole and FLCZ were determined in plasma and urine samples taken up to 144 h and 48 h post-dose, respectively. The bioavailability of FLCZ after administration of fosfluconazole was 95.2% (95% confidence interval: 89.0, 102.0) in Japanese subjects and 100.6% (94.0, 107.7) in Caucasian subjects. The ratio of bioavailabilities (Japanese/Caucasian) was 94.7% (86.0, 104.3). There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfluconazole (except for AUC(inf)) and FLCZ between Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Although mean AUC(inf) of fosfluconazole was 25.6% (5.6, 49.2) greater in Japanese subjects, the lack of a statistically significant difference in weight-adjusted CL of fosfluconazole demonstrates that the difference in AUC(inf) was due to a difference in body weight. The adverse-event profile was similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects after both fosfluconazole and FLCZ dosing, and both treatments were well tolerated in each group. The pharmacokinetics of fosfluconazole and FLCZ were similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Fosfluconazole is almost completely converted to FLCZ and similar systemic exposure to FLCZ is achieved after single doses of fosfluconazole in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

  13. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  14. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in healthy Chinese and Caucasian extensive hydroxylators of debrisoquine.

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Q Y; Svensson, J O; Sjöqvist, F; Säwe, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The kinetics of codeine and metabolites were studied in eight unrelated healthy Chinese subjects following a single oral dose of 50 mg codeine phosphate. The data were compared with those from eight Caucasian subjects who were matched with the Chinese group according to their metabolic ratio (MR) of debrisoquine. 2. Mean values of Cmax (445 nmol l-1) and AUC (1660 nmol l-1 h) of codeine in the Chinese were significantly higher than those in the Caucasians (292 nmol l-1 and 1010 nmol l-1 h). Thus plasma clearance was significantly lower (P less than 0.02) and the plasma half-life was longer (P less than 0.05) in the Chinese. 3. Partial clearance by glucuronidation was significantly lower (0.79 +/- 0.14 s.d. vs 1.42 +/- 0.48 s.d. 1 h-1 kg-1) in Chinese than in Caucasians. 4. The total urinary recovery of drug-related material in 48 h urine was similar in Chinese (82.2%) and Caucasians (84.4%). The recovery of unchanged codeine was significantly higher in Chinese (5.7%) than in Caucasians (3.3%). 5. The AUC ratios of codeine relative to its 6-glucuronide, morphine and norcodeine were 1:9, 35:1 and 4:1, respectively in Chinese. The corresponding ratios in Caucasians were 1:15, 50:1 and 6:1. 6. There was no significant difference between Chinese and Caucasians in the renal clearances of codeine and its primary metabolites. 7. Large interethnic differences in the kinetics of codeine have been shown. The Chinese are less able to metabolise codeine mainly because of a lower efficiency in glucuronidation. PMID:1867958

  15. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, C; Larnkjaer, A; Cashman, K D; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Jakobsen, J; Michaelsen, K F

    2010-02-01

    A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 microg/day vitamin D(3) for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence of VDR and ER genotype on the effect of the supplementation. The girls (n=221) were randomized to receive either 5 microg or 10 microg vitamin D(3) supplementation per day or placebo for 12 months. Whole body and lumbar spine bone mass measured by DXA and pubertal status were determined at baseline and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The S-25OHD concentration increased (p<0.001) relative to the baseline values in the groups receiving either 5 microg/day (mean+/-SD; 11.0+/-10.3 nmol/l, baseline 41.9+/-17.6 nmol/l) or 10 microg/day (13.3+/-11.8 nmol/l, baseline 44.4+/-16.6 nmol/l) vitamin D(3) for 12 months compared to placebo (-3.1+/-9.8 nmol/l, baseline 43.4+/-17.1 nmol/l). There was no effect of vitamin D-supplementation on biomarkers for bone turnover or on whole body or spine bone mineral augmentation. However, vitamin D supplementation increased whole body bone mineral density (BMD) (p=0.007) and bone mineral content (BMC) (p=0.048) in the FF VDR genotype but not in the Ff or ff VDR genotypes. Supplementation with vitamin D (5 or 10 microg/day) over 12 months increased the S-25OHD concentration but there was no effect on indices of bone health in the entire group of girls. However, there was an effect on BMD for a subgroup with the FF VDR genotype indicating an influence of genotype. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological changes due to mild cooling in healthy lean males of white Caucasian and South Asian descent: A metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Kimberly J; Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Jazet, Ingrid M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2016-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, non-shivering thermogenesis increases to maintain core body temperature by increasing utilization of substrates, especially fatty acids (FA), ultimately affecting lipid-associated metabolites. We aimed to investigate whether mild cooling induces changes in other metabolites and whether this response differs between white Caucasians and South Asians, who have a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype. 12 lean male Dutch white Caucasians and 12 matched Dutch South Asians were exposed to mild cold. Before and after 100 min exposure, serum samples were collected for analysis of 163 metabolites and 27 derived parameters using high throughput metabolomics. The overall response to mild cooling between both ethnicities was not different, therefore the data were pooled. After Bonferroni correction, mild cooling significantly changed 44 of 190 (23%) metabolic parameters. Specifically, cooling increased 19 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, only those containing very long chain FAs, and increased the total class of PC containing mono-unsaturated FAs (+12.5%). Furthermore, cooling increased 10 sphingomyelin species as well as the amino acids glutamine (+18.7%), glycine (+11.6%) and histidine (+10.6%), and decreased short-chain (C3 and C4) acylcarnitines (-17.1% and -19.4%, respectively). In conclusion, mild cooling elicits substantial effects on serum metabolites in healthy males, irrespective of white Caucasian or South Asian ethnicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes modulate postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in a healthy Caucasian population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) plays an important role in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Five polymorphisms (1131T>C, c.-3A>G, c.56C>G, IVS3+476G>A, c.1259T>C) in the APOA5 gene define three common haplotypes (APOA5'1, APOA5'2 and APOA5'3) in Caucasian individuals. Our aim was to de...

  18. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  19. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single-dose oral tolvaptan in fasted and non-fasted states in healthy Caucasian and Japanese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shoaf, Susan E; Kim, Seong Ryul; Bricmont, Patricia; Mallikaarjun, Suresh

    2012-12-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolvaptan in Caucasian and Japanese healthy male subjects under fasting and non-fasting conditions. This was a single-center, parallel-group, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover trial of single oral doses of tolvaptan 30 mg under fasting and non-fasting [a high-fat, high-calorie meal (HFM) or Japanese standard meal] conditions in 25 healthy male Caucasian subjects and 24 healthy male Japanese subjects. Pharmacodynamic endpoints were urine volume and fluid balance for 0 to 24 h postdose. In the fasted state, the plasma tolvaptan C(max) and AUC(∞) geometric mean ratios (90 % confidence interval) were 1.105 (0.845-1.444) and 1.145 (0.843-1.554) for Japanese compared to Caucasian subjects. A HFM increased the C(max) and AUC(∞) values by about 1.15-fold in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects.. Twenty-four-hour urine volumes paralleled pharmacokinetic changes, but the increases were not clinically significant. Fluid balance in the Japanese men was 1.4- to 2.0-fold more negative than that in the Caucasian men. Tolvaptan pharmacokinetics is not clinically significantly affected by race. Body weight is a factor that affects exposure. Tolvaptan can be administered with or without food.

  1. Cutaneous melioidosis in a healthy Danish man after travelling to South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Langgaard, Henrik; Nielsen, Hans Linde

    2015-01-16

    A healthy Danish man presented with infected prepatellar bursitis 8 months after being involved in a car accident in Malaysia resulting in exposure of a laceration of his knee to stagnant water. Tissue samples grew Burkholderia pseudomallei and diagnostic work up revealed no secondary foci. The patient was successfully treated with surgical debridement and 3 months of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. At 6 months follow-up the patient was without relapse. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Thorough QT study of the effect of intravenous amisulpride on QTc interval in Caucasian and Japanese healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Georg; Fox, Gabriel; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Camm, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim The D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride has shown promising efficacy against postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) at low doses. We investigated whether intravenous amisulpride has an effect on the QTc interval in a formal Thorough QT study (TQT). Methods This was a randomized, double‐blind, placebo and positive‐controlled, four‐way crossover study. Forty healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects were included to receive a single administration of 5 mg and 40 mg of i.v. amisulpride or a single oral dose of moxifloxacin or placebo per period. Results The therapeutic dose of 5 mg amisulpride was associated with a slight, transient increase in mean ΔΔQTcF, from 2.0 ms prior to dosing to a peak of 5 ms (90% CI: 2.8, 7.1 ms) at 8 min, decreasing to 2.1 ms at 30 min after dosing. The supra‐therapeutic dose of 40 mg given at twice the infusion rate was associated with prolongation in ΔΔQTcF peaking at 23.4 ms (90% CI: 21.3, 25.5 ms) at the end of infusion (8 min), returning below 10 ms within 1.5 h. Assay sensitivity was confirmed; ΔΔQTcF had increased by 12.3 ms (90% CI 10.1, 14.6 ms) at 4 h post‐dose. The PK‐PD relationship revealed no differences between Caucasian and Japanese subjects (p‐value > 0.5). Conclusions Amisulpride has a plasma concentration‐dependent effect on the QTc interval. The proposed therapeutic dose for management of PONV does not lead to a prolongation of QTcF above the threshold of regulatory concern, while such effect could not be excluded for the supratherapeutic dose. PMID:27618796

  3. Sleep and Respiration in 100 Healthy Caucasian Sleepers—A Polysomnographic Study According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine Standards

    PubMed Central

    Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Hackner, Heinz; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    T, Högl B, Schönwald SV, Hackner H, Gabelia D, Biermayr M, Frauscher B. Sleep and respiration in 100 healthy Caucasian sleepers—a polysomnographic study according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine standards. SLEEP 2015;38(6):867–875. PMID:25515109

  4. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Diet and Risk of Stroke: A Danish Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A protective effect of the BDNF Met/Met genotype in obesity in healthy Caucasian subjects but not in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sustar, A; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Nedic Erjavec, G; Svob Strac, D; Pivac, N

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor with an important role in the regulation of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Increased BMI that leads to obesity is a substantial risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with CHD, obesity and BMI. The aim of the study was to determine the association between BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and CHD and/or BMI in patients with CHD and healthy control subjects. The study included 704 Caucasian subjects: 206 subjects with CHD and 498 healthy control subjects. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism was not associated with a diagnosis of CHD or with BMI categories among patients with CHD. In contrast, healthy Caucasians, carriers of the BDNF Met/Met genotype, had more

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children.

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-03-30

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates in faecal microbiota exists.

  8. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV‐1106, a Long‐Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract TV‐1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long‐acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV‐1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV‐1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV‐1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median tmax, 10–30 hours) and a mean elimination half‐life of 26–36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV‐1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) and IGF binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) increased in a dose‐related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33–96 and 42–109 hours, respectively. IGF‐1 and IGFBP‐3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV‐1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV‐1106. TV‐1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV‐1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long‐acting growth hormone properties of TV‐1106 and support its potential for once‐weekly dosing. PMID:27489211

  9. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of alcohol at pseudo-steady state in Caucasian and expatriate Japanese healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zoethout, Remco W M; de Kam, Marieke L; Dahan, Albert; Cohen, Adam F; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2012-11-01

    In general, Japanese and Caucasians differ in their response to alcohol. To investigate these differences the alcohol clamping method can be used. This strictly controlled infusion regimen provides a reliable tool to study contrasts in central nervous system (CNS) effects and/or alcohol disposition. In this study, twelve Japanese and twelve Caucasian healthy volunteers received two concentrations of intravenous alcohol or placebo using the alcohol clamp. Infusion rates during the steady state phase were used to compare alcohol clearance between the subgroups. Central nervous system (CNS) effects were frequently measured throughout the clamp. On average, significantly lower amounts of alcohol were needed to maintain similar stable concentrations in the Japanese group. However, these differences disappeared when values were corrected for lean body mass. The most pronounced pharmacodynamic differences between the groups were observed on body sway and on the visual analogue scale for subjective alcohol effects, mainly at the highest dose level. The alcohol clamp seems a useful method to compare differences in alcohol metabolism between groups. Some CNS effects of alcohol differed clearly between Japanese and Caucasians, but others did not, even though alcohol levels were stable and similar between the two groups.

  10. An untranslated insertion variant in the uncoupling protein 2 gene is not related to body mass index and changes in body weight during a 26-year follow-up in Danish Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, L T; Sørensen, T I; Andersen, T; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O

    1999-12-01

    Associations between a 45 bp 3'untranslated insertion polymorphism in the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene and both body mass index (BMI) and sleeping metabolic rate have previously been reported. We investigated the impact of this polymorphism on BMI and long-term body weight changes. The allelic frequency of the UCP2 insertion variant was determined in a cohort of 744 obese Danish Caucasian men who had a BMI of at least 31 kg/m2 at the draft-board examinations and a randomly selected control cohort consisting of 872 draftees. Follow-up measurements of BMI were done on average 26 years after the draft-board examinations. The prevalence of the insertion allele was 30.4% (95% confidence interval: 28.0-32.8%) among the obese and 29.6% (27.4-31.8%) in the control group (p = 0.6). In a lean group selected as the 354 subjects with a BMI less than 25 kg/m2 at 46 years of age from the control group, the frequency of insertion allele was 29.0% (27.2-30.8%) (p = 0.5 compared with the obese cohort). The BMI at the ages of 20 and 46 years did not differ between genotypes either in the obese or the control group. Similarly, the changes in BMI/year between examinations at 20 and 46 years of age did not differ between genotypes in either group. In a large group of Danish Caucasian men we found no association between a 3'untranslated insertion polymorphism in the UCP2 gene and obesity. Neither did we identify a relation between this variant and BMI changes during adult age.

  11. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV-1106, a Long-Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2017-07-01

    TV-1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long-acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV-1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV-1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV-1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median tmax , 10-30 hours) and a mean elimination half-life of 26-36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV-1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) increased in a dose-related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33-96 and 42-109 hours, respectively. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV-1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV-1106. TV-1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV-1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long-acting growth hormone properties of TV-1106 and support its potential for once-weekly dosing. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. The inhibition by levocetirizine and fexofenadine of the histamine-induced wheal and flare response in healthy Caucasian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schoepke, Nicole; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study compared inhibition by one 5 mg dose of levocetirizine with two 60 mg doses of fexofenadine separated by 12 h of histamine-induced wheal and flare responses in 9 Caucasian and 9 Japanese healthy male volunteers. Levocetirizine was more inhibitory than fexofenadine on wheal, flare and pruritus (p < 0.005). Variability, evaluated from the standard deviation of inhibition, ranged from 14% to 23.2% for levocetirizine and 65.4% to 112.4% for fexofenadine. Levocetirizine had a faster onset of action (30-90 min versus 2 h), shorter time to maximum effect (3-4 versus 3-6 h) and longer duration of action (at least 24 h versus ~12 h) than fexofenadine. The plasma levels of levocetirizine rose more quickly, reached higher levels, were more consistent and decreased slower than those of fexofenadine. There were no clinically significant ethnic differences in responsiveness to the drugs.

  13. Moxifloxacin-induced QTc interval prolongations in healthy male Japanese and Caucasian volunteers: a direct comparison in a thorough QT study

    PubMed Central

    Morganroth, Joel; Wang, Yaning; Thorn, Michael; Kumagai, Yuji; Harris, Stuart; Stockbridge, Norman; Kleiman, Robert; Shah, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Aim We investigated whether moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongations in Japanese and Caucasian healthy male volunteers were significantly different. Methods A two period, randomized, crossover, ICH-E14-compliant thorough QT (TQT) study compared placebo-corrected changes in QTc interval from baseline (ΔΔQTcF) and concentration–effect relationships following administration of placebo and 400 mg moxifloxacin to 40 healthy male volunteers from each ethnic population. The point estimates of ΔΔQTcF for each population, and the difference between the two, were calculated at a geometric mean Cmax of moxifloxacin using a linear mixed effects model. The concentration–effect slopes of the two populations were also compared. Equivalence was concluded if the two-sided 90% confidence interval of the difference in ΔΔQTcF was contained within −5 ms to +5 ms limits and the ratio of the slopes was between 0.5 and 2. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two populations studied, Japanese vs. Caucasians, respectively, for moxifloxacin Cmax (3.27 ± 0.6 vs. 2.98 ± 0.7 µg ml–1), ΔΔQTcF (9.63 ± 1.15 vs. 11.46 ± 1.19 ms at Cmax of 3.07 µg ml–1) and concentration–response slopes (2.58 ± 0.62 vs. 2.34 ± 0.64 ms per µg ml–1). The difference in the two ΔΔQTcF of −1.8 (90% CI −4.6, 0.9) and the ratio of the two slopes (1.1; 90% CI 0.63, 1.82) were within pre-specified equivalence limits. Conclusions Moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongations did not differ significantly between the Japanese and Caucasian subjects. However, before our findings are more widely generalized, further studies in other populations and with other QT-prolonging drugs are needed to clarify whether inter-ethnic differences in QT sensitivity exist and whether ethnicity of the study population may affect the outcome of a TQT study. PMID:26011050

  14. Moxifloxacin-induced QTc interval prolongations in healthy male Japanese and Caucasian volunteers: a direct comparison in a thorough QT study.

    PubMed

    Morganroth, Joel; Wang, Yaning; Thorn, Michael; Kumagai, Yuji; Harris, Stuart; Stockbridge, Norman; Kleiman, Robert; Shah, Rashmi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongations in Japanese and Caucasian healthy male volunteers were significantly different. A two period, randomized, crossover, ICH-E14-compliant thorough QT (TQT) study compared placebo-corrected changes in QTc interval from baseline (ΔΔQTc F) and concentration-effect relationships following administration of placebo and 400 mg moxifloxacin to 40 healthy male volunteers from each ethnic population. The point estimates of ΔΔQTc F for each population, and the difference between the two, were calculated at a geometric mean Cmax of moxifloxacin using a linear mixed effects model. The concentration-effect slopes of the two populations were also compared. Equivalence was concluded if the two-sided 90% confidence interval of the difference in ΔΔQTc F was contained within -5 ms to +5 ms limits and the ratio of the slopes was between 0.5 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences between the two populations studied, Japanese vs. Caucasians, respectively, for moxifloxacin Cmax (3.27 ± 0.6 vs. 2.98 ± 0.7 µg ml(-1) ), ΔΔQTc F (9.63 ± 1.15 vs. 11.46 ± 1.19 ms at Cmax of 3.07 µg ml(-1) ) and concentration-response slopes (2.58 ± 0.62 vs. 2.34 ± 0.64 ms per µg ml(-1) ). The difference in the two ΔΔQTc F of -1.8 (90% CI -4.6, 0.9) and the ratio of the two slopes (1.1; 90% CI 0.63, 1.82) were within pre-specified equivalence limits. Moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongations did not differ significantly between the Japanese and Caucasian subjects. However, before our findings are more widely generalized, further studies in other populations and with other QT-prolonging drugs are needed to clarify whether inter-ethnic differences in QT sensitivity exist and whether ethnicity of the study population may affect the outcome of a TQT study. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Comparison of performance on three neuropsychological tests in healthy Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-09-01

    Appropriate neuropsychological tests for cross-cultural assessment of dementia in elderly ethnic and linguistic minorities are generally lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the Recall of Pictures Test (RPT), Clock Reading Test (CRT), and supermarket fluency (SF) in samples of Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly. Samples of Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly were recruited from the Greater Copenhagen area. All participants were screened for factors known to affect cognitive test performance. Those who were included in the study underwent an approximately two-hour assessment, where the RPT, CRT, and SF were applied as a part of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. A total of 109 elderly participants were included in the study: 73 Turkish and 36 Danish. Significant differences were found between the Turkish and Danish samples in CRT and SF performances, but not in any of the RPT measures. Age and acculturation level were the only demographic variables with significant impact on test performances. Performance data for the three tests are presented as percentiles. Although small differences were observed between the Turkish and Danish samples on the CRT and SF, we consider the three tests to be important neuropsychological tests for assessment of dementia in elderly patients from ethnic minority migrant populations.

  16. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians.

    PubMed

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A; Hansen, L; Carstensen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K; Drivsholm, T; Berglund, L; Hansen, T; Lithell, H; Pedersen, O

    2001-09-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus among Scandinavian Caucasians. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was examined using PCR-RFLP Whole-body insulin sensitivity measured under hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic conditions was estimated in a population-based sample of 616 glucose tolerant Swedish Caucasian men at age 70. In addition, insulin sensitivity index was measured using IVGTT and Bergman minimal modelling in a population-based sample of 364 young healthy Danish Caucasians. Finally, we evaluated whether the polymorphism predicted Type II diabetes and IGT in 841 seventy-year-old Swedish men. A case-control study was carried out in 654 unrelated Danish Type II diabetic patients and 742 Danish glucose tolerant subjects matched for age and sex. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in carriers compared with non-carriers of the Ala-allele of the codon 12 polymorphism in Swedish Caucasian men (6.0+/-2.5 vs 5.6+/-2.5 mg kg(-1) x min(-1) x mU/l](-1) x 100, p = 0.044). The same tendency, but not significant, was observed in the insulin sensitivity index among the group of young healthy Danish Caucasians. The incidence of Type II diabetes and IGT among the Swedish subjects at the age of 70 was similar in the three genotype-groups of the Pro12Ala variant and the Ala-allele was not related to a lower prevalence of Type II diabetes in Danish Caucasians. The Ala-allele of the PPAR-gamma2 polymorphism is associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity among Swedish Caucasians.

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  18. Sleep and Respiration in 100 Healthy Caucasian Sleepers--A Polysomnographic Study According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine Standards.

    PubMed

    Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Schönwald, Suzana Veiga; Hackner, Heinz; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Despite differences between American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and Rechtschaffen and Kales scoring criteria, normative values following the current AASM criteria are lacking. We investigated sleep and respiratory variables in healthy adults over the lifespan, and established polysomnographic normative values according to current standards. Prospective polysomnographic investigation. Academic referral hospital sleep laboratory. One hundred healthy sleepers aged 19-77 y were selected from a representative population sample by a two-step screening. N/A. All subjects underwent one full-night polysomnography. Sleep and arousals were scored according to AASM standards. Respiration was scored according to AASM 2007 and 2012 criteria in order to compare both methods. Percentile curves showed age-related differences in sleep architecture: a decrease was found for sleep efficiency [≤ 30 y: 87.0 (71.9-94.1)% versus > 60 y: 79.7 (44.5-90.9)%], total sleep time [≤ 30 y: 413.5 (345.6-451.9) min versus > 60 y: 378.3 (216.0-440.0) min], the percentages of N3 [≤ 30 y 20.7 (15.2-37.5)% versus > 60 y: 14.9 (2.4-35.6)%] and rapid eye movement sleep [≤ 30 y 15.5 (7.5-23.6)% versus. > 60 y: 10.3 (1.9-21.9)%], whereas the percentage of wake time after sleep onset increased with age [≤ 30 y 6.0 (1.9-22.8)% versus > 60 y: 15.2 (6.3-48.7)%]. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was higher when applying the AASM 2012 criteria [AHI AASM 2007 0.7 (0.0-21.5)/h versus 2012: 1.7 (0.0-25)/h; P < 0.001]. Eight percent of subjects had an AHI > 15/h. This study provides normative data on sleep macrostructure, microstructure, and respiration in adults following AASM standards. Furthermore, we demonstrated that respiration scoring according to AASM 2012 results in higher AHIs, and challenge the use of age-independent respiratory cutoff values. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Thorough QT study of the effect of oral moxifloxacin on QTc interval in the fed and fasted state in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Taubel, Jorg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Batchvarov, Velislav; Savelieva, Irina; Camm, A John

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were three-fold and were to (i) investigate the effect of food (fasted and fed state) on the degree of QT prolongation caused by moxifloxacin under the rigorous conditions of a TQT study, (ii) differentiate the effects on QTc that arise from changes in PK from those arising as a result of electrophysiological changes attributable to raised levels of C-peptide [11] offsetting in part the IKr blocking properties of moxifloxacin and (iii) characterize the QTcF profile of oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) in healthy Japanese volunteers compared with Caucasian subjects. Methods The study population consisted of 32 healthy non-smoking, Caucasian (n = 13) and Japanese (n = 19), male and female subjects, aged between 20–45 years with a body mass index of between 18 to 25 kg m−2. Female volunteers were required to use an effective contraceptive method or be abstinent. Subjects with ECGs which were deemed unsuitable for evaluation in a TQT study were excluded. ECGs were recorded in triplicate with subsequent blinded manual adjudication of the automated interval measurements. Electrocardiograms in the placebo arm were recorded twice in fasted and fed condition. Results The results demonstrated a substantial change in the typical moxifloxacin effect on the ECG. The effect on ΔΔQTc in the fed state led to a significant delay and a modest reduction compared with the fasted state correcting both conditions with the corresponding placebo data. The largest QTcF change from baseline in the fed state was observed at 4 h with a peak value of 11.6 ms (two-sided 90% CI 9.1, 14.1). In comparison, the largest QTcF change observed in the fasted state was 14.4 ms (90% CI 11.9, 16.8) and occurred at 2.5 h post-dose. The PK of moxifloxacin were altered by food and this change was consistent with the observed QTcF change. In the fed state plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin were considerably and consistently lower in comparison with the fasted state, and this

  20. Thorough QT study of the effect of oral moxifloxacin on QTc interval in the fed and fasted state in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Taubel, Jorg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Batchvarov, Velislav; Savelieva, Irina; Camm, A John

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were three-fold and were to (i) investigate the effect of food (fasted and fed state) on the degree of QT prolongation caused by moxifloxacin under the rigorous conditions of a TQT study, (ii) differentiate the effects on QTc that arise from changes in PK from those arising as a result of electrophysiological changes attributable to raised levels of C-peptide [11] offsetting in part the IKr blocking properties of moxifloxacin and (iii) characterize the QTc F profile of oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) in healthy Japanese volunteers compared with Caucasian subjects. The study population consisted of 32 healthy non-smoking, Caucasian (n = 13) and Japanese (n = 19), male and female subjects, aged between 20-45 years with a body mass index of between 18 to 25 kg m(-2). Female volunteers were required to use an effective contraceptive method or be abstinent. Subjects with ECGs which were deemed unsuitable for evaluation in a TQT study were excluded. ECGs were recorded in triplicate with subsequent blinded manual adjudication of the automated interval measurements. Electrocardiograms in the placebo arm were recorded twice in fasted and fed condition. The results demonstrated a substantial change in the typical moxifloxacin effect on the ECG. The effect on ΔΔQTc in the fed state led to a significant delay and a modest reduction compared with the fasted state correcting both conditions with the corresponding placebo data. The largest QTc F change from baseline in the fed state was observed at 4 h with a peak value of 11.6 ms (two-sided 90% CI 9.1, 14.1). In comparison, the largest QTc F change observed in the fasted state was 14.4 ms (90% CI 11.9, 16.8) and occurred at 2.5 h post-dose. The PK of moxifloxacin were altered by food and this change was consistent with the observed QTc F change. In the fed state plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin were considerably and consistently lower in comparison with the fasted state, and this

  1. A 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy, young South Asian men but not in Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Leontine E H; van Schinkel, Linda D; Guigas, Bruno; Streefland, Trea C M; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Klinken, Jan B; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Lamb, Hildo J; Smit, Johannes W A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2014-01-01

    South Asians (SAs) develop type 2 diabetes at a younger age and lower BMI compared with Caucasians (Cs). The underlying cause is still poorly understood but might result from an innate inability to adapt to the Westernized diet. This study aimed to compare the metabolic adaptation to a high-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diet between both ethnicities. Twelve healthy, young lean male SAs and 12 matched Cs underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with skeletal muscle biopsies and indirect calorimetry before and after a 5-day HFHC diet. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTG) and abdominal fat distribution were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. At baseline, SAs had higher insulin clamp levels than Cs, indicating reduced insulin clearance rate. Despite the higher insulin levels, endogenous glucose production was comparable between groups, suggesting lower hepatic insulin sensitivity in SAs. Furthermore, a 5-day HFHC diet decreased the insulin-stimulated (nonoxidative) glucose disposal rate only in SA. In skeletal muscle, no significant differences were found between groups in insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial respiratory chain content. Furthermore, no differences in (mobilization of) HTG and abdominal fat were detected. We conclude that HFHC feeding rapidly induces insulin resistance only in SAs. Thus, distinct adaptation to Western food may partly explain their propensity to develop type 2 diabetes.

  2. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  3. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotype: a dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Selin; Possemiers, Sam; Maervoet, Veerle; Huybrechts, Inge; Heyerick, Arne; Vervarcke, Stefaan; Depypere, Herman; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; De Henauw, Stefaan; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women was undertaken. After a 4 d washout period, participants delivered faeces, blank urine and breath samples. Next, they started a 5 d treatment with hop-based supplements that were administered three times per d and on the last day, a 24 h urine sample was collected. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to estimate fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes. The recoveries of IX, 8-PN and X in the urine were low and considerable inter-individual variations were observed. A five-fold increase in the dosage of IX without change in 8-PN concentration resulted in a significant lower IX recovery and a higher 8-PN recovery. Classification of the subjects into poor (60%), moderate (25%) and strong (15%) 8-PN producers based on either urinary excretion or microbial bioactivation capacity gave comparable results. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. A positive trend between methane excretion and 8-PN production was observed. Strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and had a higher theobromine intake. From this study we conclude that in vivo O-demethylation of IX increases the oestrogenic potency of hop-derived products.

  4. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals: results from the Danish blood donor study.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, S R; Pedersen, O B; Petersen, M S; Sørensen, E; Thørner, L W; Sørensen, C J; Rigas, A S; Hjalgrim, H; Rostgaard, K; Ullum, H; Erikstrup, C

    2016-08-01

    Chronic inflammation can lead to anaemia of chronic disease due to the sequestration of iron caused by inflammatory cytokines and the protein hepcidin. However, the effect of low-grade inflammation (LGI) on haemoglobin among healthy individuals is not known. This study examines the effect of LGI on haemoglobin among Danish blood donors. We performed multivariable linear regression to assess the effect of LGI (i.e. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein above 3 mg/l but below 10 mg/l) on haemoglobin in 17 322 Danish blood donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effect of LGI on the risk of having low haemoglobin (below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively). We adjusted for donation activity, age, sex, low ferritin, oral contraceptives and menopause. All analyses were stratified by current smoking status. LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): -0·11-0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05-1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95% CI: 0·06-0·18). In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin through CO exposure. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of single, oral doses of GSK1278863, a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Hara, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Wakamatsu, Akira; Caltabiano, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and safety of GSK1278863, a novel prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, following a single oral administration of GSK1278863 from 10 to 100 mg or placebo in Japanese (n = 19), and 10, 25 and 100 mg in Caucasians (n = 14). Dose-proportional increases were observed in AUCinf of GSK1278863 in both ethnic groups, with a 1.3-1.5-fold higher exposure seen in Japanese relative to Caucasians for all doses. This difference in exposure can be mainly explained by the observed differences in body weights between the two groups. Statistically significant increases in erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reticulocyte counts were observed in Japanese subjects after the 50 and 100 mg dose as compared to placebo. In Caucasians, similar to Japanese, EPO and VEGF levels were observed to be increased in response to the 100 mg dose. Drug-related adverse events, including headache and abdominal pain were reported in 3 Japanese subjects, while headache was reported in 3 Caucasians. In conclusion, GSK1278863 was well tolerated, with dose-proportional increases in exposure observed in both groups. There was no evidence of ethnic differences between Japanese and Caucasian with regard to PK or PD. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Walnut-enriched diet reduces fasting non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in healthy Caucasian subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liya; Piotrowski, Katja; Rau, Tiina; Waldmann, Elisa; Broedl, Uli C; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Stark, Renee G; Nagel, Jutta M; Mantzoros, Christos S; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2014-03-01

    Walnut consumption is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed the effect of walnuts on lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, inflammation and endothelial function in healthy Caucasian men and postmenopausal women ≥50years old. Forty subjects (mean±SEM: age 60±1years, BMI 24.9±0.6kg/m(2); 30 females) were included in a controlled, cross-over study and randomized to receive first a walnut-enriched (43g/d) and then a Western-type (control) diet or vice-versa, with each lasting 8weeks and separated by a 2-week wash-out. At the beginning and end of each diet phase, measurements of fasting values, a mixed meal test and an assessment of postprandial endothelial function (determination of microcirculation by peripheral artery tonometry) were conducted. Area under the curve (AUC), incremental AUC (iAUC) and treatment×time interaction (shape of the curve) were evaluated for postprandial triglycerides, VLDL-triglycerides, chylomicron-triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Compared with the control diet, the walnut diet significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol (walnut vs. control: -10±3 vs. -3±2mg/dL; p=0.025) and apolipoprotein-B (-5.0±1.3 vs. -0.2±1.1mg/dL; p=0.009) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI and diet sequence. Total cholesterol showed a trend toward reduction (p=0.073). Fasting VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c did not change significantly. Similarly, fasting adipokines, C-reactive protein, biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism and endothelial function were unaffected. Daily consumption of 43g of walnuts for 8weeks significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B, which may explain in part the epidemiological observation that regular walnut consumption decreases CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and associated factors in an otherwise healthy population: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Didriksen, Maria; Rigas, Andreas S; Allen, Richard P; Burchell, Brendan J; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Nielsen, Maria H; Jennum, Poul; Werge, Thomas; Erikstrup, Christian; Pedersen, Ole B; Bruun, Mie T; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. RLS often occurs as a comorbid condition. Besides an increased risk of iron deficiency, blood donors are considered to be generally healthy. Blood donors are therefore an ideal population for studying factors associated with RLS occurrence, herein the role of iron. It is suggested that RLS is linked to sex, age, low socioeconomic status, unhealthy lifestyle, and iron deficiency. The objective of this study is therefore to estimate the RLS prevalence and identify associated biological, sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in a population of blood donors. A total of 13,448 blood donors enrolled in the Danish Blood Donor Study from May 2015 to May 2016. RLS cases were identified using the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS-questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the relationship between RLS and data on socially related factors collected using questionnaires and population registers. In this study, 7.2% women and 4.5% men were classified with RLS. RLS was associated with: female sex, high age, smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, and low education. RLS-related symptoms were associated with obesity, parity and donation intensity three years prior to inclusion among women. RLS was not related to: reduced plasma ferritin, employment status, and income. RLS is a frequent disorder in otherwise healthy individuals. The associations discovered in this study can be utilized in preventing or reducing RLS symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Peritoneal and genital coccidioidomycosis in an otherwise healthy Danish female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bæk, Ole; Astvad, Karen; Serizawa, Reza; Wheat, Lawrence J; Brenøe, Pia T; Hansen, Ann-Brit E

    2017-01-31

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. We report the first case of extra pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in a non-immunocompromised individual in Denmark. A 32 year old Danish woman presented at the Emergency department with abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan and ultrasound examination of the pelvis raised suspicion of salpingitis. A laparoscopy exposed a necrotic salpinx and several small white elements that resembled peritoneal carcinomatosis. Histological workup however determined that she suffered from disseminated coccidioidomycosis. The patient had lived 2 years in Las Vegas, in the United States of America, 7 years prior and had no memory of lung infection at the time. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is rare in non-immunocompromised individuals. The patient in this case underwent several rounds of in vitro fertilization treatment in the years before admittance. We suspect that the hormonal treatment in combination with low-dose prednisolone may have triggered reemergence of the disease and present literature that support this.

  9. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. Methods We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. Results During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Conclusions In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors. PMID:27701463

  10. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are green caterers more likely to serve healthy meals than non-green caterers? Results from a quantitative study in Danish worksite catering.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Be; Bruselius-Jensen, M; Andersen, Js; Lassen, A

    2006-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether organic conversion in catering has positive effects on the nutritional quality of menus offered. The methodology was based on a self-administered questionnaire. The self-declared priority given to the use of organic foods was measured as the basis for assigning catering managers to one of two groups: 'green' or 'non-green' caterers. These groups were then compared with regard to the relative nutritional quality of the menu options offered to customers. The study was carried out among randomly selected Danish worksite catering outlets. The subjects participating in the study comprised 526 Danish worksite catering managers. The results showed a strong correlation between caterers' 'green-ness' and the nutritional quality of the menu options offered. Green caters had more healthy options in their menus than non-green caters, which is likely to result in improved nutritional quality of the diets of end consumers. The reason for this may partly be the increased service training efforts that green caterers practise in order to be able to implement organic foods successfully. It may also be associated with the fact that the price premiums and availability of the organic products forces caterers to serve menus with higher amounts of root and non-green leafy vegetables, pulses and seasonal vegetables. The present findings suggest that organic conversion of public canteens may be a good opportunity to promote healthier eating in public catering.

  12. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes--The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-10-21

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5-6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61-0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53-0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D.

  13. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  14. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics. In vitro and animal studies have shown weak estrogenic and other endocrine disrupting effects of parabens, including reduced testosterone levels in exposed male rats. The knowledge of paraben exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl paraben was only measurable in urine from 7% of the men. Methyl- and n-propyl parabens were also measurable in the majority of serum and seminal plasma samples, whereas the other parabens could only be detected in some of the samples. In all the three matrices significant correlations between the parabens were seen. Furthermore, urinary paraben concentrations correlate to the paraben concentrations in both serum and seminal plasma.

  15. Alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism in Caucasians, Chinese and Amerinds.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, T. E.; Kalant, H.; Gibbins, R. J.; Kapur, B. M.; Rankin, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Ethanol (0.4 to 0.8 g/kg in 30 minutes) was given by mouth to 102 healthy young volunteers (37 Caucasian men, 21 Caucasian women, 20 Chinese men and 24 Ojibwa men). Venous blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after the end of drinking were measured by gas chromatography. The calculated rates of ethanol metabolism in the Caucasian men and women did not differ, but the overall group means for subgroups of Caucasians (103.6 mg/kg-h), Chinese (136.6 mg/kg-h) and Ojibwa (182.7 mg/kg-h) with decreasing postabsorption values differed significantly from each other. Mean acetaldehyde values paralleled the rates of ethanol metabolism: Ojibwa, 14.6 mug/ml; Chinese, 10.0 mug/ml; and Caucasians, 9.4 mug/ml. The high rate of ethanol metabolism in Amerind subjects differs from previous findings. Habitual level of alcohol consumption, proportion of body fat and genetic factors appear to account for most of the group differences. PMID:991030

  16. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorative secondary outcome analysis on data from 784 children from the OPUS School Meal Study, a cluster-randomised cross-over trial where children received school meals for 3 months and habitual lunch for 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of each dietary period, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD, IGF-1 or OC. However, season-modified effects were observed with 25(OH)D, i.e. children completing the school meal period in January/February had higher 25(OH)D status (5·5 (95 % CI 1·8, 9·2) nmol/l; P = 0·004) than children completing the control period in these months. A similar tendency was indicated in November/December (4·1 (95 % CI -0·12, 8·3) nmol/l; P = 0·057). However, the effect was opposite in March/April (-4·0 (95 % CI -7·0, -0·9) nmol/l; P = 0·010), and no difference was found in May/June (P = 0·214). Unexpectedly, the school meals slightly increased PTH (0·18 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods are needed.

  17. Are African-American nuclear workers at lower mortality risk than Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, D; Brown, S; Mohr, S; Cragle, D; Friedlander, B

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated disparities in worker mortality across race at the Savannah River site (SRS) nuclear facility in Aiken, South Carolina. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated stratified by race (Caucasian, African-American) and gender for specific causes of death, and by race, gender, duration of employment, and follow-up for overall mortality. Race-specific standardized mortality ratios for African-American male workers generally were lower than those for Caucasian male workers, although both groups showed strong healthy worker effects. Nevertheless, African-American male workers generally had higher absolute mortality rates. Understanding why SRS African-American male workers are substantially healthier than their reference population as compared with Caucasian male workers but are less healthy in absolute terms than the SRS Caucasian male workers may provide clues for prevention or intervention. Further, the standardized mortality ratios at the SRS were lower than at the Hanford and Oak Ridge nuclear facilities, which warrants investigation.

  18. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-02-01

    This study presents Danish data for Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Education and estimated verbal intelligence (DART score) had a significant impact on the RAVLT trial 1-5 score but not on other RAVLT measures. The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States.

  19. Racial influences associated with weight-related beliefs in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D

    2007-01-01

    This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.

  20. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  1. A comparison of aesthetic proportions between the Oriental and Caucasian nose.

    PubMed

    Leong, S C L; White, P S

    2004-12-01

    Differences in aesthetics between the Oriental and Caucasian nose were examined from a cohort of 118 healthy volunteers of which 61 had an Oriental and 57 had a Caucasian racial origin. The oriental nose projected less from the face, and was broader at the intercanthal level (P < 0.001) and the alar base (P < 0.001), but not at the bony base. The oriental nose projected less at all levels: nasion projection (P < 0.001) and tip projection (P < 0.001). The naso-labial angles for the Orientals in this study exhibited a wider range of variation than the Caucasians, with the oriental male exhibiting the most acute angle (average 86.2 degrees ), because of the forward angulation of the upper lip. Many of the average aesthetic parameters obtained from these two cohorts of healthy subjects did not conform to the published aesthetic standards, set out as the ideal goals for rhinoplasty.

  2. Changes in hematologic indices in caucasian and non-caucasian pregnant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harm, Sarah K; Yazer, Mark H; Waters, Jonathan H

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least <0.01) starting at 27 weeks gestation and proceeding until term. There was no significant difference in the mean PLT counts between Caucasian and non-Caucasian pregnant women at any point during gestation. There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.

  3. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  4. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  5. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles Noah; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-05-01

    First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. Subjects with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn's disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn's disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn's disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 - a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn's disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn's disease-associated antibodies. First Nations had

  6. Studies of genetic variability of the uncoupling protein 1 gene in Caucasian subjects with juvenile-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Urhammer, S A; Fridberg, M; Sørensen, T I; Echwald, S M; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Clausen, J O; Pedersen, O

    1997-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether genetic variants of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene are associated with juvenile-onset obesity or alterations in weight gain and insulin sensitivity in young healthy Caucasians. Single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis of the coding region of the UCP1 gene was performed in 56 subjects randomly selected at the draft board examination from a cohort of 156 males with juvenile-onset obesity. Association studies of amino acid variants were undertaken in the cohort of males with juvenile-onset obesity, a cohort of 205 randomly selected control males, and a subgroup of this cohort comprising 76 lean subjects. Genetic variants of the coding region as well as a previously described a-->g nucleotide polymorphism of the 5'-flanking region of the UCP1 gene were examined for associations with accelerated weight gain or reduced sensitivity to insulin in a cohort of 380 young healthy Caucasians. The mutational analysis revealed five nucleotide substitutions that changed the sequence of UCP1, Arg/Trp40, Ala/Thr64, Val/Met137, Met/Leu229, and Lys/Asn257 and two nucleotide substitutions in the nontranslated region of exon 1. Among subjects with juvenile-onset obesity, the allelic frequencies of Ala/Thr64 and Met/Leu229 were both 8.2% (95% confidence interval: 5.1-11.3%) vs. 8.8% (6.0-11.6%) and 8.1% (5.3-10.9%), respectively, in the cohort of randomly selected control subjects. Among lean control subjects, the allelic frequencies of the polymorphisms were 8.2% (3.7-12.7%) and 5.6% (1.9-9.3%), respectively. In the cohort of young healthy subjects, measurements of obesity and insulin sensitivity did not differ between carriers of the Ala/Thr64 and Met/Leu229 variants and wild-type carriers. The Val/Met137 and Lys/Asn257 mutations were each found in one subject with juvenile-onset obesity, and the Arg/Trp40 mutation was found in two obese subjects and in one control subject. The allelic frequency of the nucleotide

  7. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  8. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  9. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  10. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites.

  11. Proportionality in Asian and North American Caucasian faces using neoclassical facial canons as criteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy T; Farkas, Leslie G; Ngim, Rexon C K; Levin, L Scott; Forrest, Christopher R

    2002-01-01

    Nine projective linear measurements were taken to determine morphometric differences of the face among healthy young adult Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thais (60 in each group) and to assess the validity of six neoclassical facial canons in these populations. In addition, the findings in the Asian ethnic groups were compared to the data of 60 North American Caucasians. The canons served as criteria for determining the differences between the Asians and Caucasians. In neither Asian nor Caucasian subjects were the three sections of the facial profile equal. The validity of the five other facial canons was more frequent in Caucasians (range: 16.7-36.7%) than in Asians (range: 1.7-26.7%). Horizontal measurement results were significantly greater in the faces of the Asians (en-en, al-al, zy-zy) than in their white counterparts; as a result, the variation between the classical proportions and the actual measurements was significantly higher among Asians (range: 90-100%) than Caucasians (range: 13.3-48%). The dominant characteristics of the Asian face were a wider intercanthal distance in relation to a shorter palpebral fissure, a much wider soft nose within wide facial contours, a smaller mouth width, and a lower face smaller than the forehead height. In the absence of valid anthropometric norms of craniofacial measurements and proportion indices, our results, based on quantitative analysis of the main vertical and horizontal measurements of the face, offers surgeons guidance in judging the faces of Asian patients in preparation for corrective surgery.

  12. Haematological studies on pre-menopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Sanders, T A

    1990-09-01

    Full blood counts, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate, erythrocyte folate concentrations and nutrient intakes were estimated in twenty-three Indian vegetarian, twenty-two Caucasian omnivores and eighteen Caucasian vegetarian women aged 25-40 years. Energy and copper intakes were lower in the Indian women than in the Caucasians. Intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin C and folate were greater and the proportion of energy derived from fat was lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores. Vitamin B12 and protein intakes were lower in both vegetarian groups than in the omnivores. Fe intake was similar in all the groups but haem Fe provided one-quarter of the Fe intake of the omnivores. Haemoglobin concentrations were generally inside the normal range in all groups, but were lower in the Indians as were mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Higher MCV, MCH and lower erythrocyte (RBC) counts were observed in Caucasian vegetarians compared with the Caucasian omnivores. In both groups of vegetarians, concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and ferritin were markedly lower than in the omnivores. RBC folate concentrations were lower in the Indians than in either of the Caucasian groups when subjects taking supplements were excluded. It is concluded that vegetarians need to ensure they have adequate intakes of Fe and vitamin B12.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of macitentan in caucasian and Japanese subjects: the influence of ethnicity and sex.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Shirin; Marjason, Joanne; Sidharta, Patricia N; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Macitentan is a novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist with sustained receptor binding in clinical development for pulmonary arterial hypertension. The present study compared the pharmacokinetics and safety of macitentan in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects and explored the potential sex differences. In this single-center, open-label, phase I study 10 healthy subjects of each ethnic origin with a male/female ratio of 1:1 in each group were administered a single oral 10-mg dose of macitentan. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma levels of macitentan and its pharmacologically active metabolite, ACT-132577, and safety and tolerability were monitored using standard assessments. For both macitentan and its metabolite, values for Cmax were similar but a shorter half-life was determined in Japanese subjects resulting in an exposure to both compounds being approximately 15% lower in Japanese when compared to Caucasian subjects. The exposure to macitentan was similar in Japanese males and females whereas Caucasian females had an approximately 25% higher exposure than Caucasian males. In both ethnic groups, females had an approximately 15% higher exposure to ACT-132577 than male subjects. Macitentan was well tolerated in both ethnic groups. There were no clinically significant differences in adverse event profile, clinical laboratory, electrocardiographic parameters, and vital signs between both groups. The data suggest that the minor differences in pharmacokinetics between the two groups are not clinically relevant and no dose adjustment of macitentan based on Japanese ethnic origin or sex is necessary. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  15. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  16. Influence of ethnic origin (Asian v. Caucasian) and background diet on the bioavailability of dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Sébastien; Sauvant, Patrick; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Soya isoflavones: genistein and daidzein are increasingly consumed in Western countries. Their beneficial effects are discussed considering nutrition and health in Asia. The present study aimed to check whether chronic ingestions, ethnic origin and dietary context can influence soya phyto-oestrogen bioavailability. Two prospective trials were carried out to blindly assess the pharmacokinetics after acute and chronic intake of soya-based cheese (45.97 (sd1.57) mg isoflavones) taken once a day for 10 d. Twelve healthy young Asians immersed for 2 months in France were randomised in a cross-over design to compare the influence of a Western v. Asian dietary context. The second trial partly nested in the first one, compared Asians under the Western diet to twelve healthy young male Caucasians under the same diet. All volunteers were non-equol producers. After an acute intake of soya in Western diet, Asians exhibited higher maximum concentration measured in plasma (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for genistein and daidzein than Caucasians (P = 0.005, 0.006, 0.032 and 0.008, respectively). In Caucasians under Western diet, AUC and Cmax values significantly increased after chronic intake. This was not the case for daidzein in Asians whatever the dietary context. For the first time, it is evidenced that on acute intake of soya cheese, Asians absorb soya phyto-oestrogens better than Caucasians, regardless of whether the background diet is Western or Asian. On chronic ingestions, AUC and Cmax values were increased for daidzein and genistein in Caucasians but not in Asians. There are ethnic differences in isoflavone pharmacokinetic and bioavailability. This may influence health outcomes.

  17. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  18. A study of dental development in a Caucasian population compared with a non-Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Al-Tuwirqi, A; Holcombe, T; Seow, W K

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare dental development in children from a non-Caucasian population (Saudi Arabia) with age- and gender- matched children from a Caucasian population (Australia). Randomised study comparing two population groups using a common set of standards. Dental ages of 842 Australian and 456 Saudi Arabian children were assessed from orthopantomograms (OPGs) using the method of Demirjian and co-workers. The children were divided into male and female groups of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 year-olds, and the dental age of each child compared to that the corresponding calendar age group. In both Australian and Saudi Arabian children, the dental ages were higher than the corresponding calendar ages. The largest difference between calendar and dental ages (1.10±0.80 years, p<0.001) was noted in 11-12 year-old Saudi Arabian girls, and the smallest difference (0.33±1.19 years, p<0.01) in 11-12 year-old Australian boys. These discrepancies between calendar and dental ages were significantly different between Australian and Saudi Arabian children (p<0.01). Although the results suggest that dental development of both Caucasian and non-Caucasian children are generally underestimated by current standards, a few age-specific differences between the two types of population can be discerned.

  19. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  20. Melanoma: differences between Asian and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haur Yueh; Chay, Wen Yee; Tang, Mark By; Chio, Martin Tw; Tan, Suat Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is rare in Asia and the clinical presentation and outcome of melanoma is not well described in Southeast Asia. In addition, it is unclear if ethnic variations exist between the various racial groups. The objective of our study is to present the clinical characteristics of melanoma in Singapore and to highlight ethnical differences between Asians and Caucasians living in Singapore. Data were retrospectively collected from 48 patients with histological confirmation of melanoma who were seen in both the National Skin Centre and National Cancer Centre of Singapore. Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common subtype of melanoma in Singapore (50%). A higher proportion of non-ALM subtypes of melanoma compared to ALM were diagnosed at stage 1 (48% vs. 25%). The delay in diagnosis of ALM was 27 months compared to 12 months in other subtypes. Compared to Caucasians, there was a trend towards Asian patients being older, having a higher proportion of ALM and a longer delay to diagnosis. Geographical and ethnic variations in the clinical presentation of melanoma exist. Specially adapted programmes are necessary to increase awareness of the different clinical presentation of melanoma in Asia and to encourage examination of the palms and soles in order to reduce the delay in diagnosis.

  1. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kitahara, Takashi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Witt, Pamela S; Simion, F Anthony; Takema, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    We compared age-related changes in wrinkles in eight areas of facial skin (forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, corner of the eye, lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) and sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females and of Japanese females. The subjects studied included 85 healthy Caucasian females (ages 20-69 years) living in Cincinnati in the U.S. and 70 Japanese females (ages 20-69 years) living in Tokyo. Photos of the face in frontal and in oblique 45 degrees views were analyzed. Wrinkles in the face and sagging in the subzygomatic area were graded on Japanese photoscales, respectively, by the same experienced observer. The wrinkle score increased with age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years, the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were similar at advanced ages between the two groups, while the wrinkle scores in lower areas of the face (lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) were markedly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in each age group, and reached an upper limit at advanced ages in Caucasian females. The sagging score also increased with age in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. The sagging score was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in the groups aged 40 years or more. These results suggest more marked wrinkle formation in all areas of the face in younger age groups of Caucasian females living in North America than in Japanese females living in Tokyo. In particular, Caucasian females showed marked age-related wrinkle formation in the lower areas of the face, probably due to sagging in the subzygomatic area, which suggests a higher susceptibility to sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females.

  2. HDL functionality in South Asians as compared to white Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Bakker, L E H; Boon, M R; Annema, W; Dikkers, A; van Eyk, H J; Verhoeven, A; Mayboroda, O A; Jukema, J W; Havekes, L M; Meinders, A E; Willems van Dijk, K; Jazet, I M; Tietge, U J F; Rensen, P C N

    2016-08-01

    South Asians have an exceptionally high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to white Caucasians. A contributing factor might be dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We aimed to compare HDL function in different age groups of both ethnicities. HDL functionality with respect to cholesterol efflux, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation was determined using fasting, apoB-depleted, plasma samples from South Asian and white Caucasian neonates (n = 14 each), adolescent healthy men (n = 12 each, 18-25 y), and adult overweight men (n = 12 each, 40-50 y). Adolescents were subjected to a 5-day high fat high calorie diet (HCD) and adults to an 8-day very low calorie diet (LCD). Additionally, HDL composition was measured in adolescents and adults using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Anti-oxidative capacity was lower in South Asian adults before LCD (19.4 ± 2.1 vs. 25.8 ± 1.2%, p = 0.045, 95%-CI = [0.1; 12.7]) and after LCD (16.4 ± 2.4 vs. 27.6 ± 2.7%, p = 0.001, 95%-CI = [4.9; 17.5]). Anti-inflammatory capacity was reduced in South Asian neonates (23.8 ± 1.2 vs. 34.9 ± 1.3%, p = 0.000001, 95%-CI = [-14.6; -7.5]), and was negatively affected by an 8-day LCD only in South Asian adults (-12.2 ± 4.3%, p = 0.005, 95%-CI = [-5.9; -1.2]). Cholesterol efflux capacity was increased in response to HCD in adolescents (South Asians: +6.3 ± 2.9%, p = 0.073, 95%-CI = [-0.02; 0.46], Caucasians: +11.8 ± 3.4%, p = 0.002, 95%-CI = [0.17;0.65]) and decreased after LCD in adults (South Asians: -10.3 ± 2.4%, p < 0.001, 95%-CI = [-0.57; -0.20], Caucasians: -13.7 ± 1.9%, p < 0.00001, 95%-CI = [-0.67; -0.33]). Although subclass analyses of HDL showed no differences between ethnicities, cholesterol efflux correlated best with cholesterol and phospholipid within small HDL compared to other HDL subclasses and constituents. Impaired HDL functionality in South Asians may be a contributing factor to their high CVD risk

  3. Differences in mammographic density between Asian and Caucasian populations: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Nadia; Mariapun, Shivaani; Eriksson, Mikael; Tapia, Jose; Kwan, Pui Yoke; Ho, Weang Kee; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Czene, Kamila; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Hall, Per; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Mammographic density is a measurable and modifiable biomarker that is strongly and independently associated with breast cancer risk. Paradoxically, although Asian women have lower risk of breast cancer, studies of minority Asian women in predominantly Caucasian populations have found that Asian women have higher percent density. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the distribution of mammographic density for a matched cohort of Asian women from Malaysia and Caucasian women from Sweden, and determined if variations in mammographic density could be attributed to population differences in breast cancer risk factors. Volumetric mammographic density was compared for 1501 Malaysian and 4501 Swedish healthy women, matched on age and body mass index. We used multivariable log-linear regression to determine the risk factors associated with mammographic density and mediation analysis to identify factors that account for differences in mammographic density between the two cohorts. Compared to Caucasian women, percent density was 2.0% higher among Asian women (p < 0.001), and dense volume was 5.7 cm(3) higher among pre-menopausal Asian women (p < 0.001). Dense volume was 3.0 cm(3) lower among post-menopausal Asian women (p = 0.009) compared to post-menopausal Caucasian women, and this difference was attributed to population differences in height, weight, and parity (p < 0.001). Our analysis suggests that among post-menopausal women, population differences in mammographic density and risk to breast cancer may be accounted for by height, weight, and parity. Given that pre-menopausal Asian and Caucasian women have similar population risk to breast cancer but different dense volume, development of more appropriate biomarkers of risk in pre-menopausal women is required.

  4. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  5. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  6. Spoken Danish. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Jeannette; Stig-Nielsen, Karin

    This is one of a series of self-teaching textbooks initially prepared for the Armed Forces and now offered to the public. The text is designed to be used with a native speaker of Danish or with the accompanying recordings. The textbook is divided into three major sections, each consisting of five learning units and one unit for review. Each unit…

  7. The Danish System Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  8. Is pelvic organ support different between young nulliparous African and Caucasian women?

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Krause, H G; Wong, V; Goh, J; Dietz, H P

    2016-06-01

    There seems to be substantial variation in the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders between different ethnic groups. This may be due partially to differences in pelvic floor structure and functional anatomy. To date, data on this issue are sparse. The aim of this study was to compare hiatal dimensions, pelvic organ descent and levator biometry in young, healthy nulliparous Caucasian and African women. Healthy nulliparous non-pregnant volunteers attending a local nursing school in Uganda were invited to participate in this study during two fistula camps. All volunteers underwent a simple physician-administered questionnaire and a four-dimensional translabial ultrasound examination. Offline analysis was performed to assess hiatal dimensions, pelvic organ descent, levator muscle thickness and area. To compare findings with those obtained in nulliparous non-pregnant Caucasians, we retrieved the three-dimensional/four-dimensional ultrasound volume datasets of a previously published study. The dataset of 76 Ugandan and 49 Caucasian women was analyzed. The two groups were not matched but they were comparable in age and body mass index. All measurements of hiatal dimensions and pelvic organ descent were significantly higher among the Ugandans (all P ≤ 0.01); however, muscle thickness and area were not significantly different between the two groups. Substantial differences between Caucasian and Ugandan non-pregnant nulliparae were identified in this study comparing functional pelvic floor anatomy. It appears likely that these differences in functional anatomy are at least partly genetic in nature. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms [6] has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students [15]; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant

  10. Field-Dependence Factors in American Indian and Caucasian Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Charles J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared urban obese and nonobese American Indians and Caucasians on the Group Embedded Figures Test (N=160). Results indicated an apparent relationship between obesity and field-independence for Caucasians, but not for American Indians. American Indians were more field-dependent, which implies a social conformity factor. (JAC)

  11. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. PMID:27822105

  12. The Danish Adoption Register.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  13. A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is associated with sero-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Magdalena J; Hansen, Bettina; Troldborg, Anne; Lorenzen, Tove; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter; Nexø, Bjørn A; Lindegaard, Hanne M

    2014-10-10

    It has been suggested that polymorphisms in Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) are associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), but the implicated alleles have differed between studies. The aim of this investigation was to explore whether polymorphisms of TLR genes are associated with RA in a predominantly Caucasian population from Denmark using a case-control approach. DNA samples (3 university hospital outpatient clinics) were obtained from patients with RA (n = 704) and healthy controls (n = 639) in a Danish population. TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on the previously reported associations with chronic autoimmune diseases. Genotyping for the TLR SNPs was performed using Sequenom Multiplex technology.We identified one SNP in TLR3, [(rs3775291, P = 0.02, OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1087-1.5493)] significantly associated with the whole RA cohort. Subgroup analysis according to IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrinullated peptide (CCP) status suggested a significant association of sero-negative RA with the rs3775291 A allele and disease activity in this subset. These observations on a RA population of Danish ancestry suggest that variations in the TLR3 locus may be implicated in the pathogenesis of sero-negative RA. Since this TLR3 SNP has previously been associated with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), the present findings support the notion that TLR3 genetic variants may represent a common risk factor in different chronic inflammatory conditions, including RA and SLE.

  14. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  15. A comparison of Australian caucasian and aboriginal brain weights.

    PubMed

    Harper, C; Mina, L

    1981-01-01

    The weights of normal brains obtained at autopsy from Royal Perth Hospital and the Perth City Coroner's Department during the last decade were reviewed. The analysis involved 728 Caucasian and 63 Aboriginal brains. The ages ranged from 21 to 90 years, but the Aboriginal group were generally younger than the Caucasian. All brains were examined in detail by the Neuropathology Department, Royal Perth Hospital. Brains with any significant macroscopic or microscopic abnormality were excluded from the analysis. Statistical comparisons between the brain weights of the Caucasians and Aboriginal subpopulations show that Aboriginals had smaller brains than Caucasians. Even after correcting for body height, Caucasian brain weights were significantly heavier than Aboriginal brain weights. Results also showed that men had significantly higher mean brain weights than women of the same age. There was a tendency for the mean brain weight of both men and women to decrease in later life, particularly in the eighth and ninth decades. Ho et al. (1980) showed in their analysis of 1261 brains in the USA, that brain weight decreases from white males to black males to white females to black females. The tendency in both this and the present investigation for the non-Caucasians to have smaller brains than the Caucasians warrants further study.

  16. Danish Cultural Identity and the Teaching of Danish to Foreigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Hedwig

    2006-01-01

    Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)

  17. Orientation anisotropy: incidence and magnitude in Caucasian and Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Timney, B N; Muir, D W

    1976-08-20

    Cutoff spatial frequencies for sine-wave gratings were measured at four orientations for 100 Caucasian and 24 Chinese subjects, all of whom were raised in carpentered enviornments. For the Caucasian subjects, average acuity for horizontal and vertical gratings was superior to that for obliques by about one-quarter of an octive. However, about 10 percent of subjects showed an anisotropy of about one-eight of an ovtave. The carpentered enviornment explanation of orientation anisotropy cannot, in its present form, account for the wide variety of response patterns obtained, nor the differences between Chinese and Caucasian subjects.

  18. Differing reports of asthma symptoms in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Trochtenberg, D Scott; BeLue, Rhonda; Piphus, Sharon; Washington, Niketa

    2008-03-01

    This pilot study explores the reported symptoms in African Americans and Caucasians with asthma. Asthma patients in an inner-city pulmonary clinic were given a brief questionnaire of asthma symptoms and the BORG scale, followed by spirometry. African Americans were less likely to report nocturnal awakenings (67% vs. 100%; p = 0.037), complain of dyspnea (33% vs. 75%; p = 0.038), or experience chest pain (13% vs. 75%; p = 0.002) than Caucasians. This is the first study to demonstrate that there are clinically significant differences in the reporting of asthma symptoms between African Americans and Caucasians.

  19. Inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular function in African and Caucasian women from South Africa: the POWIRS study.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; van Vuuren, D; van Rooyen, J M; Huisman, H W; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Malan, N T

    2006-11-01

    The integrated relationship between inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular disease is currently a subject of much research interest. These specific relationships, however, have not been studied in-depth in South African population groups in order to determine the role of ethnicity. It is known that Africans, compared to Caucasians, suffer from a high prevalence of hypertension. It was therefore hypothesized that the levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen and leptin) are higher in Africans compared to Caucasians and are notably associated with cardiovascular dysfunction in Africans. Apparently healthy African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index (BMI), were recruited. Leptin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and lipid levels, waist circumference (WC), BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and Windkessel compliance were measured. Results showed that the levels of leptin, hsCRP and fibrinogen were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the African women. The inflammatory markers correlated strongly with cardiovascular parameters, age and obesity (BMI, WC) in both groups, but after adjusting for age and obesity, none of the correlations were significant anymore. Multiple regression analyses (with leptin, hsCRP or fibrinogen as dependent variable) showed that only leptin levels of African women were explained by cardiovascular parameters (BP, TPR and CO). In conclusion, even though African women had significantly higher leptin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and blood pressure levels than Caucasian women, no cardiovascular parameters explained the variation in the inflammatory markers (except for leptin levels of African women).

  20. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of tezosentan between caucasian and Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Gunawardena, Kulasiri A; van Giersbergen, Paul L M

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist tezosentan in caucasian and Japanese subjects. Twelve subjects of each ethnic origin were treated in a double-blind, randomized design with sequential 3-h infusions of 2.5, 5.0, 12.5 and 25 mg h(-1), or placebo. Vital signs, ECG and adverse events were recorded and blood samples collected for determination of plasma concentrations of tezosentan and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Tezosentan was well tolerated in both ethnic groups with no clinically significant differences in laboratory measurements, ECG parameters and vital signs. The plasma concentration-time profiles of tezosentan were described by a three-compartment model with half-lives of approximately 5 min, 41 min and 3.6 h. Mean clearance and volume of distribution were approximately 35 l h(-1) and 20 l, respectively. Differences in the means (95% confidence intervals) between ethnic groups in these two parameters were 6.0 l h(-1) (-1.3, 13.3) and 4.3 l (-1.3, 9.9), respectively. Baseline ET-1 concentrations were similar but increases in response to tezosentan were greater in caucasian than in Japanese subjects. An indirect response model described the relationship between tezosentan and ET-1 plasma concentrations. The mean concentrations inhibiting 50% of ET-1 clearance (IC(50)) in caucasian and Japanese subjects were 243 and 227 ng ml(-1), respectively, with a difference in the means of 28.6 ng ml(-1) (-52.7, 110). The data in healthy subjects suggest that caucasian and Japanese patients can be treated with a similar dosing regimen of tezosentan.

  1. In vivo and in vitro characterization of CYP2E1 activity in Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kim, R B; Yamazaki, H; Chiba, K; O'Shea, D; Mimura, M; Guengerich, F P; Ishizaki, T; Shimada, T; Wilkinson, G R

    1996-10-01

    Chlorzoxazone's disposition after oral administration was determined in 20 young healthy Caucasian men and a similar group of Japanese men. The drug's plasma concentrations were significantly higher and its rate of elimination slower in Japanese compared to Caucasian men. Accordingly, chlorzoxazone's oral clearance was smaller (40%) in Japanese men and a similar difference (30%) was still apparent after normalizing for body weight (3.74 +/- 1.23 versus 5.05 +/- 1.41 ml.min-1.kg-1, P < .05). This slower elimination was associated with a reduced (fractional) clearance by 6-hydroxylation (2.34 +/- 1.04 ml.min-1.kg-1 versus 3.23 +/- 1.10, P < .05). Because such metabolism is mediated by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), these findings suggest a lower level of the enzyme's catalytic activity in Japanese men. This was confirmed by in vitro studies with microsomes prepared from livers of individuals representative of the two racial groups. CYP2E1 levels were lower (61% P < .002) and CYP2E1-mediated chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (22%, P < .001) and aniline 4-hydroylase (35%, P < .0001) activities were reduced in Japanese preparations compared to those from Caucasians. No relationships were found between measures of CYP2E1 activity, both in vivo and in vitro, and genomic polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene identified by Rsal/Pstl and Dral restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Collectively, these data show an interracial difference in CYP2E1 activity. Because this enzyme is importantly involved in the activation of environmental procarcinogens, such a difference may account, in part, for the lower rate of some cancers, e.g., lung cancer, in Japanese compared to Caucasians men.

  2. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  3. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum in a Caucasian: case report.

    PubMed

    Parekh, H C; Gurusinghe, N T; Perera, S S; Prabhu, S S

    1993-01-01

    Ossification of the ligamenta flava (OLF) and posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the spine causing spinal cord compression is described mainly in Japanese patients and is often termed as 'Japanese disease'. We are reporting a case of OLF of the thoracic spine seen in a male Caucasian who presented with an intractable intercostal pain. This is the first case report of OLF in a Caucasian.

  4. Iris melanocyte numbers in Asian, African American, and Caucasian irides.

    PubMed

    Albert, Daniel M; Green, W Richard; Zimbric, Michele L; Lo, Cecilia; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hope, Kirsten L; Gleiser, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The anatomical basis for iris color has long been a controversial issue in ophthalmology. Recent studies demonstrated that in Caucasians, blue-eyed, gray-eyed, and hazel-eyed individuals have comparable numbers of iris melanocytes. The present investigation was carried out to compare melanocyte numbers in the irides of Asian, African American, and Caucasian brown-eyed individuals. Paraffin-embedded sections from 71 brown-colored irides were incubated with rabbit anti-cow antibody against S100a, linked with an FITC conjugate antibody, and counterstained with Evans blue. Cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope and scored as melanocytes or other cells. Cell number, density, and iris area were calculated for each specimen. Caucasian and African American irides had comparable mean total melanocyte numbers. Asian irides had fewer total melanocytes than African American (P = .042) and Caucasian (P = .001) irides and smaller total number of cells (ie, melanocytes plus other cells) than African American (P = .054) or Caucasian (P = .009) irides. There is a statistically significant smaller mean total melanocyte number and mean total cellularity in Asian irides as compared to Caucasian and African American irides. This difference appears to be due to the combination of smaller iris area and lower melanocyte density in the Asian irides. The possibility exists that this may be a factor in ethnic variations in certain ocular diseases.

  5. Iris melanocyte numbers in Asian, African American, and Caucasian irides.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Daniel M; Green, W Richard; Zimbric, Michele L; Lo, Cecilia; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hope, Kirsten L; Gleiser, Joel

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anatomical basis for iris color has long been a controversial issue in ophthalmology. Recent studies demonstrated that in Caucasians, blue-eyed, gray-eyed, and hazel-eyed individuals have comparable numbers of iris melanocytes. The present investigation was carried out to compare melanocyte numbers in the irides of Asian, African American, and Caucasian brown-eyed individuals. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections from 71 brown-colored irides were incubated with rabbit anti-cow antibody against S100a, linked with an FITC conjugate antibody, and counterstained with Evans blue. Cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope and scored as melanocytes or other cells. Cell number, density, and iris area were calculated for each specimen. RESULTS: Caucasian and African American irides had comparable mean total melanocyte numbers. Asian irides had fewer total melanocytes than African American (P = .042) and Caucasian (P = .001) irides and smaller total number of cells (ie, melanocytes plus other cells) than African American (P = .054) or Caucasian (P = .009) irides. CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistically significant smaller mean total melanocyte number and mean total cellularity in Asian irides as compared to Caucasian and African American irides. This difference appears to be due to the combination of smaller iris area and lower melanocyte density in the Asian irides. The possibility exists that this may be a factor in ethnic variations in certain ocular diseases. PMID:14971580

  6. Gefitinib Treatment in EGFR Mutated Caucasian NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Ostoros, Gyula; Cobo, Manuel; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Cole, Rebecca; McWalter, Gael; Walker, Jill; Dearden, Simon; Webster, Alan; Milenkova, Tsveta; McCormack, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the phase IV, open-label, single-arm study NCT01203917, first-line gefitinib 250 mg/d was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (previously published). Here, we report EGFR mutation analyses of plasma-derived, circulating-free tumor DNA. Methods: Mandatory tumor and duplicate plasma (1 and 2) baseline samples were collected (all screened patients; n = 1060). Preplanned, exploratory analyses included EGFR mutation (and subtype) status of tumor versus plasma and between plasma samples. Post hoc, exploratory analyses included efficacy by tumor and plasma EGFR mutation (and subtype) status. Results: Available baseline tumor samples were 1033 of 1060 (118 positive of 859 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 13.7%). Available plasma 1 samples were 803 of 1060 (82 positive of 784 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 10.5%). Mutation status concordance between 652 matched tumor and plasma 1 samples was 94.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.3–96.0) (comparable for mutation subtypes); test sensitivity was 65.7% (95% CI, 55.8–74.7); and test specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.0–100.0). Twelve patients of unknown tumor mutation status were subsequently identified as plasma mutation-positive. Available plasma 2 samples were 803 of 1060 (65 positive of 224 mutation status-evaluable and -known). Mutation status concordance between 224 matched duplicate plasma 1 and 2 samples was 96.9% (95% CI, 93.7–98.7). Objective response rates are as follows: mutation-positive tumor, 70% (95% CI, 60.5–77.7); mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1, 76.9% (95% CI, 65.4–85.5); and mutation-positive tumor and mutation-negative plasma 1, 59.5% (95% CI, 43.5–73.7). Median progression-free survival (months) was 9.7 (95% CI, 8.5–11.0; 61 events) for mutation-positive tumor and 10.2 (95% CI, 8.5–12.5; 36 events) for mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1

  7. Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension.

    PubMed

    Ioi, Hideki; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko; Counts, Amy L

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine Japanese cephalometric norms in the antero-posterior and vertical dimension, and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Japanese and Caucasian norms. Radiographs were obtained from 25 healthy Japanese males (aged 25.1 +/- 2.7 years) and 24 healthy Japanese females (aged 23.6 +/- 1.3 years). Inclusion criteria were an ANB angle between 2 and 5 degrees, a normal occlusion with minor or no crowding, all teeth present except third molars, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Two angular and five linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal hard tissue analysis, one angular and six linear measurements for the dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for the soft tissue analysis. The mean and standard deviations for the hard and soft tissue measurements were determined for each gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine the mean differences for each cephalometric measurement between the Japanese and the Caucasians. In the antero-posterior dimension, the Japanese subjects had a significantly more retruded chin position (P < 0.001), typically protruding mandibular incisors, and protruded lip positions compared with the Caucasian norms. In the vertical dimension, the Japanese had a significantly steeper mandibular plane (P < 0.01). The Japanese females had a significantly larger lower face height and increased dental height (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that these cephalometric measurements might be helpful to formulate treatment plans for Japanese patients.

  8. Differences in bone turnover and intact PTH levels between African American and Caucasian patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, B Peter; Butros, Rezkalla; Naqvi, Shehzab; Geng, Zhaopo; Mawad, Hanna; Friedler, Robert; Fanti, Paolo; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut H

    2003-08-01

    Evidence derived from healthy subjects suggests that African Americans have higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and decreased bone responsiveness to PTH than Caucasians. African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) also have higher serum PTH than Caucasians. Studies that correlate intact PTH (iPTH) levels with bone turnover in ESRD patients were performed in a predominantly Caucasian population. In this study, serum iPTH and bone histomorphometric data were analyzed for racial differences in 76 ESRD patients (Caucasian = 48, African Americans = 28). Bone turnover was determined by histomorphometric measurement of activation frequency in all patients. Age, duration of dialysis, and calcium and phosphorus levels were similar between the two groups. iPTH levels (pg/mL; mean +/- SE) were significantly higher in the African American group (534 +/- 79 vs. 270 +/- 46, P < 0.01). Also, alkaline phosphatase levels (IU/L) were significantly higher in the African American group (162 +/- 31 vs. 144 +/- 43, P < 0.01). Correlations between PTH levels and activation frequency were r = 0.60, P < 0.01 in Caucasians and r = 0.22, P = NS in African Americans. The mean PTH level in African American patients with histologic findings of low bone turnover was 460 +/- 115 vs. 168 +/- 41 in Caucasian patients with similar bone turnover (P < 0.01). In patients with low bone turnover, African Americans had significantly higher osteoid volume and thickness, number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, erosion surface, peritrabecular fibrosis, and single-label surface than Caucasians. However, erosion depth, bone formation rate per osteoblast and mineralization apposition rate were similar between the two groups. There is no correlation between iPTH and bone turnover in African Americans with ESRD. A substantial number of African American patients with low bone turnover have very high serum PTH levels. Bone histomorphometric results reveal differences in remodeling

  9. Evaluation of Markers of Bone Turnover During Lactation in African-Americans: A Comparison With Caucasian Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Raquel M.; Prebehalla, Linda; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Sereika, Susan M.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The African-American skeleton is resistant to PTH; whether it is also resistant to PTHrP and the hormonal milieu of lactation is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess bone turnover markers in African-Americans during lactation vs Caucasians. Design and Participants: A prospective cohort study with repeated measures of markers of bone turnover in 60 African-American women (3 groups of 20: lactating, bottle feeding, and healthy controls), compared with historic Caucasian women. Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center. Outcome Measures: Biochemical markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism were measured. Results: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and PTH were similar among all 3 African-American groups, but 25-OHD was 30%–50% lower and PTH 2-fold higher compared with Caucasians (P < .001, P < .002), with similar 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] values. Formation markers [amino-terminal telopeptide of procollagen-1 (P1NP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)] increased significantly (2- to 3-fold) in lactating and bottle-feeding African-American women (P1NP, P < .001; BSAP, P < .001), as did resorption [carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen-1 (CTX) and serum amino-terminal telopeptide of collagen 1 (NTX), both P < .001]. P1NP and BSAP were comparable in African-American and Caucasian controls, but CTX and NTX were lower in African-American vs Caucasian controls. African-American lactating mothers displayed quantitatively similar increases in markers of bone formation but slightly lower increases in markers of resorption vs Caucasians (P = .036). Conclusions: Despite reported resistance to PTH, lactating African-American women have a significant increase in markers of bone resorption and formation in response the hormonal milieu of lactation. This response is similar to that reported in Caucasian women despite racial differences in 25-OHD and PTH. Whether this is associated with similar bone

  10. The Danish Nephrology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Heaf, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nephrology Registry’s (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities’ quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. Study population The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. Main variables DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data). Patients are followed until death or emigration. Descriptive data DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. Conclusion DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled. PMID:27843345

  11. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  12. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  13. Preferences for facial profiles between Mexican Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Maidl, Martha; Evans, Carla A; Viana, Grace; Anderson, Nina K; Giddon, Donald B

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences between Mexican American and Caucasian judges in the acceptability of lip protrusion in computer animations of two male and two female persons of Mexican descent. Thirty Caucasians and 30 Mexican Americans of varying age, sex, education, and level of acculturation responded to facial profile computer animations that moved lips from an extreme protrusive to an extreme retrusive position. Judges were asked to complete two tasks: (1) to press the mouse button when the image was perceived to be most pleasing (MP) and (2) to determine the boundaries of a zone of acceptability (ZA) of lip protrusion by pressing the mouse button when the moving image became acceptable and releasing it when the image of the protrusion became unacceptable. In general, Mexican Americans preferred upper or lower lip positions to be less protrusive than did Caucasians. Larger mean ZAs for both upper and lower lip positions with male computer animation images and lower lip position for female computer animation images were found among Caucasians when compared with low-acculturated Mexican Americans. A significant mean difference in midpoint of acceptability (MA) for lip position between Caucasians and low-acculturated Mexican Americans was observed for both upper and lower lip position with female computer animation images.

  14. Metabolic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients on clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Ng, Chee; Chong, Siow-Ann; Mahendran, Rathi; Lambert, Tim; Pek, Elaine; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2007-06-01

    To establish if there are ethnic differences in the various metabolic disturbances that are common with clozapine treatment. Forty subjects (20 Asians and 20 Caucasians) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited for the study. Clozapine blood levels as well as fasting blood glucose, lipid levels, and liver function tests were established. Other clinical parameters such as blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded for each patient. The mean clozapine dose was significantly higher in the Caucasian subjects (432.5+/-194.7 mg) as compared to the Asian subjects (175.6+/-106.9 mg) (p<0.001) while the mean weight-corrected dose for Asian patients was lower (3.0+/-1.9 and 5.0+/-2.1 mg/kg, respectively, p=0.005). There were, however, no ethnic differences in the mean plasma clozapine concentration (415.3+/-185.8 ng/ml in Caucasians and 417.1+/-290.8 ng/ml in Asians). BMI were significantly higher in Caucasians, as were the number of subjects with hypertension; levels of hepatic enzymes were higher in the Asian group. Not only are there pharmacokinetic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients receiving clozapine, but there may also be differential emergence of certain metabolic abnormalities like hypertension and weight gain in these two ethnic groups. However, the effects of life style including diet and exercise cannot be excluded. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Bacteriuria in pregnancy: a comparison of Bangladeshi and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Versi, E; Chia, P; Griffiths, D J; Harlow, B L

    1997-01-01

    During a 5-year period all urine culture results from pregnant Caucasian and Bangladeshi women booked for confinement at the Royal London Hospital, London, UK, were reviewed to determine race-specific rates of bacteriuria. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteriuria in the Caucasian group was 6.3% compared to 2.0% for the Bangladeshi women. Caucasian women were found to be at significantly greater risk across all pregnancy outcome and history categories, with the greatest risk observed in grand multiparous women (RR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.8-8.3). Pregnancies that resulted in preterm delivery showed a strong association of bacteriuria in Caucasian women which was not seen in the Bangladeshi women (RR: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.0-8.7). The data suggest that Caucasian women have a significantly higher prevalence of bacteriuria in pregnancy than their Bangladeshi neighbors. Differences in hygiene practices and clothing may explain the observed differences in the bacteriuria rates.

  16. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians when considering the formation of regression equations for prediction of body density. Accordingly, a group of 7 negroes and 7 caucasians were matched somatotypically and a comparison was made of their body density values obtained using a hydrostatic weighing technique and a closed-circuit helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes. The results show that if somatotype is taken into account then no significant difference in body density values is found between negro and caucasian professional football players. The players do not have to be placed in separate groups but it remains to be seen whether or not these results apply to general members of the population. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7317724

  17. Assessing appendicular skeletal muscle mass with bioelectrical impedance analysis in free-living Caucasian older adults.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; Berton, Linda; Carraro, Sara; Bano, Giulia; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Perissinotto, Egle

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a loss of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) leading to physical disability and death. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is reliable in estimating ASMM but no prediction equations are available for elderly Caucasian subjects. The aim of the study was to develop and validate an equation derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) in healthy Caucasian elderly subjects, taking dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method, and comparing the reliability of the new equation with another BIA-based model developed by Kyle et al. (Kyle UG, Genton L, Hans D, Pichard C, 2003). With a cross-sectional design, 296 free-living, healthy Caucasian subjects (117 men, 179 women) over 60 years of age were enrolled. Lean mass of limbs was measured with DXA to ascertain ASMM (ASMMDxA). Whole-body tetrapolar BIA was performed to measure resistance (Rz), resistance normalized for stature (RI), and reactance (Xc). The BIA multiple regression equation for predicting ASMM was developed using a double cross-validation technique. The predicted ASMM values were compared with ASMMKyle, i.e. ASMM estimates derived from the model developed by Kyle et al. (Kyle et al., 2003). Cross-validation resulted in a unique equation using the whole sample: ASMM (kg) = -3.964 + (0.227*RI) + (0.095*weight) + (1.384*sex) + (0.064*Xc) [R(2) = 0.92 and SEE = 1.14 kg]. In our sample, ASMMKyle differed significantly from the ASMMDxA (p < 0.0001), with a mean error of -0.97 ± 1.34 kg (5.1 ± 6.9%). Unlike the present BIA prediction equation, the Kyle et al. model showed a correlation between the bias and the mean of ASMMDxA and ASMMKyle (r = -0.406, p < 0.001). The new BIA equation provides a valid estimate of ASMM in older Caucasian adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Caucasian facial L* shifts may communicate anti-ageing efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zedayko, T; Azriel, M; Kollias, N

    2011-10-01

    An ageing study was conducted to capture skin colour parameters in the CIELab system from Caucasians of both genders and all available adult ages. This study produced a linear correlation between L* and age for a Caucasian population between 20 and 59 years of age as follows: (L* value) = -0.13 × (Age in years) + 63.01. Previous studies have addressed age-related changes in skin colour. This work presents a novel consumer correlated quantitative linear model of skin brightness by which to communicate age-related changes. Two product assessment studies are also presented here, demonstrating the ability of anti-ageing products to deliver on objective and subjective improvements in skin brightness. It was determined to be possible to use the fundamental Caucasian L*-age correlation to describe product benefits in a novel quantitative and consumer-relevant fashion, through the depiction of a 'years back' calculation.

  19. Chronic Family Stress Moderates the Association between a TOMM40 Variant and Triglyceride Levels in Two Independent Caucasian Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Babyak, Michael A.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Singh, Abanish; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Williams, Redford B.

    2013-01-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p = 0.004) and marginally significant (p = 0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention. PMID:23435269

  20. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Singh, Abanish; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2013-04-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjectless sentences in child Danish.

    PubMed

    Hamann, C; Plunkett, K

    1998-11-01

    Three alternative accounts of subject omission, pragmatic, processing and grammatical, are considered from the perspective of child Danish. Longitudinal data for two Danish children are analyzed for subject omission, finite and infinitival verb usage and discourse anchorage of sentence subjects (overt and missing). The data exhibit a well-defined phase of subject omission which coincides with a well-defined phase of infinitival verbal utterances. No evidence is found for input driven accounts of subject omission. Danish adults rarely omit subjects from utterance initial position. Neither is there any evidence to support the claim that omitted subjects are anchored in previous discourse. Evidence supporting a processing constraint explanation of missing subjects is equivocal. The pattern of subject omission, infinitival usage and third person pronoun and past tense usage points to a grammatical explanation of the phenomenon. However, current grammatical accounts have difficulty accommodating several aspects of the data reported. Contrary to structure building theories, the Danish children do not exhibit a phase of development where only uninflected verb forms are used. Danish children also omit subjects from finite utterances. Furthermore, the decline of subject omissions in finite utterances coincides with decline in usage of infinitival utterances. These findings challenge tense-based accounts of children's subject omission. Finally, Danish children exhibit an asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type; subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Given the language typology associated with Danish, this asymmetry is difficult to accommodate within truncation and tense or number-based accounts of subject omission. We suggest that a proper treatment of child subject omission will involve an integration of grammatical and discourse-based approaches.

  2. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  3. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  4. Lipid droplet dynamics and insulin sensitivity upon a 5-day high-fat diet in Caucasians and South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Gemmink, Anne; Bakker, Leontine E. H.; Guigas, Bruno; Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Meinders, A. Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2017-01-01

    A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m2, 19–25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat). Triglyceride extractions and Western Blots for lipid droplet and mitochondrial proteins were performed. Intramyocellular lipid content and HFHC-diet response were similar between ethnicities (group effect: P = 0.094; diet effect: +~30%, P = 0.044). PLIN5 protein content increased upon the HFHC-diet (P = 0.031) and tended to be higher in South Asians (0.87 ± 0.42 AU vs. 1.35 ± 0.58 AU, P = 0.07). 4-HNE tended to increase in South Asians upon the HFHC-diet (interaction effect: P = 0.057). In Caucasians ΔPLIN5 content correlated with ΔRd (Caucasians: r = 0.756, P = 0.011; South Asians: r = −0.085, P = 0.816), while in South Asians Δ4-HNE associated with ΔPLIN5 content (Caucasians: r = 0.312, P = 0.380; South Asians: r = 0.771, P = 0.003). These data indicate that in Caucasians, PLIN5 may be protective against HFHC-diet induced insulin resistance, which for reasons not yet understood is not observed in South Asians, who possess increased lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:28195217

  5. Lipid droplet dynamics and insulin sensitivity upon a 5-day high-fat diet in Caucasians and South Asians.

    PubMed

    Gemmink, Anne; Bakker, Leontine E H; Guigas, Bruno; Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2017-02-14

    A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), 19-25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat). Triglyceride extractions and Western Blots for lipid droplet and mitochondrial proteins were performed. Intramyocellular lipid content and HFHC-diet response were similar between ethnicities (group effect: P = 0.094; diet effect: +~30%, P = 0.044). PLIN5 protein content increased upon the HFHC-diet (P = 0.031) and tended to be higher in South Asians (0.87 ± 0.42 AU vs. 1.35 ± 0.58 AU, P = 0.07). 4-HNE tended to increase in South Asians upon the HFHC-diet (interaction effect: P = 0.057). In Caucasians ΔPLIN5 content correlated with ΔRd (Caucasians: r = 0.756, P = 0.011; South Asians: r = -0.085, P = 0.816), while in South Asians Δ4-HNE associated with ΔPLIN5 content (Caucasians: r = 0.312, P = 0.380; South Asians: r = 0.771, P = 0.003). These data indicate that in Caucasians, PLIN5 may be protective against HFHC-diet induced insulin resistance, which for reasons not yet understood is not observed in South Asians, who possess increased lipid peroxidation levels.

  6. A comparison study of the reference curves of bone mineral density at different skeletal sites in native Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Wu, X P; Liao, E Y; Huang, G; Dai, R C; Zhang, H

    2003-08-01

    To understand the differences among reference curves for bone mineral density (BMD) for Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women, we measured the BMD at the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine (L1-L4), lateral lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (including the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, Ward's triangle, and total hip), and ultradistal forearm by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a total of 2728 healthy Chinese women, aged 5-96 years. Documented BMD data for Japanese women and device manufacturer's BMD new reference databases (including the NHANES III dataset) for American Caucasian women were also used in this study. The cubic regression model was found to fit best in analyzing the age-associated variations of BMD at various sites in Chinese women, i.e., the equations had the largest coefficient of determination (R2). At the AP/Lat spine, trochanter, intertrochanter, and Ward's triangle, BMD reference curves for Chinese women were lower than those for Japanese or Caucasian women, while at the femoral neck, total hip, and ultradistal forearm, the reference curves for Chinese women were higher than those for Japanese women, with overlaps and crossing of the curves for some age spans in comparing the Chinese and Caucasian women. There were significant differences in the peak BMD (PBMD) at various sites among the Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian women (P = 0.000). The PBMDs for Chinese women at the lumbar spine and various sites of the hip were 5.7% +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD, range, 2.7-7.9%) lower than those for Japanese women and 5.1% +/- 2.7% (range, 0.5-7.2%) lower than those for Caucasian women; however, the PBMDs for Chinese women were 26.2% higher than those for Japanese women and 10% higher than those for Caucasian women at the ultradistal forearm. After the PBMD, average T-scores of Chinese women for losses at the AP lumbar spine with increasing age were nearly identical to those for Japanese women, but both were greater than those for

  7. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  8. Maturity and Regrowth Influences on Quality of Caucasian Bluestem Hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’], appears adapted to the mid-Atlantic region. Three experiments (Exp.), one with sheep and two with steers were conducted to assess hay quality. In Exp. 1, initial growth was cut at early boot, anthesis, and post-anthesis and...

  9. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  10. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  11. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  12. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  13. Counseling the Disadvantaged Caucasian: A Statistically Significant Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titison, Chessadar

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether counseling of disadvantaged students during the course of the academic school year would produce an improvement in their emotional problems and lessen the probability of their becoming school dropouts. The 26 disadvantaged Caucasian subjects received extensive counseling therapy for a…

  14. Eating Attitudes and Body Satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Sameena; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthy eating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…

  15. Body mass index in male Caucasian veterans with or without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kozaric-Kovacic, Dragica; Ilic, Mirjana Grubisic; Romic, Zeljko; Vidovic, Andjelko; Jendricko, Tihana; Pivac, Nela

    2009-11-13

    Obesity (defined as body mass index (BMI) higher than 30), is a serious and global public health problem, associated with increased morbidity and mortality and it represents a risk factor for developing various somatic and psychiatric disorders. Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is frequently associated with increased BMI which leads to overweight and obesity. We therefore evaluated BMI in the ethnically uniform Croatian male participants of the Caucasian origin, combat exposed veterans with or without PTSD, controlled for the effect of trauma, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and comorbid psychiatric disorders, and in age matched healthy control subjects. BMI did not differ significantly between veterans with or without PTSD and healthy control subjects, or when participants were subdivided according to the age groups, BMI categories, or the presence of psychiatric disorders. Limitation of the study might be a small number of veterans with or without PTSD. Similar BMI was found in Croatian male veterans with or without PTSD, and age matched healthy control subjects. The data provided evidence of overweight and obesity in large number of veterans but also in healthy control subjects, and indicated that public health organizations should develop more effective strategies to prevent overweight and obesity.

  16. Impact of season and diet on vitamin D status of African American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Holick, Michael F; Jeong, Kwonho; Moore, Charity G; Chen, Tai C; Olabopo, Flora; Haralam, Mary Ann; Nucci, Anita; Thomas, Stephen B; Greenspan, Susan L

    2011-06-01

    Seasonal variation of vitamin D status and adequacy of dietary vitamin D and impact of race on maintaining vitamin D sufficiency was assessed in 140 healthy 6- to 12-year-old African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) children residing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during summer and winter. Vitamin D insufficiency was not rare in either group (AA vs C, summer, 17.2% vs 14.3%, nonsignificant; winter, 34.1% vs 32.5%, nonsignificant) despite a mean dietary intake of vitamin D above the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended intake (400 IU/d; AA vs C, summer, 421 vs 456 IU/d, nonsignificant; winter, 507 vs 432 IU/d, nonsignificant). Race/season and dietary vitamin D were predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. However, dietary vitamin D influenced 25(OH)D only in Caucasians during winter. Current AAP recommended daily intake for vitamin D is inadequate for maintaining vitamin D sufficiency in children.

  17. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  18. Population Polymorphism of IFNL3 and IFNL4 Genes of Type 3 Interferon Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Representatives of Caucasian and Mongoloid Races.

    PubMed

    Malov, I V; Malov, S I; Savilov, E D; Gantulga, D; Stepanenko, L A; Ogarkov, O B; Nyamkhuu, D; Aitov, K A; Nyamdawa, P; Kolesnikov, S I

    2016-07-01

    The frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of IFNL3 gene (rsl12979860 and rs8099917) and dinucleotide polymorphism of IFNL4 gene (ss469415590) were estimated in healthy inhabitants of Mongolia and Irkutsk regions taking into account their races. Population and genetic studies were performed in 1520 conventionally healthy volunteers (blood donors), representatives of Caucasian and Mongoloid races. Significant race-related differences in the incidence of IFNL3 and IFNL4 gene polymorphisms associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus were found in healthy volunteers.

  19. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of different formulations of ONO-5334, cathepsin K inhibitor, in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.

  20. Racial disparities in stroke awareness: African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Alkadry, Mohamad G; Bhandari, Ruchi; Wilson, Christina S; Blessett, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the existence of racial disparities in incidence, mortality, and morbidity related to stroke. Awareness of risk factors could substantially lower the probability of stroke incidence. Awareness of stroke warning signs and treatment options could significantly alter the outcome of a stroke if patients immediately seek emergency help. This article examines the disparities in awareness of stroke risk factors, stroke signs, and action to be taken when stroke occurs. Survey results from 422 Caucasian Americans and 368 African Americans in West Virginia were analyzed. Significant disparities in recognition of cholesterol, smoking, prior stroke, and race as stroke risk factors were observed. The study also found a significant and substantial difference in awareness of stroke signs. There was also a significant difference in the way African Americans and Caucasians would respond to a stroke. The study found no evidence of disparities in recognition of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, alcoholism, and family history.

  1. Scrutinizing skinfield melanin patterns in young Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-09-01

    When using adequate wavelength illumination and high resolution recordings, Caucasian skin color appears uneven. The patterns of faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM) are diverse and possibly related to the risk of skin cancer development. The current peer-reviewed publications about objective methods quantifying FMM are revisited. The images from the Visioscan® and Visioface® Quick devices are computerized in order to record the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) and the color-enhanced visualization (CEV) of the skin. Previously published data regarding the FMM are gathered in 20 odd Caucasian women. Seven FMM patterns are distinguished. They appear expressed differently according to body regions, but the mean gray level appears more uniform. The combination of larger subclinical melanotic macules and ivory spots during early adulthood is apparently associated with an increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancers.

  2. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Caucasian, Filipina, and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Deborah J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah L; Schneider, Diane L

    2003-02-01

    Previous bone mineral density (BMD) studies have suggested Asian women have lower BMD and Hispanic women have similar or higher BMD compared with Caucasian women, partially explained by ethnic differences in body size. This study compared the effect of different variables representing body size on BMD in postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years from three ethnic groups in San Diego County, CA: 354 Caucasians, 285 Filipinas, and 164 Hispanics. In all three groups, BMD was measured by DXA (Hologic 2000) at the hip, lumbar spine, and total body. Lifestyle variables and anthropometric measures were assessed by standard methodology; medication and supplement use were validated by a nurse. Regardless of the variables used to represent body size in the regression modelling, either body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, ethnic differences were minimal across the three groups. The only significant differences observed using the two fully adjusted models (age, height, body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, smoking, alcohol, exercise, current oestrogen and calcium supplement use, and osteoarthritis) were at the total body BMD site where Filipinas had significantly higher BMD than the Caucasians or Hispanics, whose total body BMD was similar to one another. The independent variables in the fully adjusted models explained approximately 20-40% of the variation in BMD at each of the four sites. Income or occupation did not help explain BMD differences, but a pattern of increased BMD among those with some college education in all three groups was observed. Accounting for body size using either body mass index or fat and lean tissue mass along with height and other lifestyle variables minimizes ethnic differences and explains a considerable amount of variation in mean BMD among older ethnic minority and Caucasian women.

  3. Longitudinal differences in sleep duration in Hispanic and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-02-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with significant negative consequences, including poor school performance, behavioral problems, obesity, and hypertension. There is prior evidence that there are disparities in sleep duration related to ethnicity; however, there are no specific data on Hispanic children. We aimed to test the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in parent-reported sleep duration in a community-based cohort of Hispanic and Caucasian children. We examined the parent-reported sleep patterns of a community-based prospective cohort (Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study [TuCASA]) involving 338 Hispanic and Caucasian children at two time points approximately five years apart. In the initial phase of the TuCASA study with a cohort median age of 8.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 7.6-10.1 years), parent-reported sleep duration during weekdays was shorter in Hispanic (median, 9.5 h; IQR, 9.0, 10.0 years) than in Caucasian children (10 h; IQR, 9.5, 10.0 h; p < 0.0001); however, this difference was not seen 5 years later when the cohort was older (median age, 13.3 years; IQR, 11.9-14.6 years; p = 0.43). In addition, Hispanic children had a significantly later bedtime at both time points (p < 0.02). In the initial phase, parent-reported sleep duration during weekends tended to be shorter in Hispanic than in Caucasian children (p = 0.06). Short sleep duration in Hispanic children may contribute to health disparities. Our research suggests that in Hispanic children, behavioral interventions toward improving sleep duration accomplished by earlier bedtimes or delayed school start times and mechanistic studies to unravel any inherent tendency toward a delayed sleep phase are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammation and cognitive functioning in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Felicia C; Zhao, Liping; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations between inflammation and cognitive performance in African Americans and Caucasians. The sample included 59 African Americans and 219 Caucasians ≥  50 years old who had a baseline visit at the Emory/Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well Being. Peripheral levels of inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were examined in relation to performance on tests of visual processing (Identify the Odd Pattern), attention (Digit Span Forward), visuomotor set shifting (Digit Symbol Substitution), verbal set shifting (Digit Span Backwards), and memory (Recall a Pattern). Multiple regression models adjusting for potential demographic and vascular/metabolic confounders were conducted, with markers of inflammation included as either continuous or categorical (quartiles) variables. There were significant interactions between IL-8 and race for the Recall a Pattern (p = .006) and the Digit Symbol Substitution (p = .014) tests. Race-specific analyses (using a continuous variable for IL-8) demonstrated slower response times on the Recall a Pattern and Digit Symbol Substitution tests for African Americans but not for Caucasians. Categorical analyses among African Americans indicated that all of the top three quartiles of IL-8 were associated with slower reaction times on the Recall a Pattern test compared to the lowest quartile, while for Digit Symbol, the highest quartile of IL-8 was associated with the slowest cognitive performance. These preliminary findings suggest a stronger association between IL-8 and cognitive performance in African Americans than Caucasians. This relationship should be further examined in larger samples that are followed over time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Genetic differences between Asian and Caucasian chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    KAWAMATA, NORIHIKO; MOREILHON, CHIMENE; SAITOH, TAKAYUKI; KARASAWA, MASAMITSU; BERNSTEIN, BRIAN K.; SATO-OTSUBO, AIKO; OGAWA, SEISHI; RAYNAUD, SOPHIE; KOEFFLER, H. PHILLIP

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematological malignancy in Western countries. However, this disease is very rare in Asian countries. It is not clear whether the mechanisms of development of CLL in Caucasians and Asians are the same. We compared genetic abnormalities in Asian and Caucasian CLL using 250k GeneChip arrays. Both Asian and Caucasian CLL had four common genetic abnormalities: deletion of 13q14.3, trisomy 12, abnormalities of ATM (11q) and abnormalities of 17p. Interestingly, trisomy 12 and deletion of 13q14.3 were mutually exclusive in both groups. We also found that deletions of miR 34b/34c (11q), caspase 1/4/5 (11q), Rb1 (13q) and DLC1 (8p) are common in both ethnic groups. Asian CLL more frequently had gain of 3q and 18q. These suggest that classic genomic changes in the Asian and Caucasina CLL are same. Further, we found amplification of IRF4 and deletion of the SP140/SP100 genes; these genes have been reported as CLL-associated genes by previous genome-wide-association study. We have found classic genomic abnormalities in Asian CLL as well as novel genomic alteration in CLL. PMID:23708256

  6. Depression in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney

    2010-09-01

    Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  8. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  9. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  10. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  11. Do differences in age specific androgenic steroid hormone levels account for differing prostate cancer rates between Arabs and Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Elijah O; Akanji, Abayomi O; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Memon, Anjum; Luqmani, Yunus; Al-Awadi, Khaleel A; Varghese, Ramani; Bashir, Abdul Aziz; Daar, Abdallah S

    2006-04-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to differences in androgenic steroid hormone metabolism between Arabs and other populations, especially as prostate cancer is believed to be androgen dependent. We therefore measured the levels of serum androgenic steroids and their binding proteins in Arab men and compared results obtained with values reported for Caucasian populations to determine if any differences could at least partially account for differences in incidence of prostate cancer rates between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 327 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-79 years. Samples were also obtained from 30 Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), derived free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19 -steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Age specific reference intervals, mean and median for each analyte were determined. Frequency distribution pattern for each hormone was plotted. The reference range for hormones with normal distribution was mean +/- 2SD and 2.5-97.5% for those with non-normal distribution. The mean serum levels of the hormones in Arab men with prostate cancer were compared with values in healthy age-matched Arab men. There was a significant decrease between the 21-29 years age group and the 70-79 years age group for TT (-38.77%), DHEAS (-70%), ADT (-36%) and FAI (-63.25%), and an increase for SHBG (+64%). The calculated reference ranges are TT (2.73-30.45 nmol/L), SHBG (6.45-65.67 nmol/L), FAI (14.51-180.34), DHEAS (0.9-11.0 micromol/L) and ADT (0.54-4.26 ng/mL). The mean TT, SHBG, DHEAS and ADT in Arab men were significantly lower than those reported for Caucasians especially in the 21-29 years age group. Arab men with

  12. An Early Danish Computer Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.

  13. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  14. Association study of B-cell marker gene polymorphisms in European Caucasian patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Karen; Dieudé, Philippe; Avouac, Jérôme; Wipff, Julien; Hachulla, Eric; Diot, Elisabeth; Tiev, Kiet; Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Mouthon, Luc; Amoura, Zahir; Frances, Camille; Carpentier, Patrick; Meyer, Olivier; Kahan, André; Boileau, Catherine; Allanore, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    BANK1 and BLK B-cell genetic markers have been reproducibly and convincingly found to contribute to susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc). To determine whether other B-cell genetic markers including CD19, CD20, CD22 and CD24 polymorphisms affect susceptibility to SSc in the European Caucasian population. A case-control study was performed in 900 patients with SSc and 1034 healthy controls. Among the whole SSc population, 304 (34%) had the diffuse cutaneous subtype, 551 (61%) had the limited cutaneous subtype, 732 (81%) were positive for antinuclear antibodies , 331 (37%) were positive for anticentromere antibodies and 228 (25%) for the topo-isomerase I. Genotyping has been performed for CD19 rs35979293, CD19 rs2904880, CD20 rs7126354, CD20 rs3802954, CD20 rs105146, CD20 rs4939364, CD22 rs10406069, CD22 rs10413500, CD22 rs10419538, CD22 rs34826052 and CD24 ins-del polymorphisms. Genotype frequencies were at the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control population for all the SNPs investigated and observed frequencies were very similar to those expected in the European population. Allelic and genotypic frequencies for all these tested SNPs were found to be similar in SSc patients and controls. Moreover, subphenotype analyses in particular for subgroups having the diffuse cutaneous subset or topo-isomerase I positive antibodies, which are the most associated with BANK1 variants, did not detect any difference between SSc patients and controls. These results obtained through a large cohort of European caucasian patients with SSc do not support the contribution of CD19, CD20, CD22, CD24 variants to the genetic susceptibility of SSc.

  15. A Case of Nonuremic Calciphylaxis in a Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Nishant; Miller, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of nonuremic calcific arteriolopathy (NUCA) in an 82-year-old Caucasian woman from rural Australia. The patient had no history of kidney disease or dialysis. NUCA is rare disease suspected on cutaneous and clinical features and diagnosed by characteristic findings on skin biopsy and vasculature imaging. Calcification induced microvascular occlusion in the absence of renal failure may not be immediately apparent. Clinical suspicion and appropriate investigations are essential for making a diagnosis. A diagnosis of NUCA may be missed given the rarity of the disease, and dermatologists and patients alike would benefit from a greater awareness of this disease. PMID:28191356

  16. Late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in a Caucasian woman.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dharmesh R; Knepper, Laurie; Jones, H Royden

    2008-01-01

    We describe a 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a 19-year history of an evolving amyotrophy confined to her dominant right arm and hand. Although this atypical case of a late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in some respects mimics Hirayama disease or O'Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, it does not conform precisely with either of those disorders. We compare this individual's difficulties and clinical temporal profile to other disorders considered in the differential diagnoses with regard to her evolving clinical setting.

  17. Transcultural differences in brain activation patterns during theory of mind (ToM) task performance in Japanese and Caucasian participants.

    PubMed

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Kawada, Ryousaku; Miyata, Jun; Saze, Teruyasu; Ubukata, Shiho; Itakura, Shoji; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Pedersen, Anya; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) functioning develops during certain phases of childhood. Factors such as language development and educational style seem to influence its development. Some studies that have focused on transcultural aspects of ToM development have found differences between Asian and Western cultures. To date, however, little is known about transcultural differences in neural activation patterns as they relate to ToM functioning. The aim of our study was to observe ToM functioning and differences in brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study included a sample of 18 healthy Japanese and 15 healthy Caucasian subjects living in Japan. We presented a ToM task depicting geometrical shapes moving in social patterns. We also administered questionnaires to examine empathy abilities and cultural background factors. Behavioral data showed no significant group differences in the subjects' post-scan descriptions of the movies. The imaging results displayed stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in the Caucasian sample during the presentation of ToM videos. Furthermore, the task-associated activation of the MPFC was positively correlated with autistic and alexithymic features in the Japanese sample. In summary, our results showed evidence of culturally dependent sociobehavioral trait patterns, which suggests that they have an impact on brain activation patterns during information processing involving ToM.

  18. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  19. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  20. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p < 0.05) and were also significantly more likely to believe that the photographed obese males did not need to consider losing weight, in comparison to both the UK and Swedish participants (ps < 0.05). No cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  1. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  2. The use of spectrophotometry to estimate melanin density in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, T; Muller, H K; Blizzard, L; Ashbolt, R; Phillips, G

    1998-03-01

    The density of cutaneous melanin may be the property of the skin that protects it from damage by solar radiation, but there is not an accepted, noninvasive method of measuring it. To determine whether the density of cutaneous melanin can be estimated from reflectance of visible light by the skin, reflectance of 15-nm wavebands of light by the skin of the inner upper arm of each of 82 volunteers was measured at 20-nm intervals with a Minolta 508 spectrophotometer. A 3-mm skin biopsy was then taken from the same site, and four nonserial sections of it were stained with Masson Fontana for melanin. The melanin content of the basal area was calculated using the NIH Image analysis system. We show that cutaneous melanin in Caucasians can be estimated by the difference between two measurements of reflectance of visible light by the skin: those at wavelengths 400 and 420 nm. This new spectrophotometric measurement was more highly correlated (r = 0.68) with the histological measurements of cutaneous melanin than was skin reflectance of light of wavelength 680 nm (r = 0.33). Reflectances in the range of 650-700 nm have been used previously in skin cancer research. This relatively accurate measurement of melanin is quick and noninvasive and can be readily used in the field. It should provide improved discrimination of individual susceptibility to epidermal tumors in Caucasians and information about melanin's biological role in the causation of skin cancer.

  3. Healthy Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthy Schools School Health Guidelines Data & Statistics Multimedia Infographics Podcasts Videos Professional Development & Training Professional Development 101 Professional Development 201 FAQs E-Learning Series: Training Tools for Healthy Schools Comprehensive School ...

  4. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Healthy Weight Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ...

  5. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  6. MicroRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    08-1-0379 TITLE: MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL... MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women Hua Zhao Health Research Inc. Buffalo, NY 14263 So far...identified several SNPs in microRNA processing genes and microRNA genes are associated with breast cancer risk in either Caucasian Americans or

  7. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  8. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  9. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  10. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    PubMed

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to <2% since 2013. The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an

  11. Evaluation and validity of the Danish version of the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire AS-20

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nafisa; Sørensen, Mette S; Sørensen, Torben L; Mortzos, Panteleimon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with strabismus is important in evaluating the clinical benefits of strabismus treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) into Danish and evaluate its reliability and validity in adult patients with strabismus in Denmark. Methods The AS-20 was translated into Danish in accordance with standard international adopted methods. We presented the questionnaire to 64 adults with strabismus and to 13 non-strabismic adult controls. We tested the reliability of the Danish version by reassuring test–retest reliability, estimated the internal consistency, and analyzed the validity (discriminatory power) of the questionnaire by comparing patient scores with scores from control individuals. Results The Danish AS-20 produced high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α values) for both subscales (psychosocial: 0.95 and functional: 0.85). We found good discriminatory power of the AS-20. The patients scored significantly lower not only on AS-20 composite score (median =63, interquartile range [IQR] =44–79) compared to healthy individuals (median =98, IQR =93–100) (P<0.0001) but also on all individual questions in both subscales (psychosocial: 1–10 and functional: 11–20). Conclusion The Danish version of AS-20 shows high reliability and validity, and in our opinion, AS-20 is therefore a suitable instrument for evaluating self-perceived psychosocial and functional influence of strabismus. PMID:26770057

  12. Towards a body hair atlas of women of caucasian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, D; Hoff, A; Scheede, S; Fischer, F; Tilsner, J; Lüttke, J; Neumann, Y; Hagens, R

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in 17 female volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) to gain deeper insights into the characteristics of terminal Caucasian female body hair of different body parts. The focus on Caucasian women was driven by the high number of different scalp hair phenotypes in this ethnicity and intended to identify relevant differences between body areas to improve body hair removal approaches. Multiple growth parameters and structural parameters were assessed for hair on the upper arm, forearm, upper leg, lower leg, axilla and intimate area and compared to scalp data. In particular, macroscopic and much less microscopic or hair surface properties differ strikingly in the investigated body areas. Hair density on the body is much lower than on scalp with the highest hair density in the axilla and intimate area. Multihair follicular units are described for scalp but were also found to a smaller proportion in the axilla and the intimate area. Substantial percentages of hair triplets are only found on the scalp and intimate area. Hair diameter is highest in the intimate area, followed by axillary and lower leg hair and correlates with a faster hair growth rate. The angle of emerging hair is smallest in the intimate area, axilla and on the lower leg. Hair shafts on the lower leg and in the axilla have most overlapping cuticle layers, but independent of body region, no significant differences in the mean thickness of cuticle layers were detectable. In addition, no differences were found in the mean distance between cuticle layer edges along the hair shaft and the hair surface roughness. Hair on the scalp, forearm, upper arm and upper leg had an almost round shape, whereas hair of the lower leg, intimate area and axilla had more elliptical shape. Hairs on the arm showed the highest luminance values and no visible medulla. The darkest hairs were in the axilla and intimate area containing the highest level of visible medulla in hair shafts. To our knowledge

  13. Comparative craniofacial variation in Navajo Indians and North American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Phipps, G S; German, R Z; Smith, R J

    1988-06-01

    Landmarks digitized from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 107 Navajo Indians between 10 and 12 years of age were analyzed to determine coefficients of variation or standard deviations for 38 cephalometric measurements. These values were compared with the same measures of variation for identical measurements on North American whites derived from the Michigan and Philadelphia Growth Studies. For the majority of variables, there were no differences between groups. Variation for the genetically and environmentally isolated Navajo Indians was the same as that of the highly diverse Caucasian samples. However, measurements of upper, lower, and total anterior facial height (N-ANS, ANS-Me, and N-Me, respectively) indicate that these features are substantially less variable in Navajo Indians relative to the Michigan and Philadelphia populations.

  14. The importance of MTHFR, MTR, MTRR and CSE expression levels in Caucasian women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Wolski, Hubert; Czerny, Boguslaw; Gorska-Paukszta, Malgorzata; Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The studies suggest that both polymorphisms and changes of expression in genes encoding enzymes involved in the methionine and homocysteine metabolism (MHM), such as methylenetetrahydrofolate, reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), could play a role in the development of hypertension during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the expression level of MTHFR, MTR, MTRR and CSE genes in the development of PE in Caucasian women. The control group consisted of 74 healthy pregnant women and 90 patients with diagnosed pre-eclampsia. Total RNA was isolated from placenta and the mRNA level of examined genes was to determine using real-time PCR. The expression level of MTHFR gene showed no statistically significant difference in the study group as compared to the control group. An increase of mRNA levels for MTR and CTH was observed by 124.7% (p<0.0001) and 26.6% (p>0.05), respectively. However, a decrease of placental expression was noted for MTRR by 50% in preeclamptic women as compared to control group (p<0.0001). Our findings suggest that the elevated RNA expression of MTR in placenta of preeclamptic patients is probably results of a potential compensation mechanism of the MHM while elevated CSE expression indicates that homocysteine may be eliminated through the alternate transsulfuration pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL.

  16. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  17. Mental Health Values Differences between Native American and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John D.; Suan, Lance V.

    1990-01-01

    Used the Mental Health Values Questionnaire to compare concepts of mental health in 66 Native American and 93 Caucasian American college students. Caucasian Americans tend more strongly to associated unconventional experiences of reality, such as visions, with poor mental health, whereas Native Americans were more likely to view such experiences…

  18. Cognitive Effects of College: Differences between African American and Caucasian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2003-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of African American and Caucasian students from 18 4-year institutions, objective tests were used to estimate the cognitive effects of race in college, while applying statistical controls for an extensive set of confounding influences. Found that Caucasian students scored higher than African Americans on standardized…

  19. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  20. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  1. Predictors of Early Substance Use among African American and Caucasian Youth from Urban and Suburban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques, Angela J.; Hayman, Lenwood W., Jr.; Sobeck, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The deleterious effects of early substance use have been well documented. Past research has produced mixed results regarding the extent to which the profile of risk differs for urban African American and suburban Caucasian youth. Sixth graders from urban (n = 420; 92% African American) and suburban (n = 391; 89% Caucasian) schools in metropolitan…

  2. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  3. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  4. Differences between Japanese Infants and Caucasian American Infants in Behavioral and Cortisol Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral and cortisol responses of Japanese and Caucasian American infants, four months of age, were observed during and following routine inoculation. The Caucasian American group showed a more intense initial affective response and a longer latency to quiet than the Japanese group; the Japanese group showed a greater cortisol response than…

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  6. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hua Zhao, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Roswell...Park Cancer Institute Buffalo , NY 14263 REPORT DATE: June 2012 TYPE OF REPORT...microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1

  7. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  8. African American and Caucasian Attempters Compared for Suicide Risk Factors: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare African American and Caucasian substance dependent suicide attempters for risk factors for suicidal behavior. One hundred and fifty-eight African American and 95 Caucasian substance dependent patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed and their family history of suicidal behavior recorded. Patients…

  9. A Comparison of the Motor Performance of Black and Caucasian Girls Age 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinucci, James M.; Shows, David A.

    1977-01-01

    No significant differences in measures of flexibility, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance, or muscular power were found between black and Caucasian girls ages six, seven, and eight. Blacks were significantly superior on two agility measurements, and Caucasians better on shuttle run and grip strength. (MJB)

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  11. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene promoter and the risk of alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease in Caucasian Spaniard men.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Teresa; Vidal, Francesc; Broch, Montserrat; Olona, Montserrat; Aguilar, Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; López-Dupla, Miguel; Quer, Joan-Carles; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Richart, Cristóbal

    2010-05-01

    Controversy surrounds the possible influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene promoter on the risk for alcoholic liver disease. Our aim was to determine whether the SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter are associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and for alcoholic liver disease in male Spaniards. The -627 C>A SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter was assessed in a cohort of 344 Caucasian Spanish men, 168 alcoholics, and 176 nonalcoholics. The alcoholic group comprised 79 individuals without liver histopathologic abnormalities and 89 patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. The nonalcoholic group was made of 62 healthy controls and 114 patients with chronic nonalcoholic liver disease. Genotyping was performed using PCR and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared by using the chi(2) test. Overall, no differences in either genotype and allele distribution was observed when comparing the four patient categories defined (P=0.62 and P=0.33, respectively). Subset analyses showed no differences in the genotype and allele distributions between all alcoholic and all nonalcoholic subjects (P=0.55 and P=0.29, respectively). This study failed to detect significant associations of the IL-10 -627C>A SNP and alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease in a cohort of Caucasian male Spaniards.

  12. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  13. Agility - The Danish Way (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Agility - The Danish Way Dr. William Mitchell Dept. for Joint Operations | C2 & Intelligence | Royal Danish Defence College Ryvangs Allé 1...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Royal Danish Defence College,Dept...Establish presence in Mogadishu and expand with main effort in Southern Somalia. •MD2- Establish small military presence in Somaliland. • P/SD1-ID Clan

  14. Soft tissue evaluation of contemporary Caucasian and African American female facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Sutter, R E; Turley, P K

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that esthetic Caucasian profiles exhibit fuller lips than the norm for their race, while esthetic African American profiles are similar to those of esthetic Caucasians. The present study was undertaken to compare the profiles of female Caucasian and African American models and their nonmodel counterparts. Four groups of 30 subjects were evaluated: Caucasian models [CM], Caucasian controls [CC], African American models [AM], and African American controls [AC]. The models' profiles were photographed from current fashion magazines, the photos were scanned, and 17 landmarks were digitized. Each profile was standardized for size and oriented along the N'-Sn' line on a Macintosh 6115CD computer. Control photographs were processed in a similar manner. Twenty-six variables were measured for each profile. Means, ranges, and standard deviations were computed along with unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-tests (p<0.05) to evaluate group differences. The results showed that for the AM and AC profiles, all but two of the 26 variable were similar. For the CM and CC profiles, eight variables demonstrated significant differences. Between-race comparisons demonstrated greater numbers of parameters that were significantly different: CM/AM with 18 and CM/AC, CC/AC, and CC/AM with 22 each. Most of the differences involved the lips. Vertical soft tissue proportions for the four groups did not follow a 40/20/40 ratio. Caucasian and African American models displayed significantly different profile characteristics. The African American models and controls showed similar profile features, whereas greater differences were observed between Caucasian models and controls. Based on our study, the African American profile currently presented in the mass media is not "Caucasian-like." In fact, it appears that Caucasian models display more ethnic features than African American models do Caucasian features, suggesting that previously held concepts of facial beauty may no

  15. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081

  16. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  17. The Future of the Danish Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    as a natural consequence of being a co-founder of the United Nations, focused on promoting peace and stability in the world, as a relatively large...Soviet invasion to a more expeditionary course of deploying forces to promote peace and stability around the globe. As a result, Danish defense policy...Danish government including the armed forces. As a consequence Defense Agreement 2010 – 2014 was replaced by Defense Agreement 2013 – 2017 including

  18. Alterations of the USP26 gene in Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Stouffs, Katrien; Lissens, Willy; Tournaye, Herman; Van Steirteghem, André; Liebaers, Inge

    2006-12-01

    The Ubiquitin Specific Protease 26 gene is a testis-specific gene that is located on the X chromosome. Sequence variants of this gene were previously reported in men with azoospermia caused by defects at the level of spermatogenesis. Especially a cluster of three changes (c.370_371insACA, c.494T>C and c.1423C>T) was frequently observed. To further define the role of this cluster of sequence variants in the USP26 gene, we have now analysed 202 control samples and 146 patients of Caucasian origin with cryptozoospermia or oligozoospermia. The detection method was based on a restriction reaction, by which the change c.494T>C can be detected. In none of the patients, the change c.494T>C was observed. Only in one man with normal spermatogenesis this sequence variant was detected. Sequencing can confirm the presence of the three changes of the USP26 gene. These data indicate that the cluster of changes is not restricted to men with severe testicular dysfunction.

  19. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace.

  20. Are Danish doctors comfortable teaching in English?

    PubMed

    Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D

    2016-08-27

    From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.

  1. Reference ranges for cardiac structure and function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in Caucasians from the UK Biobank population cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Steffen E; Aung, Nay; Sanghvi, Mihir M; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Francis, Jane M; Khanji, Mohammed Y; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Leeson, Paul; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan

    2017-02-03

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard method for the assessment of cardiac structure and function. Reference ranges permit differentiation between normal and pathological states. To date, this study is the largest to provide CMR specific reference ranges for left ventricular, right ventricular, left atrial and right atrial structure and function derived from truly healthy Caucasian adults aged 45-74. Five thousand sixty-five UK Biobank participants underwent CMR using steady-state free precession imaging at 1.5 Tesla. Manual analysis was performed for all four cardiac chambers. Participants with non-Caucasian ethnicity, known cardiovascular disease and other conditions known to affect cardiac chamber size and function were excluded. Remaining participants formed the healthy reference cohort; reference ranges were calculated and were stratified by gender and age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74). After applying exclusion criteria, 804 (16.2%) participants were available for analysis. Left ventricular (LV) volumes were larger in males compared to females for absolute and indexed values. With advancing age, LV volumes were mostly smaller in both sexes. LV ejection fraction was significantly greater in females compared to males (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 61 ± 5% vs 58 ± 5%) and remained static with age for both genders. In older age groups, LV mass was lower in men, but remained virtually unchanged in women. LV mass was significantly higher in males compared to females (mean ± SD of 53 ± 9 g/m(2) vs 42 ± 7 g/m(2)). Right ventricular (RV) volumes were significantly larger in males compared to females for absolute and indexed values and were smaller with advancing age. RV ejection fraction was higher with increasing age in females only. Left atrial (LA) maximal volume and stroke volume were significantly larger in males compared to females for absolute values but not for indexed values. LA ejection fraction was similar

  2. Similarities and Differences in Chinese and Caucasian Adults' Use of Facial Cues for Trustworthiness Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Background All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for trustworthiness judgments. PMID:22514680

  3. Arterial stiffness profiles: investigating various sections of the arterial tree of African and Caucasian people.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Reimann, Manja

    2011-01-01

    In Africans, arterial stiffness progression seems more pronounced compared to Caucasians. We compared the arterial stiffness profiles of different age groups and focused on muscular arteries and two more central arterial segments in African and Caucasian people from South Africa. In African (N = 374) and Caucasian (N = 376) participants (20-70 years), we measured carotid-radial (C-R) and carotid-dorsalis pedis (C-DP) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic characteristic impedance (Zao). Major findings were that normotensive and high-normal/hypertensive (HT) Caucasians indicated increased trends of C-R PWV with aging (P = .029 and P = .067), not seen in the African groups (P = .122 and P = .526). Both ethnic groups showed significant increases of C-DP PWV and Zao with aging. High-normal/hypertensive Africans had significantly stiffer arteries than hypertensive Caucasians for almost all age groups, and for all stiffness measures. African C-R PWV correlated significantly with blood pressure (BP), but not with age. Opposite results were observed for Caucasians. In conclusion, the stiffness of muscular arteries is already elevated in young Africans, in both those with normal or elevated BP. This is possibly due to an earlier deterioration during childhood, or perhaps already present from birth. Also, in Caucasians stiffness seems more age-related, while in Africans it seems to be more pressure-related.

  4. Similarities and differences in Chinese and Caucasian adults' use of facial cues for trustworthiness judgments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for trustworthiness judgments.

  5. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

  6. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  7. Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Teaching Styles: Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Mother-Father-Daughter Triads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    Chinese-American girls perform as well as Chinese-American boys at higher levels of mathematics. Caucasian-American girls perform significantly less well than Caucasian-American boys. This study, designed to examine factors involved in this differential, contrasts 25 first generation Chinese-American mother-father pairs and 27 Caucasian-American…

  8. Efficacy of brachytherapy for prostate cancer in African Americans compared with Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Barrett, William L; Kassing, William M; Shirazi, Reza

    2004-01-01

    To compare the biochemical response to prostate brachytherapy between African Americans and Caucasians in a consecutive series of patients treated at a single institution. Between July 1995 and October 2001, 173 patients were treated with permanent (125)I seed implantation alone for presumed localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Twelve patients were African American and their biochemical response to treatment was compared with the 161 Caucasian patients. The patients were evaluated for biochemical recurrence according to the ASTRO consensus statement and for achieving and maintaining PSA nadirs of < or = 1.0, < or = 0.5, and < or = 0.2. Median pretreatment PSA level was 8 for the African American group and 6 for the Caucasian group. Median Gleason score for each group was 6 and no patients had palpable extraprostatic disease at the time of treatment. None of the African American patients have experienced biochemical recurrence compared with 7.5% of the Caucasian patients (p=0.34). The percentage of African American patients achieving and maintaining a PSA level of < or = 1.0 was 83% compared with 89% for the Caucasian patients (p=0.61). PSA nadir of < or = 0.5 was achieved in 75% of the African American patients and 81% of the Caucasian patients (p=0.52) and 50% of the African American patients experienced PSA levels of < or = 0.2 compared with 59% of the Caucasian patients (p=0.88). African American patients with prostate cancer have in general been reported to have worse prognosis compared with Caucasians. This series suggests similar outcome between African American and Caucasian patients treated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

  9. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min-Qiang; Li, Yue-Ping; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Yang; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC) patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER]) database. Methods Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Results A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054), and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767). However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better OS when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, whereas there was no significant difference in the OS between Chinese and Caucasian patients with EAC. Conclusion The presenting demographic features, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of EC patients differed between Chinese and Caucasian patients residing in the US. Chinese patients diagnosed with EAC tended to share similar clinical features with their Caucasian counterparts, and the Chinese patients with ESCC had better OS than their Caucasian counterparts. PMID:27799791

  10. Intensity of Oxidative Stress in Mongoloid and Caucasian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Vlasov, B Ya; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Vanteeva, O A

    2016-10-01

    Specific features of LPO were studied in Mongoloid and Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The intensity of LPO in Mongoloid patients was lower than in Caucasians: the level of primary and intermediate products was by lower 1.53 and 1.83 times, while total antioxidant activity was elevated by 1.44 times, which was also supported by oxidative stress coefficient (1.35 in Mongoloids and 2.32 in Caucasians). These differences suggest that differentiated approach is required for the treatment of these patients.

  11. [Genetic and morphological variation in a partially isolated population of Caucasian shrew sorex Satunini (Mammalia)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, O O; Sychova, V B

    2011-09-01

    Morphological and genetic variation at microsatellite loci of Caucasian shrew Sorex satunini Ogn. is examined and compared with that of the common shrew S. araneus L. Genetic distance at microsatellite loci between the common shrew and Caucasian shrew proved to be threefold higher than between chromosome races of the common shrew. The Caucasian shrew manifested low polymorphism in studies of both microsatellites and morphometric mandibular traits. The heterozygote deficit was also typical. These properties may be a consequence of partial isolation of the population and gene drift.

  12. The 811 C/T polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the selenoprotein 15-kDa (Sep15) gene and breast cancer in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Watrowski, Rafał; Castillo-Tong, Dan Cacsire; Fabjani, Gerhild; Schuster, Eva; Fischer, Michael; Zeillinger, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a selenocysteine-containing oxidoreductase in the endoplasmic reticulum that participates in disulfide-bond formation and protein folding control. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which result in two functional haplotypes: 811C/1125G or 811T/1125A. The 811T/1125A variant occurs significantly more often in African-Americans as compared to Caucasians and has been linked to increased breast cancer risk in black women. We studied the 811C/T (rs5845) Sep15 gene polymorphism in 182 Caucasian women-83 breast cancer cases and 99 healthy controls-by pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction. Associations between allelic variants and clinico-pathological variables (e.g., age, stage of disease, tumor type, grading, and receptor status) were investigated. The genotype distribution in breast cancer patients (CC 63.9 %, CT 33.7 %, TT 2.4 %) and controls (69.7 %, CT 28.3 %, TT 2 %) showed no significant difference (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.41-1.42, p = 0.4). The overall low prevalence of the T allele was in accordance with that reported for Caucasians in previous studies. There was no significant association between 811C/T Sep15 polymorphism and any of clinico-pathological parameters. In conclusion, we are the first to report on 811C/T SEP 15 polymorphism in white breast cancer patients. Genotype variation within the 3'-UTR of the SEP 15 gene showed no association with breast cancer risk or clinico-pathological parameters in Caucasian women.

  13. T cell receptor repertoire differences between African Americans and Caucasians associated with polymorphism of the TCRBV3S1 (V{beta}3.1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Inocencio, J.; Glass, D.N.; Hirsch, R.

    1995-05-01

    The generation of TCR diversity occurs primarily through rearrangement of germline DNA. Genetic polymorphism of the TCR chains appears to be a rarer mechanism for generating repertoire differences between races. Flow cytometric analysis of the TCR V{beta} repertoire in a population of healthy African Americans (n = 30) and Caucasians (n = 30) revealed a significant difference in the frequency of cells bearing V{beta}3.1, but not V{beta}2, V{beta}5.1, V{beta}5.2-5.3, V{beta}6.7, V{beta}8.1-8.2, V{beta}12.1, V{beta}13.3, or V{beta}19. African Americans had a significantly lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, in both the CD4{sup +} (2.55 {+-} 0.36% vs 4.85 {+-} 0.43%, p = 0.0001) and the CD8{sup +} (3.03 {+-} 0.54% vs 5.32 {+-} 0.57%, p = 0.004) population than did Caucasians, and this difference was independent of the age of the individuals. Analysis of genomic DNA revealed that the observed differences in frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells correlated with a recently described polymorphism of the recombination signal sequence of the TCRBV3S1 gene. Allele 1, associated with a lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in African Americans (0.68 vs 0.43), whereas allele 2, associated with a higher frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in Caucasians (0.31 vs 0.56). This study demonstrates the potential for TCR repertoire differences, based on genetic polymorphism, between African Americans and Caucasians. 31 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  15. Natural Uranium Tissue Content of Three Caucasian Males.

    PubMed

    Kathren, Ronald L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-09-01

    Uranium content and concentrations were measured in the tissues of three Caucasian male whole body donors to the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries with no known intake other than from natural environmental sources. Average total body uranium content in the three cases was 81.3 ± 22.3 μg, of which 37.2 ± 2.1 μg (46%) was in the skeleton. The skeleton had a mean concentration of 3.79 ± 0.45 μg U kg(-1) wet weight and 11.72 ± 1.49 μg U kg(-1) ash. Distribution was in bone volume and not predominately on bone surfaces. Soft tissue concentrations ranged over about an order of magnitude, averaging about 0.5 μg kg wet weight for all tissues except the thoracic lymph nodes, which averaged 32.3 times the mean for soft tissue of the three cases. Observed thyroid tissue concentrations were about an order of magnitude greater than the average soft tissue concentration in two of the three background cases, suggestive of a possible long-term depot in this organ. Kidney content of uranium averaged 0.38 ± 0.21 μg for the three cases, an order of magnitude lower than the 7 μg recommended for Reference Man. The lower content and concentration in the kidney do not support a significant long-term depot for uranium in that organ. Assuming equilibrium between intake and excretion, the tissue data suggest a transfer coefficient from blood to skeleton of 0.14 with a residence half-life in the skeleton of 4,950 d (13.56 y), significantly greater than the 1,500 d (4.1 y) half-time proposed by ICRP.

  16. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  17. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  18. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries.

  19. Markers of Inflammation and Fat Distribution following Weight Loss in African American and Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Hyatt, Tanya C.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Desmond, Renee A.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in markers of inflammation (MOI) and fat distribution with weight loss between African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women have yet to be characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine potential ethnic differences in MOI and regional fat distribution with weight loss, and identify the associations between these markers and changes in regional fat distribution with weight loss among AA and C women. Subjects were 126 healthy, premenopausal women, BMI 27–30 kg/m2. They were placed on a weight loss intervention consisting of diet and/or exercise until a BMI < 25 was achieved. Fat distribution was measured with computed tomography, and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed. All MOI and adiposity measures significantly decreased with weight loss. Significant ethnic differences with weight loss were observed for fat mass, body fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII. Mixed-model analysis indicated that adjusting for change in IAAT explained ethnic differences in change in TNF-α and the decrease in TNF-α with weight loss, while total fat mass only explained the decrease in sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII with weight loss. In conclusion, all MOI decreased following weight loss among C, whereas only IL-6 and CRP decreased following weight loss in AA. The most distinct phenotypic difference observed was a greater impact of weight loss on TNF-α in C compared to AA, which was directly associated with IAAT in C. PMID:21527894

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 21 predicts the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Möhlig, Matthias; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising worldwide. Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 affects glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of FGF-21 on the incidence of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome. The Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MeSyBePo) recall study includes 440 individuals. Glucose metabolism was analyzed using an oral glucose tolerance test, including insulin measurements. FGF-21 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary study outcome was diabetes and the metabolic syndrome incidence and change of glucose subtraits. During a mean follow-up of 5.30 ± 0.1 years, 54 individuals developed the metabolic syndrome, 35 developed T2DM, and 69 with normal glucose tolerance at baseline progressed to impaired glucose metabolism, defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or T2DM. FGF-21 predicted incident metabolic syndrome (lnFGF-21 odds ratio [OR] 2.6 [95% CI 1.5 - 4.5]; P = 0.001), T2DM (2.4 [1.2-4.7]; P = 0.01), and progression to impaired glucose metabolism (2.2 [1.3 - 3.6]; P = 0.002) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and follow-up time. Additional adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose did not substantially modify the predictive value of FGF-21. FGF-21 is an independent predictor of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM in apparently healthy Caucasians. These results may indicate FGF-21 resistance precedes the onset of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Predicts the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Möhlig, Matthias; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising worldwide. Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 affects glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of FGF-21 on the incidence of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MeSyBePo) recall study includes 440 individuals. Glucose metabolism was analyzed using an oral glucose tolerance test, including insulin measurements. FGF-21 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary study outcome was diabetes and the metabolic syndrome incidence and change of glucose subtraits. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 5.30 ± 0.1 years, 54 individuals developed the metabolic syndrome, 35 developed T2DM, and 69 with normal glucose tolerance at baseline progressed to impaired glucose metabolism, defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or T2DM. FGF-21 predicted incident metabolic syndrome (lnFGF-21 odds ratio [OR] 2.6 [95% CI 1.5 – 4.5]; P = 0.001), T2DM (2.4 [1.2–4.7]; P = 0.01), and progression to impaired glucose metabolism (2.2 [1.3 – 3.6]; P = 0.002) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and follow-up time. Additional adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose did not substantially modify the predictive value of FGF-21. CONCLUSIONS FGF-21 is an independent predictor of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM in apparently healthy Caucasians. These results may indicate FGF-21 resistance precedes the onset of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. PMID:22933429

  2. Gender, age and seasonal effects on IgA deficiency: a study of 7293 Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Weber-Mzell, D; Kotanko, P; Hauer, A C; Goriup, U; Haas, J; Lanner, N; Erwa, W; Ahmaida, I A; Haitchi-Petnehazy, S; Stenzel, M; Lanzer, G; Deutsch, J

    2004-03-01

    The frequency of serum IgA deficiency (SIgAD) differs between populations. We examined the prevalence of SIgAD in healthy Caucasians. Serum immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was measured in 7293 volunteers (2264 women, 5029 men) aged 30 +/- 14.2 years (mean +/- SD; range: 12-66). Serum immunoglobulin A and subnormal SIgA levels were defined by a SIgA level < 0.07 g L(-1), and between 0.07 and 0.7 g L(-1), respectively. Means were compared by analysis of variance (anova) and analysis of covariance (ancova); frequencies by the chi(2) test. Fifteen subjects (0.21%; one woman, 14 men) had SIgAD. Subnormal SIgA levels were found in 155 persons (2.13%): 21 females (0.93% of the females) and 134 males (2.66% of the males; difference: 1.74%; 95% CI: 1.12-2.33%; P < 0.001). Males were more likely to have subnormal SIgA levels or SIgAD (odds ratio 3.09, 95% CI: 1.97-4.85). The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA was lowest in winter (chi(2) = 14.8; P = 0.002; 3 d.f.; and chi(2) = 43.2; P < 0.001; 3 d.f., respectively). Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations were significantly higher during winter. Serum immunoglobulin A levels increased with age on average by 0.2 +/- 0.06 g L(-1) per decade of life (P < 0.001). Taking into account the influence of age, SIgA concentration was lower in females as compared with males. The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA levels is increased in males. There exists a significant influence of gender, age and seasons on SIgA levels.

  3. Bone Mineral Density and Leg Muscle Strength in Young Caucasian, Hispanic and Asian women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Michael T.C.; Bassin, Stanley; Dutto, Darren; Braun, William; Wong, Nathan; Pontello, Andria M.; Cooper, Dan M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in bone density (BMD) of ethnically diverse populations are usually attributed to anthropometric characteristics, but may also be due to life style or diet. We studied healthy young sedentary women with Asian (ASN, n=40), Hispanic (HIS, n=39) or Caucasian (CAU, n=36) backgrounds. Body composition and regional BMD, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic or PIXI, Lunar GE for the heel and wrist). Leg strength was quantified with a leg press and dietary calcium was estimated with three-day diet records. CAU were taller than HIS and ASN (p<0.01). ASN had lower body weights, fat mass, lean body mass, and leg strength than HIS or CAU (p<0.01). Differences in BMD among groups were not eliminated by adjusting for body weight and height at the arm, trochanter, femoral neck, and total hip where BMD values remained lower in the ASN than in HIS or CAU (p<0.01). Conversely, adjusted BMD at the wrist was 7.3% higher in ASN and 8.3% higher in HIS and at the heel, 7.3% higher in ASN and 7.0% higher in HIS than in CAU p<0.05). Leg strength was a significant predictor of BMD in the hip in CAU (R = 0.53, p = 0.004), in the hip with dietary calcium in ASN (R = 0.65, p = 0.02), and in the heel with height in HIS (R = 0.57, p = 0.03). We conclude that significant factors underlying BMD in ethnically diverse young women vary as a function of ethnicity and include leg strength and dietary calcium as well as anthropometric characteristics. PMID:17485032

  4. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published.

  5. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  6. Differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates in emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Tata, J

    2000-08-01

    Most theories of justice focus on individual-level approaches; few examine the role of contextual factors such as culture. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates (n = 120 and 58, respectively) in terms of their emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Analyses indicated that Hispanic students were more likely to use interactional justice than Caucasian respondents, but the groups did not differ in their likelihood of using distributive or procedural justice.

  7. Secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair.

    PubMed

    Zhou, A J; Liu, H L; Du, Z Q

    2015-02-01

    In this previous work, we investigated the secondary structure changes of stretched yak hairs by deconvolution, secondary derivation, and curve fitting and determined the number of bands and their positions in order to resolve the protein spectrum of Raman spectroscopy. The secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tensile curves, and measurement of density. The hairs were stretched, dried, and baked at ratios 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The analysis of the amide I band indicated that the transformation from α-helix to β-pleated structure occurred during the stretching process, which could be verified from the tensile analysis. The cysteine oxide in S-O vibration area exhibited that stretching led to the breakage of the disulfide bonds. When the stretching ratio of Caucasian hair was more than a certain ratio, the fiber macromolecular structure was destroyed because Caucasian hair had finer diameter and less medulla than Asian hair. The β turn was easier to retract compared with other conformations, resulted in the content increase. The density measurements revealed that the structure of Caucasian hair was indeed more destroyed than that of Asian hair. The cuticles characterization indicated the length of scales was stretched longer and the thickness became thinner. Caucasian hair tended to collapse to form small fragments at the early stage of stretching. With the increase in stretching ratio, the scales of Caucasian hair lifted up, then flaked off and the scale interval increased accordingly. Asian hair was more easily peeled off than Caucasian hair cuticles with the increase in stretching ratio. The secondary structure of Caucasian hair was destroyed more easily than that of Asian hair. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differences in breast cancer characteristics and outcomes between Caucasian and Chinese women in the US.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan-Na; Song, Chuan-Gui; Ouyang, Qian-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Ye, Fu-Gui; Ma, Fang-Jing; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-05-20

    Chinese breast cancer patients living in the United States (US) can experience different disease patterns than Caucasians, which might allow for predicting the future epidemiology of breast cancer in China. We aimed to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of Caucasian and Chinese female breast cancer patients residing in the US. The study cohort consisted of 3868 Chinese and 208621 Caucasian women (diagnosed from 1990 to 2009) in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Compared with the Caucasian patients, the US-residing Chinese patients had a younger age at diagnosis and a higher family income, remained married longer, and more frequently lived in metropolitan areas. Other tumor characteristics were similarly distributed between the two races. Compared with the Caucasians, the Chinese patients had a significantly improved overall survival (OS) but similar breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Our analysis suggested that US-residing Chinese patients had significant differences in age, family income, marital status and area of residence, compared with their Caucasian counterparts. No significant disparities were noted in BCSS between the two races, whereas the Chinese patients had a significantly better OS. These findings warrant further investigation and should be considered in the screening and treatment of breast cancer.

  9. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  10. Are Dimensions of Parenting Differentially Linked to Substance Use Across Caucasian and Asian American College Students?

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.

  11. Perceived Discrimination, Coping, and Quality of Life for African-American and Caucasian Persons with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; Philip, Errol J.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed “threshold-constraint” theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and thus may use more active coping strategies. 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p< 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race/ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = −.39;CI .13–.83) and African Americans (B = −.20;CI .07–.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = −.48;CI .18–.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144

  12. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  13. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  14. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis. PMID:27672306

  15. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  16. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

    PubMed

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients.

  17. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  18. Perception of Caucasian and African faces in 5- to 9-month-old Caucasian infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Timeo, Susanna; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Farroni, Teresa

    2017-09-13

    Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Specifically, a group of 5-month-old and a group of 9-month-old Caucasian infants were assessed during passing-viewing of Caucasian and African faces. Results showed a greater activation for African than for Caucasian faces for both oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. Moreover, results suggested a tendency for a progressive specialization between 5 and 9 months of age. This is the first fNIRS study investigating the neural correlates of race perception in Caucasian infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutational analysis of the proopiomelanocortin gene in Caucasians with early onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Echwald, S M; Sørensen, T I; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Clausen, J O; Pedersen, O

    1999-03-01

    Mutations in the human gene encoding the polyhormone peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are associated with obesity in rare cases and the gene co-localizes with a reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for variations in circulating leptin levels and fat mass on human chromosome 2p21. In this study we have used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, to test whether variations in the human POMC gene are associated with human obesity. Primary mutational analysis was performed on the coding region of the POMC gene and 500 bp of the putative promoter region, by single strand conformational analysis and sequencing, in 56 subjects with juvenile onset obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or = 31 kg/m2 at the draft board examination). The prevalence of two polymorphisms were further studied in 156 obese and 205 control subjects, and in a population based cohort of 380 extensively characterized young healthy subjects. We have identified a total of six gene variants, five were silent nucleotide substitutions (No51(promoter) g-->c, No670(5'UTR)g-->a, No4512(codon6)c-->t Cys/Cys, No7726(codon116)c-->t Leu/Leu) of which one was prevalent (No8246(3'UTR)c-->t) and one variant changed an amino acid (No8086(codon236)g-->c Arg/Gln). The amino acid substitution was only seen in one subject. Comparing the prevalence of the frequent No8246 silent polymorphism, in an association study comprising 156 subjects with juvenile onset obesity and 205 randomly sampled control subjects (mean BMI 23.5+/-4.7 kg/m2), did not show any relationship to obesity. Also, comparing the prevalence of a known 9bp insertion/deletion variant in the coding region of the gene between obese and lean, showed no association to obesity. Furthermore, analyzing a population based cohort of 380 young healthy Caucasians for the prevalent 3'UTR polymorphism as well as the 9 bp insertion/deletion variant did not show any association to deviations in body fat contents or

  20. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Tammy E; Maroni, Paul D; Ferucci, Paul G; Dayton, Robert; Barnes, Stephen; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Ogden, Lorraine G; Wähälä, Kristiina; Sackett, Holly M; Gray, Karen J

    2005-06-01

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19-65 y old). A secondary goal was to compare plasma and prostatic fluid concentrations of 5 isoflavonoids: genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. Baseline plasma levels of isoflavonoids were quantitated in 45 men by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Participants then consumed a soy beverage daily for 1 wk, and post-soy isoflavonoid levels were quantitated in plasma and prostatic fluid. Equol was the only metabolite that appeared to be influenced by routine dietary habits. Stratified analyses revealed that men who had consumed > or =30 mg soy isoflavones/d for at least 2 y had 5.3-times the probability of producing equol than men who had consumed < or =5 mg/d (P = 0.014). Additionally, those men who consumed animal meat regularly had 4.7-times the probability of producing equol than men who did not consume meat (P = 0.023). Equol production was not linked to age, BMI, or the consumption of yogurt, dairy, fruit, or American-style fast food. Daidzein and its metabolites (but not genistein) were typically present at higher levels in prostate fluid than plasma (median = 4-13 times that in plasma). In conclusion, our data suggest that the ability of Caucasian men to produce equol is favorably influenced by the long-term consumption of high amounts of soy and the consumption of meat. Last, the high concentrations of isoflavonoids in prostatic fluid increases the potential for these compounds to have direct effects in the prostate.

  2. Pelvic floor muscle biometry and pelvic organ mobility in East Asian and Caucasian nulliparae.

    PubMed

    Cheung, R Y K; Shek, K L; Chan, S S C; Chung, T K H; Dietz, H P

    2015-05-01

    To compare the differences in levator ani muscle biometry and hiatal dimensions between pregnant nulliparous Caucasian and East Asian women. Offline analysis of three/four-dimensional ultrasound volume data obtained from two groups of pregnant nulliparous women, Caucasian and East Asian, was performed. Volume acquisition was performed in the late third trimester using the same method in both groups, in the context of two prospective observational studies with identical entry criteria. Pelvic organ descent and levator hiatal dimensions were assessed using the volumes acquired on Valsalva maneuver, and pubovisceral muscle thickness was measured from the volumes obtained on pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC). Datasets of 200 East Asian and 168 Caucasian women were analyzed. Compared with Caucasian women, East Asian women had a significantly lower body mass index. All indices of pelvic organ descent were significantly higher in the Caucasian group than in the East Asian group. The difference, expressed as a percentage, in levator hiatal area on both Valsalva maneuver and PFMC was markedly greater in Caucasian (32% vs. 19%; P < 0.001) than in East Asian (24% vs. 20%; P = 0.01) women. After controlling for potential confounders using multivariate regression analysis, racial origin remained the only significant factor associated with differences in pelvic organ descent and hiatal dimensions. The thickness and area of pubovisceral muscle were significantly higher in the East Asian group. Pregnant women of East Asian racial origin have a thicker pubovisceral muscle, smaller hiatus and less mobility of pelvic organs than do pregnant Caucasian women. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of advancing gestation and non-Caucasian race on ductus arteriosus gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Waleh, Nahid; Barrette, Anne Marie; Dagle, John M.; Momany, Allison; Jin, Chengshi; Hills, Nancy K.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Reese, Jeff; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify genes affected by advancing gestation and racial/ethnic origin in human ductus arteriosus (DA). Study design We collected three sets of DA tissue (n=93, n=89, n=91; total = 273 fetuses) from second trimester pregnancies. We examined four genes, with DNA polymorphisms that distribute along racial lines, to identify "Caucasian" and "Non-Caucasian" DA. We used RT-PCR to measure RNA expression of 48 candidate genes involved in functional closure of the DA, and used multivariable regression analyses to examine the relationships between advancing gestation, "Non-Caucasian" race, and gene expression. Results Mature gestation and Non-Caucasian race are significant predictors for identifying infants who will close their patent DA when treated with indomethacin. Advancing gestation consistently altered gene expression in pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction (e.g., calcium-channels, potassium-channels, and endothelin signaling), contractile protein maturation, tissue remodeling, and prostaglandin and nitric oxide signaling in all three tissue sets. None of the pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction appeared to be altered in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Two genes, SLCO2A1 and NOS3, (involved with prostaglandin reuptake/metabolism and nitric oxide production, respectively) were consistently decreased in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Conclusions Prostaglandins and nitric oxide are the most important vasodilators opposing DA closure. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin production, but not nitric oxide production. Because decreased SLCO2A1 and NOS3 expression can lead to increased prostaglandin and decreased nitric oxide concentrations, we speculate that prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation may play a more dominant role in maintaining the "Non-Caucasian" PDA, making it more likely to close when inhibited by indomethacin. PMID:26265282

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Kempsford, R; Pullerits, T; Takaori, S; Hashimoto, K; Takemoto, Y; Lötvall, J

    2007-12-01

    The effect of ethnicity on the efficacy of salmeterol (S)+fluticasone propionate (FP) has not been examined in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics. In this study, the efficacy of combination treatment with S and FP from a single inhaler (SFC) was compared with concurrent treatment with S and FP administration from separate inhalers (S+FP) in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics. This was a randomised, double-blind, crossover study in male and female Japanese (n=18) and Caucasian (n=17) asthmatics (50-100% predicted FEV(1); >35% reversibility in sGaw). Subjects received SFC (S 50 mcg/FP 250 mcg b.i.d.) and S+FP (S 50 mcg b.i.d.+FP 250 mcg b.i.d.) for 14 days. sGaw and FEV(1) were determined 0-12h after the first and last doses. Treatment with both SFC and S+FP produced marked bronchodilation, which was maintained 0-12h after the first dose. Baseline sGaw and FEV(1) increased up to 51% and 180 mL, respectively, in Japanese subjects over 2 weeks of treatment, with similar improvements in Caucasian subjects. On Day 14 the 0-12h S+FP:SFC treatment ratios (90% CI) for sGaw AUC and peak were 1.05 (0.98, 1.12) and 1.05 (0.97, 1.14), respectively, in Japanese subjects, and 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) and 0.98 (0.89, 1.07), respectively, in Caucasian subjects, with no difference between the two ethnic groups. The finding of a similar significant bronchodilator response in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics following concurrent and combination treatment with salmeterol and FP suggests that the therapeutic response to these agents is comparable and independent of ethnicity in Japanese and Caucasian asthma patients.

  5. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure. Reference values in Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, D; Fitting, J W

    1999-01-01

    Like in adults, normal values of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) and maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax) span a large range in children, making interpretation of low values difficult. Recently, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (Pnsn) was developed as a new noninvasive test of inspiratory muscle strength. In healthy adults, Pnsn is most often higher than PImax. The aim of this study was to establish reference values of Pnsn in children and to compare them with PImax. A group of 180 unselected healthy children age 6 to 17 yr was studied in a school setting. All had a forced vital capacity (FVC) > 80% of predicted and a ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/ FVC) > 85% of predicted. All maneuvers were performed in the sitting position. The Pnsn was measured using a catheter occluding one nostril during maximal sniffs performed through the contralateral nostril from FRC. The PImax was measured from FRC and residual volume, and PEmax from FRC and total lung capacity. All children were able to perform the Pnsn maneuver easily. Pnsn was 104 +/- 26 cm H2O in boys and 93 +/- 23 cm H2O in girls (p < 0.005). These values were similar to those previously measured in healthy adults. Pnsn correlated with age, weight, and height in boys, but not in girls. In both sexes, Pnsn was higher than PImax measured at the same lung volume (FRC) (p < 0. 0001). Pnsn was >= PImaxFRC in 73 of 93 boys and 79 of 87 girls. We conclude that Pnsn can be easily used to assess inspiratory muscle strength in children age 6 yr or more, providing values higher than PImax. Normal values are independent of age in girls, and can be predicted from age by a first-degree equation in boys. Being easy and noninvasive, Pnsn may prove useful to assess inspiratory muscle strength in children with neuromuscular disorders.

  6. Effects of an overnight intravenous lipid infusion on intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity in African-American versus Caucasian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Boesch, Chris; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explain the predisposition for insulin resistance among African American (AA) adolescents, this study aimed to: 1) examine changes in intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity with intralipid (IL) infusion; and 2) determine whether the increase in IMCL is comparable between AA and Caucasian adolescents. Materials and Methods Thirteen AA and 15 Caucasian normal-weight adolescents (BMI <85th) underwent a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, on two occasions in random order, after an overnight 12-hr infusion of: 1) 20% IL and 2) normal saline (NS). IMCL was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tibialis anterior muscle before and after IL infusion. Results During IL infusion, plasma TG, glycerol, FFA and fat oxidation increased significantly, with no race differences. Hepatic insulin sensitivity decreased with IL infusion with no difference between the groups. IL infusion was associated with a significant increase in IMCL, which was comparable between AA (Δ 105%; NS: 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. IL: 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol/kg wet weight) and Caucasian (Δ 86%; NS: 2.8 ± 2.1 vs. IL: 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol/kg wet weight), with similar reductions (P<0.01) in insulin sensitivity between the groups (Δ −44%: NS: 9.1 ± 3.3 vs. IL: 5.1 ± 1.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in AA) and (Δ−39%: NS: 12.9 ± 6.0 vs. IL: 7.9 ± 3.8 mg/kg/min per µU/ml in Caucasian) adolescents. Conclusions In healthy adolescents, an acute elevation in plasma FFA with IL infusion is accompanied by significant increases in IMCL and reductions in insulin sensitivity with no race differential. Our findings suggest that AA normal-weight adolescents are not more susceptible than Caucasians to FFA-induced IMCL accumulation and insulin resistance. PMID:23122836

  7. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  8. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  9. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  10. Increasing Staff Mobility--A Danish Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Recent Danish government proposals to increase the national and international mobility of scientists are reviewed, including a formalized sabbatical system in the universities, new rules for obtaining leaves of absence with or without salary, and plans for increased mobility between public and private sectors. (MSE)

  11. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  12. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  13. Association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in Caucasian children and adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W; Carter, C S; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H

    2007-04-24

    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p=0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR.

  14. A comparison of weight-control behaviors in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Lee, Janet N; Lowe, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether there are overall differences in help-seeking, in specific weight control behaviors used, and in predictors of seeking professional help for weight loss between African American and Caucasian women. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from community sources in Philadelphia. One hundred twenty female participants were studied. Of these, 58% were African American. Participants completed a packet of measures assessing weight-control behaviors, body mass index, co-morbid medical conditions, socioeconomic status, disordered eating behavior, and body image. Caucasian women were significantly more likely to be classified as high help-seekers than were African American women, X2 = 4.27, P = .04. Caucasian women were more likely to use commercial weight loss programs, X2 = 4.25, P = .04, while African American women were more likely to try herbal supplements for weight control, X2 = 6.21, P = .01. Higher scores on a measure of body image, responsiveness to the food environment, and the disinhibition and hunger subscales of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) predicted seeking professional help for Caucasian women only. The results indicate that African American and Caucasian women differ in overall weight-control efforts as well as in specific behaviors used. Furthermore, interactions were found between some factors associated with help-seeking and ethnicity. A better understanding of how available programs could be augmented to address the needs of African American and other minority groups is necessary.

  15. Comparison of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mio; Henderson, Marsha; Jacobsen, Gordon; Lim, Henry W

    2014-10-01

    Only a few studies have compared frequencies of photodermatoses among different races and skin types. This is an extension of a study performed by Kerr and Lim and evaluates the frequency of photodermatoses in African-Americans compared with Caucasians in the same institution during an 8-year period. Retrospective chart review was performed, including dermatology clinic charts from October 2004 to August 2012 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes related to photodermatoses. We identified 229 patients with photodermatoses. Of these, 138 (46.6%) were African-American and 63 (42.2%) were Caucasian. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians, respectively, were as follows: phototoxic drug eruption (0.7% and 15.9%, P < 0.0001), phytophotodermatitis (0% and 6.3%, P = 0.009), polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) (86.2% and 54%, P < 0.0001) and porphyrias (0% and 7.9%, P = 0.003). Combined with data from Kerr and Lim, this is the largest study of photodermatoses in African-Americans to date. Congruent to former studies, photodermatoses do occur regularly in dark-skinned individuals. Overall, the frequency of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians are similar; however, PMLE occurs more commonly in African-Americans, and porphyias and phototoxicity occur more commonly in Caucasians. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A comparative study of tracheal diameter in Caucasian and Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tai, A; Corke, C; Joynt, G M; Griffith, J; Lunn, D; Tong, Pwy

    2016-11-01

    Ethnicity may be considered a factor when considering what size endotracheal tube to insert. In particular it has been suggested that Chinese patients have a smaller tracheal diameter, justifying the selection of smaller endotracheal tubes. We systematically evaluated transverse tracheal diameters in Chinese and Caucasian patients, utilising archived computer tomography images. A convenience sample of 100 Caucasian patients from Australia was compared with 100 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. Patients over 18 years of age who had undergone a computerised tomography scan of the neck and thorax, and also had accurate body height and weight recorded, were studied. The mean transverse diameter of the trachea measured at three levels was similar between the Chinese and Caucasian patients. At the narrowest measurement point, the immediate subcricoid transverse diameter, the unadjusted mean difference between male Chinese and Caucasian patients was small (1 mm, standard deviation 0.83 mm, P=0.01), and similarly small between female Chinese and Caucasian patients (1.5 mm, standard deviation 0.8 mm, P <0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated only a small influence related to ethnicity (12% relative contribution to the overall variance [R(2)] of the model), but substantial influence of height (40%) and sex (41%). Our findings do not support the practice of routinely selecting a smaller endotracheal tube size for Chinese patients on the basis that there is a difference related to the Chinese ethnic phenotype. Considerations regarding choice of endotracheal tube size should rather focus on patient sex and height.

  17. Bone density, microarchitecture and stiffness in Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhang, Zhendong; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Nickolas, Thomas L; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic Americans of Caribbean origin are a fast-growing subset of the US population, but there are no studies on bone density, microstructure and biomechanical integrity in this minority group. In this study, we aimed to compare Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women with respect to these characteristics. Thirty-three Caribbean Hispanics were age-matched to thirty-three Caucasian postmenopausal women. At the lumbar spine, the Hispanic women had significantly lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD). At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), there were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analyses indicated that at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower bone volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate–plate, plate–rod and rod–rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women. The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to lower whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. In conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia. PMID:26273525

  18. Fatalism and health promoting behaviors in Chinese and Korean immigrants and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise E; Sherman, Kerry A; Shaw, Laura-Kate E; Costa, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Fatalism has been associated with non-adherence to health behavior in the past. This study compared fatalism of Chinese and Korean immigrants with native-born Caucasians (N = 309) and examined whether the relationship between fatalism and exercise, nutrition and medical screening would be moderated by ethnicity. Chinese reported higher fatalism than Caucasians and Koreans. Higher fatalism was associated with greater exercise among Chinese and Koreans, but less reported exercise among Caucasians. Caucasian participants had higher scores for nutrition and medical screening compared with Chinese and Korean immigrants. These findings indicate that fatalism is more prevalent among Chinese immigrants; however, there is no evidence of a detrimental effect of fatalism on exercise, nutrition or medical screening among the Asian immigrants. Caucasians with higher fatalism may be at greater risk of future illnesses, given the association between fatalism and sedentary behavior in this group. Differences between cultural groups in the adoption of health behavior justify the development and assessment of targeted interventions to optimize health promoting behaviors.

  19. Comparison of the frontal esthetic preferences in the lower facial portion of Koreans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Goo; Lee, Yong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Seong-Hun; Sinclair, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the differences in frontal esthetics in the lower face among Caucasian models, Korean models, and Korean nonmodels. The sample consisted of three groups comprising 36 Caucasian models, 30 Korean models, and 26 Korean nonmodels. Their frontal photos were scanned, and 12 distances, five angles, lip perimeter, and lip area were measured. Differences among groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. There was no significant difference in the upper lip height among the three groups. The Korean models had shorter lower lip to chin height than the two other groups. Full lip width was wider in the Korean and Caucasian models than in the Korean nonmodels. The Caucasian models had greater total vermilion area compared to both Korean groups. Finally, the Korean models had fuller lower and thinner upper vermilion areas than the nonmodels. Attractive lower facial portions in Caucasians are different from those of Koreans. Therefore, clinicians in Korea should use these data as guidelines for evaluating and enhancing patients' frontal facial esthetics. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  20. Association of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) in Caucasian Children and Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W.; Carter, C. S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. Methods We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Results Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p = 0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. Conclusions These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR. PMID:17383819

  1. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    PubMed

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  2. The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Gimsing, Peter; Holmström, Morten O; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfelt; Andersen, Niels Frost; Gregersen, Henrik; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Plesner, Torben; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Frederiksen, Mikael; Frølund, Ulf; Helleberg, Carsten; Vangsted, Annette; de Nully Brown, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry (DMMR) is a population-based clinical quality database established in January 2005. The primary aim of the database is to ensure that diagnosis and treatment of plasma cell dyscrasia are of uniform quality throughout the country. Another aim is to support research. Patients are registered with their unique Danish personal identification number, and the combined use of DMMR, other Danish National registries, and the Danish National Cancer Biobank offers a unique platform for population-based translational research. Study population All newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering MM, solitary plasmacytomas, and plasma cell leukemia in Denmark are registered annually; ~350 patients. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with polyneuropathy have been registered since 2014. Main variables The main registered variables at diagnosis are patient demographics, baseline disease characteristics, myeloma-defining events, clinical complications, prognostics, first- and second-line treatments, treatment responses, progression free, and overall survival. Descriptive data Up to June 2015, 2,907 newly diagnosed patients with MM, 485 patients with smoldering MM, 64 patients with plasma cell leukemia, and 191 patients with solitary plasmacytomas were registered. Registration completeness of new patients is ~100%. A data validation study performed in 2013–2014 by the Danish Myeloma Study Group showed >95% data correctness. Conclusion The DMMR is a population-based data validated database eligible for clinical, epidemiological, and translational research. PMID:27822103

  3. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  4. Profiles of Motivation for Reading Among African American and Caucasian Students

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John T.; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Wigfield, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has investigated motivations for reading by examining positive, or affirming, motivations including intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Related to them, we examined two negative, or undermining, motivations consisting of avoidance and perceived difficulty. We proposed that the motivations of intrinsic motivation and avoidance are relatively independent, and thus, can be combined to form meaningful profiles consisting of: avid, ambivalent, apathetic, and averse readers. With Grade 5 students we found that these motivations were relatively independent for both Caucasian and African American students. The two motivations uniquely explained a significant proportion of variance in reading comprehension and other cognitive reading variables. Although intrinsic motivation was stronger for Caucasians, avoidance was stronger for African Americans. The profile of the African American students contained higher proportions of averse and ambivalent readers than the Caucasian profile. The profile of avid readers showed higher reading achievement than the other profiles. PMID:19960100

  5. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs.

  6. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control.

  8. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  9. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients.

    PubMed

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descendants were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample.

  10. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up.

  11. Do Basque- and Caucasian-speaking populations share non-Indo-European ancestors?

    PubMed

    Bertorelle, G; Bertranpetit, J; Calafell, F; Nasidze, I S; Barbujani, G

    1995-01-01

    Genetic evidence is consistent with the view that the Indo-European languages were propagated in Europe by the diffusion of early farmers. The existence of phylogenetic relationships between European populations speaking other languages has been proposed on linguistic and archaeological grounds, and is here tested by analyzing allele frequencies at ten polymorphic protein and blood group loci. Genetic distances between speakers of Basque and Caucasian languages are compared with those between controls, i.e. contiguous populations speaking Indo-European and Altaic. Although some statistical tests show an excess of genetic similarity between Basque and South Caucasian speakers, most results do not support their common origin. If the Basques and the Caucasian-speaking populations share common ancestors, recent evolutionary phenomena must have caused divergence between them, so that their gene frequencies do not appear more similar now than those of random pairs of populations separated by the same geographic distance.

  12. Double product and end-organ damage in African and Caucasian men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Schultz, A J; Schutte, A E; Schutte, R

    2013-08-10

    Increasing urbanisation in sub-Saharan African countries is causing a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that Africans have higher blood pressures and a higher prevalence of hypertension-related cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared to Caucasians. We investigated double product (systolic blood pressure × heart rate), a substantial measure of cardiac workload, as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in African and Caucasian men. The study consisted of 101 urbanised African and 101 Caucasian male school teachers. We measured 24h ambulatory blood pressure and the carotid cross-sectional wall area, and determined left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographically by means of the Cornell product. Urinary albumin and creatinine were analysed to obtain the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Africans had higher 24h, daytime and nighttime systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and resultant double product compared to the Caucasians. In addition, markers of end-organ damage, albumin-to-creatinine ratio and left ventricular hypertrophy were higher in the Africans while cross-sectional wall area did not differ. In Africans after single partial and multiple regression analysis, 24h systolic blood pressure, but not double product or heart rate, correlated positively with markers of end-organ damage (cross-sectional wall area: β=0.398, P=0.005; left ventricular hypertrophy: β=0.455, P<0.001; albumin-to-creatinine ratio: β=0.280, P=0.012). No associations were evident in Caucasian men. Double product may not be a good marker of increased cardiovascular risk when compared to systolic blood pressure in African and Caucasian men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  14. Prevalence of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia on autopsy in Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Zlotta, Alexandre R; Egawa, Shin; Pushkar, Dmitry; Govorov, Alexander; Kimura, Takahiro; Kido, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kuk, Cynthia; Kovylina, Marta; Aldaoud, Najla; Fleshner, Neil; Finelli, Antonio; Klotz, Laurence; Lockwood, Gina; Sykes, Jenna; Kwast, Theodorus van der

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We studied the prevalence of inflammation and BPH in Asian and Caucasian men on prostate glands (n=320) obtained during autopsy in Moscow, Russia (Caucasian men, n=220), and Tokyo, Japan (Asian men, n=100). We correlated the presence and grade of acute inflammation (AI) or chronic inflammation (CI) and BPH. AI, CI, and histologic BPH were analyzed in a blinded fashion using a grading system (0-3). We used the Cochran-Armitage test for associations between the degree of BPH and clinical variables and proportional odds logistic regression models in multivariable analysis. Histologic BPH was observed in a similar proportion of Asian and Caucasian men (p=0.94). CI was found in>70% of men in both the Asian and Caucasian groups (p>0.05). Higher BPH scores were associated with more CI (p<0.001). In multivariate analyses, individuals with CI were 6.8 times more likely to have a higher BPH score than individuals without (p<0.0001). Men included in this study presented at the hospital and their symptomatic status was not known. The prevalence of CI and BPH on autopsy is similar in Asian and Caucasian men despite very different diet and lifestyle. CI is strongly associated in both groups with BPH. In this study, we looked at the prevalence of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on autopsy in Asian and Caucasian men. We found chronic inflammation in>70% of men on autopsy. More chronic inflammation was associated with more BPH. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A 3D analysis of Caucasian and African American facial morphologies in a US population.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Leslie; Kau, Chung How; Christou, Terpsithea; Vlachos, Christos; Souccar, Nada

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to compare facial morphologies of an adult African-American population to an adult Caucasian-American population using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging. The images were captured using a stereophotogrammetric system (3dMDface(TM) system). Subjects were aged 19-30 years, with normal body mass index and no gross craniofacial anomalies. Images were aligned and combined using RF6 Plus Pack 2 software to produce a male and female facial average for each population. The averages were superimposed and the differences were assessed. The most distinct differences were in the forehead, alar base and perioricular regions. The average difference between African-American and Caucasian-American females was 1·18±0·98 mm. The African-American females had a broader face, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. The Caucasian-American females had a more prominent chin, malar region and lower forehead. The average difference between African-American and Caucasian-American males was 1·11±1·04 mm. The African-American males had a more prominent upper forehead and periocular region, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. No notable difference occurred between chin points of the two male populations. Average faces were created from 3D photographs, and the facial morphological differences between populations and genders were compared. African-American males had a more prominent upper forehead and periocular region, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. Caucasian-American males showed a more prominent nasal tip and malar area. African-American females had broader face, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. Caucasian-American females showed a more prominent chin point, malar region and lower forehead.

  16. Coronary artery size and disease in UK South Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Zindrou, Dlear; Taylor, Kenneth M; Bagger, Jens Peder

    2006-04-01

    South Asian patients in the UK have a higher mortality rate after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) than Caucasian patients. As coronary artery size has been shown to correlate to outcome from bypass grafting, it has been suggested that smaller coronary arteries in South Asians as compared to Caucasians could contribute to a poorer outcome in the Asian population. We aimed to measure coronary artery size and disease in matched South Asian and Caucasian men undergoing first time coronary artery bypass grafting. Coronary arteriograms from 53 matched first generation South Asian and Caucasian men were examined. The patients had no history of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, familial dyslipidaemia, diabetes or renal disease. They were individually matched for age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area. Thereafter, coronary artery diameters and significant (> or =50%) diameter stenoses were measured in a blinded fashion using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). In South Asian men, diameters of the left main stem (LMS) and the proximal left anterior descending, the circumflex and the right coronary arteries were 4.6+/-0.9 mm, 3.5+/-0.8 mm, 3.4+/-0.8 mm and 3.5+/-0.8 mm, respectively. The corresponding arterial diameters among Caucasian men (4.5+/-0.9 mm, 3.5+/-0.7 mm, 3.5+/-0.8 mm and 3.8+/-0.8 mm) did not differ from those in South Asians. There was no difference in the number of significant coronary artery stenoses between the two groups and no difference in bypass and cross-clamp times or in adverse outcome (one from each group died after coronary artery bypass grafting). Proximal coronary artery size and number of significant coronary stenoses did not differ between matched pairs of South Asian and Caucasian men using strict inclusion/exclusion criteria.

  17. Insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata Disease) in European Caucasians taking α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Damiano; Evans, Joseph L; Sortino, Grazia; Goldfine, Ira D; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is a widely used nutritional supplement and is sometimes used as an adjuvant treatment for diabetic neuropathy and other conditions. Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, Hirata disease) is a rare cause of spontaneous hypoglycaemia, extremely high serum insulin levels and high titres of autoantibodies against endogenous insulin despite no prior exposure to exogenous insulin. In Japanese individuals, IAS is associated with the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-DRB1*04:06 allele and often occurs upon exposure to sulphhydryl-containing compounds including LA. Only one case has been reported in Caucasians. We now report six Caucasian patients taking LA with IAS and describe a unique HLA subtype in these patients. Six Caucasian patients (M = 3; F = 3), median age 63 years, presented with spontaneous episodes of fasting and postabsorptive hypoglycaemia associated with mainly neuroglycopenic symptoms. No patient was treated with insulin or had an insulinoma. Hypoglycaemic symptoms appeared 30 and 120 days after taking lipoic acid (LA; 600 mg/day). Case histories and standard laboratory analyses were utilized. Discontinuation of LA resulted in a reduction in hypoglycaemic episodes. All patients were treated with oral or iv glucose and prednisone (12.5-25 mg/day). HLA analysis revealed the HLA-DRB1*04:03 allele in five patients, while the HLA-DRB1*04:06 allele was present in one patient. This is the first report of LA-related IAS in Caucasians who possess the HLA-DRB1*04:03 allele, implicating this allele in the genetic susceptibility to IAS in Caucasians. The greater occurrence of the HLA-DRB1*04:03 allele in Caucasian and other populations, combined with the growing use of LA in developed countries, may be a future predictor of additional cases of IAS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ethnic characteristics of eyelashes: a comparative analysis in Asian and Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Na, J I; Kwon, O S; Kim, B J; Park, W S; Oh, J K; Kim, K H; Cho, K H; Eun, H C

    2006-12-01

    Despite similar biochemical composition of human hair between races, physico-morphological characteristics are not identical in different ethnic groups. Eyelashes have been investigated far less than scalp hair, and the information available is insufficient. To obtain basic information about eyelashes and to clarify differences between female eyelashes in Asians and Caucasians. Twenty Asian and 10 white Caucasian female volunteers aged between 20 and 29 years were admitted to the study. Lateral digital photographs of upper eyelashes were taken and curl-up and lift-up angles of upper eyelashes were measured from lateral views. Images of upper eyelashes were also taken using the phototrichogram technique and total numbers, lengths and thicknesses of upper eyelashes were obtained (a total of 4661 eyelashes; 2946 for Asian, 1715 for Caucasian). The central portion of the eyelashes or whole eyelashes were clipped and images were taken immediately and 7 days later to obtain the growth rate and anagen ratio of upper eyelashes. Numbers and thickness of eyelash cuticular layers were obtained by electron microscopy. Compared with Caucasians, Asian eyelashes revealed lower lift-up and curl-up angles, fewer numbers and a thicker transverse diameter. However, no statistical difference was observed in length or growth rate. Duration of anagen was estimated at about 2 months. The eyelash anagen ratio obtained from five Asians was 17.8 +/- 3.3%. By electron microscopy, the number of cuticular layers in transverse section was greater in Asian (8.0 +/- 1.2) than Caucasian females (6.5 +/- 1.1), but no statistical difference was found in single cuticle layer thickness between the two groups. Moreover, eyelash characteristics were not influenced by eye makeup in either race. Our results on eyelash morphology and growth characteristics demonstrated significant ethnic differences in Asian and Caucasian females that could provide basic information for future investigations.

  19. Predicting Total, Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity with Circulating Biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Turner, Stephen D.; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Ernst, Thomas; Albright, Cheryl L.; Novotny, Rachel; Chang, Linda; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. Objective We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. Methods Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. Results Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R2 = 0.85), by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R2 = 0.69), or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R2 = 0.91). Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio) was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R2 = 0.58) than by anthropometry alone (R2 = 0.53) or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH)-vitamin D3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R2 = 0.35). Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R2 = 0.68) than by anthropometry alone (R2 = 0.65) or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D3; R2 = 0.58). Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1

  20. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Turner, Stephen D; Franke, Adrian A; Cooney, Robert V; Wilkens, Lynne R; Ernst, Thomas; Albright, Cheryl L; Novotny, Rachel; Chang, Linda; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2) = 0.85), by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2) = 0.69), or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2) = 0.91). Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio) was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2) = 0.58) than by anthropometry alone (R(2) = 0.53) or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH)-vitamin D(3), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2) = 0.35). Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2) = 0.68) than by anthropometry alone (R(2) = 0.65) or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3); R(2) = 0.58). Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2) = 0.42) or by combining the predictors (R(2

  1. Investigation of Caucasian rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in African patients with the same disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The largest genetic risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) arises from a group of alleles of the HLA DRB1 locus ('shared epitope', SE). Over 30 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to disease have been identified in Caucasians, but they have never been investigated in West/Central Africa. We previously reported a lower prevalence of the SE in RA patients in Cameroon compared to European patients and aimed in the present study to investigate the contribution of Caucasian non-HLA RA SNPs to disease susceptibility in Black Africans. Methods RA cases and controls from Cameroon were genotyped for Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs using Sequenom MassArray technology. Genotype data were also available for 5024 UK cases and 4281 UK controls and for 119 Yoruba individuals in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI, HapMap). A Caucasian aggregate genetic-risk score (GRS) was calculated as the sum of the weighted risk-allele counts. Results After genotyping quality control procedures were performed, data on 28 Caucasian non-HLA susceptibility SNPs were available in 43 Cameroonian RA cases and 44 controls. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) were tightly correlated between Cameroonian controls and YRI individuals (correlation coefficient 93.8%, p = 1.7E-13), and they were pooled together. There was no correlation between MAF of UK and African controls; 13 markers differed by more than 20%. The MAF for markers at PTPN22, IL2RA, FCGR2A and IL2/IL21 was below 2% in Africans. The GRS showed a strong association with RA in the UK. However, the GRS did not predict RA in Africans (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.29 - 1.74, p = 0.456). Random sampling from the UK cohort showed that this difference in association is unlikely to be explained by small sample size or chance, but is statistically significant with p<0.001. Conclusions The MAFs of non-HLA Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs are different between Caucasians and Africans, and several polymorphisms are barely detectable in

  2. Intersectoriality in Danish municipalities: corrupting the social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Holt, Ditte H; Frohlich, Katherine L; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Clavier, Carole

    2017-10-01

    Action on the social determinants of health (SDH) through intersectoral policymaking is often suggested to promote health and health equity. This paper argues that the process of intersectoral policymaking influences how the SDH are construed and acted upon in municipal policymaking. We discuss how the intersectoral policy process legitimates certain practices in the setting of Danish municipal health promotion and the potential impact this can have for long-term, sustainable healthy public policy. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, we show how the intention of intersectoriality produces a strong concern for integrating health into non-health sectors to ensure productive collaboration. To encourage this integration, health is often framed as a means to achieve the objectives of non-health sectors. In doing so, the intersectoral policy process tends to favor smaller-scale interventions that aim to introduce healthier practices into various settings, e.g. creating healthy school environments for increased physical activity and healthy eating. While other more overarching interventions on the health impacts of broader welfare policies (e.g. education policy) tend to be neglected. The interventions hereby neglect to address more fundamental SDH. Based on these findings, we argue that intersectoral policymaking to address the SDH may translate into a limited approach to action on so-called 'intermediary determinants' of health, and as such may end up corrupting the broader SDH. Further, we discuss how this corruption affects the intended role of non-health sectors in tackling the SDH, as it may impede the overall success and long-term sustainability of intersectoral efforts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Reliability and Validity Testing of a Danish Translated Version of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument-22 Revised (SRS-22R).

    PubMed

    Simony, Ane; Carreon, Leah Y; Andersen, Mikkel O

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional Objectives: To present a reliable and valid Danish translation of the Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R). The SRS22R was designed as a disease-specific measure of quality of life in surgically treated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. It has been translated and adapted into several languages. A reliable and valid Danish version is not available. A Danish version of the SRS-22R was developed using previously published and widely accepted guidelines. The final Danish SRS-22R and the Danish Short Form-36 were administered to 169 AIS patients and 45 healthy controls. Cronbach's α was computed as a measure of internal consistency. Concordant validity was determined by computing correlations of the SRS-22R Domains with the corresponding SF-36 domains and factor analysis. Discriminant validity was determined by comparing Domain scores between AIS patients treated surgically, AIS patients treated with a brace, and the healthy controls. One hundred sixty-five (97.6%) AIS patients and 42 (93.3%) healthy controls returned their questionnaires. Moderate ceiling effects were observed in the AIS cohort for the Function and Satisfaction Domains. Cronbach's α for each Domain and the Total score were good to excellent. Pearson correlation coefficients were found to be high for the SRS-22R Domains that had similar latent variables as the SF-36 Domains. Factor analysis revealed an underlying factorial structure of the questionnaire accounting for 60% of the explained variance. The SRS-22R Domain scores were statistically significantly different between the AIS cohort that had surgery, the AIS cohort that was treated with a brace, and the healthy controls. The Danish version of the SRS-22R is reliable, with content, concordant, and discriminant validity. The scores, the score distribution, and the ceiling and floor effects were similar to those of the original SRS-22R in English as well as other previous translations. Copyright © 2016 Scoliosis

  4. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann.

  5. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  6. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II), and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV). Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. PMID:27822109

  7. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  8. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  9. Complete heart block in a Caucasian woman with Behçet's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Butt, Sabeeh-Ur-Rehman; McNeil, Julian

    2016-04-19

    Behçet's disease is a progressive diffuse inflammatory vasculitis characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulceration and ocular inflammation. Cardiac involvement is a rare but well-documented manifestation of Behçet's disease. Complete heart block in non-Caucasian populations has been reported previously; however, in this report, we describe a unique case of complete heart block in a Caucasian woman with Behçet's disease. A 48-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with symptomatic complete heart block requiring a pacemaker implant on a background of recurrent oral and genital ulcers and oligoarthritis of 10 months' duration. She also had a history of recurrent diarrhea with a single episode of ocular inflammation in the recent past. She had no evidence of cardiac ischemia, and her autoimmune antibodies were within normal ranges. She was diagnosed with Behçet's disease according to international study group criteria and was commenced on prednisolone and sulfasalazine, to which she responded very well. Cardiac complications should be considered when making a diagnosis of Behçet's disease, even in Caucasian patients. While mucocutaneous ulceration is indeed the most common manifestation of Behçet's disease, cardiovascular involvement tends to cause the most morbidity and mortality.

  10. Loss of Control Eating in African-American and Caucasian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Omni L.; Matheson, Brittany; Osborn, Robyn; Vannucci, Anna; Kozlosky, Merel; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating, a disinhibited eating behavior shown to predict excessive weight gain in youth, has been reported by African-American children and adolescents. Yet, little is known about how LOC-eating manifests in this population. To investigate potential racial differences in LOC-eating, the Eating Disorder Examination was administered to 185 non-Hispanic African-American and Caucasian youth ages 8-17y. Objective eating was assessed at two test meals during which youth ate ad libitum from a multi-item lunchtime food array. African-American and Caucasian youth reported a similar prevalence of LOC episodes (24.2% vs. 28.9%, p =.75). Yet, accounting for sex, age, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, height, and socioeconomic status, African-Americans consumed more total energy at both laboratory meals (1608 ± 57 kcal vs. 1362 ± 44 kcal; p <.001). Furthermore, African-American youth reporting LOC consumed the most total energy across both meals (1855 ± 104 kcal) compared to African-Americans without LOC (152 ± 60 kcal), Caucasians with LOC (1278 ± 68 kcal), and Caucasians without LOC (1399 ± 46 kcal; p <.001). Future research is required to examine whether LOC-eating contributes to the high rates of obesity in African-American youth. PMID:22365807

  11. Intake and Digestibility Among Caucasian Bluestem, Big Bluestem, and Switchgrass Compared with Bermudagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Warm-season perennial grasses, mainly bermudagrass, have been a major source of hay for ruminant systems across the upper southern USA. This study compares the quality of Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’] (CBS) with ‘Kanlow’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)...

  12. Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  13. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Patricia A. Deuster, Ph.D. Merrily Poth, M.D. Tracey Sbrocco , Ph.D. Martha Faraday, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson...Overweight DAMD17-03-2-0024 and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians 6. AUTHOR(S) Patricia A. Deuster, Ph.D. Merrily Poth, M.D. Tracey Sbrocco

  14. Ocular presentation of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma in a Caucasian man.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Emily; Fogarty, Helen; Fortune, Anne; Keegan, David

    2016-04-26

    Natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma-nasal subtype, is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, most common in South East Asia, and can have an ophthalmological presentation. This report describes a 51-year-old Caucasian man with uveitis, recurrent retinal detachment and paraneoplastic features subsequently diagnosed as NK/T-cell lymphoma.

  15. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  16. Phenotypic comparison of Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erica T; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), particularly androgen excess, differ between Caucasian and Asian women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cross-sectional study. Multidisciplinary PCOS clinic at a tertiary academic center. 121 Caucasian and 28 Asian women, aged 18-44, examined between 2006 and 2011 with PCOS verified by a reproductive endocrinologist and dermatologist according to the Rotterdam criteria. Transvaginal ultrasounds, comprehensive dermatologic exams, and serum testing. Hirsutism defined as a modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score ≥ 8, acne, androgenic alopecia, and biochemical hyperandrogenism. Caucasian and Asian women had a similar prevalence of all measures of androgen excess. Both groups had similar total mFG scores and site-specific mFG scores, except Asian women had a lower site-specific mFG score for the chest. Although Asian women were more likely to use laser hair removal, the results were unchanged when the women with a history of laser hair removal were excluded. Caucasian and Asian women with PCOS living in the same geographic region had a similar prevalence of hirsutism as well as other markers for androgen excess. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the need for ethnic-specific mFG scores in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  19. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  20. Differences in bone quality and strength between Asian and Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kepley, A L; Nishiyama, K K; Zhou, B; Wang, J; Zhang, C; McMahon, D J; Foley, K F; Walker, M D; Edward Guo, X; Shane, E; Nickolas, T L

    2017-02-01

    This is a cross-sectional study to assess differences in bone quality in young Asian and Caucasian (n = 30/group) men between 25 and 35 years. We found that Asians had smaller bones, thicker and denser cortices, and more plate-like trabeculae, but stiffness did not differ between groups.

  1. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  2. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  3. First report of Erysiphe knautiae (Erysiphales) on Lomelosia caucasica (Caucasian pincushion flower) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A powdery mildew, Erysiphe knautiae, is reported on Lomelosia caucasica (synonym Scabiosa caucasica, Caucasian pincushion flower) for the first time in North America. Lomelosia is now recognized as a genus distinct from, albeit closely related to, Scabiosa. The host range of E. knautiae seemingly ex...

  4. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  5. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  6. The Importance of Family and School Domains in Adolescent Deviance: African American and Caucasian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the importance of family (closeness, monitoring, and conflict) and school (grades, homework time, educational aspirations, and commitment) domains on 809 African American and Caucasian youth. Both developmental domains revealed independent relationships with different measures of adolescent deviance, and results were similar for both…

  7. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  8. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  9. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-05-09

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor.

  10. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared to…

  11. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  12. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  13. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  14. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  15. Parenting Beliefs and Academic Achievement across African-American and Caucasian Family Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the role of parents' child-rearing beliefs in determining the academic achievement of African-American and Caucasian children, with a particular emphasis on describing the differential impact of parenting beliefs across these family contexts. Models were specified in which third-grade academic outcome…

  16. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  17. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  18. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  19. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  20. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared to…

  1. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  2. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed,…

  3. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  4. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  5. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH01 9.3 allele in the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome in Swiss Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Studer, Jacqueline; Bartsch, Christine; Haas, Cordula

    2014-11-01

    Catecholamines, especially noradrenalin, are essential in the control of respiration and arousal. Thus, an impaired production of these neurotransmitters may contribute to the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The first step of the noradrenergic synthesis pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The TH-encoding gene contains a tetrameric short tandem repeat in intron 1 (TH01), with allele 9.3 reported to be associated with SIDS in German infants. We investigated the allelic frequency of the TH01 marker in 171 Swiss SIDS infants and 500 healthy and gender-matched Caucasian adults. In our study population, the allelic frequency of the 9.3 allele is similarly distributed in SIDS cases and controls (27.2% vs. 25.6%; p-value = 0.562). Nevertheless, the TH-encoding gene is only one of several genes involved in the noradrenergic biosynthesis pathway. Therefore, further genetic investigations are required with focus on the whole noradrenergic signaling system. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  7. Relationship between leptin, adiponectin, bone mineral density, and measures of adiposity among pre-menopausal Hispanic and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women. Participants' (68 Hispanic and 36 Caucasian) BMD and bone mineral content were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density was measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin was determined by enzyme immunoassay and adiponectin by ELISA. Hispanic women had significantly higher leptin, BMD, and fat mass (FM), and lower adiponectin than Caucasian women. There was no significant correlation between leptin and BMD for Hispanic or Caucasian women; adiponectin was inversely correlated with BMD in Caucasian women only (p = 0.01). In both Hispanic and Caucasian women, lean body mass and adiponectin best explained the variance in BMD (r(2) = 0.25, p < 0.001). These data demonstrate no significant relationship between leptin and BMD of pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women, and a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMD in Caucasian women. The role of adipocytokines in the regulation of BMD remains inconclusive and may vary across ethnic groups.

  8. Maternal factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations do not seem to contribute to the occurrence of two or more than two consecutive miscarriages in Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Kristin; Beuter-Winkler, Petra; Hackethal, Andreas; Strowitzki, Thomas; Toth, Bettina; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the prevalence of the most common hereditary thrombophilia (hTP) - factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, prothrombin 20210 G>A substitution (PT) - and the 677 C>T replacement in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in Caucasian patients with a history of two and more consecutive recurrent miscarriages (RMs) as compared to healthy controls with an identical ethnic background and at least one live birth. A multicenter analysis of three hTP was performed in 641 RM patients identically screened at specialized university centres. The study groups consisted of 240 patients with 2 (1) and 401 patients with >2 miscarriages (2) and were compared with 157 controls. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the hTP between RM patients and controls nor within the two study groups. Subgroup analysis showed that the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in the study group 2 as compared to study group 1 (13.9 versus 7.9%, P = 0.02). In Caucasians, maternal FVL or PT mutations do not seem to contribute to the pathophysiology of RM, irrespective of the number of miscarriages. However, the role of the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism merits further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of nasal airway flow patterns among three subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups using computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-31

    Nasal airflow is one of the most important determinants for nasal physiology. During the long evolution of human beings, different races have developed their own attributes of nasal morphologies which result in variations of nasal airflow patterns and nasal functions. This study evaluated and compared the effects of differences of nasal morphology among three healthy male subjects from Caucasian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups on nasal airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics simulation. By examining the anterior nasal airway, the nasal indices and the nostril shapes of the three subjects were found to be similar to nasal cavities of respective ethnic groups. Computed tomography images of these three subjects were obtained to reconstruct 3-dimensional models of nasal cavities. To retain the flow characteristics around the nasal vestibules, a 40 mm-radius semi sphere was assembled around the human face for the prescription of zero ambient gauge pressure. The results show that more airflow tends to pass through the middle passage of the nasal airway in the Caucasian model, and through the inferior portion in the Indian model. The Indian model was found with extremely low flow flux flowing through the olfactory region. The sizes of vortexes near the anterior cavity were found to be correlated with the angles between the upper nasal valve wall and the anterior head of the nasal cavity.

  10. A pilot study evaluating the contribution of SLC19A1 (RFC-1) 80G>a polymorphism to Alzheimer's disease in Italian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Tannorella, Pierpaola; Tognoni, Gloria; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bongioanni, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Siciliano, Gabriele; Sorbi, Sandro; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism have been frequently suggested as risk factors for sporadic AD. A common c.80G>A polymorphism (rs1051266) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1 gene, commonly known as RFC-1 gene) was investigated as AD risk factor in Asian populations, yielding conflicting results. We screened a Caucasian population of Italian origin composed of 192 sporadic AD patients and 186 healthy matched controls, for the presence of the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism, and searched for correlation with circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12. No difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies was observed between AD patients and controls. No correlation was observed among the genotypes generated by the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 either in the whole cohort of subjects or after stratification into clinical subtypes. Present results do not support a role for the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism as independent risk factor for sporadic AD in Italian Caucasians.

  11. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, David; Martin, Lisa W.; Leman, Robert; Chandler, Mary; Haywood, L. Julian

    2006-01-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study concluded that rate control with anticoagulation was equivalent overall to rhythm control with cardioversion for long-term survival and that anticoagulation reduced the risk of stroke. We compared baseline and follow-up data for three ethnic groups: Caucasians (n=3,599), African Americans (n=265) and Hispanics (n=132). Caucasians were older and more likely male, African Americans were more likely female and hypertensive, and Hispanics had higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Survival was better for rate control than rhythm control in Caucasians, equivalent in African Americans and better for rhythm control in Hispanics. Outcomes may be influenced by differential baseline characteristics, but low numbers of African Americans and Hispanics warrant caution in data interpretation. BACKGROUND: The AFFIRM study compared a rate-control strategy to a rhythm-control strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients at high risk for stroke or death. It concluded that the rhythm-control strategy offered no survival advantage, and it also confirmed the value of anticoagulation to prevent complications of AF. Data have not previously been available for specific racial ethnic populations. METHODS: We compared baseline and follow-up data for the patients randomized to rate-control versus rhythm-control in three population groups-Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic. RESULTS: Among 4,060 total patients, 3,599 were Caucasian, 265 were African-American and 132 were Hispanic. At baseline, Caucasians were older and had a higher percentage of males, normal ejection fractions, AF as their only cardiac diagnosis, a prior antiarrhythmic drug failure and less congestive heart failure. African Americans were more likely to be female, had more hypertension and qualified for the study with a first episode of AF, compared to Caucasians. Hispanics had more cardiomyopathy at baseline than

  12. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population: can spot urine substitute 24-hour urine samples?

    PubMed

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Laurberg, Peter; Ovesen, Lars; Perrild, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-10-01

    A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two different prediction methods in a Danish population. Overall, 473 Danish individuals provided a para-aminobenzoic acid-validated complete 24-hour urine collection and a spot urine sample. Data were collected in the DanThyr study (248 women aged 25-30 years and 60-65 years) and the Inter99 study (102 men and 113 women aged 30-60 years), respectively. The measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion was compared with the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion from a causal urine specimen, using both the Tanaka prediction method and a prediction model developed in a Danish population. The measured 24-hour sodium excretion (median, 5th to 95th percentile) was men 195 (110 to 360) and women 139 (61 to 258), whereas the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion for the Tanaka model was men 171 (117 to 222) and women 153 (92 to 228) and for the Danish model was men 207 (146 to 258); women 134 (103 to 163). The Spearman correlation between predicted and measured 24-hour sodium excretion was 0.39 and 0.49 for the Tanaka and the Danish model, respectively. For both prediction models, the proportion of individuals classified in the same or adjacent quintile was 74% for men and 64% for women. Both prediction models gave a reasonable classification of individuals according to their sodium excretion. However, the median daily sodium intake was estimated more precisely by the Danish model, especially among men. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in Caucasian and Asian subjects residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Bruce K; Bujac, Sarah R; Elsby, Robert; Azumaya, Connie T; Zalikowski, Julie; Chen, Yusong; Kim, Kenneth; Ambrose, Helen J

    2015-03-01

    Systemic exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects living in Japan or Singapore is approximately twice that observed in Caucasian subjects in Western countries or in Singapore. This study was conducted to determine whether pharmacokinetic differences exist among the most populous Asian subgroups and Caucasian subjects in the USA. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics was studied in Chinese, Filipino, Asian-Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese and Caucasian subjects residing in California. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and metabolites after a single 20-mg dose were determined by mass spectrometric detection. The influence of polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 (T521>C [Val174Ala] and A388>G [Asn130Asp]) and in ABCG2 (C421>A [Gln141Lys]) on exposure to rosuvastatin was also assessed. The average rosuvastatin area under the curve from time zero to time of last quantifiable concentration was between 64 and 84 % higher, and maximum drug concentration was between 70 and 98 % higher in East Asian subgroups compared with Caucasians. Data for Asian-Indians was intermediate to these two ethnic groups at 26 and 29 %, respectively. Similar increases in exposure to N-desmethyl rosuvastatin and rosuvastatin lactone were observed. Rosuvastatin exposure was higher in subjects carrying the SLCO1B1 521C allele compared with that in non-carriers of this allele. Similarly, exposure was higher in subjects carrying the ABCG2 421A allele compared with that in non-carriers. Plasma exposure to rosuvastatin and its metabolites was significantly higher in Asian populations residing in the USA compared with Caucasian subjects living in the same environment. This study suggests that polymorphisms in the SLCO1B1 and ABCG2 genes contribute to the variability in rosuvastatin exposure.

  14. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P < 0.001), respectively vs Caucasian and Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.001, respectively). When we compared Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  15. Kidney transplantation outcomes in African-, Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Mattiazzi, A; Schultz, D R; Guerra, G; Ladino, M; Ortega, L M; Garcia-Estrada, M; Ramadugu, P; Gupta, C; Kupin, W L; Roth, D

    2012-01-01

    African-American recipients of kidney transplants with lupus have high allograft failure risk. We studied their risk adjusting for: (1) socio-demographic factors: donor age, gender and race-ethnicity; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; donor-recipient race-ethnicity match; (2) immunologic factors: donor type, panel reactive antibodies, HLA mismatch, ABO blood type compatibility, pre-transplant dialysis, cytomegalovirus risk and delayed graft function (DGF); (3) rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Two thousand four hundred and six African-, 1132 Hispanic-, and 2878 Caucasian-Americans were followed for 12 years after transplantation. African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans received more kidneys from deceased donors (71.6%, 57.3% and 55.1%) with higher two HLA loci mismatches for HLA-A (50%, 39.6% and 32.4%), HLA-B (52%, 42.8% and 35.6%) and HLA-DR (30%, 24.5% and 21.1%). They developed more DGF (19.5%, 13.6% and 13.4%). More African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans developed rejection (41.7%, 27.6% and 35.9%) and RLN (3.2, 1.8 and 1.8%). 852 African-, 265 Hispanic-, and 747 Caucasian-Americans had allograft failure (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for transplant era, socio-demographic-immunologic differences, rejection and RLN, the increased hazard ratio for allograft failure of African- compared with Caucasian-Americans became non-significant (1.26 [95% confidence interval 0.78-2.04]). African-Americans with lupus have high prevalence of risk factors for allograft failure that can explain poor outcomes.

  16. Differences in Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease between African American and Caucasian Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Rhew, Elisa Y.; Manzi, Susan M.; Dyer, Alan R.; Kao, Amy H.; Danchenko, Natalya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D.; Pearce, William; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    Racial differences exist in disease rates and mortality in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the frequency of and risk factors for subclinical CVD in African-American (AA) and Caucasian women with SLE and no prior CVD events. Traditional CVD risk factors and SLE-related factors were assessed in 309 SLE women. Subclinical CVD was assessed by carotid ultrasound to measure intima-medial thickness (IMT) and plaque, and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC). AA had less education, higher body mass index, blood pressure, lipoprotein(a), CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR, but lower albumin; more and longer duration of corticosteroid use; higher SLE disease activity and damage; and more had dsDNA antibodies compared to Caucasian women, after adjustment for age and study-site. More AA had carotid plaque (adjusted OR 1.94, 95%CI 1.03, 3.65) and higher carotid IMT (0.620 vs. 0.605mm, p=0.07) compared with Caucasians, but similar CAC. Multivariate analysis included risk factor variables significantly different between the racial groups and associated with plaque: blood pressure, current corticosteroid use, SLE disease activity and damage. All factors contributed, but no individual risk factor fully accounted for the association between race and plaque. In conclusion, the presence of carotid plaque was higher in AA compared with Caucasian women with SLE, in contrast to studies of non-SLE subjects, where AA have similar or less plaque than Caucasians. A combination of SLE-related and traditional CVD risk factors explained the racial difference in plaque burden. PMID:19138649

  17. Differences in subclinical cardiovascular disease between African American and Caucasian women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Elisa Y; Manzi, Susan M; Dyer, Alan R; Kao, Amy H; Danchenko, Natalya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D; Pearce, William; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-02-01

    Racial differences exist in disease rates and mortality in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the frequency and risk factors for subclinical CVD in African American (AA) and Caucasian women with SLE and no prior CVD events. Traditional CVD risk factors and SLE-related factors were assessed in 309 SLE women. Subclinical CVD was assessed by carotid ultrasound to measure intimamedial thickness (IMT) and plaque, and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) was used to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC). AA women had less education and higher levels of body mass index, blood pressure, lipoprotein(a), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, AA women had lower albumin, more and longer duration of corticosteroid use, higher SLE disease activity and damage, and more dsDNA antibodies compared with Caucasian women after adjustment for age and study site. More AA women had carotid plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.65) and higher carotid IMT (0.620 vs 0.605 mm, P = 0.07) but similar CAC compared with Caucasians. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following risk factor variables were significantly different between the racial groups and associated with plaque: blood pressure, current corticosteroid use, SLE disease activity, and SLE damage. All factors contributed to the result, but no individual risk factor fully accounted for the association between race and plaque. In conclusion, the presence of carotid plaque was higher in AA compared with Caucasian women with SLE, in contrast to studies of non-SLE subjects, in which AA have similar or less plaque than Caucasians. A combination of SLE-related and traditional CVD risk factors explained the racial difference in plaque burden.

  18. Comparison of systemic health conditions between African American and Caucasian complete denture patients.

    PubMed

    Szylkowska, Ewelina; Kaste, Linda M; Schreiner, Joseph; Gordon, Sara C; Lee, Damian J

    2014-07-01

    To compare prevalence of systemic health conditions (SHC) between African American and Caucasian edentulous patients presenting for complete dentures (CD) at an urban dental school. The study included patients presenting for CD 1/1-12/31/2010, ages 20 to 64 years, and either African American or Caucasian. Covariates included: age group, gender, employment status, Medicaid status, smoking history, and alcohol consumption. SHC included at least one of the following: arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, emphysema, heart attack, heart murmur, heart surgery, hypertension, or stroke. The group (n = 88) was 44.3% African American, 65.9% ≥50, 45.5% male, 22.7% employed, and 67.0% with at least one SHC. African Americans were older (p = 0.001) and more likely to have one or more SHC (p = 0.011). Patients with at least one SHC were older (p = 0.018) and more likely female (p = 0.012). The total sample logistic regression model assessing SHC yielded only gender as statistically significant (males < OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.92). Caucasian males were less likely to have SHC (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.77), and Caucasians ≥50 were more likely (OR 5.36, 95% CI 1.19 to 24.08). African Americans yielded no significant associations. Among selected completely edentulous denture patients at an urban dental school, two out of three patients had at least one SHC. This exploratory study suggests there may be health status differences between African American and Caucasian patients in this setting, calling for further study. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Peak oxygen consumption and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in African-American and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Suminski, R R; Robertson, R J; Goss, F L; Arslanian, S

    2000-12-01

    To compare peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism between nine African-American and nine Caucasian men. Subjects performed arm ergometry to exhaustion. On a separate occasion 31phosphorous-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMRS) was used to determine the concentrations of phosphorous (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr), and the intracellular pH of the flexor carpi radialis before and during 4 min of steady-state, wrist flexion exercise performed at 28% (15 W) of each subject's peak voluntary contraction. The Pi/PCr ratio was used as an indirect measure of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. VO2peak was lower in the African-Americans compared with the Caucasians (means +/- SD, 19.4 +/- 3.4 vs 23.3 +/- 4.0 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) (P < 0.05). No significant between group difference was noted in the Pi/PCr ratio at rest (0.10 +/- 0.02 both groups). However, resting pH was lower in the African-Americans (6.99 +/- 0.04 vs 7.03 +/- 0.05) (P < 0.05). Exercise caused an increase in the Pi/PCr ratio in the African-Americans (1.06 +/- 0.11), which was higher than the increase observed in the Caucasians (0.50 +/- 0.14) (P < 0.05). pH levels decreased to a lower level during exercise in the African-Americans (6.89 +/- 0.04) than in the Caucasians (6.98 +/- 0.05) (P < 0.05). This select group of African-American men achieved a lower VO2peak than the Caucasian men. Variations in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolic components may explain this difference.

  20. Discordance of Somatic Mutations Between Asian and Caucasian Patient Populations with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feifei; Teer, Jamie K; Knepper, Todd C; Lee, Jae K; Zhou, Hong-Hao; He, Yi-Jing; McLeod, Howard L

    2017-04-01

    Differences in response to cancer treatments have been observed among racially and ethnically diverse gastric cancer (GC) patient populations. In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. Mapping driver gene mutations for the GC patient population as a whole has significant potential to advance precision therapy. GC patients with sequencing data (N = 473) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 295), Moffitt Cancer Center Total Cancer Care™ (TCC; n = 33), and three published studies (n = 145). In addition, relevant somatic mutation frequency data were obtained from cBioPortal, the TCC database, and an in-house analysis tool, as well as relevant publications. We found that the somatic mutation rates of several driver genes vary significantly between GC patients of Asian and Caucasian descent, with substantial variation across different geographic regions. Non-parametric statistical tests were performed to examine the significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutations between Asian and Caucasian GC patient groups. The frequencies of somatic mutations of five genes were: APC (Asian: Caucasian 6.06 vs. 14.40%, p = 0.0076), ARIDIA (20.7 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.01), KMT2A (4.04 vs. 12.35%, p = 0.003), PIK3CA (9.6 vs. 18.52%, p = 0.01), and PTEN (2.52 vs. 9.05%, p = 0.008), showing significant differences between Asian and Caucasian GC patients. Our study found significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutation frequencies in diverse geographic populations. In particular, we found that the somatic patterns may offer better insight and important opportunities for both targeted drug development and precision therapeutic strategies between Asian and Caucasian GC patients.

  1. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  2. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. NR3C1 polymorphisms in Brazilians of Caucasian, African, and Asian ancestry: glucocorticoid sensitivity and genotype association.

    PubMed

    Souza, Manoel Carlos L A; Martins, Clarissa S; Silva-Junior, Ivan M; Chriguer, Rosangela S; Bueno, Ana C; Antonini, Sonir R; Silva, Wilson Araújo; Zago, Marco A; Moreira, Ayrton C; Castro, Margaret de

    2014-02-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnicity. No previous study evaluated NR3C1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian healthy population. We assessed NR3C1 polymorphisms in Brazilians of Caucasian, African and Asian ancestry (n = 380). In a subgroup (n = 40), we compared the genotypes to glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity, which was previously evaluated by plasma (PF) and salivary (SF) cortisol after dexamethasone (DEX) suppression tests, GC receptor binding affinity (K d ), and DEX-50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of concanavalin-A-stimulated mononuclear cell proliferation. p.N363S (rs6195), p.ER22/23EK (rs6189-6190), and BclI (rs41423247) allelic discrimination was performed by Real-Time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Exons 3 to 9 and exon/intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Genotypic frequencies (%) were: rs6195 (n = 380; AA:96.6/AG:3.14/GG:0.26), rs6189-6190 (n = 264; GG:99.6/GA:0.4), rs41423247 (n = 264; CC:57.9/CG:34.1/GG:8.0), rs6188 (n = 155; GG:69.6/GT:25.7/TT:4.7), rs258751 (n = 150; CC:88.0/CT:10.7/TT:1.3), rs6196 (n = 176; TT:77.2/TC:20.4/CC:2.4), rs67300719 (n = 137; CC:99.3/CT:0.7), and rs72542757 (n = 137; CC:99.3/CG:0.7). The rs67300719 and rs72542757 were found only in Asian descendants, in whom p.N363S and p.ER22/23EK were absent. The p.ER22/23EK was observed exclusively in Caucasian descendants. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed, except in the Asian for rs6188 and rs258751, and in the African for p.N363S. The K d , IC 50 , baseline and after DEX PF or SF did not differ between genotype groups. However, the mean DEX dose that suppressed PF or SF differed among the BclI genotypes (P = 0.03). DEX dose was higher in GG- (0.7 ± 0.2 mg) compared to GC- (0.47 ± 0.2 mg) and CC-carriers (0.47 ± 0.1 mg). The genotypic frequencies of NR3C1 polymorphisms in Brazilians are similar to worldwide populations. Additionally, the BclI polymorphism was associated with altered pituitary-adrenal axis GC sensitivity.

  4. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-02

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.

  5. Maternal leptin concentrations are similar in African Americans and Caucasians in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Laura D; Powers, Robert W; Adotey, Mary; Gallaher, Marcia J; Markovic, Nina; Ness, Roberta B; Roberts, James M

    2007-01-01

    Leptin concentrations were measured in African American women in order to assess leptin's role in the increased frequency and severity of preeclampsia. In addition, leptin concentrations were measured in women who delivered small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. A case-control study of African American and Caucasian women with normal pregnancies, preeclampsia, or SGA infants was done. Plasma leptin was quantitated by radio-immunoassay. The previously recognized pattern of increased leptin concentrations in preeclampsia was replicated. Leptin concentrations did not differ by race in any diagnostic category, and concentrations in women with SGA infants were not higher than those in healthy women. Differences in the frequency and severity of preeclampsia in African Americans cannot be explained by higher leptin concentrations.

  6. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  7. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  8. Second generation Tibetan lowlanders acclimatize to high altitude more quickly than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Claudio; Marzorati, Mauro; Grassi, Bruno; Basnyat, Buddha; Colombini, Angelo; Kayser, Bengt; Cerretelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders develop at altitude peak aerobic power levels (V̇O2peak) close to those of Caucasians at sea level. In order to establish whether this feature is genetic and, as a consequence, retained by Tibetan lowlanders, altitude-induced changes of peak aerobic performance (ΔV̇O2peak) were assessed in four groups of volunteers with different ethnic, altitude exposure and fitness characteristics, i.e. eight untrained second-generation Tibetans (Tib 2) born and living at 1300 m; seven altitude Sherpas living at ∼2800–3500 m; and 10 untrained and five trained Caucasians. Measurements were carried out at sea level or at Kathmandu (1300 m, Nepal) (PRE), and after 2–4 (ALT1), 14–16 (ALT2), and 26–28 (ALT3) days at 5050 m. At ALT3, ΔV̇O2peak of untrained and trained Caucasians was –31% and –46%, respectively. By contrast, ΔV̇O2peak of Tib 2 and Sherpas was –8% and –15%, respectively. At ALT3, peak heart rate (HRpeak) of untrained and trained Caucasians was 148 ± 11 and 149 ± 7 beats min−1, respectively; blood oxygen saturation at peak exercise (SaO2peak) was 76 ± 6% and 73 ± 6%, and haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) was 19.4 ± 1.0 and 18.6 ± 1.2 g dl−1, respectively. Compared to Caucasians, Tib 2 and Sherpas exhibited at ALT3 higher HRpeak (179 ± 9 and 171 ± 4 beats min−1, P < 0.001), lower [Hb] (16.6 ± 0.6 and 17.4 ± 0.9 g dl−1, respectively, P < 0.001), and slightly but non-significantly greater average SaO2peak values (82 ± 6 and 80 ± 7%). The above findings and the time course of adjustment of the investigated variables suggest that Tibetan lowlanders acclimatize to chronic hypoxia more quickly than Caucasians, independent of the degree of fitness of the latter. PMID:14766936

  9. Asian women have greater abdominal and visceral adiposity than Caucasian women with similar body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Lim, U; Ernst, T; Buchthal, S D; Latch, M; Albright, C L; Wilkens, L R; Kolonel, L N; Murphy, S P; Chang, L; Novotny, R; Le Marchand, L

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, Japanese Americans (JA) have lower mean body mass index (BMI) compared with Caucasians, but show a higher waist-to-hip ratio at similar BMI values and a greater risk of diabetes and obesity-associated cancers. Objective: We investigated the abdominal, visceral and hepatic fat distribution in these Asian and Caucasian Americans. Design: A cross-sectional sample of 60 female cohort participants (30 JA and 30 Caucasians), of ages 60–65 years and BMIs 18.5–40 kg m−2, underwent anthropometric measurements and a whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan: a subset of 48 women also had abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: By design, JA women had similar BMIs (mean 26.5 kg m−2) to Caucasian women (27.1 kg m−2). JA women were found to have a significantly smaller hip circumference (96.9 vs 103.6 cm; P=0.007) but not a significantly lower DXA total fat mass (25.5 vs 28.8 kg; P=0.16). After adjusting for age and DXA total fat mass, JA women had a greater waist-to-hip ratio (0.97 vs 0.89; P<0.0001), DXA trunk fat (15.4 vs 13.9 kg; P=0.0004) and MRI % abdominal visceral fat (23.9 vs 18.5% P=0.01) and a lower DXA leg fat mass (8.2 vs 10.0 kg; P=<.0001). Their MRI % subcutaneous fat (33.4 vs 30.2% P=0.21) and % liver fat (5.8 vs 3.8% P=0.06) did not significantly differ from that of Caucasian women. Conclusions: Our findings build on limited past evidence, suggesting that Asian women carry greater abdominal and visceral fat when compared with Caucasian women with similar overall adiposity. This may contribute to their elevated metabolic risk for obesity-related diseases. PMID:23449381

  10. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  11. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  12. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…

  13. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  14. [Sleep and sleep difficulties in Danish children aged 6-11 years].

    PubMed

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-02-04

    Sleeping difficulties in children can affect learning and behaviour. Parental understanding of sleep can differ from what clinicians define as a sleep problem. It is therefore important to have information on sleep in Danish children in order to be able to advice parents on normal and deviant sleep. The purpose of this article is to describe the sleep in Danish healthy children. We examined 211 healthy children aged 6-11 years, recruited in a public school. Their sleep was evaluated objectively with actigraphy. Sleep patterns and sleep problems were examined by means of a questionnaire completed by parents. The objective and subjective measurements were compared. The most frequently reported sleep problem was fear of falling asleep in the dark, which 19.4% reported. Unwillingness to go to bed was reported in 7.1% and 7.5% had difficulties falling asleep. Actigraphic-measured sleep onset latency was on average 13.5 minutes, while parents reported an average of 21.5 minutes. The results comply with other findings. As in other sleep studies we found that parents estimate the child's sleep to be poorer than it actually is, although the discrepancy is less than seen in clinical populations. Detailed sleep history, possibly in combination with a sleep diary, can usually identify sleep problems and might be the first step in an effective treatment. Furthermore, actigraphy can be an effective supplement in the unravelling of sleep difficulties.

  15. Motivational factors for consuming omega-3 PUFAs: an exploratory study with Danish consumers.

    PubMed

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Hagemann, Kit Skov; Elgaard, Peter; Nielsen, Brian; Graverholt, Jens Peter

    2008-07-01

    Growing consumer awareness of functional foods and understanding of their positive nutritional effects have led to the need of specific studies and have captured more attention than ever before. In Europe, Danish consumers have been found to be relatively negative towards the concept of functional foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods. By conducting qualitative in-depth interviews the study mostly focused on the role of behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The results of the study suggest that consumers' understanding of healthy eating as such does not relate to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations.

  16. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. A total of 2297 adults aged 24-76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197-761). In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults.

  17. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  18. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  19. Healthy Places for Healthy People 2016 Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Application form for the 2016 round of Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance to help communities work with health care partners to revitalize downtowns and neighborhoods while helping residents live healthier lives.

  20. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  1. Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Tetens, Inge

    2017-03-16

    The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18-75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised 'unhealthy', 'somewhat healthy' and 'healthy'. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough 'to a high degree', 'to some degree' or 'not at all/only partly'. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets.

  2. Association of CYP1B1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hampton, John M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, we examined eight CYP1B1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in relation to invasive breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 cases and 1,470 controls; all women were Caucasian. Among the individual SNPs, one (rs9341266) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (ptrend = 0.021), although the association was no longer significant after adjusting for multiple tests. A marginally significant haplotype effect was identified (pglobal = 0.015), with significant associations identified for 2 uncommon haplotypes comprising 4% of the controls. Results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1B1 has at most a minor influence on breast cancer susceptibility among Caucasian women. PMID:19293312

  3. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  4. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  5. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  6. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

  7. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  8. Differences in gene mutations between Chinese and Caucasian cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Baoying

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cystic fibrosis (CF) is rarely seen in Asian populations. We diagnosed two CF cases. One of them had a novel mutation c.870‐1G>C in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. There have been 38 Chinese CF patients reported in literature from 1974 until the present (2016), 25 different mutations were identified. Only one of these mutations (R553X) is in the Caucasian CF screening panel. The mutations identified in Chinese CF patients are very different from the common Caucasian gene mutations. The CFTR gene mutation spectrum for the Chinese population requires further investigation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:E11–E14. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27717243

  9. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants.

    PubMed

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang

    2012-08-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of 3 weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Furthermore, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared with infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing during infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding.

  10. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Hispanic and Caucasian Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Consuelo; Fan, Weihua; Schwartz, Jonathan; Pao, Christine; Tran, Jana K; Buser, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This study compared across Hispanic and Caucasian firefighters the relative fit of the four-factor Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria posttraumatic stress disorder models to the more recently proposed Dysphoric Arousal five-factor model. As hypothesized, the Dysphoric Arousal five-factor model emerged as the best fitting model within each ethnic group and it also showed measurement invariance between groups (configural invariance). Results of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses and a bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals analytic approach indicated that the five factor model also demonstrated invariance in factor loadings (metric invariance) and item-level intercepts (scalar invariance) across the two ethnic groups. Results indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal five factor model captures similar psychological constructs across Caucasian and English-speaking Hispanic firefighters. Therefore, observed factor scores are comparable across ethnic groups and can be combined when examining predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder severity.

  11. MAOA regulates antisocial personality in Caucasians with no history of physical abuse

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Irving M.; Xu, Jerry Z.; Yanofski, Jason; McKibben, Jodi; Uhart, Magdalena; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Zandi, Peter; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Samuels, Jack; Willour, Virginia; Kasch-Semenza, Laura; Costa, Paul; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Eaton, William W.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preclinical and human family studies clearly link MAOA to aggression and antisocial personality. The 30bp VNTR in the MAOA promoter regulates MAOA levels but its effects on antisocial personality (ASP) in humans are unclear. Methods We evaluated the association of the VNTR of the MAOA promoter with DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) traits in a community sample of 435 participants from the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorders Study Results We did not find an association between the activity of the MAOA allele and ASPD traits, however amongst Caucasians, when subjects with a history of childhood physical abuse were excluded, the remaining subjects with low activity alleles had ASPD trait counts that were 41% greater than those with high activity alleles (p<0.05). Conclusion The high activity MAOA allele is protective against ASP amongst Caucasians with no history of physical abuse, lending support to a link between MAOA expression and antisocial behavior. PMID:21295226

  12. Association of CYP1B1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yifan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Newcomb, Polly A; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hampton, John M; Chanock, Stephen J; Haines, Jonathan L; Egan, Kathleen M

    2009-04-01

    CYP1B1 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, we examined eight CYP1B1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to invasive breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 cases and 1,470 controls; all women were Caucasian. Among the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms, one (rs9341266) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (P(trend) = 0.021), although the association was no longer significant after adjusting for multiple tests. A marginally significant haplotype effect was identified (P(global) = 0.015), with significant associations identified for 2 uncommon haplotypes comprising 4% of the controls. Results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1B1 has at most a minor influence on breast cancer susceptibility among Caucasian women.

  13. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  14. A new distribution of Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach) in the Kahramanmaras region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Mahmut D; Ok, Tolga

    2004-01-01

    Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach) is a relict tree species having limited natural distribution in Turkey. In this study, a new distribution of this species in the Kahramanmaras region was explained. This distribution occurs in Onsenhopuru and Yavuzlar villages and Yesilyore town of Turkoglu district, at elevations between 600 and 640 m along Orcan stream, and continues about 4 km. In this area, Caucasian wingnut had about 100 trees. This distribution area of the species, quite important for biodiversity, should be protected and the existing individuals should be evaluated as a gene resource. Especially vegetative reproduction of the species should be started and the seedlings obtained should be used at the margins of lakes and streams, parks and large gardens, avenues, boulevards, and streets in the region.

  15. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data indicate that obese men and women have several characteristics consistent with poor...next two years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how

  16. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    O’Neal W Jr; African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council. The Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: a review . Ethn Dis. 2003;13(4):414-28. 6...sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...between men and women. Men have a greater maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (Men: 44.6 ± 1.2 vs. Women 36.1 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min), waist circumference (Men

  17. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  18. Kidney allograft survival of African American and Caucasian American recipients with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Li, H; Gonzalez-Suarez, M; Isakova, T; Scialla, J J; Pedraza, F; Mattiazzi, A; Diaz-Wong, R; Sageshima, J; Brito, Y; Guerra, G; Acevedo, B; Sajid Ali, A; Kershaw, T J; Chen, L; Burke, G W; Kupin, W; Ciancio, G; Roth, D

    2014-02-01

    African Americans with lupus who receive kidney transplants have high prevalence of predictors of allograft failure, which can explain their poor outcomes. Of 1223 African Americans and 1029 Caucasian Americans with lupus who received kidney transplants from deceased donors between 1987 and 2006 with complete records in the UNOS program, 741 pairs were matched in 16 predictors employing a predicted probability of group membership. The primary outcome was allograft failure. Main secondary outcomes were rejection, allograft failure due to rejection, and mortality. Matched pairs were predominantly women (82%) with a mean age of 39 years. Twenty-four percent of recipients received kidneys from expanded criteria donors. African Americans and Caucasian Americans matched well (p ≥ 0.05): donor age, gender and race; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; dialysis prior to transplant, kidneys from expanded criteria donors, cold ischemia time, history of prior kidney transplant, panel reactive antibodies, human leukocyte antigens mismatch, blood type compatibility, transplant Era, and follow-up time. Contrary to the unmatched cohort with significantly higher allograft failure rate (events per 100 patient-years) in African Americans compared to Caucasian Americans (10.49 vs 6.18, p<0.001), matched pairs had similar allograft failure rates (8.41 vs 7.81, p=0.418). Matched pairs also had similar rates of rejections (9.82 vs 9.39, p=0.602), allograft failure due to rejection (6.19 vs 5.71, p=0.453), and mortality (2.79 vs 3.52, p=0.097). In lupus recipients of kidney transplants from deceased donors, African American and Caucasian Americans have similar allograft failure rates when predictors are matched between groups.

  19. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  20. Association between Apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebral palsy is not confirmed in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Gai L; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N; Haan, Eric A; Priest, Kevin; Dekker, Gustaaf A; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2008-11-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and has been implicated in the growth and repair of injured neurons. Two small studies have suggested an association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy. We investigated if APOE genotype is associated with an increased risk for cerebral palsy, influences the type of cerebral palsy or interacts with prenatal viral infection to influence risk of cerebral palsy. The population-based case-control study comprised newborn screening cards of 443 Caucasian patients with cerebral palsy and 883 Caucasian matched controls. APOE genotyping was performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spots. Allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ between cases and controls and combined frequencies were 0.10 (epsilon2), 0.76 (epsilon3), 0.14 (epsilon4), 0.03 (epsilon2/epsilon2), 0.10 (epsilon2/epsilon3), 0.03 (epsilon2/epsilon4), 0.02 (epsilon4/epsilon4), 0.21 (epsilon3/epsilon4), 0.61 (epsilon3/epsilon3). APOE genotype was correlated with cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy, gestation at birth and the presence of viral nucleic acids detected in previous work. Analysis by gestational age (all gestational ages, >/=37, 32-36 and <32 weeks) and type of cerebral palsy (all types, diplegia, hemiplegia and quadriplegia) showed no association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy in this Caucasian population. An association between prenatal viral infection, APOE genotype and cerebral palsy was not demonstrated. These results did not confirm an association between APOE genotype, cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy and prenatal infection in a Caucasian population. Given the low frequency of APOE epsilon2 and some of the heterozygote and homozygote combinations in this study, a larger study is assessing this further.

  1. Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further

  2. Genetic association analysis highlights new loci that modulate hematological trait variation in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ken Sin; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Galarneau, Geneviève; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Keating, Brendan J.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Mohler, Emile R.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Tang, Weihong; Tracy, Russell P.

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet measures, including their count, sub-type and volume, are important diagnostic and prognostic clinical parameters for several human diseases. To identify novel loci associated with hematological traits, and compare the architecture of these phenotypes between ethnic groups, the CARe Project genotyped 49,094 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ~2,100 candidate genes in DNA of 23,439 Caucasians and 7,112 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We found strong novel associations between erythrocyte phenotypes and the glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) A-allele in African Americans (rs1050828, P < 2.0 × 10−13, T-allele associated with lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and higher mean corpuscular volume), and between platelet count and a SNP at the tropomyosin-4 (TPM4) locus (rs8109288, P = 3.0 × 10−7 in Caucasians; P = 3.0 × 10−7 in African Americans, T-allele associated with lower platelet count). We strongly replicated many genetic associations to blood cell phenotypes previously established in Caucasians. A common variant of the α-globin (HBA2-HBA1) locus was associated with red blood cell traits in African Americans, but not in Caucasians (rs1211375, P < 7 × 10−8, A-allele associated with lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume). Our results show similarities but also differences in the genetic regulation of hematological traits in European- and African-derived populations, and highlight the role of natural selection in shaping these differences. PMID:21153663

  3. Ethnicity Specific Norms and Alcohol Consumption Among Hispanic/Latino/a and Caucasian Students

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Mirza, Tehniat; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social norms are among the strongest predictors of college student drinking and that normative misperceptions of more similar groups’ drinking behavior may be more influential on individual drinking than those groups perceived to be more different. However, limited research has explored the moderating role of ethnicity in this context. The current study examined the differential impact that Hispanic/Latino/a and Caucasian students’ normative perceptions of both typical and same-ethnicity college students’ drinking behavior had on their own drinking. Participants (N = 5,369 students; 60.4% female; 81.4% Caucasian; mean age 19.9 years) from two colleges completed web-based surveys assessing their alcohol consumption, and their perceptions of the drinking behaviors of both the typical college student and the typical same-ethnicity college student at their campus. Results demonstrated that perceived norms were significantly associated with likelihood of drinking regardless of race or ethnicity specificity, but that Hispanics/Latinos/as typically had weaker relationships between ethnicity-specific norms and drinking than general student norms and drinking. The opposite was true for Caucasians such that the relationship between same-ethnicity norms and drinking was stronger than the relationship between general student norms and drinking. Further, Hispanic/Latino/a students with high perceived norms were less likely to have consumed any alcohol than Caucasians with similar normative beliefs. Further, a campus site interaction suggests that the size of the minority population on campus relative to other students may influence the relationship between norms and drinking. Implications and targets for future investigation are discussed. PMID:22293207

  4. Genetic Associations in the Vitamin D Receptor and Colorectal Cancer in African Americans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Sonia S.; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Ludvik, Anton E.; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A.; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel; Ellis, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and higher mortality from the disease. In the US, African Americans (AAs) have the highest CRC incidence and mortality and the lowest levels of vitamin D. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been previously associated with CRC, but few studies have included AAs. We studied 795 AA CRC cases and 985 AA controls from Chicago and North Carolina as well as 1324 Caucasian cases and 990 Caucasian controls from Chicago and Spain. We genotyped 54 tagSNPs in VDR (46586959 to 46521297 Mb) and tested for association adjusting for West African ancestry, age, gender, and multiple testing. Untyped markers were imputed using MACH1.0. We analyzed associations by gender and anatomic location in the whole study group as well as by vitamin D intake in the North Carolina AA group. In the joint analysis, none of the SNPs tested was significantly associated with CRC. For four previously tested restriction fragment length polymorphisms, only one (referred to as ApaI), tagged by the SNP rs79628898, had a nominally significant p-value in AAs; none of these polymorphisms were associated with CRC in Caucasians. In the North Carolina AAs, for whom we had vitamin D intake data, we found a significant association between an intronic SNP rs11574041 and vitamin D intake, which is evidence for a VDR gene-environment interaction in AAs. In summary, using a systematic tagSNP approach, we have not found evidence for significant associations between VDR and CRC in AAs or Caucasians. PMID:22046258

  5. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  6. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  7. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  8. Free Fatty Acid Flux in African American and Caucasian Adults – Effect of Sex and Race

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Sumner, Anne E.; Miller, Bernard V.; Turkova, Hana; Klein, Samuel; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes disproportionately affect African American (AA) women. Abnormal adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release is associated with these conditions. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and sex predict FFA release in Caucasians, but whether this is true in AA is unknown. We sought to understand the sex-specific relationships between FFA release, REE and race. Design and Methods 100 adults (47% AA, 50% male, age 32±8y (mean ± SD)) from 3 different centers underwent duplicate measures of FFA release ([U-13C] palmitate) and REE (indirect calorimetry). Body composition was determined by DXA and abdominal imaging. Results AA participants had lower REE, but similar FFA concentrations and flux compared with Caucasian participants. The significant predictors of palmitate release were REE, sex, and race. REE and FFA flux were correlated in both sexes and both races. In a multiple-linear regression analysis with palmitate flux as the dependent variable and REE, sex, race, total fat mass, fat free mass, and insulin as independent variables, REE was the only independent predictor of FFA release in men. Both REE and race predicted palmitate flux in women. Conclusions FFA flux is related to REE, but the relationship differs in AA and Caucasian women. PMID:23418014

  9. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  10. Daily coffee consumption and prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Hendrix, Susan O; McNeeley, S Gene; Johnson, Karen C; Rosenberg, Carol A; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Vitolins, Mara; Kruger, Michael

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between daily coffee consumption and nonmelanoma skin cancer. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n=93 676). As nearly all cases of self-reported nonmelanoma skin cancer occurred among Caucasian women (97.8%), we focused our analyses on this group. Compared with nondrinkers, women drinking only caffeinated coffee on a daily basis had a 10.8% lower prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Consumption of six or more cups of caffeinated coffee per day was associated with a 36% reduction in nonmelanoma skin cancer. After adjusting for various demographic and life style variables, daily consumption of six or more cups was associated with a 30% reduced prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. In contrast to caffeinated coffee, daily consumption of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with a significant change in self-reported nonmelanoma skin cancer for Caucasian women. Daily caffeinated coffee consumption was associated with a dose-related decreased prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Caucasian women.

  11. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?✩

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel E.K.; Carter, Michele M.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive. PMID:17606230

  12. Lung diffusing capacity in sub-Saharan Africans versus European Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Simaga, Bamodi; Forton, Kevin; Motoji, Yoshiki; Naeije, Robert; Faoro, Vitalie

    2017-01-10

    Single breath measurements of lung diffusing capacity (DL) for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) were performed in age-, sex-, weight- and height-matched 32 sub-Saharan Africans (13 women) and 32 Caucasian Europeans, and repeated in 14 of each group at 80% of maximum exercise capacity. In Africans versus Caucasians respectively, DLNO was 153±31 vs 176±38ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001) and 210±48 vs 241±52ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01) while hemoglobin-adjusted DLCO was 29±6 vs 34±6ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001), and 46±11 vs 51±13ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01). However there were no differences in DLCO/alveolar volume(VA) (KCO) and DLNO/VA(KNO). The sitting-to-standing height ratio was lower in the Africans. Differences in lung volume with respect to body height explain lower DLNO and DLCO in sub-Saharan Africans as compared to Caucasian Europeans.

  13. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  14. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  15. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  16. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.

  17. Breastfeeding Exposure, Attitudes, and Intentions of African American and Caucasian College Students.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2017-02-01

    African American mothers lag behind in breastfeeding initiation. Research is needed to gain an understanding of potential reasons for breastfeeding disparities. Research aim: This study explored breastfeeding exposure, attitudes, and intentions of African American and Caucasian college students by race and gender. Women and men (696) attending college, who were younger than 45 years and without children, were included in this study. Survey data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Overall, students demonstrated favorable attitudes regarding breastfeeding but viewed formula feeding as more practical. Students who were Caucasian and female and experienced breastfeeding exposure demonstrated higher breastfeeding attitudes and intent. Breastfeeding exposure and attitudes contributed 32% of the variance in breastfeeding intentions. The odds of experiencing breastfeeding exposure and positive breastfeeding attitudes were approximately 3 times higher for Caucasian students than for African American students. External factors demonstrated a stronger association with breastfeeding intentions. The link with race and gender appears to operate through their effect on attitudes and exposure. More research is needed to identify strategies to improve breastfeeding exposure and attitudes among African Americans.

  18. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and hip fracture in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Sarver, D B; Lopez-Ben, R; Morgan, S L; Rehder, D; Duke, J N; Fineberg, N; Pitt, M J

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on anteroposterior hip radiographs are more prevalent in patients that have had a hip fracture as compared to patients without a fracture. Ninety-two Caucasian women with a unilateral proximal femur fracture were retrospectively evaluated and randomly selected using radiology database records to comprise the investigational group. Ninety-eight age-matched Caucasian women without hip fracture were selected as a control group. Anteroposterior hip radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BBs by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Chi-square tests were used to assess whether fractures were more prevalent in patients with BB than those without BB. The patient population was comprised Caucasian women with a mean age of 79.8 ± 6.4 years in the control group and 79.9 ± 6.6 years in the investigational group. Regardless of the reader, BB were identified in a significantly higher percentage of women with a fracture (75 versus 39%, p < 0.001 or 53 versus 38%, p = 0.041) as compared to those without a fracture. BB are associated with hip fracture. Their presence is a trigger for requesting a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to confirm or refute a diagnosis of low bone mineral density (BMD) and a subsequent increased risk of fracture. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a common type of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sohraab; Parry, David G; Beare, Nick A V; Pearce, Ian A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a Caucasian population with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NAMD). All patients referred to a city AMD service over a 2-year period underwent imaging including Indocyanine Green Angiography at baseline. A panel of experts confirmed the patients with NAMD and diagnosed the lesion type including PCV. The proportion of Caucasian patients with PCV was identified. Two authors independently reviewed clinical imaging and recorded data of patients with PCV on lesion characteristics. Further information including treatments received and visual acuity at different time points was analysed. A total of 492 patients were diagnosed with NAMD during the 2-year study period. Of these patients, 204 had occult lesions (41.5%). PCV was identified in 45 patients (22.1% of occult NAMD and 9.1% of all NAMD). 23 patients received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monotherapy, 8 received verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) monotherapy and the remaining 14 patients were managed with combined PDT and anti-VEGF treatment. The prevalence of PCV in Caucasians is higher than previously reported. Indocyanine Green Angiography should be a standard investigation for all new patients with NAMD, particularly those with occult NAMD, to avoid missing this important subset. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.10).

  1. Parenting and attachment among low-income African American and Caucasian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Casey A; Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M; Beeghly, Marjorie; Barnett, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    Despite a plethora of research on parenting and infant attachment, much less is known about the contributions of parenting to preschool attachment, particularly within different racial groups. This study seeks to build on the extant literature by evaluating whether similar associations between parenting and attachment can be observed in African American and Caucasian families, and whether race moderates them. Seventy-four primary caregivers and their preschool children (51% African American, 49% Caucasian, 46% male) from similar urban, low-income backgrounds participated in two visits 4 weeks apart when children were between 4 and 5 years of age. Attachment was scored from videotapes of the Strange Situation paradigm using the preschool classification system developed by Cassidy, Marvin, and the MacArthur Working Group. Parenting was assessed using a multimethod, multicontext approach: in the child's home, in the laboratory, and via parent-report. Seventy-three percent of the children were classified as securely attached. Warm, responsive parenting behavior (but not race) predicted attachment. Although parents of African American and Caucasian children demonstrated some significant differences in parenting behaviors, race did not moderate the relationship between parenting and child attachment. These findings highlight the direct role that parenting plays over and above race in determining attachment security during the preschool period. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  2. Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. )

    1994-07-01

    There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene contribute to Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Martin A; John-Williams, Krista; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Naj, Adam; Whitehead, Patrice; Hamilton, Kara; Carney, Regina M; Wright, Clinton; Crocco, Elizabeth; Gwirtzman, Harry E; Lang, Rosalyn; Beecham, Gary; Martin, Eden R; Gilbert, John; Benatar, Michael; Small, Gary W; Mash, Deborah; Byrd, Goldie; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Züchner, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    Recently, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has been identified to account for a significant portion of Caucasian families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Given the clinical overlap of FTD with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we hypothesized that C9ORF72 expansions might contribute to AD. In Caucasians, we found C9ORF72 expansions in the pathogenic range of FTD/ALS (>30 repeats) at a proportion of 0.76% in AD cases versus 0 in control subjects (p = 3.3E-03; 1182 cases, 1039 controls). In contrast, no large expansions were detected in individuals of African American ethnicity (291 cases, 620 controls). However, in the range of normal variation of C9ORF72 expansions (0-23 repeat copies), we detected significant differences in distribution and mean repeat counts between Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical and pathological re-evaluation of identified C9ORF72 expansion carriers revealed 9 clinical and/or autopsy confirmed AD and 2 FTD final diagnoses. Thus, our results support the notion that large C9ORF72 expansions lead to a phenotypic spectrum of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of sequence variability in the CART gene in relation to obesity in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Guérardel, Audrey; Barat-Houari, Mouna; Vasseur, Francis; Dina, Christian; Vatin, Vincent; Clément, Karine; Eberlé, Delphine; Vasseur-Delannoy, Valérie; Bell, Christopher G; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Potoczna, Natascha; Horber, Fritz F; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2005-04-11

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with obesity in a Caucasian population. Screening of the entire gene as well as a 3.7 kb region of 5' upstream sequence revealed 31 SNPs and 3 rare variants; 14 of which were subsequently genotyped in 292 French morbidly obese subjects and 368 controls. Haplotype analysis suggested an association with obesity which was found to be mainly due to SNP-3608T>C (rs7379701) (p = 0.009). Genotyping additional cases and controls also of European Caucasian origin supported further this possible association between the CART SNP -3608T>C T allele and obesity (global p-value = 0.0005). Functional studies also suggested that the SNP -3608T>C could modulate nuclear protein binding. CART SNP -3608T>C may possibly contribute to the genetic risk for obesity in the Caucasian population. However confirmation of the importance of the role of the CART gene in energy homeostasis and obesity will require investigation and replication in further populations.

  5. Analysis of sequence variability in the CART gene in relation to obesity in a Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Guérardel, Audrey; Barat-Houari, Mouna; Vasseur, Francis; Dina, Christian; Vatin, Vincent; Clément, Karine; Eberlé, Delphine; Vasseur-Delannoy, Valérie; Bell, Christopher G; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Potoczna, Natascha; Horber, Fritz F; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with obesity in a Caucasian population. Results Screening of the entire gene as well as a 3.7 kb region of 5' upstream sequence revealed 31 SNPs and 3 rare variants ; 14 of which were subsequently genotyped in 292 French morbidly obese subjects and 368 controls. Haplotype analysis suggested an association with obesity which was found to be mainly due to SNP-3608T>C (rs7379701) (p = 0.009). Genotyping additional cases and controls also of European Caucasian origin supported further this possible association between the CART SNP -3608T>C T allele and obesity (global p-value = 0.0005). Functional studies also suggested that the SNP -3608T>C could modulate nuclear protein binding. Conclusion CART SNP -3608T>C may possibly contribute to the genetic risk for obesity in the Caucasian population. However confirmation of the importance of the role of the CART gene in energy homeostasis and obesity will require investigation and replication in further populations. PMID:15823203

  6. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  7. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  8. Digital technology ownership, usage, and factors predicting downloading health apps among caucasian, filipino, korean, and latino americans: the digital link to health survey.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda S; Choi, JiWon; Arai, Shoshana; Paul, Steven M; Gonzalez, Prisila; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-10-22

    Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a mobile phone (82.8%, 194/234), computer

  9. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  10. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly.

  11. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  12. Isothiazolinones in commercial products at Danish workplaces.

    PubMed

    Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Le Coz, Christophe J; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, a steep increase in the frequency of occupational contact allergy to isothiazolinones has been reported from several European countries. To examine the extent and occurrence of isothiazolinones in different types of product at Danish workplaces. Seven different isothiazolinones were identified in the Dictionary of Contact Allergens: Chemical Structures, Sources, and References from Kanerva's Occupational Dermatitis. By use of the chemical names and Chemical Abstracts Service numbers for these chemicals, information on products registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. All seven isothiazolinones were registered in PROBAS. The top three isothiazolinones registered were: benzisothiazolinone (BIT), registered in 985 products, methylisothiazolinone (MI), registered in 884 products, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/MI, registered in 611 products. The concentration ranges were 0.01 ppm to 45% for BIT, 0.01 ppm to 10% for MI, and 0.01 ppm to 14.1% for MCI/MI. The most common product type was 'paint and varnish'; five of the seven isothiazolinones were registered in this type of product. Isothiazolinones are present in multiple products registered for use at workplaces, and may occur in high concentrations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  14. A trabecular plate-like phenotype is overrepresented in Chinese-American versus Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Shi, S; Russo, J J; Liu, X S; Zhou, B; Zhang, C; Liu, G; McMahon, D J; Bilezikian, J P; Guo, X E

    2014-12-01

    This study used extreme phenotype selection to define two trabecular bone phenotypes in a cohort of Chinese-American and Caucasian women. A trabecular plate-predominant phenotype is more common in Chinese-Americans while the rod-predominant phenotype is more typical of Caucasians. The robustness of these phenotypic associations with respect to lifestyle factors suggests that this trait may have a genetic basis and that these phenotypes can be utilized in future genetic studies. Compared to Caucasians, Chinese-Americans have more plate-like trabecular bone when measured by individual trabecula segmentation (ITS). These findings suggest a phenotypic difference between the races, which may be amenable to genetic analysis. We sought to identify a single ITS plate trait to pursue in genetic studies by conducting an extreme phenotype selection strategy to numerically define two distinct phenotypes-plate-like and rod-like-and determine whether the selected phenotypic associations were independent of lifestyle factors in order to conduct future genetic studies. A previously described cohort of 146 Chinese-American and Caucasian women with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography imaging and ITS analyses were studied with logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic analyses. The tibial plate-to-rod (TPR) ratio was the best ITS discriminator of race. Using extreme phenotypic selection, two TPR ratio phenotypes were defined numerically: plate-like as a TPR ratio value in the highest quartile (≥1.336) and rod-like as a TPR ratio value in the lowest quartile (≤0.621). Women with a plate-like phenotype were 25.7 times more likely (95 % CI 7.3-90.1) to be Chinese-American than women with rod-like morphology. After controlling for constitutional and lifestyle covariates, women in the highest vs. lowest TPR ratio quartile were 85.0 times more likely (95 % CI 12.7-568.0) to be Chinese-American. Using extreme phenotype selection, we defined a plate

  15. Light treatment for seasonal Winter depression in African-American vs Caucasian outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Uzoma, Hyacinth N; Reeves, Gloria M; Langenberg, Patricia; Khabazghazvini, Baharak; Balis, Theodora G; Johnson, Mary A; Sleemi, Aamar; Scrandis, Debra A; Zimmerman, Sarah A; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan Virk; Cabassa, Johanna; Lapidus, Manana; Rohan, Kelly J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare adherence, response, and remission with light treatment in African-American and Caucasian patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder. METHODS: Seventy-eight study participants, age range 18-64 (51 African-Americans and 27 Caucasians) recruited from the Greater Baltimore Metropolitan area, with diagnoses of recurrent mood disorder with seasonal pattern, and confirmed by a Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, were enrolled in an open label study of daily bright light treatment. The trial lasted 6 wk with flexible dosing of light starting with 10000 lux bright light for 60 min daily in the morning. At the end of six weeks there were 65 completers. Three patients had Bipolar II disorder and the remainder had Major depressive disorder. Outcome measures were remission (score ≤ 8) and response (50% reduction) in symptoms on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (SIGH-SAD) as well as symptomatic improvement on SIGH-SAD and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Adherence was measured using participant daily log. Participant groups were compared using t-tests, chi square, linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: The study did not find any significant group difference between African-Americans and their Caucasian counterparts in adherence with light treatment as well as in symptomatic improvement. While symptomatic improvement and rate of treatment response were not different between the two groups, African-Americans, after adjustment for age, gender and adherence, achieved a significantly lower remission rate (African-Americans 46.3%; Caucasians 75%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This is the first study of light treatment in African-Americans, continuing our previous work reporting a similar frequency but a lower awareness of SAD and its treatment in African-Americans. Similar rates of adherence, symptomatic improvement and treatment response suggest that light treatment is a

  16. Molecular identification of rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles in Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Silvia; Scarcello, Antonio; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo

    2015-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies on Duffy blood group antigens have identified mutations underlying rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles. FY*Null has a high frequency in Blacks, especially from sub-Saharan Africa, while its frequency is not defined in Caucasians. FY*X allele, associated with Fy(a-b+w) phenotype, has a frequency of 2-3.5% in Caucasian people while it is absent in Blacks. During the project of extensive blood group genotyping in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies, we identified FY*X/FY*Null and FY*A/FY*Null genotypes in a Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia. We speculate on the frequency of FY*X and FY*Null alleles in Caucasian and Black people; further, we focused on the association of FY*X allele with weak Fyb antigen expression on red blood cells and its identification performing high sensitivity serological typing methods or genotyping.

  17. Stereoselective disposition of hexobarbital and its metabolites: relationship to the S-mephenytoin polymorphism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A; Prakash, C; O'Shea, D; Blair, I A; Wilkinson, G R

    1994-02-01

    In vitro studies with human liver preparations suggest that the metabolism of hexobarbital involves CYP2CMP--the determinant of the S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation polymorphism, but no in vivo evidence of interphenotypic differences exist. The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of hexobarbital and its metabolites were, therefore, investigated following oral administration of a differentially labelled pseudoracemate that allowed determination of the fate of the individual enantiomers. Studies were undertaken in 10 Caucasian and nine Chinese healthy subjects known to be either extensive (EM) or poor (PM), metabolizers of mephenytoin. No inter-racial differences were observed in any of the measured parameters within a given phenotype. However, pronounced stereoselectivity in disposition was noted in EMs with R-(-)-hexobarbital's oral clearance being five- to six-fold greater than that for the S-(+)-enantiomer. By contrast, the S-(+)-isomer was eliminated twice as fast as R-(-) hexobarbital in PMs and, in addition, the oral clearances of both enantiomers were significantly reduced compared with their values in EMs. Formation of 3'-hydroxy- and 3'-ketohexobarbital and 1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid were the major identified routes of metabolism for each enantiomer in both phenotypes. Furthermore, these pathways were found to co-segregate with the mephenytoin polymorphism and in EMs they were primarily responsible for the observed stereoselectivity in disposition. These findings, therefore, confirm the stereoselectivity in hexobarbital's disposition in humans and identify the major pathways of metabolism involved. Additionally, the results indicate that CYP2CMP is a major determinant of the in vivo metabolism of both of hexobarbital's enantiomers but especially that of the R-(-)-enantiomer.

  18. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055

  19. Comprehensive characterization of human genome variation by high coverage whole-genome sequencing of forty four Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Chao; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Zikai; Zhao, Fuping; Liao, Li; Chen, Jun; Lin, Yong; Tian, Qing; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing studies are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the vast pattern of human genomic variations. Here we report the results of a high-coverage whole genome sequencing study for 44 unrelated healthy Caucasian adults, each sequenced to over 50-fold coverage (averaging 65.8×). We identified approximately 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2.8 million short insertions and deletions, and over 500,000 block substitutions. We showed that, although previous studies, including the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 study, have catalogued the vast majority of common SNPs, many of the low-frequency and rare variants remain undiscovered. For instance, approximately 1.4 million SNPs and 1.3 million short indels that we found were novel to both the dbSNP and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 data sets, and the majority of which (∼96%) have a minor allele frequency less than 5%. On average, each individual genome carried ∼3.3 million SNPs and ∼492,000 indels/block substitutions, including approximately 179 variants that were predicted to cause loss of function of the gene products. Moreover, each individual genome carried an average of 44 such loss-of-function variants in a homozygous state, which would completely "knock out" the corresponding genes. Across all the 44 genomes, a total of 182 genes were "knocked-out" in at least one individual genome, among which 46 genes were "knocked out" in over 30% of our samples, suggesting that a number of genes are commonly "knocked-out" in general populations. Gene ontology analysis suggested that these commonly "knocked-out" genes are enriched in biological process related to antigen processing and immune response. Our results contribute towards a comprehensive characterization of human genomic variation, especially for less-common and rare variants, and provide an invaluable resource for future genetic studies of human variation and diseases.

  20. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p < 0.01) and the FAI significantly higher in Arab men (p < 0.01) compared to German men only in 21-30 years age group. In the other age groups the levels of TT and SHBG were higher in the Germans but the differences were not statistically significant. In all the racial groups serum levels of DHEAS and ADT reached a peak by about 20 years of life, and then declined progressively. The mean DHEAS in American Caucasians aged 20-29 years was 11.4 micromol/l compared to 6.22 micromol/l in the Arabs (p < 0.001). The mean DHEAS in USA Caucasians aged 70-79 years was 2.5 micromol/l compared to 1.8 micromol/l (p < 0.03) in the Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels

  1. Differential levels of elastin fibers and TGF-β signaling in the skin of Caucasians and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, J; Lin, C B; Wiwi, C; Kaur, S; Hu, Y P; Zhang, J; Southall, M D

    2013-06-01

    While skin color is the most notable difference among ethnic skins the current knowledge on skin physiological and aging properties are based mainly on Caucasian skin studies. To evaluate histological differences in elastin fiber network and differential responsiveness to TGF-β in skin of Caucasians and African Americans. These studies were undertaken using human skin biopsies, primary dermal fibroblasts, Western blot analyses, immunofluorescence microscopy, cDNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. In Caucasian subjects, tropoelastin expression and elastin fibers in photoprotected skin was substantially less than in age-matched African American skin. Expression of tropoelastin in photoexposed skin of African American was similar to their photoprotected skin, suggesting that photoexposure did not affect elastin fibers in African American skin to the same extent as Caucasian skin. An elevated level of TGF-β1 present in media from dermal fibroblasts derived from African American skins correlated well with the higher levels of TGF-β mRNA in African American skins analyzed by cDNA array. Treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in a considerably higher induction of elastin mRNA in dermal fibroblasts from African Americans than from Caucasian fibroblasts, indicative of enhanced TGF-β signaling in African American skins. Furthermore, UVA exposure decreased levels of elastin mRNA in Caucasian fibroblasts compared to African Americans fibroblasts. These results suggest that there are ethnic differences in the elastin fiber network and in TGF-β signaling in African American and Caucasian skin, and that African American have less UV dependent loss of elastin than Caucasian which may contribute to the different perceived aging phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact and characteristics of the non-Caucasian population in hospital admissions for diabetes onset during 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    San José, Patricia; Guerrero, Mireia; García-Martín, Isabel; Caballero, Jordi; Pérez-Maraver, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of non-Caucasian patients in hospital admissions for onset of symptomatic diabetes mellitus during the 2003-2010 period, and to analyze the characteristics differentiating them from the Caucasian population at diagnosis and 2 years later. A retrospective, observational study. Patients aged 18-40 years admitted for de novo symptomatic diabetes from January 2003 to October 2010. Prevalence of patients of non-Caucasian origin was analyzed, and clinical, biochemical, immunological, and beta-cell function of both populations were compared at diagnosis and 2 years later. Nineteen percent of patients admitted to hospital for de novo symptomatic diabetes were non-Caucasian, with a progressive increase in recent years. Non-Caucasian patients had milder decompensation (3.0% had ketoacidosis, as compared to 15.2% in the Caucasian group, P<.05), lower presence of autoimmunity (27.2 vs. 73.1%, P<.01) and higher stimulated C-peptide levels (0.70±0.56 vs. 0.42±0.39 nmol/l, P<.05), mainly because of the subgroup with negative autoimmunity (0.82 vs. 0.25). Two years after diagnosis, less non-Caucasian patients were on intensified treatment (39.1 vs. 93.8%). Non-Caucasian patients had a lower prevalence of autoimmunity, better beta-cell function at diagnosis, particularly due to the subgroup with negative autoimmunity, and less need for intensive treatment 2 years after diagnosis, features which are more characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological Differences

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Q. A.; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients (n = 266) were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, p = 0.008). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences. PMID:28409160

  4. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  5. Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological Differences.

    PubMed

    Tahrani, Abd A; Altaf, Q A; Piya, Milan K; Barnett, Anthony H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients (n = 266) were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, p = 0.008). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences.

  6. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  7. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  8. Psychological defenses of Danish medical students.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Patterns in the psychological defenses of medical students may have implications for the way they handle and respond to the pressures and developmental issues they encounter in medical school and beyond. Using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ40) to assess psychological defenses, a sample of first-year Danish medical students was compared with a sample of students at a short-term boarding school for general education. The medical students scored significantly higher on items connected with pseudo-altruism, denial, and undoing. Trends in the data furthermore suggest a greater use of sublimation, rationalization, and dissociation among medical students. When defense mechanisms were labeled into mature, neurotic, and immature categories, there were no differences between the groups or in the total defense scores.

  9. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. Study population The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Main variables Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Descriptive data Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. Conclusion The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes. PMID:27822104

  10. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  11. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  12. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes.

  13. The Immigrant Worker and the Danish Public Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A summary of a survey conducted in 1973 of Danish library services available to immigrant workers and their families, especially those speaking Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and the languages used in Yugoslavia. (Author/KP)

  14. Pharmacokinetics of abiraterone in healthy Japanese men: dose-proportionality and effect of food timing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kouichi; Shishido, Akira; Vaccaro, Nicole; Jiao, James; Stieltjes, Hans; Bernard, Apexa; Yu, Margaret; Chien, Caly

    2015-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate (AA) was recently approved for castration-resistant prostate cancer in Japan. Two phase 1 studies were conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone after single-dose administration in Japanese healthy men and to evaluate the effects of food timing on abiraterone pharmacokinetics after single-dose administration of AA in Japanese and Caucasian healthy men. In the dose-proportionality study, subjects (n = 30 Japanese) were randomly assigned to receive single doses of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg AA, and in the food-timing study, subjects (n = 22 Japanese and n = 23 Caucasian) randomly received single doses of 1,000 mg AA under fasted (overnight) and three different modified fasting conditions. Mean C(max) and AUC(∞) for abiraterone increased dose-dependently in Japanese healthy men; however, 90 % confidential interval (CI) was outside the predefined dose-proportionality criteria. Based on geometric mean ratios and 90 % CIs (versus overnight fasting condition), abiraterone exposure (AUC) increased significantly with dosing 1 h premeal, 2 h postmeal, or in between two meals 4 h apart by 57 %, 595 %, and 649 %, respectively. No clinically meaningful difference was observed in the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone between Caucasian and Japanese subjects.

  15. Vitamin D effect on umbilical cord blood characteristics: a comparison between African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Eldjerou, Lamis K; Cogle, Christopher R; Rosenau, Emma H; Lu, Xiaomin; Bennett, Clay A; Sugrue, Michele W; Hoyne, Jonathan; Lambert, Amy; Ashley, Lindsay; Sazama, Kathleen; Fields, Gary; Wingard, John R; Zubair, Abba C

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units collected from African Americans (AAs) have lower total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34+ cell counts and are more likely to disqualify for banking compared to other ethnic groups. Furthermore, AAs have higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency. Given the importance of 25(OH)D in hematopoiesis, we examined the racial differences in UCB unit 25(OH)D content and its correlation with UCB cellular characteristics. A total of 119 UCB units that did not meet the TNC count banking criteria were analyzed. Fifty-one UCB units were collected from AA mothers and 68 from Caucasian mothers. We analyzed UCB volume, hematocrit (Hct), TNCs, mononuclear cells (MNCs), CD34+ cells, plasma 25(OH)D concentration, and progenitor clonogenic capacity measured by colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. Compared to Caucasians, AAs had significantly lower UCB 25(OH)D levels (p<0.0001), TNCs (p=0.002), MNCs (p=0.026), and CD34+ cells (p=0.026). Severe deficiency (25(OH)D<10 ng/mL) was only detected in AAs. No difference in median CFC count/10,000 MNCs was detected between AAs and Caucasians. Independent of race, a significant association was detected between 25(OH)D level and TNCs (r=0.193 p=0.035) and Hct (r=0.196 p=0.033). These results indicate the importance of 25(OH)D level as a racially independent predictor of UCB cellular characteristics and support further investigation of bioactive vitamin D and other predictors of hematopoiesis on cord blood quality. © 2015 AABB.

  16. Vitamin D production in UK Caucasian and South Asian women following UVR exposure.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Ohood A; Hart, Kathryn; McCabe, Patrick; Berry, Jacqueline; Francesca, Robertson; Rhodes, Lesley E; Spyrou, Nicholas; Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Lanham-New, Susan

    2016-11-01

    It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D). However ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D production between UK South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined and controlled exposure to UVR. Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for the measurement of vitamin D status during the run in period (9days, no sunbed exposure) after which, all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8min respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Despite consistently lower 25(OH)D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesised. This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Caucasians and African-Americans: the GATE Study.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N F; Austin, H; Dilley, A; Whitsett, C; Evatt, B L; Hooper, W C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, comprehensively, medical and genetic attributes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a multiracial American population. The Genetic Attributes and Thrombosis Epidemiology (GATE) study is an ongoing case-control study in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to examine racial differences in VTE etiology and pathogenesis. Between 1998 and 2001, 370 inpatients with confirmed VTE, and 250 control subjects were enrolled. Data collected included blood specimens for DNA and plasma analysis and a medical lifestyle history questionnaire. Comparing VTE cases, cancer, recent surgery, and immobilization were more common in caucasian cases, while hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease were more prevalent in African-American cases. Family history of VTE was reported with equal frequency by cases of both races (28-29%). Race-adjusted odds ratios for the associations of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were 3.1 (1.5, 6.7) and 1.9 (0.8, 4.4), respectively. Using a larger external comparison group, the odds ratio for the prothrombin mutation among Caucasians was a statistically significant 2.5 (1.4, 4.3). A case-only analysis revealed a near significant interaction between the two mutations among Caucasians. We found that clinical characteristics of VTE patients differed across race groups. Family history of VTE was common in white and black patients, yet known genetic risk factors for VTE are rare in African-American populations. Our findings underscore the need to determine gene polymorphisms associated with VTE in African-Americans.

  18. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) Polymorphisms and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Caucasian and African American women

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Delores J.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Akushevich, Lucy; Iversen, Edwin S.; Whitaker, Regina; Marks, Jeffrey; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been shown in some studies to be associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in Caucasian women. This association among African American women has been understudied. Methods Case-control data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study were analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association between seven VDR polymorphisms of functional significance and EOC in both Caucasians (513 cases, 532 controls) and African Americans (74 cases, 79 controls). In a follow-up analysis, associations were assessed between six SNPs in proximity of the Apa1 variant and a larger sample of African-Americans (125 cases, 155 controls). Results African American women who carried at least one minor allele of Apa1 (rs7975232) were at higher risk for invasive EOC controlling for age and admixture with an odds ratio (OR) for association under the log-additive model of 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19, 3.63, p = 0.010). No association was observed between any of the VDR variants and EOC among Caucasians. A follow-up analysis in a larger sample of African American subjects revealed a nearly two-fold increase in risk of invasive EOC in rs7971418, a SNP in proximity to the Apa1 SNP (R2 = 0.369) with a log-additive OR of 1.87 (95% CI = 1.20, 2.93, p = 0.006). Conclusion This is the first report showing VDR variants associated with ovarian cancer risk in African American women. A larger study of African American women is needed to confirm these findings. Impact Our results imply that vitamin D exposure is a possible modifiable risk factor of ovarian cancer among African Americans. PMID:23262379

  19. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gurrici, S; Hartriyanti, Y; Hautvast, J G; Deurenberg, P

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in two different ethnic groups (Indonesians and Caucasians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Cross-sectional study. Not specially selected populations living in southern Sumatra (Palembang, Indonesia) and Caucasian Dutch living in Wageningen. Body weight, body height, body fat by deuterium oxide dilution and skinfold thickness. Body fat could be well predicted by body mass index (BMI) and sex in the Indonesians and by BMI, sex and age in the Dutch with a prediction error of 3.6 and 3.3% for the two populations respectively. Although the body mass index in the Indonesian group was about 2 kg/m2 lower compared to the Dutch, the amount of body fat was 3% points higher. Because of small differences between the groups in age, weight and height the differences in body fat were corrected for this (ANOVA). Indonesians having the same weight, height, age and sex have generally 4.8% points more body fat compared to Dutch. Indonesians having the same % BF, age and sex have generally a 2.9 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to the Dutch. The results show that the relationship between % BF and BMI is different between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. If obesity is regarded as an excess of body fat and not as an excess of weight (increased BMI), the cut-off points for obesity in Indonesia based on the BMI should be 27 kg/m2 instead of 30 kg/m2.

  20. Body composition and anthropometry in Japanese and Australian Caucasian males and Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Binns, Colin B; Hills, Andrew P

    2007-01-01

    The total amount and location of fat deposition are important factors in the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. To date there have been no reported studies of ethnic and gender differences in body composition and fat distribution patterns in Japanese and Australian young adults. The aim of this study was to assess body composition of young Japanese and Australian Caucasian adults using whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry to examine body fat deposition patterns. Body composition of 45 Japanese males and 42 Australian Caucasian males living in Australia (aged 18-40 years) and 139 Japanese females living in Japan (aged 18-27 years) were measured using whole-body DXA scanning and anthropometry. Differences in relationships between BMI and waist circumference (WC), sum of skinfolds (SigmaSF) and %BF obtained from DXA were assessed using multivariate analyses. Distinct gender and ethnic differences (p<0.05) in bone density and waist circumference were observed but no gender differences in BMI and bone mineral content and no ethnic differences in sum of skinfolds and %BF. Both Japanese males and females showed a greater %BF at given BMI, WC and SigmaSF values (p<0.05). The results indicate differences in relationships between %BF and anthropometric measures in young Japanese compared to Caucasians and the importance of population-specific cut-off points for these indices. These findings also have implications for the development of chronic disease and further research, including studies in other Asian countries, is recommended.

  1. Genetic differences at four DNA typing loci in Finnish, Italian, and mixed Caucasian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Krane, D E; Allen, R W; Sawyer, S A; Petrov, D A; Hartl, D L

    1992-01-01

    Highly polymorphic segments of the human genome containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been widely used to establish DNA profiles of individuals for use in forensics. Methods of estimating the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two randomly selected individuals have been subject to extensive debate regarding the possibility of significant substructure occurring within the major races. We have sampled two Caucasian subpopulations, Finns and Italians, at four commonly used VNTR loci to determine the extent to which the subgroups differ from each other and from a mixed Caucasian database. The data were also analyzed for the occurrence of linkage disequilibrium among the loci. The allele frequency distributions of some loci were found to differ significantly among the subpopulations in a manner consistent with population substructure. Major differences were also found in the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two individuals chosen at random from the same subpopulation. With respect to the Finnish and Italian subpopulations, the conventional product rule for estimating the probability of a multilocus VNTR match using a mixed Caucasian database consistently yields estimates that are artificially small. Systematic errors of this type were not found using the interim ceiling principle recently advocated in the National Research Council's report [National Research Council (1992) DNA Technology in Forensic Science (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington)]. The interim ceiling principle is based on currently available racial or ethnic databases and sets an arbitrary lower limit on each VNTR allele frequency. In the future the ceiling frequencies are expected to be established from more adequate data acquired for relevant VNTR loci from multiple subpopulations. Images PMID:1438254

  2. Forwards or backwards? New directions in Danish patients' rights legislation.

    PubMed

    Hartlev, Mette

    2011-09-01

    The Danish Patients' Rights Act from 1998 was the first comprehensive piece of legislation addressing the basic legal values and principles governing the relation between patient and the health care services. Since the adoption of the Act there has been continuous legislative activity in the field, and the objective of the article is to discuss how recent developments in Danish patients' rights legislation shall be interpreted in terms of balancing interests of patients towards interests of society and the health care professions.

  3. Comparison of the epidemiology of acne vulgaris among Caucasian, Asian, Continental Indian and African American women.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A C; Cheng, C E; Hillebrand, G G; Miyamoto, K; Kimball, A B

    2011-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease with a large quality of life impact, characterized by comedones, inflammatory lesions, secondary dyspigmentation and scarring. There are few large objective studies comparing acne epidemiology between racial and ethnic groups. This study aimed to define the prevalence and subtypes of acne in women of different racial groups from four ethnicities. The sample consisted of 2895 (384 African American, 520 Asian, 1295 Caucasian, 258 Hispanic and 438 Continental Indian) women ranging in age from 10 to 70 years. Photographs of subjects were graded for acne lesions, scars, dyspigmentation, and measurements taken of sebum excretion and pore size. Clinical acne was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic women (37%, 32% respectively) than in Continental Indian, Caucasian and Asian (23%, 24%, 30% respectively) women. All racial groups displayed equal prevalence of both subtypes of acne with the exception of Asians, for whom inflammatory acne was more prevalent than comedonal (20% vs. 10%) acne, and in Caucasians, for whom comedonal acne was more prevalent than inflammatory (14% vs. 10%) acne. Hyperpigmentation was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic (65%, 48% respectively) than in Asian, Continental Indian and Caucasian (18%, 10%, 25% respectively) women. Dyspigmentation and atrophic scarring were more common in African American and Hispanic women than in all other ethnicities. There was a negative correlation between pore size and skin lightness for all ethnicities. Sebum production was positively correlated with acne severity in African American, Asian and Hispanic women, and pore size was positively correlated with acne in African American, Asian and Continental Indian women, (for all above results, P<0.05). Only female participants were recruited. Data collection was restricted to four cities, with some ethnicities from single cities. Acne was evaluated only on the left side of the face and the two

  4. Differential aerobic exercise-induced changes in plasma aldosterone between African Americans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Park, Jung-Jun; Phares, Dana A.; Park, Joon-Young; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Brown, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Aldosterone influences the kidney’s regulation of blood pressure (BP), but aldosterone can contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Blood pressure is reduced with aerobic exercise training (AEX), but the extent to which plasma aldosterone (PA) levels change is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 6 months of AEX changed PA levels, 24 h sodium (Na+) excretion and BP in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects and whether these changes differed according to ethnicity. The study was performed in the Kinesiology Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, and 35 (22 Caucasian; 13 African American) sedentary prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects completed 6 months of AEX. Blood samples were collected under fasting and supine conditions, and PA was measured by radioimmunoassay. In total population aerobic exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (24 ± 0.8 versus 28 ± 1 ml kg−1 min−1, P < 0.001) and decreased PA levels (97 ± 11 versus 72 ± 6 pg ml−1, P = 0.01), body mass index (28 ± 0.5 versus 28 ± 0.5 kg m−2, P = 0.004) and weight (85 ± 2 versus 83 ± 2 kg, P = 0.003). Aerobic exercise training decreased PA levels (from 119 ± 16 to 81 ± 7 pg ml−1, P = 0.02) in the Caucasians but there was no change in BP or Na+ excretion. African American participants had no significant changes in PA levels, BP and Na+ excretion. Plasma aldosterone levels were 47% lower at baseline (P = 0.01) and 30% lower after AEX (P = 0.04) in African American participants compared with Caucasians. Baseline (P = 0.08) and final PA levels (P = 0.17) did not differ between the two groups after accounting for baseline and final intra-abdominal fat, respectively. The reduction in PA levels with AEX appeared to be driven by the change in PA levels in Caucasian participants. Fat distribution contributed to the ethnic differences in PA levels. PMID:17483200

  5. Study of light propagation in Asian and Caucasian skins by means of the Boundary Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Massudi, R.

    2009-09-01

    Boundary Element Method (BEM) is explored to study transport of light in Asian and Caucasian skins. Precision of the method is compared with the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and it is observed that BEM offers more precise results and requires shorter running times. Reflection and penetration of different wavelengths from those skins are calculated. Maximum penetration depths are calculated using BEM and the results are compared with those obtained using MC and FDM. The method can simply be used to study transport of light in different types of tissues.

  6. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  7. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment.

  8. Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinmin; Oerding, Helle; Liu, Jin; Vanacker, Bernard; Yao, Shanglong; Dahl, Vegard; Xiong, Lize; Claudius, Casper; Yue, Yun; Huang, Yuguang; Abels, Esther; Rietbergen, Henk; Woo, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1-0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch(®) SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10-20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5-1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0-10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3-1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5-8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812.

  9. Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Methods This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1–0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch® SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10–20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Results Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5–1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0–10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3–1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5–8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Conclusion Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812. PMID:25187755

  10. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: A comparison between Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African Americans. Methods Data were collected from N=9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13–31 among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year-college graduates, and 4-year-college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African Americans. Results There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20, although differences between the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20–31 than the non-college group. Instead, African American participants who withdrew from college without an associate’s, bachelor’s, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26–31. Conclusions The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African Americans. Conversely, African Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than Caucasians by college withdrawal. PMID:23707401

  11. Cardiovascular flexibility in middle-aged overweight South Asians vs. white Caucasians: response to short-term caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Van Schinkel, L D; Bakker, L E H; Jonker, J T; De Roos, A; Pijl, H; Meinders, A E; Jazet, I M; Lamb, H J; Smit, J W A

    2015-04-01

    South Asians have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than white Caucasians. The underlying cause is unknown, but might be related to higher cardiac susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Short-term caloric restriction (CR) can be used as a metabolic stress test to study cardiac flexibility. We assessed whether metabolic and functional cardiovascular flexibility to CR differs between South Asians and white Caucasians. Cardiovascular function and myocardial triglycerides were assessed using a 1.5T-MRI/S-scanner in 12 middle-aged overweight male South Asians and 12 matched white Caucasians before and after an 8-day very low calorie diet (VLCD). At baseline South Asians were more insulin resistant than Caucasians. Cardiac dimensions were smaller, despite correction for body surface area, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the distal aorta was higher in South Asians. Systolic and diastolic function, myocardial triglycerides and pericardial fat did not differ significantly between groups. After the VLCD body weight reduced on average by 4.0 ± 0.2 kg. Myocardial triglycerides increased in both ethnicities by 69 ± 18%, and diastolic function decreased although this was not significant in South Asians. However, pericardial fat and PWV in the proximal and total aorta were reduced in Caucasians only. Myocardial triglyceride stores in middle-aged overweight and insulin resistant South Asians are as flexible and amenable to therapeutic intervention by CR as age-, sex- and BMI-matched but less insulin resistant white Caucasians. However, paracardial fat volume and PWV showed a differential effect in response to an 8-day VLCD in favor of Caucasians. NTR 2473 (URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctsearch.asp?Term=2473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Beuten, Joke; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Byrne, John J.; Balic, Ivana; Crandall, AnaLisa C.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Thompson, Ian M.; Price, Douglas K.; Leach, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10–0.96]. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian men with more aggressive PCa, the prevalence of several SNPs (rs2567206, rs2551188, rs2617266, rs10012 and rs1056836) was significantly associated with the disease status. A common C-G-C-C-G-A haplotype for rs2567206-rs2551188-rs2617266-rs10012-rs1056836-rs1800440 showed an inverse association with PCa risk in Hispanic Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.04–0.95) and with aggressive disease status (i.e. Gleason score ≥7) in non-Hispanic Caucasian cases (OR = 0.64, P = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.47–0.89). In the non-Hispanic Caucasian cases, a second major haplotype T-A-T-G-C-A was positively associated with the high-grade disease status (OR = 1.77, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 1.24–2.53). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 may modify the risk for PCa and support the role of CYP1B1 as a candidate gene for PCa. PMID:18544568

  13. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: a comparison between Caucasians and African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2013-09-01

    The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African-Americans. We analyzed data from 9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13 to 31 years among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year college graduates, and 4-year college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African-Americans. There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African-Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20 years, although differences among the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African-Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20 to 31 years than the non-college group. Instead, African-American participants who withdrew from college without an associate's, bachelor's, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26 to 31 years. The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African-Americans. Conversely, African-Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than are Caucasians by college withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol in Heavy and Light Drinking Chinese Men versus Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Design Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol, and placebo beverage. Setting Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Participants 70 Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Measurements Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the Stimulation and Sedation subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four timepoints after beverage consumption. The Like and Want subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Findings Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high and low dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking, and wanting in Chinese vs. Caucasians (ps<.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (ps<0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (p<0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (ps<0.05) for Chinese vs. Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (ps<0.001) in Chinese vs. Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (ps<0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese. Conclusions Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. PMID:25203488

  15. CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Beuten, Joke; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Byrne, John J; Balic, Ivana; Crandall, AnaLisa C; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Thompson, Ian M; Price, Douglas K; Leach, Robin J

    2008-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.96]. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian men with more aggressive PCa, the prevalence of several SNPs (rs2567206, rs2551188, rs2617266, rs10012 and rs1056836) was significantly associated with the disease status. A common C-G-C-C-G-A haplotype for rs2567206-rs2551188-rs2617266-rs10012-rs1056836-rs1800440 showed an inverse association with PCa risk in Hispanic Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.04-0.95) and with aggressive disease status (i.e. Gleason score >or=7) in non-Hispanic Caucasian cases (OR = 0.64, P = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.47-0.89). In the non-Hispanic Caucasian cases, a second major haplotype T-A-T-G-C-A was positively associated with the high-grade disease status (OR = 1.77, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 1.24-2.53). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 may modify the risk for PCa and support the role of CYP1B1 as a candidate gene for PCa.

  16. Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Y; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    To compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol and placebo beverages. Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Seventy Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the 'stimulation' and 'sedation' subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four time-points after beverage consumption. The 'like' and 'want' subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high- and low-dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking and wanting in Chinese versus Caucasians (P < 0.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (P < 0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high-dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (P < 0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (P < 0.05) for Chinese versus Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (P < 0.001) in Chinese versus Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose-dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (P < 0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese drinkers. Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  18. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  19. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  20. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  1. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Prediagnostic Helicobacter pylori Antibodies and Colorectal Cancer Risk in an Elderly, Caucasian Population.

    PubMed

    Blase, Jennifer L; Campbell, Peter T; Gapstur, Susan M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Teras, Lauren R

    2016-12-01

    Study results on overall seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. However, one study found positive associations with antibodies to specific H. pylori proteins. To follow up on those findings, we assessed associations of 15 H. pylori specific proteins with colorectal cancer incidence in the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Participants in this nested case-control study included 392 cases and 774 controls who were predominantly elderly (median age at blood draw: 71 years) and Caucasian (98%). Seroreactivity against 15 H. pylori proteins was assessed by fluorescent bead-based multiplex serology and associations with colorectal cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Helicobacter pylori serostatus was not associated with colorectal cancer incidence (odds ratio (OR), 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.91-1.50). Among individual antigens, GroEl serostatus was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR, 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70), whereas CagM was associated with colon cancer risk only (OR, 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.80). No dose-response relationships were observed for any of the antigens, including GroEl and CagM. The results of our study do not support an association between H. pylori infection and colorectal cancer risk in this elderly, mostly Caucasian population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  4. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  5. Common and recurrent HPGD mutations in Caucasian individuals with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Christine P; Carr, Ian M; Zitt, Emanuel; Wusik, Katie; Hopkin, Robert J; Prada, Carlos E; Calabrese, Olga; Rittinger, Olaf; Punaro, Marilynn G; Markham, Alexander F; Bonthron, David T

    2010-06-01

    Homozygous recessive germline mutations of the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) gene, encoding 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, result in persistent elevation of circulating PGE(2) levels, causing the syndrome of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO). Homozygous HPGD mutations have so far been reported in 10 families, all but one displaying parental consanguinity. Only two of these families were of European origin. We wished to determine the role of HPGD in causing PHO in non-consanguineous European families. Five previously unreported families of Caucasian European origin, with one or more individuals affected with typical PHO, were characterized clinically and by complete sequencing of the HPGD coding exons. Biallelic HPGD mutations were identified in affected individuals in all the five families, confirming a very specific association of this phenotype with HPGD mutations. The previously described c.175_176delCT frameshift mutation was observed in association with two different alleles of an adjacent single nucleotide polymorphism. Biallelic HPGD mutations are found in the majority of patients with typical PHO, and sequencing of the HPGD gene is a highly specific first-line investigation for patients presenting in this way, particularly during childhood. The c.175_176delCT frameshift mutation appears to be recurrent and to be the commonest HPGD mutation in Caucasian families.

  6. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm(3) ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners.

  7. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  9. Parent report of binge eating in Hispanic, African American and Caucasian youth.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Camden A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mirza, Nazrat M

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth. However, there are limited data on the relationship between binge eating and weight in racial or ethnically diverse youth. We therefore examined 409 obese (BMI≥95th percentile for age and sex) treatment-seeking Hispanic (29.1%), Caucasian (31.7%), and African American (39.2%), boys and girls (6-18 years). Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat were measured to assess body composition. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children's Depression Inventory and disordered eating cognitions were measured with the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Accounting for age, sex, body fat mass, and height, the odds of parents reporting that their child engaged in binge eating were significantly higher among Caucasian compared to African American youth, with Hispanic youth falling non-significantly between these two groups. Youth with binge eating had greater body adiposity (p=.02), waist circumference (p=.02), depressive symptoms (p=.01), and disordered eating attitudes (p=.04), with no difference between racial or ethnic group. We conclude that, regardless of race or ethnicity, binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth and is associated with adiposity and psychological distress. Further research is required to elucidate the extent to which binge eating among racially and ethnically diverse youth differentially impacts weight loss outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men's Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys' antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys' vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline-and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences-may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior.

  11. Definition and characterization of relative hypo- and hyperleptinemia in a large Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Buettner, R; Bollheimer, L C; Zietz, B; Drobnik, W; Lackner, K; Schmitz, G; Schölmerich, J; Palitzsch, K-D

    2002-12-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has been implicated in the regulation of appetite, weight gain and glucose homeostasis as well as in liver fibrogenesis, hematopoiesis and immune function. No previous reports have clearly defined pathologically elevated or decreased serum leptin levels for Caucasian adults. The aim of this study was to define and characterize subjects with relative hyper- and hypoleptinemia in a large population-based German cohort. Percentiles of leptin levels by body mass index (BMI) were calculated from 4971 adult Germans, and the participants with leptin levels above the 95th and below the 5th percentile were defined as relatively hyperleptinemic and relatively hypoleptinemic, respectively, for their BMI. These participants were compared with the intermediate group with respect to anthropometric and clinical data and parameters of glucose and iron metabolism, lipid status, renal, adrenal and reproductive function. Relatively hyperleptinemic participants (HL) showed higher insulin, c-peptide, and total cholesterol levels than the hypoleptinemic subjects; in males, ferritin levels were higher and testosterone levels lower in the HL group. In conclusion, we report the first percentile curves for serum leptin by BMI in a large Caucasian population. Relatively low leptin values may be associated with a lower metabolic risk than relatively high serum leptin values.

  12. Risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications in non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Schlieper, Georg; Brandenburg, Vincent; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Markovic, Natasa; Schurgers, Leon; Kruger, Thilo; Westenfeld, Ralf; Ackermann, Diana; Haselhuhn, Angelika; Dimkovic, Sinisa; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jurgen; Dimkovic, Nada

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis patients display an increased mortality which is associated with cardiovascular calcifications. Diabetes mellitus and ethnicity are known factors that affect the extent of cardiovascular calcifications. However, most studies have investigated mixed cohorts with diabetics and/or mixed ethnicity. Cardiovascular calcifications were assessed in non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients by the semiquantitative Adragao calcification score (X-ray pelvis and hands) and a novel composite calcification score encompassing the Adragao score as well as calcifications detected by X-ray of the fistula arm, echocardiography of heart valves and carotid ultrasound. Using multivariate analysis, age, male gender, dialysis vintage, lower Kt/V, calcium-phosphate product, smoking and high-sensitivity CRP were independent risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications as assessed by the Adragao or the composite score. Pulse wave velocity was independently related to both calcification scores. Body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, iPTH and serum levels of fetuin-A and uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein were not associated with cardiovascular calcifications. In our cohort of non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients, age, male gender, dialysis vintage, smoking, calcium-phosphate product, high-sensitivity CRP and lower Kt/V were independent risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications. Whether lowering the calcium-phosphate product and increasing dialysis efficiency can reduce cardiovascular calcifications in dialysis patients remains to be determined. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    PubMed Central

    Philip, T.; Lenoir, G. M.; Bryon, P. A.; Gerard-Marchant, R.; Souillet, G.; Philippe, N.; Freycon, F.; Brunat-Mentigny, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  14. Analysis of soft tissue display during enjoyment smile. Part II: elder Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katja; Hu, Xiulian; Nack, Claudia; Nahles, Günter; Mehrhof, Jürgen; Nahles, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic parameters in elder patients are essential in esthetic oral rehabilitation. To date, no study has quantified the amount and frequency of soft tissue display in the papilla area in patients over 50 years of age. Photographic examination of 42 fully dentate patients with a mean age of 59 years was performed during enjoyment smile. Digital processing and measurement of the tooth, gingiva, and papilla display revealed that over 90% of subjects displayed soft tissue in the papilla area of the anterior teeth and first premolar during enjoyment smile regardless of their sex. The frequency of the display in descending order follows: maxillary lateral incisor (96%), central incisor (94%), canine (94%), first premolar (91%), second premolar (85%), and first molar (39%). The mean amount of papilla display was 3.4 mm (0 to 10 mm). There was no significant difference in the amount of papilla display between sexes for anterior teeth, premolars, or first molar (P = .97, P = .79, and P = .48, respectively). Elder caucasians showed significantly less gingiva in the area of the premolars and molars but not in the anterior region. The amount of papilla display is significantly less in elder caucasians in the anterior and premolar region. The mean amount of soft tissue display decreased with age but the frequency of papilla display was more than 90% in the anterior region and greater than 70% in the premolar region, suggesting that pink esthetics is an issue in patients over 50 years of age.

  15. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Yancy, Haile F; Mason, Jacquline A; Peters, Sharla; Thompson, Charles E; Littleton, George K; Jett, Marti; Day, Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expression of 14 genes which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Cell lines derived from AA and CAU patients were analyzed to demonstrate alterations in the transcription of genes known to be involved in cancer and the metastatic process. Total RNA was isolated from cell lines and analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. Differential expression of the 14 targeted genes between a spectrum model (6 breast cancer cell lines and 2 non-cancer breast cell lines) and a metastasis model (12 metastatic breast cancer cell lines) were demonstrated. Additionally, an in vitro comparison of the expression established differences in 5 of the 14 biomarker genes between African American and Caucasian breast cell lines. Results from this study indicates that altered expression of the genes Atp1b1, CARD 10, KLF4, Spint2, and Acly may play a role in the aggressive phenotype seen in breast cancer in African American women. PMID:17472751

  16. White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R; Donaldson, L

    1998-01-01

    The request for scientifically appropriate terminology in research on race, ethnicity, and health has largely bypassed the term White. This and other words, such as Caucasian, are embedded in clinical and epidemiological discourse, yet they are rarely defined. This commentary analyzes the issue from the perspective of the epidemiology of the health of minority ethnic and racial groups in Europe and the United States. Minority groups are usually compared with populations described as White, Caucasian, European, Europid, Western, Occidental, indigenous, native, and majority. Such populations are heterogeneous, the labels nonspecific, and the comparisons misleading. Terminology that reflects the research purpose-for examples, reference, control, or comparison--is better (unlike White, these terms imply no norm, allowing neither writers nor readers to make stereotyped assumptions about the comparison populations. This paper widens the debate on nomenclature for racial and ethnic groups. Many issues need exploration, including whether there is a shared understanding among the international research community of the terms discussed. PMID:9736867

  17. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  18. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  19. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  20. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  1. Positive expectancies mediate the link between race and alcohol use in a sample of Native American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Looby, Alison; Luger, Elizabeth J; Guartos, Cynthia S

    2017-10-01

    Though abundant research suggests that Native Americans report high rates of alcohol use and related consequences, little research has examined drinking patterns among Native American college students. It is possible that drinking rates for this group may differ from their non-college counterparts and also from those of Caucasian college students. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol use differs between Native American and Caucasian college students, and specifically whether alcohol expectancy effects mediate the relationship between race and drinking. Participants were 43 Native American and 87 Caucasian college students who reported on their positive and negative expectancy effects and past-6-month drinking. Caucasians reported drinking significantly more alcohol and holding stronger positive expectancies. Bootstrapping mediational analysis with 95% confidence intervals indicated that positive but not negative expectancy effects mediated the relationship between race and past-6-month drinking. This preliminary research is the first to examine expectancy effects as mediators of the relationship between Native American and Caucasian race and drinking. Further understanding of the differences in positive expectancy effects between groups may have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol use among Native American college students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Associations of parent-adolescent relationship quality with type 1 diabetes management and depressive symptoms in Latino and Caucasian youth.

    PubMed

    Main, Alexandra; Wiebe, Deborah J; Croom, Andrea R; Sardone, Katie; Godbey, Elida; Tucker, Christy; White, Perrin C

    2014-01-01

    To examine associations of parent-adolescent relationship quality (parental acceptance and parent-adolescent conflict) with adolescent type 1 diabetes management (adherence and metabolic control) and depressive symptoms in Latinos and Caucasians. In all, 118 adolescents and their mothers (56 = Latino, 62 = Caucasian) completed survey measures of parental acceptance, diabetes conflict, adolescent adherence, and adolescent depressive symptoms. Glycemic control was obtained from medical records. Across ethnic groups, adolescent-reported mother and father acceptance were associated with better diabetes management, whereas mother-reported conflict was associated with poorer diabetes management and more depressive symptoms. Independent of socioeconomic status, Latinos reported lower parental acceptance and higher diabetes conflict with mothers than Caucasians. Ethnicity moderated some associations between relationship quality and outcomes. Specifically, diabetes conflicts with mothers (mother and adolescent report) and fathers (adolescent report) were associated with poorer mother-reported adherence among Caucasians, but not among Latinos. Parent-adolescent relationship quality differs and may have different relations with diabetes management across Latinos and Caucasians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  4. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  5. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main variables Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. Conclusion The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research. PMID:27822098

  6. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register.

    PubMed

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research.

  7. Variations in mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency between African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders: implications for reentry services.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Wallace, John M; Davis, Larry E; Fernandes, Giselle T; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-06-01

    The incarceration of young people is a growing national problem. Key correlates of incarceration among American youth include mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency. The present study uses a statewide sample of incarcerated youth to examine racial differences in African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders' outcomes related to mental health, substance use, and delinquency. The data indicate that relative to Caucasian offenders, African American offenders report lower levels of mental health problems and substance use but higher levels of delinquent behavior such as violence, weapon carrying, and gang fighting. The data further reveal that African American offenders are more likely than Caucasian offenders to be victims of violence and to experience traumatic events such as witnessing injury and death. Recognition of these patterns may help to improve postrelease services by tailoring or adapting preexisting programs to patterns of risk factors and their relative magnitudes of effect.

  8. Western Cultural Identification Explains Variations in the Objectification Model for Eating Pathology Across Australian Caucasians and Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Charmain S.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Utpala, Ranjani; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; De Paoli, Tara; Loughan, Stephen; Krug, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in trait objectifying measures and eating pathology between Australian Caucasians and Asian women living in Australia and in Hong Kong with high and low levels of western cultural identification (WCI) and to see if exposure to objectifying images had an effect on state-objectification. A further aim was to assess using path analyses whether an extended version of the objectification model, including thin-ideal internalization, differed depending on the level of WCI. Method: A total of 424 participants comprising 162 Australian Caucasians and 262 Asians (n = 183 currently residing in Australia and n = 79 living in Hong Kong) took part in the study. Of the overall Asian sample, 133 individuals were classified as high-WCI and 129 participants as low-WCI. Participants were randomly allocated into one of two conditions, presenting either objectifying images of attractive and thin Asian and Caucasian female models (objectification group, n = 204), or showing neutral images of objects (e.g., chairs, tables; control group, n = 220). Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires assessing objectification processes and eating pathology. Results: Findings revealed that the Caucasian group presented with significantly higher internalization and body surveillance scores than either of the two Asian groups and also revealed higher scores on trait-self-objectification than the low-WCI Asian sample. As regards to the effects of objectifying images on state self-objectification, we found that ratings were higher after exposure to women than to control objects for all groups. Finally, multi-group analyses revealed that our revised objectification model functioned equally across the Caucasian and the high-WCI Asian group, but differed between the Caucasian and the low-WCI Asian group. Conclusion: Our findings outline that individuals with varying levels of WCI might respond differently to self-objectification processes

  9. HEART score performance in Asian and Caucasian patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Vince C; Lim, Swee Han; Bank, Ingrid Em; Gijsberts, Crystel M; Ibrahim, Irwani B; Kuan, Win Sen; Ooi, Shirley Bs; Chua, Terrance Sj; Tai, E Shyong; Gao, Fei; Pasterkamp, Gerard; den Ruijter, Hester M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Wildbergh, Thierry X; Mosterd, Arend; Richards, A Mark; de Kleijn, Dominique Pv; Timmers, Leo

    2017-03-01

    The HEART score is a simple and effective tool to predict short-term major adverse cardiovascular events in patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome. Patients are assigned to three risk categories using History, ECG, Age, Risk factors and Troponin (HEART). The purpose is early rule out and discharge is considered safe for patients in the low risk category. Its performance in patients of Asian ethnicity is unknown. We evaluated the performance of the HEART score in patients of Caucasian, Chinese, Indian and Malay ethnicity. The HEART score was assessed retrospectively in 3456 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome (1791 Caucasians, 1059 Chinese, 344 Indians, 262 Malays), assigning them into three risk categories. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events within six weeks after presentation was similar between the ethnic groups. A smaller proportion of Caucasians was in the low risk category compared with Asians (Caucasians 35.8%, Chinese 43.5%, Indians 45.3%, Malays 44.7%, p<0.001). The negative predictive value of a low HEART score was comparable across the ethnic groups, but lower than previously reported (Caucasians 95.3%, Chinese 95.0%, Indians 96.2%, Malays 96.6%). Also the c-statistic for the HEART score was not significantly different between the groups. These results show that the overall performance of the HEART score is equal among Caucasian and Asian ethnic groups. The event rate in the low risk group, however, was higher than reported in previous studies, which queries the safety of early discharge of patients in the low risk category.

  10. Dark-light change of iris parameters and related factors among American Caucasians, American Chinese, and Mainland Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Wu, Lingling; Kao, Andrew; Pekmezci, Melike; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan

    2012-07-01

    To assess the distribution of dark-light changes in iris features and associated factors amongst American Caucasians, American Chinese and mainland Chinese aged 40 years and over. Four gender- and age-matched cohorts: Caucasians, American Chinese, Southern Chinese and Northern Chinese comprised the study population. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images were acquired under dark and light conditions. Customized software was used to calculate iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur (IT750), iris curvature (ICurv), iris area (IArea), and pupil diameter (PD) from ASOCT images. Data from 121, 124, 121 and 120 subjects were available for American Caucasian, American Chinese, Southern and Northern Chinese subjects respectively. Caucasians had significantly less dark-light change (Δ) of IT750 and greater ΔPD than Chinese. When using multiple linear regression analyses, the inter-ethnic difference for ΔIT750 was independent of age, gender, refractive error, anterior chamber width and axial length. After controlling for ΔPD, ΔICurv was found to be inversely associated with age (β = -0.001, P = 0.001). Independent predictors of greater ΔPD included younger age (β = -0.02, P = 0.001), Caucasian ethnicity (β = -0.022, P = 0.009) and wider anterior chamber (β = 0.18, P = 0.03). Compared with Caucasians, Chinese irides show greater thickening with light to dark adaptation despite the lesser change of PD in Chinese. The change of iris area per unit change of pupil diameter from dark to light did not differ between ethnicities. These dynamic characteristics intrinsic to Chinese irides may partially account for the substantially increased risk for angle closure among this ethnic group.

  11. Differences in the relationship between lipid CHD risk factors and body composition in Caucasians and Japanese.

    PubMed

    Iwao, N; Iwao, S; Muller, D C; Koda, M; Ando, F; Shimokata, H; Kobayashi, F; Andres, R

    2005-02-01

    To examine differences in the relationship between fat distribution and lipid coronary risk factors in Caucasian and Japanese population and further to determine whether the cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) proposed by WHO and NHLBI are applicable to Japanese population as a predictor of a lipid risk factor abnormality or not. Subjects were 895 participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging in the US (BLSA) and 1705 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Aging by the National Institutes for Longevity Science in Japan (NILS-LSA). Subjects were divided into four demographic groups as younger (age<65 y) men and women, and older (age> or =65 y) men and women. Blood total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and anthropometry were measured. Regression coefficients of BMI and WC on risk factors, sensitivity and specificity of the BMI and WC cut-points for blood lipid abnormality, and mean values of blood lipids at BMI or WC cut-points were computed in both populations. Height, weight, WC and BMI were significantly greater in the BLSA than those in the NILS-LSA