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Sample records for healthy deep-chested dogs

  1. Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma.

  2. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis.

  3. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.

    PubMed

    May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

    2012-12-07

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin.

  4. Clostridium difficile in faeces from healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the faecal occurrence and characterization of Clostridium difficile in clinically healthy dogs (N = 50) and in dogs with diarrhea (N = 20) in the Stockholm-Uppsala region of Sweden. Findings Clostridium difficile was isolated from 2/50 healthy dogs and from 2/20 diarrheic dogs. Isolates from healthy dogs were negative for toxin A and B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. Both isolates from diarrheic dogs were positive for toxin B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. The C. difficile isolates from healthy dogs had PCR ribotype 009 (SE-type 6) and 010 (SE-type 3) whereas both isolates from dogs with diarrhoea had the toxigenic ribotype 014 (SE-type 21). One of the isolates from healthy dogs was initially resistant to metronidazole. Conclusions This study revealed presence of toxigenic C. difficile in faecal samples of diarrheic dogs and low number of non- toxigenic isolates in healthy dogs from Uppsala-Stockholm region in Sweden. However, more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate the role of C. difficile in gastrointestinal disease in dogs. PMID:23497714

  5. CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS AND IN DOGS WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Schur, David; Gaschen, Frédéric; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most frequent disease affecting the exocrine pancreas in dogs and reliable diagnostic techniques for predicting fatal complications are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves detection of tissue perfusion as well as organ lesion vascular pattern. Objectives of this prospective case control study were to compare perfusion characteristics and enhancement patterns of the pancreas in healthy dogs and dogs with pancreatitis using CEUS. Ten healthy dogs and eight dogs with pancreatitis were selected based on physical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and blood analysis findings. A CEUS study of the pancreas was performed for each dog and two observers who were aware of clinical status used advanced ultrasound quantification software to analyze time-intensity curves. Perfusion patterns were compared between healthy and affected dogs. In dogs with acute pancreatitis, mean pixel and peak intensity of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly higher than that of normal dogs (P = 0.05) in between 6 and 60 s (P = <0.0001-0.046). This corresponds to a 311% increase in mean pixel intensity in dogs with acute pancreatitis compared to healthy dogs. Wash-in rates were greater and had a consistently steeper slope to peak in dogs with pancreatitis as opposed to healthy dogs. All dogs with pancreatitis showed a decrease in pixel intensity 10-15 days after the initial examination (P = 0.011) and their times to peak values were prolonged compared to the initial exam. Findings from the current study supported the use of CEUS for diagnosing pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis, and disease monitoring following therapy in dogs.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy dogs and dogs affected with pyoderma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Kenta; Tanabe, Taishi; Sato, Hisaaki

    2012-02-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains were isolated from healthy dogs and dogs with pyoderma in 2000-2002 and 2009. All the isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 1999-2000 and from healthy dogs in 2000-2002 and 2009 were susceptible to cefalexin and/or other cephalosporins and oxacillin. However, 7.1-12.5 and 11.4% of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 2009 were resistant to cephalosporins and oxacillin, respectively. All S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 1999-2000 and those from healthy dogs in 2000-2002 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones; however, 50% of the S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from dogs with pyoderma in 2009 and 30% of the S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from healthy dogs in 2009 were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Of the 21 oxacillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates, 11 carried SCCmec type V and 10 carried hybrid SCCmec types II-III. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains that were resistant to only one of three fluoroquinolones had a mutation in the quinolone resistance determination region of grlA, whereas S. pseudintermedius strains that were resistant to two or more fluoroquinolones had mutations in the quinolone resistance determination regions of both grlA and gyrA.

  7. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

  8. Temporal study of staphylococcal species on healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Cox, H U; Hoskins, J D; Newman, S S; Foil, C S; Turnwald, G H; Roy, A F

    1988-06-01

    During a 1-year period, specimens were obtained monthly from 5 hair coat and 7 mucous membrane sites of 11 healthy dogs. Among 804 isolates of staphylococci, 13 species were identified. Staphylococcus intermedius was the most frequently isolated (40.2% of total isolates) coagulase-positive species, and S xylosus was the most frequently isolated (17.3%) coagulase-negative species. Moreover, S intermedius was the most frequently isolated species from the 12 sites evaluated and was isolated persistently from 8 of the 9 dogs that completed the 1-year study. On the basis of a commercial identification system, 14 profile numbers were identified for isolates of S intermedius. However, 2 profile numbers accounted for a majority (70.9%) of the isolates. Specific S intermedius biotypes identified on the basis of hemolysis, coagulase production, beta-lactamase activity, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were found repeatedly in 3 dogs. Seemingly, S intermedius was a resident of the normal bacterial microflora of these dogs; however, the inability to isolate S intermedius from 1 dog during the study year indicated that not all dogs harbor S intermedius as a resident microorganism.

  9. The 1H NMR Profile of Healthy Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Musteata, Mihai; Nicolescu, Alina; Solcan, Gheorghe; Deleanu, Calin

    2013-01-01

    The availability of data for reference values in cerebrospinal fluid for healthy humans is limited due to obvious practical and ethical issues. The variability of reported values for metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid is quite large. Dogs present great similarities with humans, including in cases of central nervous system pathologies. The paper presents the first study on healthy dog cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A number of 13 metabolites have been identified and quantified from cerebrospinal fluid collected from a group of 10 mix breed healthy dogs. The biological variability as resulting from the relative standard deviation of the physiological concentrations of the identified metabolites had a mean of 18.20% (range between 9.3% and 44.8%). The reported concentrations for metabolites may be used as normal reference values. The homogeneity of the obtained results and the low biologic variability show that the 1H NMR analysis of the dog’s cerebrospinal fluid is reliable in designing and interpreting clinical and therapeutic trials in dogs with central nervous system pathologies. PMID:24376499

  10. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH.

  11. Comparative study of peripheral blood leukocytes in healthy dogs and in dogs with cancer and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Mercedes; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the peripheral blood lymphocyte subset distribution was compared between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease, dental and skin conditions, and cancer. The immunophenotype of the group with chronic gastrointestinal disease and the group with dental and skin conditions showed no statistically significant differences with other groups of healthy or diseased dogs. When compared with healthy dogs, animals with cancer showed significantly lower absolute values of T cytotoxic cells (CD3+, CD8+) and lymphocytes that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHC-II+) in peripheral blood. The results suggest that peripheral blood immunophenotype is mainly altered in dogs with cancer but not in other diseases. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.

  12. Dogs

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  13. Azithromycin pharmacokinetics in the serum and its distribution to the skin in healthy dogs and dogs with pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Zur, Gila; Soback, Stefan; Weiss, Yfat; Perry, Elad; Lavy, Eran; Britzi, Malka

    2014-04-01

    Serum and skin tissue azithromycin (AZM) concentrations were analysed in healthy and pyoderma affected dogs to determine AZM pharmacokinetics and to establish the effect of disease on AZM skin disposition. AZM was administered orally to two groups of healthy dogs: (1) at 7.02 mg/kg (n=7) and (2) at 11.2mg/kg (n=9). A crossover design was used on five of them. Seven dogs with pyoderma were treated with AZM at 10.7 mg/kg. The two groups of healthy dogs received AZM once daily over three consecutive days and dogs with pyoderma received the same treatment repeated twice with an interval of 1 week. AZM concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AZM was rapidly absorbed and slowly excreted. In healthy dogs, maximum serum concentrations appeared 2h after administration and were (mean ± standard deviation) 0.60 ± 0.25 μg/mL and 1.03 ± 0.43 μg/mL, and the half-lives were 49.9 ± 5.10 and 51.9 ± 6.69 h for doses of 7.02 and 11.2mg/kg, respectively. Clearance (CL0-24/F) was similar in both dosing groups (1.24 ± 0.24 and 1.29 ± 0.24 L/h/kg) and the respective mean residence time (MRT0-24) was 11.1 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 2.2h. The skin concentration in healthy dogs was 3.5-6.5 and 5.0-12.0 times higher than the corresponding serum concentration after the two doses and increased after the cessation of AZM administration. The ratio increased significantly in inflamed tissue (9.5-26.2).

  14. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Lotti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-12-15

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88.7%), neomycin (80.6%), and tetracycline (69.4%). Forty-two (18.9%) isolates showed an HLAR to streptomycin and 15 (6.7%) to gentamicin. Vancomycin and ampicillin MIC values showed 1 and 18 resistant strains, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (61.2%) strains were classified as multidrug resistant and six (2.7%) strains as possibly extensively drug-resistant bacteria. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were the most prevalent antimicrobial resistant species. Companion animals, which often live in close contact with their owners and share the same environment, represent a serious source of enterococci resistant to several antibiotics; for this reason, they may be a hazard for public health by providing a conduit for the entrance of resistance genes into the community.

  16. The cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane after premedication of healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Abed, Janan M; Pike, Fred S; Clare, Monica C; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Sevoflurane and isoflurane are commonly used in veterinary anesthesia. The objective of this prospective, randomized, open-label clinical study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane via direct arterial blood pressure measurements and the lithium dilution cardiac output (LDCO) on premedicated healthy dogs undergoing elective tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Nineteen client-owned dogs were included. All dogs were premedicated with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg IV and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg subcutaneously). Ten dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and nine dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eighteen dogs were instrumented with a dorsal pedal arterial catheter, and one dog had a femoral arterial catheter. All dogs had continuous, direct systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure readings as well as heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), stroke volume variation (SVV), and pulse pressure variation (PPV) recorded q 5 min during the surgical procedure. There was no significant statistical difference in all parameters between the sevoflurane and isoflurane treatment groups. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane inhalant anesthetics appear to have similar hemodynamic effects when used as part of a multimodal anesthetic protocol in premedicated healthy dogs undergoing an elective surgical procedure.

  17. Erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns in dogs with atopic dermatitis and healthy dogs in the same household

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Annett; Gück, Thomas; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have indicated that dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) may have a disorder of fatty acid metabolism: possibly low or absent activity of Δ6-desaturase or Δ5-desaturase, or both. To clarify this possibility, we examined the erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns of 8 dogs with CAD and their 8 healthy housemates. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Willemse; other causes of dermatitis were excluded clinically and by appropriate tests. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from blood samples. Membrane lipids were extracted and separated by thin-layer chromatography. From plasma and lipid fractions, fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography. In erythrocytes, but not in plasma, we observed significant differences in the fatty acid pattern that suggested a reduction in the n6 fatty acid products of the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturases in dogs with atopic dermatitis when compared with healthy housemates. PMID:16850941

  18. Urinary shedding of leptospires and presence of Leptospira antibodies in healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Julia-Rebecca; Krupka-Dyachenko, Inke; Rettinger, Anna Lena; Dyachenko, Viktor; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard Konrad; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is classified as a re-emerging zoonotic disease with global impor- tance. The aim of this study was to determine urinary shedding of leptospires in healthy dogs and to identify the shedded leptospire species. Furthermore, antibody presence against leptospires was evaluated. In a prospective study urine samples of 200 healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria were randomly collected and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira (L) spp. Positive samples were further character- ized via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify the Leptospira species. Microagglutination test (MAT) was performed to determine serum antibody titers. Three of 200 urine samples were found to be PCR-positive resulting in a urinary shedding prevalence of 1.5% (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.5%). All three dogs had been vaccinated before with a bivalent vaccine, covering the serogroups Canicola and lcterohaemorrhagiae. One dog shed leptospires of the species L. borgpetersenii, and two of the species L. interrogans. Of all dogs, 17.0% had antibody titers ≥ 1:100, and 3.5% titers ≥ 1:400 to serovars of non-vaccinal sero- groups. Healthy dogs that shed leptospires represent a possible risk for humans and other animals. The study emphasizes the importance of general hygiene measures in veterinary practice while handling urine of all dogs, and the use of vaccines that protect against a broader range of serogroups and that prevent urinary shedding.

  19. Quantification and characterization of pleural fluid in healthy dogs with thoracostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Hung, Germaine C; Gaunt, M Casey; Rubin, Joseph E; Starrak, Gregory S; Sakals, Sherisse A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify and characterize pleural fluid collected from healthy dogs after placement of a thoracostomy tube (TT). ANIMALS 8 healthy Coonhound-cross dogs (mean ± SD weight, 27.2 ± 1.6 kg). PROCEDURES Thoracic CT of each dog was performed before placement of a TT and daily thereafter for 7 days. Thoracic fluid volume was calculated from CT images. Effusion was aspirated when detected; volume was recorded, and cytologic analysis and bacterial culture were performed. RESULTS Mean ± SD volume of pleural effusion detected by CT was 1.43 ± 0.59 mL/kg (range, 0.12 to 3.32 mL/kg). Mean volume collected via aspiration was 0.48 ± 0.84 mL/kg (range, 0 to 2.16 mL/kg). Cytologic analysis yielded results consistent with an exudate, characterized by septic suppurative inflammation in 6 dogs and mixed inflammation in 1 dog; there was insufficient volume for analysis in 1 dog. Sufficient volume was obtained for bacterial culture for 6 dogs, which yielded pure growths of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 3) and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (2) and mixed growth of both of these species (1). The TT was removed before day 7 in 4 dogs because of pyothorax (n = 3) and irreversible damage to the TT (1). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Presence of a TT induced a minimal volume of pleural effusion in healthy dogs. Pyothorax developed in most dogs between 4 and 6 days after TT placement. On the basis of these findings, a TT should be removed by the fourth day after placement, unless complications are detected sooner.

  20. A two-dimensional morphological study of corneocytes from healthy dogs and cats and from dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Neil A; Lu, Yi-Fang; Nuttall, Tim

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dimensions of corneocytes collected from healthy dogs and cats, and from dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis. Samples were collected from the inner pinna, lateral thorax and the groin. D-Squame adhesive discs were used to collect corneocytes from the skin surface and image analysis software was used for measurements. Two differently shaped cells were identified in both animal species. The most common cell type was polygonal, often hexagonal or pentagonal and regular while the second type was smaller, elongated and variable in size and shape. The polygonal cells are corneocytes which probably originate from the interfollicular epidermis. The mean diameter and surface area for healthy canine polygonal corneocytes were 38-43.5 microm and 1092-1436 microm(2). The equivalent Figures for cats were 39.6-48.5 microm and 1183-1772 microm(2). Feline polygonal corneocytes were generally larger than those of the dog. Both feline and canine polygonal corneocytes collected from the ear were generally smaller than those from other body sites. Atopic canine polygonal corneocytes collected from the groin were significantly smaller than healthy groin corneocytes. In healthy dogs the mean length, breadth and surface area of elongated cells were 26.6-35.9 microm, 7.6-10.3 microm and 168.6-240.2 microm(2). The equivalent values for cats were 20.0-37.8 microm, 6.8-9.9 microm and 117.6-245.6 microm(2). The exact nature of the elongated cells is not known but they may be cell fragments or folded corneocytes. They were more common in densely haired skin suggesting the hair follicle as their origin.

  1. Computed tomographic assessment of sternal lymph node dimensions and attenuation in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Milovancev, Milan; Nemanic, Sarah; Bobe, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess dimensions and attenuation of sternal lymph nodes (SLNs) observed by means of CT in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research dogs. PROCEDURES Precontrast and postcontrast enhanced CT of the thorax was performed on each dog. Objective and subjective contrast-enhanced CT measurements were obtained. RESULTS By use of CT, 2 SLNs were identified in 10 of the 12 dogs and 1 SLN was identified in 2. Median SLN length, height, and width were 8.5 mm (range, 4 to 22 mm), 6.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), and 5.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), respectively. Median SLN length-to-T4 ratio, height-to-T4 ratio, and width-to-T4 ratio were 0.64 (range, 0.24 to 1.22), 0.37 (range, 0.25 to 0.53), and 0.29 (range, 0.19 to 0.67), respectively. Median SLN volume was 123 mm(3) (range, 38 to 484 mm(3)). Median height-to-length ratio, width-to-length ratio, and height-to-width ratio were 0.57 (range, 0.27 to 1.75), 0.51 (range, 0.31 to 1.25), and 1.27 (range, 0.50 to 2.50), respectively. All SLNs had homogenous contrast enhancement with median precontrast and postcontrast attenuation values of 18.3 Hounsfield units (HU; range, 4.4 to 36.9 HU) and 41.3 HU (range, 24.0 to 77.4 HU), respectively. All SLNs had a visible hilus, which was fat attenuating in 8 dogs and hypoattenuating in 4 dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT imaging characteristics described in this study may provide a reference for dimensions and appearance of SLNs of healthy dogs and serve as a basis for comparison with results for diseased dogs.

  2. Evaluation of respiratory function by barometric whole-body plethysmography in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Jesús; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Schuller, Simone; Garrérès, Alain Le; Gustin, Pascal; Detilleux, Johanne; Clercx, Cécile

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the validity of barometric whole-body plethysmography (BWBP), to establish reference values, and to standardise a bronchoprovocative test to investigate airway responsiveness using BWBP in healthy dogs. BWBP measurements were obtained from six healthy beagle dogs using different protocols: (1) during three consecutive periods (3.5min each) in two morning and two evening sessions; (2) before and after administration of two protocols of sedation; (3) before and after nebulisation of saline and increasing concentrations of carbachol and histamine both in conscious dogs and in dogs under both protocols of sedation. Enhanced pause (PENH) was used as index of bronchoconstriction. Basal BWBP measurements were also obtained in 22 healthy dogs of different breeds, age and weight. No significant influence of either time spent in the chamber or daytime was found for most respiratory variables but a significant dog effect was detected for most variables. A significant body weight effect was found on tidal volume and peak flow values (P<0.05). Response to carbachol was not reproducible and always associated with side effects. Nebulisation of histamine induced a significant increase in respiratory rate, peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow/peak inspiratory flow ratio and PENH (P<0.05). The response was reproduced in each dog at different concentrations of histamine. Sedation with acepromazine+buprenorphine had little influence on basal measurements and did not change the results of histamine challenge. It was concluded that BWBP is a safe, non invasive and reliable technique of investigation of lung function in dogs which provides new opportunities to characterise respiratory status, to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness and to assess therapeutic interventions.

  3. Doppler velocimetric parameters of the testicular artery in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mírley Barbosa; da Cunha Barbosa, Claudia; Pereira, Barbara Sucupira; Monteiro, Cynthia Levi Baratta; Pinto, José Nicodemos; Linhares, Jussiara Candeira Spíndola; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the Doppler velocimetric pattern of the testicular artery of small dogs in two different locations. Testes of 21 dogs were evaluated by two-dimensional ultrasonography to measure testicular volume and by Doppler ultrasonography to record the velocimetric patterns of the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and marginal location. The volume of left testes (4.70 ± 1.22 cm(3)) was significantly higher than the volume of the right testes (4.45 ± 1.17 cm(3)). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the left spermatic cord was significantly higher than the right side. End-diastolic velocity was significantly higher in the marginal artery than the spermatic cord on both sides; however, resistance and pulsatility indexes were significantly lower in the marginal artery. Results demonstrate the viability of Doppler ultrasonography for characterization of the testicular artery in small dogs and Doppler velocimetric values vary according to the location of measurement along the artery.

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs.

  5. Detection and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in healthy dogs in La Rioja, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Lozano, Carmen; Sáenz, Yolanda; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to identify the methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) nasal carriage rate of healthy dogs in La Rioja (Spain) and to characterize the recovered isolates by different molecular techniques. Nasal samples from 196 dogs were obtained (98 household-dogs, 98 pound-dogs). Isolates were identified and characterized by spa-, SCCmec- and MLST-typing, SmaI-PFGE, antimicrobial susceptibility, determination of antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes profiling. S. pseudintermedius was the only species recovered. Nine methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) were obtained from 9 of 196 sampled dogs (8% pound-dogs, 1% household-dogs). MRSP isolates were typed (MLST/PFGE/spa/SCCmec) as: ST71/A/t02/II-III (7 isolates), ST92/C/t06/V (1 isolate), and ST26/B/non-typable/non-typable (1 isolate). All MRSP were resistant to [resistance gene/number isolates]: β-lactams [mecA+blaZ/9], tetracycline [tet(K)/7, tet(M)/2], macrolides and lincosamides [erm(B)/9], aminoglycosides [aacA-aphD+aadE+aphA-3/9], and co-trimoxazol [dfr(G)/9]. Eight MRSP isolates showed also resistance to fluoroquinolones and amino acid changes in GyrA [Ser84Leu+Glu714Lys, 7 isolates; Ser84Leu, 1 isolate] and GrlA [Ser80Ile, 8 isolates] proteins were detected. The remaining isolate was chloramphenicol resistant and harboured cat(pC221) gene. All MRSP isolates harboured the aadE-sat4-aphA-3 multiresistance-gene-cluster linked to erm(B) gene as well as the siet, si-ent and lukS/F-I toxin genes. MRSP is a moderately common (4.6%) colonizer of healthy dogs in Spain. A major MRSP lineage (ST71) was detected and its future evolution should be tracked.

  6. Immunohistochemical investigation of Foxp3 expression in the intestine in healthy and diseased dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal immune regulation including development of oral tolerance is of great importance for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Concerning this, regulatory T cells (Tregs) occupy a pivotal role in cell-mediated immunosuppression. Dysregulation of mucosal immunology leading to an abnormal interaction with commensal bacteria is suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in men and dogs. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression of Foxp3 in the normal canine gut of 18 dogs (mean age: 6.03 years), in 16 dogs suffering from IBD (mean age: 5.05 years), and of 6 dogs with intestinal nematode infection (mean age: 0.87 years) using immunohistochemistry. In the duodenum, Tregs in healthy dogs declined from villi (median: 10.67/62 500 μm2) to crypts (median: 1.89/62 500 μm2). Tregs were further increased in the villi of middle-aged dogs (median: 18.92/62 500 μm2) in contrast to juvenile (median: 3.50/62 500 μm2) and old (median: 9.56/62 500 μm2) individuals. Compared to healthy controls, animals suffering from IBD revealed reduced numbers of Tregs in duodenal villi (median: 4.13/62 500 μm2). Dogs with intestinal nematode infection displayed increased numbers of Tregs (median: 21.06/62 500 μm2) compared to healthy animals. Age-related changes indicate a progressive establishment of oral tolerance and immunosenescence in the canine elderly. The results further suggest that a defect in Treg homeostasis may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. In contrast, increased numbers of Tregs in the duodenum may be due to nematode infection. PMID:22440243

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus Isolated from a Healthy Dog

    PubMed Central

    Wigmore, Sarah M.; Wareham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SW120 was isolated from the ear swab of a healthy dog. The isolate is resistant to methicillin and fusidic acid. The SW120 draft genome is 2,805,064 bp and contains 2,667 coding sequences, including 58 tRNAs and nine complete rRNA coding regions. PMID:28209829

  8. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Eight healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with a standard protocol and received a low-dose medetomidine constant rate infusion during surgery. Cardiorespiratory parameters, including non-invasive cardiac output, were measured at various times. This protocol resulted in acceptable and stable cardiovascular performance, allowed low isoflurane concentrations, and provided smooth recoveries.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C.; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%. PMID:26740701

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C; Rubin, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%.

  11. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Angelette, Nik; Stout, Rhett

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity. Time-pixel intensity curves were generated for 1-min postinjection. Quantification of these curves was performed using Philips QLab software. Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively. Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s. Angioarchitecture was best visualized with contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound compared with power and color Doppler. Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications.

  12. Evaluation of the hemodynamic impact of continuous renal replacement therapy in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Yoshioka, Chihiro; Minami, Koji; Okawa, Takumi; Fujisaki, Yuka; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    We performed continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on clinically healthy dogs to evaluate the effects of CRRT on hemodynamics. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure of the dogs (n=6) were recorded during the procedure, which was performed under general anesthesia. Throughout the CRRT, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were stable. Central venous pressure increased after CRRT termination but returned to the basal level within 30 min. In this study, hemodynamic alterations, including hypotension, hypertension, and arrhythmias, were not observed during CRRT. These observations suggest that the CRRT protocol used in the present study can be safely applied to clinical cases with acute renal failure.

  13. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on xylazine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Hasanuzzaman; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Matsuu, Aya; Kawamura, Hiroe

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on xylazine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs. Five healthy male beagles were assigned to each of the 8 treatment groups in a randomized design at 1-week intervals in the same dog. One group was not medicated. The dogs in the other groups received 2 mg/kg xylazine intramuscularly (IM) and a treatment of saline (control), 50, 100 or 300 microg/kg of each atipamezole or yohimbine IM 0.5 hr later. Urine and blood samples were collected 11 times over the course of 24 hr. Urine volume, pH, specific gravity and creatinine values; osmolality, electrolyte and arginine vasopressin (AVP) values in both urine and plasma; and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized xylazine-induced diuresis. The reversal effect of yohimbine was more potent, but not dose-dependent at the tested doses, in contrast with atipamezole. Both atipamezole and yohimbine exhibited similar potency in reversing the decreases in urine specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, sodium and chloride concentrations and the increase in the plasma potassium concentration induced by xylazine. Both also inhibited xylazine-induced diuresis without significantly altering the hormonal profile in the dogs. A higher dose of atipamezole tended to increase the plasma ANP concentration. This may not be due only to actions mediated by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Both drugs can be used as antagonistic agents against xylazine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs.

  14. IgG responses to antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae in healthy and atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Chun; Pemberton, Alan; Nuttall, Tim; Hill, Peter B

    2005-06-15

    In this study, we used a semi-quantitative electrophoresis and immunoblotting technique to characterise the IgG response to antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae in 20 healthy and 20 atopic dogs. Both groups mounted an IgG response to multiple antigens from the mite. There was no significant difference in the number of bands recognised, or the molecular weights of the bands, between the two groups. The two most obvious bands in both groups were proteins with molecular weights of 98 kDa (likely to be the high molecular weight allergen Der f 15) and 44 kDa, although dogs in both groups recognised a similar pattern of other antigens. The magnitude of the IgG response was greater in the atopic group although this was not statistically significant. The results indicate that the immune system of both healthy and atopic dogs generates an IgG response to multiple antigens from D. farinae. As some of these antigens (such as the 98 and 44 kDa proteins) are also targeted by IgE in atopic dogs, immunoglobulin class switching in response to Th2 cytokines may not be as dominant a process as has been proposed.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-01-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μg/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μg-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤0.25 to ≥8.0 μg/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27025816

  16. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and α2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E. canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME.

  17. Preliminary Study Characterizing the Use of Sitagliptin for Glycemic Control in Healthy Beagle Dogs with Normal Gluco-Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    ODA, Hitomi; MORI, Akihiro; LEE, Peter; SAEKI, Kaori; ARAI, Toshiro; SAKO, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor aimed at treating Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and T1DM, by increasing blood levels of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and insulin. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize Sitagliptin’s ability for glycemic control, in healthy dogs under an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) environment. Overall, Sitagliptin did not result in any significant changes to temporal glucose and insulin concentrations. However, a ~55% increase in median total GLP-1 AUC0–120min was observed, as compared to baseline control in healthy dogs (n=5), thus indicating a similar mode of action of Sitagliptin between healthy dogs and humans. Future studies to validate the use of Sitagliptin with dogs suffering from insulin independent diabetes are warranted. PMID:24931645

  18. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from healthy dogs in Nsukka, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Kennedy F; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Nwanta, John A; Asadu, Brendan; Agbo, Ifeoma C; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence, resistance phenotype and molecular mechanisms of resistance of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from groin swabs of 109 clinically healthy dogs in Nsukka, Nigeria were investigated. The groin swab samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 10 μg of cloxacillin. Sixteen methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), all harbouring the mecA gene were isolated from 14 (12.8%) of the 109 dogs studied. The MRCoNS isolated were: S. sciuri subspecies rodentium, S. lentus, S. haemolyticus, and S. simulans with S. sciuri subspecies rodentium (62.5%) being the predominant species. Thirteen (81.3%) of the MRCoNS were resistant to tetracycline while 12 (75%) and 10 (62.5%) were resistant to kanamycin and trimthoprim-sulphamethoxazole respectively. None of the isolates was resistant to fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Thirteen (81.3%) of the MRCoNS were multi-drug resistance (MDR). Other antimicrobial genes detected were: blaZ, tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), lnu(A), aacA-aphD, aphA3, str, dfr(G), cat pC221 , and cat pC223 . Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are common colonizers of healthy dogs in Nigeria with a major species detected being S. sciuri subsp. rodentium.

  19. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  20. Cutaneous antimicrobial preparation prior to intravenous catheterization in healthy dogs: clinical, microbiological, and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Coolman, B R; Marretta, S M; Kakoma, I; Wallig, M A; Coolman, S L; Paul, A J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a one-minute chlorhexidine gluconate skin preparation protocol prior to cephalic vein catheterization. Twenty-three healthy beagle dogs had one leg aseptically prepared and the opposite leg served as a control. Twenty-six- and 77-hour time groups were studied. Chlorhexidine-treated legs had significantly lower cutaneous bacterial counts than the control legs prior to catheter insertion and prior to catheter withdrawal for both time groups. Control legs developed significantly more dermatitis than the treated legs after 77 h. A one-minute preparation with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate was an effective method for sustained reduction of cutaneous bacterial counts at peripheral intravenous catheter insertion points in dogs. Increased cutaneous bacterial counts were associated with significantly more microscopic dermatitis in untreated legs after 77 h of catheterization. Images Figure 1. PMID:9861500

  1. A case of acute postoperative transitory sialadenosis of the submandibular glands in a healthy dog.

    PubMed

    Cattai, Andrea; Levorato, Silvia; Franci, Paolo

    2017-01-10

    A 1-year-old healthy female cross-breed dog, weighing 4.5 kg, was scheduled for elective neutering. Fentanyl (5 µg/kg) and propofol (4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane and a constant fentanyl infusion rate (10 µg/kg/hr). During the recovery from the anesthesia, the presence of bilateral dense submandibular masses was recognized, as was the excessive secretion of saliva. An ultrasound examination was performed and revealed bilateral abnormally-diffused enlargement of the submandibular salivary glands. A cytology examination was conducted, and no signs of abnormality were found. The size of the swellings subsequently diminished, completely subsiding after 2 hr, as did the hyper-salivation. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first case report of an acute transient swelling of submandibular glands after general anesthesia in a dog.

  2. A case of acute postoperative transitory sialadenosis of the submandibular glands in a healthy dog

    PubMed Central

    CATTAI, Andrea; LEVORATO, Silvia; FRANCI, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old healthy female cross-breed dog, weighing 4.5 kg, was scheduled for elective neutering. Fentanyl (5 µg/kg) and propofol (4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane and a constant fentanyl infusion rate (10 µg/kg/hr). During the recovery from the anesthesia, the presence of bilateral dense submandibular masses was recognized, as was the excessive secretion of saliva. An ultrasound examination was performed and revealed bilateral abnormally-diffused enlargement of the submandibular salivary glands. A cytology examination was conducted, and no signs of abnormality were found. The size of the swellings subsequently diminished, completely subsiding after 2 hr, as did the hyper-salivation. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first case report of an acute transient swelling of submandibular glands after general anesthesia in a dog. PMID:27616555

  3. Arterial pulse wave propagation velocity in healthy dogs by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rodrigo B; Pereira, Lucas A; Basso, Alice F; da Fonseca, Ingrid S; Alves, Lorena A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) values in healthy dogs using pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. A secondary aim was to determine the feasibility of this method and to report the intra- and interobserver reproducibilities of the PWV in conscious dogs. The data were studied in 30 healthy, adult, male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) dogs. The time interval marked between the R wave peak of the electrocardiogram and the intersection of the blood flow wave upstroke of the Doppler spectrum with the baseline of zero frequency was determined for the carotid (T1) and for the femoral (T2) arteries. The distance covered by the pulse wave (L) was determined. The PWV was then calculated using the following formula: L/T2 - T1. The mean values of PWV calculated from the total sample (n = 30) evaluated were 13.41 ± 2.20 m/s. No significant statistical difference was observed for the PWV measurements between males (14.82 ± 3.18 m/s) and females (12.64 ± 2.45 m/s). The analysis revealed no intra nor interobserver differences. A reasonable reproducibility of the PWV measurements was showed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and the coefficients of variation (CV). These data demonstrate that noninvasive vascular Doppler analysis is a feasible and reproducible method to determine the carotid-femoral PWV in dogs.

  4. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of ammonium sulfate gradient loaded liposome-encapsulated oxymorphone and hydromorphone in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lesley J.; Kukanich, Butch K.; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A.; Schmidt, Brynn H.; Heath, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacokinetics, in dogs, of liposome-encapsulated oxymorphone and hydromorphone made by the ammonium sulfate gradient loading technique (ASG). Animals Four healthy purpose-bred Beagles aged 9.5 ± 3.2 months and weighing 13.4 ± 2.3 kg. Study Design Randomized cross-over design. Methods Each dog was given either 4.0 mg kg−1 of ASG-oxymorphone or 8.0 mg kg−1 of ASG-hydromorphone SC on separate occasions with a 3-month washout period. Blood was collected at baseline and at serial time points up to 1032 hours (43 days) after injection for determination of serum opioid concentrations. Serum opioid concentrations were measured with HPLC-MS and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using commercial software and non-compartmental methods. Results Serum concentrations of oxymorphone remained above the limit of quantification for 21 days, while those for hydromorphone remained above the limit of quantification for 29 days. Cmax for ASG-oxymorphone was 7.5 ng mL−1; Cmax for ASG-hydromorphone was 5.7 ng mL−1. Conclusions and clinical relevance Oxymorphone and hydromorphone, when encapsulated into liposomes using the ammonium sulfate gradient loading technique, result in measureable serum concentrations for between 3 to 4 weeks. This formulation may have promise in the convenient use of opioids for clinical treatment of chronically painful conditions in dogs. PMID:23601353

  6. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m2 (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m2 (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m2 or at 125 μg/m2 or at 375 μg/m2 in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) from healthy dogs in Norway - occurrence, genotypes and comparison to clinical MRSP.

    PubMed

    Kjellman, Ellen Eide; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Small, Harald; Sunde, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in healthy dogs and further to determine genetic relatedness between carrier isolates and clinical MRSP from dogs in Norway. A total of 189 healthy dogs visiting ten veterinary clinics were screened for MRSP during the period February to April 2013. Carrier isolates were susceptibility tested with disk diffusion and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Forty-nine clinical MRSP were characterized for comparison. These isolates were collected from July 2008 to April 2013 and represent all MRSP index isolates from each MRSP-positive dog detected in Norway until April 2013. Geographical distribution of all MRSP cases was investigated using the ArcGIS 9.3 Software. MRSP was detected from five (2.6%) healthy dogs, sampled at three different clinics. The isolates grouped into three sequence types (STs): ST252 (two isolates), ST71 (two isolates) and ST306 (one isolate). MRSP from dogs sampled at the same animal clinic belonged to the same ST and produced identical PFGE pattern. The 49 clinical MRSP grouped into 15 STs; ST258 (n = 17), ST71 (n = 10), and ST305 (n = 4) were the most prevalent. The MRSP carrier isolates were genetically related to MRSP variants from dogs with infections as ST306 (from a carrier) is related to ST258. MRSP ST252, found in two carriers, was also present among the clinical MRSP isolates. Altogether the MRSP isolates were genetically diverse and MRSP of other lineages than ST71 continues to disseminate in Norway. Susceptibility testing showed that MRSP isolates of the ST71 lineage were the most multiresistant. Our study showed that MRSP could be detected in healthy dogs without infections and with no recent history of antimicrobial therapy stressing the need for future monitoring, infection control and prudent use of antimicrobial agents.

  8. Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, C.; Mitra, T.; Kumar, A.; Samanta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times increasing occurrence of dermatophytosis, especially among the school children in eastern India was evidenced along with increased tendency of keeping companion animals such as dogs and cats. This study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of dermatophytes with antifungal susceptibility among the companion animals. A total of 1501 healthy companion animals comprising 1209 dogs and 292 cats belonged to individual owners in and around Kolkata (West Bengal, India) were examined for the evidence of dermatophytosis during 2011-2013. The collected samples were subjected to direct examination by standard KOH mount technique. The samples were inoculated into both Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide and dermatophyte test medium (DTM). Each of the fungal isolate was identified based upon its colony characteristics and hyphal and conidial cells it produced. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution assay using fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin and amphotericin-B antifungals. Among the 1209 samples from dogs and 292 samples from cats, 253 (20.93%) and 109 (37.33%) samples were positive for dermatophytes by direct examination. Three identified species of dermatophytes with predominant occurrence were Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ketoconazole (0.06-0.5 µgm/ml), itraconazole (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) and amphotericin-B (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) showed lowest MIC values against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum, respectively. This is the first systemic report of dermatophytes in healthy companion animals with large numbers of samples in India. PMID:27656224

  9. Ultrasound biomicroscopic findings of the iridocorneal angle in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Kawata, Manabu; Ota, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    By using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), the cross-sectional structures of the entire iridocorneal angle (ICA) which are unable to assess with gonioscopic examination were evaluated objectively and quantitatively in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs. The ICAs of normotensive eyes in healthy dogs with normal open angle (NOR), a predisposition to primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG) (PREDIS) and suffering from unilateral PCAG (UNI), as well as the ICAs of hypertensive eyes with acute and chronic PCAG (ACG and CRG), were assessed. The opening of the ciliary cleft in PREDIS was smaller than that in NOR. In UNI, the opening and area of the ciliary cleft were significantly decreased compared with those of NOR and PREDIS. ACG had widespread structural abnormalities including marked decrease in the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus, and a thinner sclera than those in normotensive eyes, whereas the ICA collapsed in CRG with the thinnest sclera. Medical therapy-responsive glaucomatous cases had wider ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus than unresponsive ones. These findings suggest that the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus of the ICA are key structures contributing to not only the pathophysiology of canine glaucoma but also the responsiveness to medical therapy in glaucomatous eyes, and cross-sectional entire structures of the ICA should be evaluated quantitatively with UBM when diagnosing and managing canine glaucoma.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Modified Low-Density Lipoproteins in the Serum of Healthy and Obese Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Tsuchida, Naoto; Hatano, Yutaka; Habara, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shingo; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play an important role in the inflammatory response associated with human obesity. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine oxidized LDL concentrations in healthy dogs and cats, and to evaluate whether obesity affects oxidized LDL concentration, using 39 cats and 19 dogs that had visited two different veterinary clinics in Japan. We hypothesized that oxidized LDL concentrations measured against body condition score (BCS) may have a potential value in evaluating the qualities of accumulated or circulating lipids in obese dogs and cats that do not show signs of metabolic diseases. The mean oxidized LDL value in BCS3 dogs (2.4 ± 0.9 μg/dl) was very similar to that of BCS5 dogs (2.2 ± 0.3 μg/dl). The mean oxidized LDL value of BCS4 dogs was 7.2 ± 10.3 μg/dl and the highest among three groups. BCS4 dogs included two dogs whose oxidized LDL values were higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans (11.2 ± 0.3 μg/dl). On the other hand, the mean oxidized LDL value of BCS3 cats was 2.5 ± 0.9 μg/dl, and those of BCS4 and 5 cats were higher than that of BCS3, but there was no significant difference. The BCS4 cat group included one cat with a higher oxidized LDL value, and the BCS5 group also included two cats with oxidized LDL values higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans. Interestingly, the oxidized LDL values in two obese dogs and three obese cats were indeed higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of humans with coronary artery disease (20.1 ± 1.1 μg/dl). In conclusion, this preliminary study showed reference ranges of oxidized dogs and cats against BCS. Obesity alone does not appear to have any direct effect on serum oxidized LDL values in healthy dogs and cats. PMID:26664963

  11. Effects of postural change on transesophageal echocardiography views and parameters in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    GOYA, Seijirow; WADA, Tomoki; SHIMADA, Kazumi; HIRAO, Daiki; FUKUSHIMA, Ryuji; YAMAGISHI, Norio; SHIMIZU, Miki; TANAKA, Ryou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of postural change on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) views and parameters of interest anesthesia monitoring in healthy dogs. Twelve Beagle dogs were anesthetized and randomly positioned in one of four postures: right lateral-recumbency, left lateral-recumbency, supine position and prone position. After examinations in one posture, the same examination was demonstrated in another posture and repeated in all postures. In each posture, several standard TEE views were demonstrated: longitudinal cranial-esophageal aorta long-axis-view, transverse middle-esophageal mitral valve long-axis-view and transgastric middle short-axis-view. Additionally, echocardiographic parameters were attempted to measure, and direct blood pressure monitoring was performed in each view. As a result, oriented views, except for transgastric middle short-axis-view, could be obtained in all postures. Stroke volume and peak early diastolic velocity of mitral inflow were lower in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. Heart rate (HR) and systemic vascular resistance were higher in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. Left ventricular pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time corrected and uncorrected by HR were higher in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. In conclusion, longitudinal cranial-esophageal aorta long-axis-view and transverse middle-esophageal mitral valve long-axis-view provide useful information of interest anesthesia monitoring, because of their views enable to certainly obtain TEE parameters in various postures. Furthermore, TEE parameters allow to detect the changes of preload, afterload and HR that occur in supine position dogs. PMID:27980234

  12. Effects of postural change on transesophageal echocardiography views and parameters in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Goya, Seijirow; Wada, Tomoki; Shimada, Kazumi; Hirao, Daiki; Fukushima, Ryuji; Yamagishi, Norio; Shimizu, Miki; Tanaka, Ryou

    2017-02-28

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of postural change on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) views and parameters of interest anesthesia monitoring in healthy dogs. Twelve Beagle dogs were anesthetized and randomly positioned in one of four postures: right lateral-recumbency, left lateral-recumbency, supine position and prone position. After examinations in one posture, the same examination was demonstrated in another posture and repeated in all postures. In each posture, several standard TEE views were demonstrated: longitudinal cranial-esophageal aorta long-axis-view, transverse middle-esophageal mitral valve long-axis-view and transgastric middle short-axis-view. Additionally, echocardiographic parameters were attempted to measure, and direct blood pressure monitoring was performed in each view. As a result, oriented views, except for transgastric middle short-axis-view, could be obtained in all postures. Stroke volume and peak early diastolic velocity of mitral inflow were lower in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. Heart rate (HR) and systemic vascular resistance were higher in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. Left ventricular pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time corrected and uncorrected by HR were higher in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. In conclusion, longitudinal cranial-esophageal aorta long-axis-view and transverse middle-esophageal mitral valve long-axis-view provide useful information of interest anesthesia monitoring, because of their views enable to certainly obtain TEE parameters in various postures. Furthermore, TEE parameters allow to detect the changes of preload, afterload and HR that occur in supine position dogs.

  13. Faecal bacterial profile, nitrogen excretion and mineral absorption in healthy dogs fed supplemental oligofructose.

    PubMed

    Beynen, A C; Baas, J C; Hoekemeijer, P E; Kappert, H J; Bakker, M H; Koopman, J P; Lemmens, A G

    2002-10-01

    In a cross-over trial, five healthy dogs were fed a dry food without or with 1% (w/w) oligofructose to assess any oligofructose-induced effects on the faecal bacterial profile, nitrogen excretion and mineral absorption. The diets were given for a period of 3 weeks. Oligofructose feeding significantly raised the number of Bifidobacteria, Streptococci and Clostridia in faeces. The numbers of faecal anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were raised after ingestion of oligofructose. The faecal pH was unchanged. There was no effect of oligofructose feeding on the route of nitrogen excretion which was associated with a lack of effect on faecal ammonium and urinary urea excretion. It is suggested that the absence or presence of an effect of oligofructose on urinary and faecal nitrogen excretion depends on the background composition of the diet, in particular the content of non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates. In the diets used, the content of non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates was not measured. Both apparent magnesium and calcium absorption were significantly raised by oligofructose feeding, but phosphorus absorption was unaffected. The data presented may contribute to the qualification of the use of oligofructose in dog foods.

  14. Effect of Swimming on Clinical Functional Parameters and Serum Biomarkers in Healthy and Osteoarthritic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Tanvisut, Sikhrin; Yano, Terdsak; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether swimming could improve function of osteoarthritic joints in canine hip OA. Fifty-five dogs were categorized into three groups. The OA with swimming group (OA-SW; n = 22), the healthy (non-OA; n = 18) with swimming group (H-SW), and the healthy (non-OA; n = 15) without swimming group (H-NSW). All animals were allowed to swim for a total of 8 weeks (2-day period, 3 cycles of swimming for 20 minutes, and resting period for 5 minutes in each cycle). Three ml of blood was collected every 2 weeks for evaluation of the levels of biomarkers for OA, including chondroitin sulfate epitope WF6 (CS-WF6) and hyaluronan (HA). Clinical evaluation of the OA-SW group found that most parameters showed improvement (P < 0.01) at week 8 compared to pretreatment, while pain on palpation was improved (P < 0.01) at week 6. The relative level of serum CS-WF6 in the OA-SW group was found to be significantly different (P < 0.01) at weeks 6 and 8 compared with the preexercise. The levels of serum HA of the H-SW group in weeks 2–8 were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than preexercise. Conclusion, swimming over 2-day period, 8 weeks continually, can improve the function of OA joint. PMID:24977044

  15. Vaccination of healthy subjects and autoantibodies: from mice through dogs to humans.

    PubMed

    Toplak, N; Avcin, T

    2009-11-01

    Vaccination against pathogenic microorganisms is one of the major achievements of modern medicine, but due to an increasing number of reports of adverse reactions the vaccination procedure has induced also considerable debate. It is well known that certain infections are involved in triggering the production of autoantibodies, which could lead to autoimmune adverse reactions in genetically predisposed subjects. Based on these findings it was assumed that vaccinations might induce similar autoimmune reactions. At present there is no clear-cut evidence that vaccinations are associated with overt autoimmune diseases but it has been demonstrated that in genetically predisposed persons vaccination can trigger the production of autoantibodies and autoimmune adverse reactions. The first studies investigating the production of autoantibodies following vaccination were done in dogs and mice. Several studies investigated the production of autoantibodies following vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, but there are only limited data on the autoimmune responses after vaccinations in apparently healthy humans. This review summarizes current evidence on the vaccination-induced autoantibodies in apparently healthy subjects including studies in animals and humans.

  16. Effects of D-allulose on glucose metabolism after the administration of sugar or food in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    D-allulose is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose and has recently been investigated for its hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, the effects of D-allulose on glucose metabolism were evaluated in healthy dogs administrated sugar or food. The oral administrations of D-allulose decreased plasma glucose concentrations after oral glucose or maltose administration, with a diminished plasma insulin rise. The glucose suppressive effect of D-allulose was also observed after intravenous glucose administrations without increase in plasma insulin concentration. In contrast, D-allulose showed no effect on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after feeding. The present results suggest that D-allulose administration may be beneficial in dogs with impaired glucose tolerance. Further studies investigating the therapeutic efficacy of D-allulose in diabetic dogs are required. PMID:27452736

  17. Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for screening clinically healthy dogs for occult disease.

    PubMed

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Knouse, J

    2015-12-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a biomarker that correlates well with diagnosis and prognosis in certain canine cancers. Canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is a widely accepted marker of inflammation correlated with increased risk and severity of various diseases. We evaluated serum TK1 and cCRP concentrations in apparently healthy dogs (n = 360). All dogs were followed up for a minimum of 6 months by health questionnaire. All dogs with cancer were identified using a proprietary dual-biomarker algorithm [termed Neoplasia Index (NI)]. Specificity of positive NI is 0.91 and high positive is 0.98. All-cause mortality was 20% in dogs with elevated cCRP and 3% in dogs with low cCRP. The performance of serum TK1 and cCRP as tools for screening for occult cancer is improved when evaluated together. Serum TK1 and cCRP (unified in the NI) are useful in the screening of occult canine cancer. cCRP is useful in screening for other serious diseases.

  18. Effects of a cyclooxygenase-2 preferential inhibitor in young healthy dogs exposed to air pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam Del C; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco J; Pérez-Guillé, Gabriela; Osnaya, Norma; Juárez-Olguín, Hugo; Monroy, Maria E; Monroy, Silvia; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Maronpot, Robert R

    2009-08-01

    Residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in healthy children, young adults, and dogs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may offer neuroprotection. The authors measured the plasma concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine and the cerebro-spinal-fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 metabolite and the oligomeric form of amyloid derived diffusible ligand; measured the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1beta, CD14, and Aquaporin-4 in target brain areas; and evaluated brain MRI, cognition, and neuropathology in 8 dogs treated with a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (Nimesulide) versus 7 untreated litter-matched Mexico City dogs. Nimesulide significantly decreased nitrotyrosine in plasma (p < .0001), frontal gray IL1beta (p = .03), and heart IL1beta (p = .02). No effect was seen in mRNA COX2, amyloid, and PGE2 in CSF or the MRI white matter lesions. All exposed dogs exhibited olfactory bulb and frontal accumulation of Abeta(42) in neurons and blood vessels and frontal vascular subcortical pathology. White matter hyperintense MRI frontal lesions were seen in 4/6 non-treated and 6/8 treated dogs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may offer limited neuroprotection in the setting of severe air pollution exposures. The search for potentially beneficial drugs useful to ameliorate the brain effects of pollution represents an enormous clinical challenge.

  19. DNA Sequence Variants in the Five Prime Untranslated Region of the Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Are Commonly Found in Healthy Dogs and Gray Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Safra, Noa; Hayward, Louisa J.; Aguilar, Miriam; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Mohr, F. Charles; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Bannasch, Danika L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of regional DNA variants upstream to the translation initiation site of the canine Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) gene in healthy dogs. Cox-2 plays a role in various disease conditions such as acute and chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis and malignancy. A role for Cox-2 DNA variants in genetic predisposition to canine renal dysplasia has been proposed and dog breeders have been encouraged to select against these DNA variants. We sequenced 272–422 bases in 152 dogs unaffected by renal dysplasia and found 19 different haplotypes including 11 genetic variants which had not been described previously. We genotyped 7 gray wolves to ascertain the wildtype variant and found that the wolves we analyzed had predominantly the second most common DNA variant found in dogs. Our results demonstrate an elevated level of regional polymorphism that appears to be a feature of healthy domesticated dogs. PMID:26244515

  20. Composition and Predicted Metabolic Capacity of Upper and Lower Airway Microbiota of Healthy Dogs in Relation to the Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Personett, Alexa R.; Grobman, Megan E.; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    The upper and lower airways of healthy humans are reported to harbor stable and consistent bacterial populations, and the composition of these communities is altered in individuals affected with several respiratory diseases. Data regarding the presence of airway microbiota in other animals are scant and a better understanding of the composition and metabolic function of such bacterial populations is essential for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for use in both veterinary and human medicine. Based on targeted next-generation sequencing of feces and samples collected at multiple levels of the airways from 16 healthy female dogs, we demonstrate that canine airways harbor a topographically continuous microbiota with increasing relative abundance of proteobacterial species from the upper to lower airways. The lung-associated microbiota, as assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), was the most consistent between dogs and was dominated by three distinct taxa, two of which were resolved to the species level and one to the level of family. The gene content of the nasal, oropharyngeal, and lung-associated microbiota, predicted using the Phylogenetic Investigations into Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) software, provided information regarding the glyoxylate and citrate cycle metabolic pathways utilized by these bacterial populations to colonize such nutrient-poor, low-throughput environments. These data generated in healthy subjects provide context for future analysis of diseased canine airways. Moreover, as dogs have similar respiratory anatomy, physiology, and immune systems as humans, are exposed to many of the same environmental stimuli, and spontaneously develop similar respiratory diseases, these data support the use of dogs as a model species for prospective studies of the airway microbiota, with findings translatable to the human condition. PMID:27136381

  1. Composition and Predicted Metabolic Capacity of Upper and Lower Airway Microbiota of Healthy Dogs in Relation to the Fecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Personett, Alexa R; Grobman, Megan E; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R

    2016-01-01

    The upper and lower airways of healthy humans are reported to harbor stable and consistent bacterial populations, and the composition of these communities is altered in individuals affected with several respiratory diseases. Data regarding the presence of airway microbiota in other animals are scant and a better understanding of the composition and metabolic function of such bacterial populations is essential for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for use in both veterinary and human medicine. Based on targeted next-generation sequencing of feces and samples collected at multiple levels of the airways from 16 healthy female dogs, we demonstrate that canine airways harbor a topographically continuous microbiota with increasing relative abundance of proteobacterial species from the upper to lower airways. The lung-associated microbiota, as assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), was the most consistent between dogs and was dominated by three distinct taxa, two of which were resolved to the species level and one to the level of family. The gene content of the nasal, oropharyngeal, and lung-associated microbiota, predicted using the Phylogenetic Investigations into Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) software, provided information regarding the glyoxylate and citrate cycle metabolic pathways utilized by these bacterial populations to colonize such nutrient-poor, low-throughput environments. These data generated in healthy subjects provide context for future analysis of diseased canine airways. Moreover, as dogs have similar respiratory anatomy, physiology, and immune systems as humans, are exposed to many of the same environmental stimuli, and spontaneously develop similar respiratory diseases, these data support the use of dogs as a model species for prospective studies of the airway microbiota, with findings translatable to the human condition.

  2. The acute effects of a protein-rich meal on the urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Zeugswetter, F K; Zwack, D; Luckschander-Zeller, N; Schwendenwein, I

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this prospective crossover study was to investigate the effects of a high-protein diet on canine urinary corticoid-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR). The hypothesis was that meal-induced hypercortisolism is, as has been shown in humans, a predictable and consistent finding in healthy dogs. Eight clinic-owned beagles were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The allocation to the groups defined the sequence of a protein-enriched meal (meal A) or no meal on the first and second days, whereas on the third day all dogs again received an identical meal (meal B) to test reproducibility. Urinary corticoids were measured using a solid-phase, competitive CLIA on unextracted urine. Contrary to our expectations, consistent incremental responses of the UCCR were not observed (meal A vs. no meal [anova]: absolute increase, F = 2.546, p = 0.162; relative increase, F = 4.084, p = 0.09; AUC(UCCR) , F = 0.279, p = 0.616). Nevertheless, the robust increases in two dogs above 60% of baseline suggest that the collection of urine prior to feeding likely increases the specificity of the UCCR to discriminate between dogs with and without hypercortisolism.

  3. Hydroxyzine and cetirizine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after oral and intravenous administration of hydroxyzine to healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Bizikova, Petra; Papich, Mark G; Olivry, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of hydroxyzine and its active metabolite cetirizine were determined after oral and intravenous administration of 2 mg kg(-1) of hydroxyzine to six healthy dogs. Plasma drug levels were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacodynamic studies evaluated the suppressive effect on histamine and anticanine IgE-mediated cutaneous wheal formation. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic correlations were determined with computer modelling. The mean systemic availability of oral hydroxyzine was 72%. Hydroxyzine was rapidly converted to cetirizine regardless of the route of administration. The mean area-under-the-curve was eight and ten times higher for cetirizine than hydroxyzine after intravenous and oral dosing, respectively. After oral administration of hydroxyzine, the mean peak concentration of cetirizine was approximately 2.2 microg mL(-1) and that of hydroxyzine 0.16 microg mL(-1). The terminal half-life for cetirizine varied between 10 and 11 h after intravenous and oral administration of hydroxyzine. A sigmoidal relationship was fit to the data comparing cetirizine plasma concentration to wheal suppression. Maximum inhibition (82% and 69% for histamine and anticanine IgE-mediated skin reactions, respectively) was observed during the first 8 h, which correlated with a plasma concentration of cetirizine greater than 1.5 microg mL(-1). Pharmacological modelling suggested that increasing either hydroxyzine dosages or frequencies of administration would not result in histamine inhibition superior to that obtained with twice daily hydroxyzine at 2 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, there was rapid conversion of hydroxyzine to cetirizine. The reduction of wheal formation appeared almost entirely due to cetirizine. Pharmacodynamic modelling predicted that maximal antihistamine effect would occur with twice daily oral administration of hydroxyzine at 2 mg kg(-1).

  4. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania parasites in apparently healthy dogs in the West Bank, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and cysteine protease (CPB) PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7%) were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5%) were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%), and 4 (1.5%) respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum. PMID:22937916

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered.

  6. Comparison of contrast media for visualization of the colon of healthy dogs during computed tomography and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Byunggyu; Moon, Sohyeon; Park, Seungjo; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Hong, Sunghwa; Cho, Hyun; Choi, Jihye

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate contrast agents for their ability to improve visualization of the colon wall and lumen during CT and ultrasonography. ANIMALS 10 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Food was withheld from dogs for 36 hours, after which dogs consumed 250 mL of polyethylene glycol solution. Dogs were then anesthetized, a contrast agent (tap water, diluted barium, or air; order randomly assigned) was administered rectally, iodine contrast medium (880 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT and ultrasonography of the colon were performed. After a 1-week washout period, this process was repeated with a different contrast agent until all agents had been evaluated. Two investigators reviewed the CT and ultrasonographic images for colon wall thickness, conspicuity, artifacts, wall layering, and degree of lumen dilation at 4 sites. RESULTS Thickness of the colon wall was greatest in CT and ultrasonographic images with water used as contrast agent, followed by barium and then air. The CT images obtained after water administration had a smooth appearance that outlined the colonic mucosa and had the highest score of the 3 contrast agents for wall conspicuity. Although no substantial artifacts related to any of the contrast agents were identified on CT images, barium- and gas-induced shadowing and reverberation artifacts hindered wall evaluation during ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the degree of conspicuity was highest with barium in the near-field wall and with water in the far-field wall. In contrast to CT, ultrasonography could be used to distinguish wall layering, and the mucosal and muscular layers were distinct with all contrast agents. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of water as a contrast agent for both CT and ultrasonography of the colon in dogs compensated for each imaging modality's disadvantages and could be beneficial in the diagnosis of colon disease.

  7. Fermentable dietary fiber increases GLP-1 secretion and improves glucose homeostasis despite increased intestinal glucose transport capacity in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Massimino, S P; McBurney, M I; Field, C J; Thomson, A B; Keelan, M; Hayek, M G; Sunvold, G D

    1998-10-01

    Ileal proglucagon gene expression and postprandial plasma concentrations of proglucagon-derived peptides are reported to change with the type and quantity of dietary fiber ingested by rats. Within the intestine, proglucagon encodes several proglucagon-derived peptides known to modulate intestinal absorption capacity and pancreatic insulin secretion. To determine whether the chronic ingestion of fermentable dietary fiber regulates the expression and synthesis of proglucagon-derived peptides in the distal intestine to modulate glucose homeostasis, the following study was conducted: 16 adult dogs (23 +/- 2 kg) were fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing a mixture of high fermentable dietary fibers (HFF) or low fermentable (LFF) wood cellulose for 14 d in a randomized cross-over design. Food was withheld for 16 h before an oral glucose tolerance test was conducted supplying 2 g of glucose/kg body wt, and peripheral blood was collected via a hind-leg catheter at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)NH2 (GLP-1) analyses. Intestinal samples were collected after the second dietary treatment. Ileal proglucagon mRNA, intestinal (GLP-1) concentrations and the integrated area under the curves (AUC) for plasma GLP-1 and insulin were greater and plasma glucose AUC was reduced when dogs were fed the HFF diet compared to the LFF diet (P < 0.05). Intestinal villi heights, brush border and basolateral glucose transporter protein abundance and jejunal transport capacities were significantly greater when dogs were fed the HFF diet than when fed the LFF diet. In conclusion, improvements in glucose homeostasis are observed in healthy dogs when they ingest fermentable fibers.

  8. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Itoh, Norihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (< 1 year old), adult (1 ˜ 5 years old), and senile animals (≥ 6 years old). Normal ERG ranges were obtained. Significant differences in b-wave amplitude along with b/a ratio of the combined rod-cone response were found between the young and adult animals as well as young and senile dogs. No significant differences were observed between the left and right eyes. ERG variables in beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing.

  9. Assessment of right ventricular function by feature-tracking echocardiography in conscious healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Chiara; Spalla, Ilaria; Zanaboni, Anna M; Brambilla, Paola G; Bussadori, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Advanced two-dimensional echocardiographic techniques allow strain (S) analysis of regional function and thus can provide information on regional myocardial deformation. Feature-tracking echocardiography (FTE) is based on a mono-dimensional technology and may offer more detailed information about septal deformation because it can analyse the activity of left- and right-sided septal fibres separately. The present study aimed to quantify global and regional (free wall and septal) right ventricular (RV) longitudinal S and strain rate (SR). We also investigated the relationships of S and SR with age, sex, weight, breed (sighthound breed vs other breeds), and heart rate. Cine loops were acquired from the left apical four-chamber view, optimized for the RV, in 60 dogs. The within-day and between-day intra-observer coefficient of variation for global RV S and SR in normal dogs using FTE was acceptable (<8.5%). Global longitudinal S (GLS) and SR showed a significant correlation with breed. GLS showed a significant weak positive correlation with weight. Global longitudinal SR showed a significant moderate negative correlation with heart rate. No correlation was found between GLS/SR and age. There was no significant difference between male and female dogs. This study shows, for the first time, that a novel FTE algorithm represents a promising and feasible non-invasive technique to assess RV myocardial function (free wall and septal deformation) in dogs. Based on our results, sighthound breeds appear to need specific reference values.

  10. Detection and characterization of Clostridium perfringens in the feces of healthy and diarrheic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Michael R.; Kruth, Stephen A.; Bersenas, Alexa M.E.; Holowaychuk, Marie K.; Weese, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been implicated as a cause of diarrhea in dogs. The objectives of this study were to compare 2 culture methods and to evaluate a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect C. perfringens toxin genes alpha (α), beta (β ), beta 2 (β2), epsilon (ɛ), iota (ι), and C. perfringens enterotoxin (cpe) from canine isolates. Fecal samples were collected from clinically normal non-diarrheic (ND) dogs, (n = 105) and diarrheic dogs (DD, n = 54). Clostridium perfringens was isolated by directly inoculating stool onto 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) and enrichment in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth, followed by inoculation onto SBA. Isolates were tested by multiplex PCR for the presence of α, β, β2, ɛ, ι, and cpe genes. C. perfringens was isolated from 84% of ND samples using direct culture and from 87.6% with enrichment (P = 0.79). In the DD group, corresponding isolation rates were 90.7% and 93.8% (P = 0.65). All isolates possessed the α toxin gene. Beta (β), β2, ɛ, ι, and cpe toxin genes were identified in 4.5%, 1.1%, 3.4%, 1.1%, and 14.8% of ND isolates, respectively. In the DD group, β and β2 were identified in 5%, ɛ and ι were not identified, and the cpe gene was identified in 16.9% of isolates. Enrichment with BHI broth did not significantly increase the yield of C. perfringens, but it did increase the time and cost of the procedure. C. perfringens toxin genes were present in equal proportions in both the ND and DD groups (P ≤ 0.15 to 0.6). Within the parameters of this study, culture of C. perfringens and PCR for toxin genes is of limited diagnostic usefulness due to its high prevalence in normal dogs and the lack of apparent difference in the distribution of toxin genes between normal and diarrheic dogs. PMID:23277693

  11. Effect of the duration of food withholding prior to anesthesia on gastroesophageal reflux and regurgitation in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Viskjer, Sivert; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and regurgitation associated with preanesthetic food withholding for periods of 18 hours (overnight) and 3 hours in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. ANIMALS 82 healthy (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I or II) client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Food was withheld for 18 hours (18-hour group [n = 41]) or each dog was allowed to consume half its daily ration of canned food approximately 3 hours (3-hour group [n = 41]) prior to induction of anesthesia. In each anesthetized dog, a pH catheter was introduced through the oropharynx into the distal portion of the esophagus; the pH was continuously recorded throughout the period of anesthesia. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as pH < 4.0. RESULTS Gastroesophageal reflux was significantly associated with age, dorsal recumbency, and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. Regurgitation was significantly associated with duration of GER and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. During anesthesia, 25 (61%) dogs in the 3-hour group had GER and 12 (48%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content; 18 (43.9%) dogs in the 18-hour group had GER and 2 (11.1%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content. The mean lowest pH measured in the refluxate in the 3-hour group (2.3) was significantly greater than that in the 18-hour group (1.3). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Among the study dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery, consumption of a light meal 3 hours prior to anesthesia was associated with significantly greater odds of reflux and regurgitation, compared with overnight food withholding.

  12. High-resolution manometric evaluation of the effects of cisapride on the esophagus during administration of solid and liquid boluses in awake healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Ullal, Tarini V; Kass, Philip H; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Belafsky, Peter C; Marks, Stanley L

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate the use of high-resolution manometry (HRM) in awake, healthy dogs and compare the effects of bolus type (liquid vs solid) and drug treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [SS] vs cisapride) on esophageal pressure profiles. ANIMALS 8 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, each dog received SS (10 mL) IV, and HRM was performed during oral administration of 10 boluses (5 mL each) of water or 10 boluses (5 g each) of canned food. Cisapride (1 mg/kg in 60 mL of SS) was subsequently administered IV to 7 dogs; HRM and bolus administration procedures were repeated. Two to 4 weeks later, HRM was repeated following administration of SS and water and food boluses in 4 dogs. Pressure profile data were obtained for all swallows, and 11 outcome variables were statistically analyzed. RESULTS After SS administration, predicted means for the esophageal contractile integral were 850.4 cm/mm Hg/s for food boluses and 660.3 cm/mm Hg/s for water boluses. Predicted means for esophageal contraction front velocity were 6.2 cm/s for water boluses and 5.6 cm/s for food boluses after SS administration. Predicted means for residual LES pressure were significantly higher following cisapride administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM was feasible and repeatable in awake healthy dogs of various breeds and sizes. Stronger esophageal contractions and faster esophageal contraction velocity occurred during solid bolus and liquid bolus swallows, respectively. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure increased significantly following cisapride administration. Esophageal contractions and bolus transit latency should be further evaluated by HRM in clinically dysphagic dogs.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of healthy dogs after enrofloxacin or amoxicillin administration.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sherine A; Debavalya, Nipattra; Suh, Sang-Jin; Oryazabal, Omar A; Boothe, Dawn M

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli respond to selective pressure of antimicrobial therapy by developing resistance through a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli after the routine use of 2 popular antimicrobials. Fourteen resistant E. coli isolates, representing predominant clones that emerged in healthy dogs' feces after treatment with either amoxicillin (11 E. coli isolates) or enrofloxacin (3 E. coli isolates), were tested for mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and in topoisomerase IV (parC) and for the presence of β-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(PSE-1) and bla(CTX-M)) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib, and qepA), by polymerase chain reaction. Escherichia coli isolates cultured following amoxicillin therapy only expressed single-drug resistance to β-lactams, while the isolates cultured from dogs receiving enrofloxacin therapy expressed multidrug resistance (MDR). The use of RND efflux pump inhibitors increased the susceptibility of the 3 MDR E. coli isolates to doxycycline, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, which indicates a role of the efflux pump in the acquisition of the MDR phenotype. Amplification and sequencing of AcrAB efflux pump regulators (soxR, soxS, marR, and acrR) revealed only the presence of a single mutation in soxS in the 3 MDR isolates.

  14. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy dogs harbour CTX-M-15 and CMY-2 β-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Gracia, R C; Cortés-Cortés, G; Lozano-Zarain, P; Bello, F; Martínez-Laguna, Y; Torres, C

    2015-03-01

    The presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and the molecular types of isolates, was investigated in faecal samples from 53 healthy dogs in Mexico. Samples were inoculated on Levine agar plates with 2 µg/mL cefotaxime for recovery of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli. CTX(R)E. coli isolates were recovered from 9/53 (17%) samples; one isolate was characterised from each positive sample. ESBL producing E. coli isolates were detected in 3/53 (6%) samples; these isolates carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene and one isolate also carried blaSHV-2. These three ESBL-positive E. coli isolates belonged to phylogroup A and sequence types ST617, ST410 or ST3944. The remaining 6/53 (11%) samples contained pAmpC positive isolates; these isolates carried the blaCMY-2 gene, which encodes CMY-2 β-lactamase. These six isolates belonged to phylogroups A (n = 2), B1 (n = 1) and D (n = 3), and sequences types ST1431, ST57, ST93 and ST4565. One CMY-2 β-lactamase positive E. coli isolate of lineage ST93 had the -32 mutation in the chromosomal ampC promoter/attenuator region. Five ESBL/pAmpC positive E. coli isolates carried class 1 integrons (dfrA17-aadA5, aadA and aadA/aadB arrays were detected in three isolates) and one isolate carried a class 2 integron (dfrA12-sat2-aadA1). The aac(6')Ib-cr, aac(3)-II, qnrB19, tet(A), tet(B), cmlA, and sul3 genes were also detected. All studied isolates showed unrelated PFGE-patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ESBL-producing E. coli and the second of pAmpC-producing E. coli from healthy dogs in America. Our results suggest the potential zoonotic role of dogs in the transmission to humans of ESBL and pAmpC E. coli in the household environment.

  15. Occurrence and species level diagnostics of Campylobacter spp., enteric Helicobacter spp. and Anaerobiospirillum spp. in healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Hänninen, M L; Revez, J; Hannula, M; Zanoni, R G

    2008-06-22

    In order to study the occurrence and co-infection of different species of Campylobacter, enteric Helicobacter and Anaerobiospirillum in dogs and cats and define a possible association between these microrganisms and gastrointestinal disorders, 190 dogs and 84 cats, either healthy or with diarrhea, were sampled between 2002 and 2003. Thirty-three C. upsaliensis, 17 C. jejuni, 2 C. helveticus, 1 C. lari isolates from dogs and 14 C. helveticus, 7 C. jejuni, 6 C. upsaliensis isolates from cats were identified using species-specific PCR and phenotypic tests. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests, PCR-RFLP of gyrB and a phylogenetic study of partial groEL and 16S rRNA sequences were used to identify 37 H. bilis, 22 H. canis and 14 H. cinaedi in dogs and 12 H. canis, 5 H. bilis and 2 H. cinaedi in cats. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR of 16S rRNA were used to identify 14 A. succiniciproducens, 12 A. thomasii isolates and one unidentified Anaerobiospirillum sp. isolate in dogs and 3 A. thomasii isolates in cats. Fifty-two animals (19%) were positive for the isolation of more than one genus. No significant statistical correlation was found between any isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter or Anaerobiospirillum spp. or the various co-infection rates, and the presence of diarrhea in either dogs or cats. Campylobacter isolates were also tested for antibiotic resistance using the agar dilution method.

  16. Modulation of the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs by inclusion of potato fibre in the diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Kerr, Katherine R; Dilger, Ryan N; Fahey, George C; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lynch, Gary L; Wils, Daniel; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steer, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-14

    Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (SEM 0·17) years; 22·0 (SEM 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6% as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4-V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and derivation of an anticancer dosing regimen for PAC-1, a preferential small molecule activator of procaspase-3, in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Pamela W; Schmit, Joanna M; Peterson, Quinn P; West, Diana C; Hsu, Danny C; Novotny, Chris J; Dirikolu, Levent; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R; Garrett, Laura D; Hergenrother, Paul J; Fan, Timothy M

    2011-10-01

    PAC-1 is a preferential small molecule activator of procaspase-3 and has potential to become a novel and effective anticancer agent. The rational development of PAC-1 for translational oncologic applications would be advanced by coupling relevant in vitro cytotoxicity studies with pharmacokinetic investigations conducted in large mammalian models possessing similar metabolism and physiology as people. In the present study, we investigated whether concentrations and exposure durations of PAC-1 that induce cytotoxicity in lymphoma cell lines in vitro can be achievable in healthy dogs through a constant rate infusion (CRI) intravenous delivery strategy. Time- and dose-dependent procaspase-3 activation by PAC-1 with subsequent cytotoxicity was determined in a panel of B-cell lymphoma cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics of PAC-1 administered orally or intravenously was studied in 6 healthy dogs using a crossover design. The feasibility of maintaining steady state plasma concentration of PAC-1 for 24 or 48 h that paralleled in vitro cytotoxic concentrations was investigated in 4 healthy dogs. In vitro, PAC-1 induced apoptosis in lymphoma cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The oral bioavailability of PAC-1 was relatively low and highly variable (17.8 ± 9.5%). The achievement and maintenance of predicted PAC-1 cytotoxic concentrations in normal dogs was safely attained via intravenous CRI lasting for 24 or 48 h in duration. Using the dog as a large mammalian model, PAC-1 can be safely administered as an intravenous CRI while achieving predicted in vitro cytotoxic concentrations.

  18. Changes in cardiovascular performance, biochemistry, gastric motility and muscle temperature induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, R W; Silva, V L; Rocha, D R; Costa, D S; Turco, S H N; Silva, M T B; Santos, A A; Oliveira, M B L; Pereira, A S R; Palheta-Junior, R C

    2016-12-29

    Changes in physiological parameters that are induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs have not been thoroughly investigated, especially with regard to age. This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on a treadmill on cardiovascular function, biochemical parameters and gastric antral motility in military dogs. Thermography was used to assess variations in superficial hindlimb muscle temperature. Nine healthy dogs were distributed into three groups according to their age (Group I: 25 ± 7 months; Group II: 51 ± 12 months; Group III: 95 ± 10 months) and sequentially subjected to running exercise on a treadmill for 12 min (3.2 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min, 6.4 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min and 6.4 km/h at 10° incline for 4 min). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), gastric motility, haematocrit and biochemical analyses were performed at rest and after each session of treadmill exercise. Infrared thermographic images of muscles in the pelvic member were taken. Exercise decreased DAP in Group I, increased systolic arterial pressure in Groups II and III and increased mean arterial pressure in Group III (all p < 0.05). After the exercise protocol, plasma creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased only in Group I (p < 0.05). Exercise increased heart rate and decreased the gastric motility of a solid meal at 180 min in all groups (all p < 0.05). Exercise also elevated temperature in the femoral biceps muscles in Group I compared with the older dogs. The results indicate that acute exercise decreased gastric motility in dogs, regardless of age, and caused more pronounced cardiovascular changes in older dogs than in younger dogs. Acute exercise also altered biochemical parameters and superficial hindlimb muscle temperature in younger military dogs.

  19. Determination of irritant threshold concentrations to weeds, trees and grasses through serial dilutions in intradermal testing on healthy clinically nonallergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cynthia L; Hensel, Patrick; Austel, Michaela; Keys, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    Irritant threshold concentration (ITC) for intradermal testing (IDT) was determined in 31 healthy, clinically nonallergic dogs. Twenty-three allergens were tested at five variable concentrations ranging from 1000 to 8000 PNU/mL. To distinguish irritant reactions from subclinical IgE-mediated hypersensitivities, serum allergy testing was performed. ITCs were determined by evaluating the lowest concentration to which no dogs (0% cut-off) and to which at least 10% of dogs (> or = 10% cut-off) reacted. ITCs at the 0% cut-off were: 1000 PNU/mL (Johnson grass), 2000 PNU/mL (Ash, Lamb's Quarter and Bermuda), 3000 PNU/mL (Bahia, Rye, Pig Weed and Virginia Oak), 4000 PNU/mL (Marsh Elder and Maple), 5000 PNU/mL (Sorrel sheep) and 7000 PNU/mL (Cocklebur and Black Willow). ITC for Dog Fennel, Box Elder and Red Cedar was <1000 PNU/mL. ITCs at the > or = 10% cut-off were: 2500 PNU/mL (Johnson), 3000 PNU/mL (Box Elder), 5000 PNU/mL (Bahia), 6000 PNU/mL (Pigweed and Marsh Elder) and 8000 PNU/mL (Virginia Oak and Black Willow). For all other allergens, the ITC was >8000 PNU/mL and could not be determined. No significant agreement between positive values was found for the same allergen on IDT and serum allergy testing for each dog suggesting reactions caused by the determined ITCs are less likely subclinical IgE-mediated reactions. These results suggest that ITCs may vary, also they may be very high for the allergens tested and that higher test concentrations may be used for IDT for the tested allergens without inducing an irritant reaction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of higher IDT concentrations in atopic dogs.

  20. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

  1. Asymptomatic heart valve dysfunction in healthy middle-aged companion dogs and its implications for cardiac aging.

    PubMed

    Urfer, Silvan R; Kaeberlein, Tammi L; Mailheau, Susan; Bergman, Philip J; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA, accounting for about one in every four deaths. Age is the greatest risk factor for heart disease in both people and dogs; however, heart disease is generally not considered as a major cause of morbidity or mortality in dogs. As part of the preliminary selection process for a veterinary clinical trial, 40 companion dogs with no history of cardiac pathology that were at least 6 years old and weighed at least 18 kg underwent a cardiac screening using Doppler echocardiography. Eleven dogs from this cohort were diagnosed with valvular regurgitation by echocardiography, and seven of these cases were of sufficient severity to warrant exclusion from the clinical trial. In only one case was a heart murmur detected by auscultation. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the dogs with moderate to severe valvular regurgitation compared to the rest of the cohort. These observations suggest that asymptomatic degenerative valvular disease detectable by echocardiography, but not by a standard veterinary exam including auscultation, may be present in a significant fraction of middle-aged companion dogs, indicating a previously underappreciated similarity between human and canine aging. Further, these data suggest that companion dogs may be a particularly useful animal model for understanding mechanisms of age-related degenerative valve disease and for developing and testing interventions to ameliorate cardiac disease. Future studies should address whether dogs with asymptomatic valve disease are at higher risk for subsequent morbidity or early death.

  2. Development of a plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) assay and comparison of plasma PAI-1 activity in hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic dogs with either hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus, and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheryl J; Koch, Michael; Behling-Kelly, Erica L

    2017-04-01

    Thrombosis is a serious complication of many canine diseases and may be related to decreased fibrinolytic potential. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the key regulator of fibrinolysis with increased levels demonstrated in states of pro-thrombosis and abnormal lipid metabolism. Our objective was to develop and validate a canine PAI-1 activity assay and test whether dogs with hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus that are hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic have increased plasma PAI-1 activity. Functionally active PAI-1 in the plasma sample was incubated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), allowing the formation of a 1:1 stoichiometric inactive complex. Residual unbound tPA was then reacted with excess plasminogen in the presence of a colorimetric plasmin substrate. Plasmin production is quantified by computing the area under the curve of time (x) vs optical density (y) plot and converted to tPA IU/mL by comparison to a calibration curve of tPA standards. PAI-1 activity was determined by calculating the proportion of exogeneous tPA suppressed by PAI-1 in plasma. Assay verification included assessment of linearity, specificity, precision, sensitivity, and stability. PAI-1 activity was increased in hyperlipidemic compared to healthy dogs, but there was no significant difference between dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus. A near significant decrease in activity was detected in thawed plasma stored for 20h at 4°C. Our successfully validated assay offers a new tool for investigating fibrinolysis in dogs. Investigation of PAI-1 activity in dogs with other diseases associated with an increased risk of thrombosis would be valuable. Future studies of PAI-1 activity should consider its lability.

  3. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands in healthy dogs: repeatability, reproducibility, observer-dependent variability, and the effect of bodyweight, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Layssol-Lamour, C; Conchou, F; Diquelou, A; Raharison, F; Sautet, J; Concordet, D

    2011-02-05

    Adrenal length and width were determined from two-dimensional ultrasound longitudinal images. In study 1, 540 measurements of adrenal glands were attempted from five healthy beagle dogs by three different observers with different levels of expertise in ultrasonography, to determine the variability of adrenal gland measurements. Of these, 484 measurements were included in the statistical analysis, since 16 measurements of the left adrenal gland and 40 for the right could not be visualised by the observer. In study 2, a single measurement of both adrenal glands was taken from each of 146 dogs by the most trained observer from study 1, and the effects of different health status (healthy dogs v dogs with non-adrenal diseases), bodyweight, age and sex were assessed. A total of 267 measurements were included in the statistical analysis. The lowest intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation values were observed for the left adrenal gland and by the most trained observer. The health status had no statistically significant effect on adrenal gland length or width, whereas age had a significant effect only for the left adrenal gland (the greater the age, the greater the width or length) and sex had a significant effect only for the right adrenal gland (the width was larger in males and the length larger in females). The bodyweight had a significant effect for the length of both adrenal glands (the greater the bodyweight, the greater the length), but not the width. The differences between sd and coefficient of variation values for the width of the left adrenal gland were not statistically significant between the three observers, whereas they were statistically significant for the right adrenal gland.

  4. Selection of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in the feces of healthy dogs after administration of first-generation cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ayako; Yossapol, Montira; Shibata, Sanae; Asai, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Although antimicrobial products are essential for treating diseases caused by bacteria, antimicrobial treatment selects for antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of administration of first-generation cephalosporins on development of resistant Escherichia coli in dog feces. The proportions of cephalexin (LEX)-resistant E. coli in fecal samples of three healthy dogs treated i.v. with cefazolin before castration and then orally with LEX for 3 days post-operation (PO) were examined using DHL agar with or without LEX (50 µg/mL). LEX-resistant E. coli were found within 3 days PO, accounted for 100% of all identified E. coli 3-5 days PO in all dogs, and were predominantly found until 12 days PO. LEX-resistant E. coli isolates on DHL agar containing LEX were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping, β-lactamase typing and plasmid profiling. All isolates tested exhibited cefotaxime (CTX) resistance (CTX minimal inhibitory concentration ≥4 µg/mL). Seven PFGE profiles were classified into five groups and three β-lactamase combinations (blaCMY-4 -blaTEM-1 , blaTEM-1 -blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 -blaCTX-M-15 -blaCMY-4 ). All isolates exhibited identical PFGE profiles in all dogs on four days PO and subsequently showed divergent PFGE profiles. Our results indicate there are two selection periods for AMR bacteria resulting from the use of antimicrobials. Thus, continuing hygiene practices are necessary to prevent AMR bacteria transfer via dog feces after antimicrobial administration.

  5. Evaluation of a transcutaneous method to assess canine liver function by indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate in healthy adult Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Grobelna, A P; Honkavaara, J; Restitutti, F; Huuskonen, V; Sakka, S G; Spillmann, T

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, transcutaneous method using near infrared spectroscopy to assess indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) in healthy dogs subjected to different conditions was evaluated in eight healthy purpose-bred Beagles under isoflurane-anaesthesia (Trial 1) and when they had initially recovered from anaesthesia (Trial 2). Plasma ICG concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 30 min after rapid ICG injection (0.5 mg/kg) into a peripheral vein were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in parallel with transcutaneous measurements. ICG clearance (mL/min/kg) and retention rate after 15 min (R15, %) were calculated from plasma concentrations to be 3.09 ± 0.83 (mean ± SD) and 30.6 ± 8.3 in anaesthetised dogs and 3.63 ± 0.88 and 28.1 ± 7.3 in recovering dogs, respectively. ICG-PDR (%/min) and R15 (%) obtained using the transcutaneous method were 7.11 ± 3.18 and 34.6 ± 12.4 (Trial 1) and 7.79 ± 3.33 and 32.3 ± 9.2 (Trial 2). The coefficients of determination (r(2)) for ICG clearance and ICG-PDR were 0.14 (Trial 1) and 0.81 (Trial 2) and 0.47 (Trial 1) and 0.29 (Trial 2) for R15, respectively. The mean bias (lower, upper limit of agreement) for R15 were 5.6 (-12.3, 23.5) (Trial 1) and 3.9 (-12.4, 20.1) (Trial 2). The results suggest good agreement between the two methods in dogs recovering from isoflurane-anaesthesia and the transcutaneous method might be useful in real-time assessment of liver function in conscious dogs.

  6. A comparison of the effects of hydromorphone HCl and a novel extended release hydromorphone on arterial blood gas values in conscious healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, L.A.; Schmidt, B.K.; Krugner-Higby, L.A.; Smith, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate arterial blood gases in dogs that were given hydromorphone or extended release liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone (LEH). Dogs were randomly administered LEH, n = 6, (2.0 mg kg−1), hydromorphone, n = 6, (0.2 mg kg−1) or a placebo of blank liposomes, n = 3, subcutaneously on separate occasions. Arterial blood samples were drawn at serial time points over a 6-h time period for blood gas analysis. There was no change from baseline values in PaCO2, PaO2, (HCO3−), pH, and SBEc in the dogs that received the placebo. Administration of hydromorphone resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD] 44.4 + 1.1 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaCO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 82.4 + 4.7 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.31 + 0.01) compared with baseline. Administration of LEH resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD) 44.6 + 0.9 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 84.8 + 2.6 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.34 + 0.02) compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between these two groups at any time point. The changes observed in PaCO2, PaO2, and pH, however, were within clinically acceptable limits for healthy dogs. LEH was determined to cause moderate changes in arterial blood gas values similar to those caused by hydromorphone. PMID:19692102

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor expression in the pituitary gland of adult dogs in healthy condition and with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Ochi, H; Harada, Y; Yogo, T; Kanno, N; Hara, Y

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor I (BMPRI) and BMPRII, in the pituitary gland of healthy adult dogs and in those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the BMP4 messenger RNA expression level in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma samples was significantly lower than that in the normal pituitary gland samples (P = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant differences between samples with respect to the messenger RNA expression levels of the receptors BMPRIA, BMPRIB, and BMPRII. Double-immunofluorescence analysis of the normal canine pituitary showed that BMP4 was localized in the thyrotroph (51.3 ± 7.3%) and not the corticotroph cells. By contrast, BMPRII was widely expressed in the thyrotroph (19.9 ± 5.2%) and somatotroph cells (94.7 ± 3.6%) but not in the corticotroph cells (P < 0.001, thyrotroph cells vs somatotroph cells). Similarly, in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, BMP4 and BMPRII were not expressed in the corticotroph cells. Moreover, the percentage of BMP4-positive cells was also significantly reduced in the thyrotroph cells of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue obtained from the resected ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (8.3 ± 7.9%) compared with that in normal canine pituitary (P < 0.001). BMP4 has been reported to be expressed in corticotroph cells in the human pituitary gland. Therefore, the results of this study reveal a difference in the cellular pattern of BMP4-positive staining in the pituitary gland between humans and dogs and further revealed the pattern of BMPRII-positive staining in the dog pituitary gland. These species-specific differences regarding BMP4 should be considered when using dogs as an animal model for Cushing's disease.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  9. Identification of a novel Staphylococcus pseudintermedius exfoliative toxin gene and its prevalence in isolates from canines with pyoderma and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Iyori, Keita; Hisatsune, Junzo; Kawakami, Tetsuji; Shibata, Sanae; Murayama, Nobuo; Ide, Kaori; Nagata, Masahiko; Fukata, Tsuneo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sugai, Motoyuki; Nishifuji, Koji

    2010-11-01

    Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins are involved in some cutaneous infections in mammals by targeting desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), a desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecule. Recently, an exfoliative toxin gene (exi) was identified in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from canine pyoderma. The aim of this study was to identify novel exfoliative toxin genes in S. pseudintermedius. Here, we describe a novel orf in the genome of S. pseudintermedius isolated from canine impetigo, whose deduced amino acid sequence was homologous to that of the SHETB exfoliative toxin from Staphylococcus hyicus (70.4%). The ORF recombinant protein caused skin exfoliation and abolished cell surface staining of Dsg1 in canine skin. Moreover, the ORF protein degraded the recombinant extracellular domains of canine Dsg1, but not Dsg3, in vitro. PCR analysis revealed that the orf was present in 23.2% (23/99) of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with superficial pyoderma exhibiting various clinical phenotypes, while the occurrence in S. pseudintermedius isolates from healthy dogs was 6.1% (3/49). In summary, this newly found orf in S. pseudintermedius encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, which targets a cell-cell adhesion molecule in canine epidermis and might be involved in a broad spectrum of canine pyoderma.

  10. High prevalence of blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmids in healthy urban dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Métayer, Véronique; Médaille, Christine; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-01

    In the community, close contacts between humans and dogs may promote the transfer of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase/plasmidic AmpC cephalosporinase (ESBL/pAmpC) genes. Large-scale prevalence studies on ESBL/pAmpC carriage in dogs are rare, and data on ESBL/pAmpC plasmids are even more limited. Here, a considerable rate of 18.5% ESBL/pAmpC carriers was found among 368 unrelated healthy dogs in Paris, France. This prevalence is much higher than the one found in healthy humans in the same city (6%) but close to that recently reported in dogs in China (24.5%). All isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, except one Salmonella enterica and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. The sequence type 131 (ST131) clone was rare (2/73 isolates). Interestingly, two plasmids (blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2) were unexpectedly highly predominant, raising the question of their successful spread. Considering that CTX-M-1 was recently found to be equally as abundant as CTX-M-15 in healthy Parisian subjects, the question of dogs being a CTX-M-1 reservoir for humans is open. Such a high prevalence of the blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmid may result from the use of cephalexin in veterinary medicine, as previously demonstrated experimentally. In all, our study points out healthy urban dogs as a potential source of ESBL/pAmpC genes that can further disseminate to the human community.

  11. High Prevalence of blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 Plasmids in Healthy Urban Dogs in France

    PubMed Central

    Saras, Estelle; Métayer, Véronique; Médaille, Christine; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    In the community, close contacts between humans and dogs may promote the transfer of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase/plasmidic AmpC cephalosporinase (ESBL/pAmpC) genes. Large-scale prevalence studies on ESBL/pAmpC carriage in dogs are rare, and data on ESBL/pAmpC plasmids are even more limited. Here, a considerable rate of 18.5% ESBL/pAmpC carriers was found among 368 unrelated healthy dogs in Paris, France. This prevalence is much higher than the one found in healthy humans in the same city (6%) but close to that recently reported in dogs in China (24.5%). All isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, except one Salmonella enterica and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. The sequence type 131 (ST131) clone was rare (2/73 isolates). Interestingly, two plasmids (blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2) were unexpectedly highly predominant, raising the question of their successful spread. Considering that CTX-M-1 was recently found to be equally as abundant as CTX-M-15 in healthy Parisian subjects, the question of dogs being a CTX-M-1 reservoir for humans is open. Such a high prevalence of the blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmid may result from the use of cephalexin in veterinary medicine, as previously demonstrated experimentally. In all, our study points out healthy urban dogs as a potential source of ESBL/pAmpC genes that can further disseminate to the human community. PMID:24982072

  12. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Bacterial Species in Plaque from Client Owned Dogs with Healthy Gingiva, Gingivitis or Mild Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian J.; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease. PMID:24349448

  13. Histopathologic findings in uterus and ovaries collected from clinically healthy dogs at elective ovariohysterectomy: a cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Maya-Pulgarin, Daniel; Gonzalez-Dominguez, María S; Aranzazu-Taborda, Diego; Mendoza, Natalia; Maldonado-Estrada, Juan G

    2016-08-10

    Ovariohysterectomy (OHE) of bitches is a matter of conflict depending on the region and country in the world. In a descriptive, prospective cross-sectional study uterine tracts and ovaries exhibiting gross pathologic findings (n = 76) were collected post-surgery from a reference population of 3600 bitches (2,11% incidence) undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy during the warm-humid season (September-to-November 2013, average 26ºC) and were evaluated by histopathology examination. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and Chi-Squared test. Bitches were of crossbred background, averaged 5 years (Range 0.6 to 8.0 years), and most were nulliparous (67.9%) with no anamnesis of reproductive diseases (85%). Frequency of proestrus, estrus, and diestrus was 59, 25.5, and 9.0%, respectively. It was found 5.26% of mammary gland masses significantly correlated with age and ovarian histopathologic findings (P<0.05). Predominant histopathology of uterus included cystic endometrial hyperplasia, periglandular fibrosis, lymphoplasmocytary endometritis and adenomyosis (19.74, 14.47, 4 and 2.63%, respectively). In ovaries they were hyperplasia of rete ovarii, follicular cysts, oophoritis, adenoma of the rete ovarii, cysts of superficial structures and granulose-cell tumor (10.5, 6.58, 6.58 3.95, 2.6, and 2.63%, respectively). These results evidenced the incidence of subclinical pathologies in healthy bitches suggesting that OHE at early age is beneficial for its prevention.

  14. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    PubMed

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (P<0.05, AnoSim) difference between the Giardia-positive and -negative groups when evaluating bacterial genera. No such difference was demonstrated between Ancylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans.

  15. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  16. Fecal microbial communities of healthy adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extracts as assessed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Duclos, Laura; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on fecal microbial communities of dogs using 454 pyrosequencing. Six healthy female adult beagles (5.5 ± 0.5 years; 8.5 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to six test diets using a Latin square design: (1) beef control; (2) beef + 1.4% inulin; (3) beef + 1.4% YCW; (4) chicken control; (5) chicken + 1.4% inulin; and (6) chicken + 1.4% YCW. Following 14 days of adaptation, fresh fecal samples were collected on day 15 or day 16 of each period. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and used to create 16S rRNA gene amplicons, which were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR. Predominant fecal bacterial phyla included Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Beef-based diets increased (P < 0.05) Escherichia, but decreased (P < 0.05) Anaerobiospirillum vs. chicken-based diets. Inulin decreased (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae. Inulin increased (P < 0.05) Megamonas vs. control. Inulin also decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia vs. YCW. qPCR data showed that YCW increased (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium vs. inulin and control and inulin increased (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus vs. YCW. Although a few changes in fecal microbiota were observed with inulin or YCW consumption, a strong prebiotic effect was not observed.

  17. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... undercooked meat and fish processed meats, such as hot dogs and deli meats soft, unpasteurized cheeses, such ...

  18. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, S; Tadelle, H; Bsrat, A; Abebe, N; Haileselassie, M; Schallig, H D F H

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L. donovani antibodies. Performance of the DAT and KDRT was assessed in 162 matching samples of blood collected on filter paper and serum, respectively. Using DAT and KDRT testing in parallel, the overall seroprevalence of L. donovani infection was 27.7% and 14.8%, respectively. The degree of agreement was found to be fair (68.8%, k = 0.234). Univariable logistic regression analysis of some risk factors for L. donovani infection in dogs using DAT indicates that place of residence, sex, age, dog keeping purpose and dog housing condition were not significantly associated with seropositivity. The high proportion of positive dogs suggests the exposure of these animals to L. donovani infection and needs further investigation. Isolation and typing of the parasite aiming at confirming the role of these animals in maintenance and transmission of kala-azar is advocated.

  19. A study on the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 and detection of canine Babesia by polymerase chain reaction from apparently healthy dogs in a selected rural community in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Dhliwayo, Solomon; Makonese, Tariro A; Whittall, Belinda; Chikerema, Silvester M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Tivapasi, Musavenga T

    2016-10-26

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti-DEA 1.1 antibodies (Alvedia® LAB DEA 1.1 test kits). Polymerase chain reaction for detecting Babesia spp. antigen was carried out on 58 of the samples. Of the 100 dogs, 78% were DEA 1.1 positive and 22% were DEA 1.1 negative. A significantly (p = 0.02) higher proportion of females (90.5%) were DEA 1.1 positive than males (69.0%). The probability of sensitisation of recipient dogs following first-time transfusion of untyped or unmatched blood was 17.2%, and an approximately 3% (2.95%) probability of an acute haemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion was found. Babesia spp. antigen was found in 6.9% of the samples. No significant relationship (χ2 = 0.56, p = 0.45) was found between DEA 1.1 positivity and Babesia spp. antigen presence. Despite a low probability of haemolysis after a second incompatibility transfusion, the risk remains present and should not be ignored. Hence, where possible, blood typing for DEA 1.1 is recommended. A survey of DEA 3, 4, 5 and 7 in various breeds is also recommended.

  20. Development of a duplex rapid assay for immunoglobulins M and G to evaluate the parvoviral immune status of clinically healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marco; de la Roja, Nuria; Montón, Mercedes; Sastre, Patricia; Ramírez, Susana; Barreiro, Belén; Venteo, Angel; Rueda, Paloma

    2016-05-01

    A duplex rapid assay for detection of serum antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) was developed. Canine immunoglobulin (Ig)M or IgG were captured in immunotubes with anti-canine IgM or IgG and detected with parvovirus VP2 recombinant protein followed by an anti-VP2 monoclonal antibody. The assay was tested using a collection of sera from dogs that were vaccinated against CPV on arrival at an animal shelter in Madrid, Spain. Results were compared with those of 2 commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) considered as reference techniques. A high correlation was found between the duplex rapid assay and the ELISAs, presenting an accuracy of 98% and 100% for IgG and IgM, respectively. According to the IgG and IgM levels at days 0-3 postvaccination, the samples were divided into 2 groups. One group of dogs showed high IgG and low IgM values at the first sampling post-vaccination and during the following 14 days, indicating that they had previously been in contact with the virus, either by vaccination or infection before arrival at the animal shelter. A second group of dogs appeared to be unvaccinated or uninfected before arrival at the animal shelter because they had negative IgM and IgG values soon after vaccination. These animals responded to vaccination, as demonstrated by seroconversion of both isotypes of immunoglobulins. The developed assay appears to be useful in determining the unknown immune status of dogs to CPV, especially in kennels and shelters where the rate of infection by CPV is relatively high.

  1. Capromorelin increases food consumption, body weight, growth hormone, and sustained insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations when administered to healthy adult Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zollers, B; Rhodes, L; Smith, R G

    2017-04-01

    This study's objective was to determine the effects in dogs of oral capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist, at different doses for 7 days on food consumption, body weight and serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cortisol. Adult Beagles (n = 6) were dosed with placebo BID, capromorelin at 3.0 mg/kg SID, 4.5 mg/kg SID, or 3.0 mg/kg BID. Food consumption, body weight, serum capromorelin, GH, IGF-1, and cortisol were measured at intervals on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Capromorelin increased food consumption and body weight compared to placebo and caused increased serum GH, which returned to the baseline by 8 h postdose. The magnitude of the GH increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. IGF-1 concentrations increased on Day 1 in capromorelin-treated dogs and this increase was sustained through Day 7. Serum cortisol increased postdosing and returned to the baseline concentrations by 8 h. The magnitude of the increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. A dose of 3 mg/kg was chosen for further study in dogs based on this dose causing increased food consumption and sustained IGF-1 serum concentrations that may increase lean muscle mass when administered over extended periods.

  2. Volumetric assessment of cerebral asymmetries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Franchini, Delia; Pepe, Anna M; Sasso, Raffaella; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Quaranta, Angelo

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we quantified volumetric brain asymmetries from computed tomography (CT) scans in 12 healthy dogs, using a semi-automated technique for assessing in vivo structure asymmetry. Volumetric assessment of asymmetrical cerebral lateral ventricle (ALV) was also investigated. Our results showed that seven dogs exhibited a right hemisphere significantly greater than the left, two dogs had a left-greater-than-right hemisphere asymmetry, and finally two dogs displayed no significant brain volumetric asymmetry. This right-biased hemispheric asymmetry supports data reported previously using post-mortem morphological studies in both dogs and other mammalian species.

  3. Comparison of cytokine responses between dogs with sepsis and dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Valerie; Burgess, Brandy; Morley, Paul; Bragg, Ryan; Avery, Anne; Dow, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Cytokine abnormalities have been described previously in dogs with varied immune mediated and inflammatory conditions such as IMHA and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to establish references ranges for cytokine levels in dogs and to compare cytokine levels in normal dogs and dogs with two common inflammatory diseases (sepsis and IMHA). We hypothesized that cytokine response profiles in dogs with sepsis would be significantly different from those in dogs with IMHA due to the very different etiologies of the two diseases. Concentrations of 14 different cytokines in serum were measured and values grouped according to cytokine function. Serum from clinically normal dogs was used to establish cytokine concentration reference ranges. Rank values for each of the 4 cytokine groups were then compared statistically between healthy control, septic and IMHA dogs. This analysis revealed differences in cytokine groups between dogs with sepsis and IMHA when compared to healthy control dogs but no difference between dogs with either of these conditions. In conclustion, dogs in the early stage of sepsis and IMHA have similar circulating cytokines despite different etiologies suggesting activation of common immunologic pathways. This may have implications for immunotherapy of immune mediated diseases in dogs of varying etiology.

  4. An investigation on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in Swedish dogs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae cause a broad spectrum of diseases in a wide range of hosts, including man, other mammals, and birds. Upper respiratory and genital diseases are common clinical problems caused by Chlamydiaceae. Very little is known about chlamydial infections in dogs. Few clinical reports on natural disease in dogs describe mainly conjunctival and upper respiratory signs, and the role of Chlamydiaceae in genital disease is unclear. The present study aimed at studying the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in healthy dogs and in dogs with genital or upper respiratory disease, including conjunctivitis. Methods A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydiaceae was used to detect any chlamydial species within this family. Swab samples from the conjunctiva and the mucosal membranes of the oropharynx, rectum and genital tract were taken from 79 dogs: 27 clinically healthy dogs, 25 dogs with clinical signs from the genital tract and 28 dogs with conjunctivitis. There were 52 female and 27 male dogs. From 7 of the male dogs, additional semen samples were analysed. Results No Chlamydiaceae were detected from any dog. Conclusions Although the number of dogs that was included is limited, the results suggest that cases of Chlamydiaceae in dogs probably are related to infection from other species, and that dogs in general do not harbour Chlamydiaceae. Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae do not seem to be of major importance for genital or ocular disease in Swedish dogs. PMID:21078208

  5. The fecal microbiome of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Anitha; Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Steiner, Jörg M; Lidbury, Jonathan A; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-02-20

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs is a syndrome of inadequate synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Small intestinal bacterial dysbiosis occurs in dogs with EPI, and is reversed with pancreatic enzyme therapy. However, there are no studies evaluating the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. Three day pooled fecal samples were collected from healthy dogs (n = 18), untreated (n = 7) dogs with EPI, and dogs with EPI treated with enzyme replacement therapy (n = 19). Extracted DNA from fecal samples was used for Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups and functional genes between the healthy dogs and dogs with EPI. There was a significant difference in fecal microbial communities when healthy dogs were compared to treated and untreated dogs with EPI (unweighted UniFrac distance, ANOSIM P = 0.001, and 0.001 respectively). Alpha diversity was significantly decreased in untreated and treated EPI dogs when compared to the healthy dogs with respect to Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon diversity (P = 0.008, 0.003, and 0.002 respectively). The families Bifidobacteriaceae (P = 0.005), Enterococcaceae (P = 0.018), and Lactobacillaceae (P = 0.001) were significantly increased in the untreated and treated dogs with EPI when compared to healthy dogs. In contrast, Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.001), and Ruminococcaceae (P < 0.01) were significantly decreased in dogs with EPI. Dogs with EPI (before treatment) had significant increases in functional genes associated with secretion system, fatty acid metabolism, and phosphotransferase system. In contrast, healthy dogs had a significant increase in genes related

  6. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-02-27

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection.

  7. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  8. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N.; Owens, Chantelle J.; Brown, David R.; Lankford, Tina J.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Caspersen, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. Methods We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990–2012 on dog owners’ PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers’ performance with non–dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non–dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09–3.60). Conclusion Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health. PMID:24733365

  9. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL.

  10. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  11. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  12. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H; Scott, Danny W; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-02-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (length-wise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur.

  13. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  14. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  15. Elevated endothelin-1 expression in dogs with heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Uchide, Tsuyoshi; Saida, Kaname

    2005-11-01

    We explored the involvement of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathophysiology of dog dirofilariasis (heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis) by analyzing mRNA levels of preproendothelin-1 (PPET-1), the precursor form of ET-1, in cardiopulmonary organs as well as ET-1 peptide levels in plasma. To determine the cDNA sequence and primary protein structure of dog PPET-1, we performed molecular cloning of the full-length cDNA. Based on the determined sequence information, comparative expression analysis of PPET-1 mRNA was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction on cardiopulmonary organs from healthy (n=5) and filarial (n=5) dogs. Filarial dogs showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher mRNA expression level in the heart (about one hundred times) and lung (about ten times) than healthy dogs. Analysis of plasma ET-1 levels in healthy (n=10) and filarial (n=10) dogs showed that filarial dogs (6.9+/-2.7 pg/ml) have significantly (p<0.01) increased plasma ET-1 levels compared with healthy dogs (1.4+/-0.3 pg/ml). To assess the pathophysiological significance of ET-1 in dirofilariasis relative to other cardiopulmonary disorders, plasma ET-1 levels determined in dogs diagnosed with mitral regurgitation (n=10), tricuspid regurgitation (n=5), ventricular septal defect (n=5), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=5) were compared to plasma ET-1 levels in filarial dogs. Filarial dogs, which commonly develop serious pulmonary hypertension, exhibited by far the highest ET-1 levels of the disease states examined. Based on the fact that ET-1 is a potent bioactive mediator that induces vasoconstriction and promotes vascular remodeling, these findings suggest that ET-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of dog dirofilariasis as an aggravating factor by inducing pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Detection of kobuvirus RNA in Japanese domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    SOMA, Takehisa; MATSUBAYASHI, Makoto; SASAI, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether kokuvirus is present in Japanese dogs, we examined the fecal samples obtained from 94 diarrheal household dogs and 50 clinically healthy kenneled dogs by RT-PCR. The gene was detected in 37.2% and 48.0% in the former and the latter, respectively, suggesting that canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) is circulating among Japanese dogs. From the result of the latter, however, CaKoV may not be a primary pathogen. Furthermore, all gene-positive dogs were purebreds aged four months or younger. This finding suggests that CaKoV endemic is confined in multi-dog environments, and the dogs have a strong age-dependent resistance to CaKoV. PMID:27488907

  17. Leishmania infantum-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody responses in healthy and ill dogs from endemic areas. Evolution in the course of infection and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Solano-Gallego, L; Riera, C; Roura, X; Iniesta, L; Gallego, M; Valladares, J E; Fisa, R; Castillejo, S; Alberola, J; Ferrer, L; Arboix, M; Portús, M

    2001-04-19

    The expression of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 specific antibodies for Leishmania infantum was studied in five groups of dogs in Catalonia (Spain): I, 99 asymptomatic dogs (infected and uninfected) from a highly endemic area for leishmaniosis; II, 139 untreated dogs with clinically patent leishmaniosis; III, 11 naturally infected asymptomatic dogs monitored for up to 5 years since they were found seropositive to Leishmania antigen and without treatment; IV, 25 naturally infected dogs with clinically patent leishmaniosis and treated with either meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol or allopurinol alone and V, six experimentally infected dogs, treated with meglumine antimoniate and controlled for 5 years. The levels (ELISA units) of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in asymptomatic dogs (group I) were very variable (24+/-33, 32+/-31 and 26+/-31, respectively), and, as expected, lower than in ill dogs (group II) (168+/-34, 84+/-71 and 172+/-31, respectively). In both groups, the correlation between IgG and IgG2 levels (r=0.95, P<0.001 in group I and r=0.63, P<0.001 in group II) was higher than between IgG and IgG1 levels (r=0.01, P>0.05 in group I and r=0.31, P<0.001 in group II). In group III, IgG and IgG2 expression increased during infection, while IgG1 expression remained the same. In dogs of group IV, IgG levels after 1 year of treatment decreased more in responsive (mean values, 163+/-42 before treatment (b.t.) and 100+/-36 after treatment (a.t.)) than in unresponsive dogs (158+/-29 b.t. and 124+/-51 a.t.), especially for IgG1 (94+/-89 b.t. and 20+/-21 a.t. in responsive dogs and 35+/-25 b.t. and 22+/-13 a.t. in unresponsive dogs) rather than for IgG2 (156+/-16 b.t. and 114+/-45 a.t. in responsive and 151+/-11 b.t. and 125+/-36 a.t. in unresponsive dogs). Similar results were observed in the evolution of experimentally infected animals after consecutive and specific treatments. Overall results show the great variation in Leishmania-specific IgG1 expression in asymptomatic and

  18. [Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia psittaci infection in dogs].

    PubMed

    Kocianová, E; Lisák, V; Kopcok, M

    1992-03-01

    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia psittaci antibodies was investigated in 530 dog specimens divided into six groups, i. e. A = private watch dogs, B1 = service dogs from Bratislava, B2 = service dogs from other localities of Slovakia and Moravia, C = watch dogs from farms, I = household dogs, T = stray dogs. The dogs demonstrated the higher seropositivity to C. burnetii (11.7%) than to Ch. psittaci (5.5%). The highest percentage of antibodies to C. burnetii was found in stray dogs (23.7%), less prevalence of antibodies was observed in the animals in group C (13.6%), almost the same positivity was proved in the dogs of group B1 and B2 (10.5 and 10.6%). The highest positivity to Ch. psittaci was demonstrated in the dogs of group A (8.7%), less in group B2 (6.6%) and the least number in group B1 (1.9%). The stray dogs occupied the intermediate position in this data (Tab. I). Ninety four localities were tested, from which 38 were seropositive. Neither acute coxiellosis nor chlamydiosis were proved in any animals examined. Ninety per cent of dogs were found healthy, but 10% of dogs demonstrated hepatopathia and gastroenteritis. Two of them (category A and I) were seropositive to C. burnetii (titer 1:8 to 1:16) and one to Ch. psittaci (titer 1:16). Both C. burnetii and Ch. psittaci attack dogs parallely with the agents of other zoonoses, of which the most common is Toxoplasma gondii (Tab. II). Several dogs demonstrated seropositivity to three up to five zoonotic agents (Tab. III).

  19. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.

    PubMed Central

    Taugbøl, O; Baddaky-Taugbøl, B; Saarem, K

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower in the group of pruritic dogs compared to dogs with healthy skin. The amount of dihomogammalinolenic acid (20:3n-6; DGLA) in plasma lipids from pruritic dogs was higher than in dogs without skin problems. PMID:9798093

  20. Free p-Cresol Alters Neutrophil Function in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Anelise Maria; Pereira, Priscila Preve; Almeida, Breno Fernando Martins; Narciso, Luis Gustavo; Dos Santos, Diego Borba; Santos-Neto, Álvaro José Dos; Ferreira, Wagner Luis; Ciarlini, Paulo César

    2016-05-01

    To achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for neutrophil dysfunction recently described in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF), the plasma concentrations of free p-cresol in healthy dogs (n = 20) and those with CRF (n = 20) were compared. The degree of correlation was determined between plasma levels of p-cresol and markers of oxidative stress and function of neutrophils in these dogs. The effect of this compound on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis was assessed in neutrophils isolated from 16 healthy dogs incubated in RPMI 1640 supplemented with p-cresol (0.405 mg/L) and compared with medium supplemented with uremic plasma (50%). To achieve this, the plasma concentration of p-cresol was quantified by liquid phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The neutrophil oxidative metabolism was determined using the probes hydroethidine and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and apoptosis was measured using Annexin V-PE by capillary flow cytometry. Compared with the healthy dogs, uremic dogs presented higher concentrations of free p-cresol, greater oxidative stress, and neutrophils primed for accelerated apoptosis. The free p-cresol induced in neutrophils from healthy dogs increased apoptosis and decreased reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that the health status presented during uremia concomitant with the increase in plasma free p-cresol can contribute to the presence of immunosuppression in dogs with CRF.

  1. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  2. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs.

  3. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  4. Investigation of serum Ki-67 as a biomarker in tumor-bearing dogs.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stephan; Schuettler, Julia; Frenz, Meike; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gessler, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Because of the limited number of tumor markers in veterinary medicine, there is need for identifying new markers. Ki-67 has been investigated as a tissue marker of malignant alterations. We hypothesized that Ki-67 would also be measurable in serum and should therefore be elevated in cases of malignancy. The purpose of this prospective study was to measure Ki-67 in clinically healthy dogs, dogs with nonmalignant diseases, and dogs with malignant tumors. Samples from 8 healthy dogs, 13 dogs with nonmalignant diseases, and 20 dogs with malignant tumors were collected. Ki-67 was measured using the commercially available canine-specific ELISA. Results demonstrated undetectable Ki-67 serum concentrations in healthy dogs. Dogs with nonmalignant diseases displayed low Ki-67 serum concentrations. In contrast, dogs with malignancies showed significantly increased serum Ki-67 concentrations compared with the healthy (p<0.001) or nonmalignant diseased dogs (p<0.001). The degree of malignancy had a positive influence on serum Ki-67 levels. In contrast, no influence of tumor size on Ki-67 serum concentration was observed (p>0.05). Comparing healthy dogs and tumor bearing dogs a sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 1.0 can be calculated using a Ki-67 cut-off value of 5.5pg/mL. When dogs with a low degree of malignancy were compared with dogs of moderate-to-severe degree malignant tumors a sensitivity of 1.0 and a specificity of 1.0 can be observed at a Ki-67 cut-off value of 19.25pg/mL. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an association of malignancies with elevated Ki-67 serum concentrations in dogs.

  5. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  6. Comparison of myocardial damage among dogs at different stages of clinical leishmaniasis and dogs with idiopathic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, L; Casamian-Sorrosal, D; Barrera-Chacón, R; Cuesta-Gerveno, J M; Belinchón-Lorenzo, S; Gómez Nieto, L C; Duque-Carrasco, F J

    2017-03-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a systemic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. Myocarditis in CanL has been described previously in CanL by histopathological analysis of post-mortem specimens and by evaluation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels. However, the degree of myocardial damage at different stages of CanL and the role that concurrent azotaemia plays in this myocardial injury are unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate and compare the presence of myocardial injury in dogs at different stages of clinical CanL and in dogs with severe idiopathic chronic kidney disease (CKD) by measuring cTnI. Forty-eight dogs were included in the study, divided into four groups: (1) group A (10 healthy dogs); (2) group B (17 dogs with CanL without renal azotaemia, classified as mild to severe in the LeishVet scheme); (3) group C (11 dogs with CanL and renal azotaemia, classified as very severe in the LeishVet scheme); and (4) group D (10 dogs with idiopathic CKD). Dogs in group C had significantly higher cTnI than dogs in groups B and D, although cTnI was also elevated in these groups. Dogs in group A had normal cTnI values. Dogs in groups D and C had similar renal IRIS classification scorers. Severe lymphoplasmocytic myocarditis and a positive real time PCR of L. infantum DNA were observed in all dogs in group C. Dogs with very severe CanL exhibit more myocardial injury than dogs with milder CanL or dogs with idiopathic CKD.

  7. Prevalence and varieties of Helicobacter species in dogs from random sources and pet dogs: animal and public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, K A; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Tzellas, N; Coleman, B E; Paola, J; Sherding, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domestic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacterial in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which of the organisms were culturable, and if the cultured organisms were morphologically similar to the organisms seen in situ; (iii) to identify the isolated organisms; and (iv) to determine if gastric bacteria were associated with gastritis. Three groups of dogs were examined: healthy laboratory dogs, healthy dogs from an animal shelter, and pet dogs with various nongastric illnesses. Of these, 100% of laboratory and shelter dogs and 67% of pet dogs were colonized by large, tightly coiled gastric spiral bacteria morphologically similar to Gastrospirillum hominis or Helicobacter felis (referred to as gastrospirilla). Regardless of the presence or density of gastric bacteria, all of the dogs in the study except one had mild to moderate gastritis. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from only 6 of 39 stomachs cultured, and only three of the organisms isolated were morphologically similar to the bacteria seen in situ. Five helicobacters were identified by 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence analysis. Three were strains of H. felis, one was H. bilis, and one was a novel helicobacter morphologically similar to "Flexispira rappini." Gastrospirilla are almost universal in the stomachs of domestic dogs, and in most infected dogs, they do not appear to be associated with clinical signs or histologic lesions compared with uninfected dogs. Nongastrospirillum helicobacters are rare in dogs and are not histologically detectable. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from domestic dogs. PMID:8940465

  8. Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

  9. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs. PMID:26972334

  10. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle; and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  11. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana.

  12. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were most frequent on postexposure day 11. Seven dogs passed frank blood in their stools on one or more occasions and seven dogs vomited sporadically. Pyrexia was noted in 71.6% of the dogs on postexposure day 6 and lymphopenia was detected on postexposure day 5 or 6 in 50% of the dogs monitored. In contrast, four dogs not starved at the time of challenge remained free of gastrointestinal signs apart from one dog which passed a soft stool with scant mucus on one day, postexposure day 6. Also four dogs vaccinated with a killed canine parvovirus-2 vaccine preparation and subsequently starved at the time of challenge, remained clinically healthy. Apart from these last mentioned four dogs, all others shed canine parvovirus-2 in their feces following challenge. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6280819

  13. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  14. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  15. Growth and hematologic characteristics of cloned dogs derived from adult somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Kyu; Kang, Jung Taek; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hong, So Gun; Kim, Dae Young; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2010-04-01

    Three viable female dogs, which have the same genotype, have been successfully produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT); however, data on the growth pattern of cloned dogs are lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was (1) to assess growth parameters among those cloned dogs with measurement of body weight, height, and radiographic analysis of skull size and bone plate, and (2) to compare hematologic characteristics among the donor dog, cloned dogs, and age-matched control dogs. The cloned dogs were kept in the same environmental conditions. The body weight increased from 0.52, 0.46, and 0.52 kg at birth to 21.9, 22.9, and 20.4 kg at 68 weeks of age for individual cloned dogs, respectively. The withers height increased from 34.5, 32.6, and 35.2 cm at 8 weeks of age to 67.1 cm at 68 weeks of age in the three clones. The radiographic data demonstrated that patterns of bone growth were similar among cloned dogs, and all measured parameters of matured cloned dogs were similar with that of the fully grown donor dog. An age-specific pattern was identified on hematologic and serum biochemical measurements in both cloned dogs and age-matched controls. The parameters examined were within the normal reference ranges for healthy dogs. In conclusion, three genetically identical cloned dogs showed similar growth characteristics and had normal hematological and serum biochemical parameters.

  16. Serum cholecystokinin concentrations in dogs with naturally acquired pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sungjun; Kim, Hye-Sun; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Chang, Dongwoo; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6). Serum CCK concentrations were then measured before and 1, 2, and 4 hours after consumption of a high-fat meal. Concentrations in dogs with PDH were also measured before and after trilostane treatment. Results were compared among groups and assessment points. RESULTS Preprandial serum CCK concentrations in group C were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, and D, but no significant differences in postprandial CCK concentrations were identified among the groups 1, 2, or 4 hours after the meal. With respect to trilostane treatment of dogs with PDH, no significant differences were identified between pre- and post-trilostane serum CCK concentrations in group C or D. Median CCK concentration after trilostane treatment was higher in group D than in group C, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcomes in this study did not support the hypothesis that a low circulating CCK concentration affects the development of GBM in dogs with PDH.

  17. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kohei; Maeda, Shingo; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes.

  18. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of oral amantadine in greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Norkus, C; Rankin, D; Warner, M; KuKanich, B

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in greyhound dogs after oral administration. Five healthy greyhound dogs were used. A single oral dose of 100 mg amantadine hydrochloride (mean dose 2.8 mg/kg as amantadine hydrochloride) was administered to nonfasted subjects. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points from 0 to 24 h after administration, and plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Amantadine was well tolerated in all dogs with no adverse effects observed. The mean (range) amantadine CMAX was 275 ng/mL (225-351 ng/mL) at 2.6 h (1-4 h) with a terminal half-life of 4.96 h (4.11-6.59 h). The results of this study can be used to design dosages to assess multidose pharmacokinetics and dosages designed to achieve targeted concentrations in order to assess the clinical effects of amantadine in a variety of conditions including chronic pain. Further studies should also assess the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in other dog breeds or using population pharmacokinetics studies including multiple dog breeds to assess potential breed-specific differences in the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in dogs.

  20. The renal effects of NSAIDs in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Amy L; Grauer, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life for dogs with osteoarthritis can often be improved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, the number of adverse drug events associated with NSAID use reported to the Federal Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine is higher than that for any other companion animal drug. Of those events, adverse renal reactions are the second most reported. NSAIDs produce pharmacologic effects via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), which decreases production of prostanoids. Prostaglandins are synthesized by both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in the healthy kidney and influence renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renin release, and Na excretion. There are important species differences in the renal expression of COX-1 and COX-2. For example, dogs have higher basal levels of COX-2 expression in the kidney compared with humans. In addition, in dogs with chronic kidney disease, an increase in COX-2 expression occurs and synthesis of prostaglandins shifts to the COX-2 pathway. For those reasons, NSAIDs that target COX-2 may be expected to adversely affect renal function in dogs, especially dogs with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature to report the renal effects of NSAIDs in dogs.

  1. Development of gastroscopic food sensitivity testing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guilford, W G; Strombeck, D R; Rogers, Q; Frick, O L; Lawoko, C

    1994-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a gastroscopic food sensitivity testing (GFST) technique for clinical use in dogs and to determine if the results of GFST were influenced by the feeding of a hypoallergenic diet immediately before the testing period ("unmasking"). The technical requirements for GFST were devised during a total of eight endoscopies performed in four healthy dogs. GFST was performed in anesthetized dogs in sternal recumbency. Food extracts were dripped onto the dependent aspect of the body of the stomach via plastic tubing passed through the endoscope. Changes were observed within 2 to 3 minutes of application, and included localized mucosal swelling and erythema, generalized mucosal erythema, and hyperperistalsis. The influence of "unmasking" was then examined in 6 atopic and 2 healthy dogs, which underwent GFST on three occasions, 4 weeks apart. Before the first and third testing periods, the dogs consumed a commercial dry dog food. For 5 days before the second testing period the dogs were fed a hypoallergenic elemental diet. Oral challenges were performed to identify which of the dogs had clinically overt immediate food sensitivity. Localized swelling was most frequently correlated with positive challenge PO. No positive reactions occurred in response to the negative control extract (lamb). The number of positive GFST results increased after feeding the hypoallergenic diet. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that GFST holds substantial promise for the diagnosis of immediate food sensitivities affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The sensitivity of the procedure appears to be enhanced by preceding testing with a hypoallergenic diet.

  2. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs. PMID:26435541

  3. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-09-30

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs.

  4. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  5. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-06-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017), with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  6. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3 days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours.

  7. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  8. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with seizures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Orit; Sommer, Adi; Zimmerman, Gabriel; Soreq, Hermona; Friedman, Alon; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Aroch, Itamar; Shamir, Merav H

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies in animal models have focused on the role of cholinergic elements, mainly acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the 'readthrough' acetylcholinesterase isoform (AChE-R), in seizures. A prospective double-masked study was conducted to assess the activity of AChE and AChE-R in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 26 dogs post-seizure, 28 dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) and 16 healthy dogs. AChE was also measured in the serum in the post-seizure and IVDD groups. The results showed no significant differences in CSF AChE among the three groups. AChE-R was not detected in any dog and AChE in the serum was similar between groups. This preliminary study provides new information on AChE and AChE-R in the CSF and sera of dogs following naturally-occurring seizures.

  10. Isolation and characterisation of dog uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains.

    PubMed

    Gaastra, W; van Oosterom, R A; Pieters, E W; Bergmans, H E; van Dijk, L; Agnes, A; ter Huurne, H M

    1996-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections, were characterised with respect to the production of haemolysin and fimbriae. In contrast to healthy dogs, P. mirabilis was also isolated in high numbers from the faeces of dogs suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections. Production of fimbriae was demonstrated by electron microscopy and the presence of genes for two different types of major fimbrial subunits (MR/P-like or UCA-like) was demonstrated by Southern hybridisation. These genes were absent in the Proteus vulgaris, Providentia rettgeri and Morganella morganii strains tested. All but one P. mirabilis strains were haemolytic and most strains produced fimbriae albeit in different amounts. The UCA fimbrial subunits from dog and human isolates have identical molecular weights and N-terminal sequences and are immunologically cross reactive. It was concluded that dog uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains are very similar to human uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains.

  11. Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations in normal and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Day, M J; Penhale, W J

    1988-11-01

    The normal level of serum IgA in Western Australian dogs was defined by single radial immunodiffusion using sera from 100 healthy randomly selected adult crossbred animals. Serum IgA values of 185 animals from six breeds were also determined. The mean and variance of serum IgA of these groups were similar to the crossbred dogs with the exception of German shepherd dogs where these values were statistically greater. In addition, 210 dogs with a range of chronic diseases (autoimmune, hypersensitivity, pyoderma, neoplasia, demodecosis, disseminated aspergillosis) were assayed and low values recorded in five cases. In all disease groups the mean serum IgA value was significantly greater than in the crossbred group and the variance significantly greater in most of these groups. The German shepherd group were the only normal dogs with a mean and variance similar to those of the clinical series suggesting that this breed may have a primary defect in IgA metabolism.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hardie, E M; Hardee, G E; Rawlings, C A

    1985-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine, a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, were studied in 6 intact, awake dogs. Plasma samples were obtained up to 12 hours after IV administration of flunixin meglumine. Flunixin concentration was determined, using high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma data best fit a 2-compartment model. Distribution half-life was 0.55 hour; elimination half-life was 3.7 hours; volume of distribution (area) was 0.35 L/kg; volume of distribution at steady state was 0.18 L/kg; volume of the central compartment was 0.079 L/kg; and total body clearance was 0.064 L/hr/kg. Flunixin concentrations obtained over a 6-hour period in 3 dogs with septic peritonitis did not differ significantly from those obtained from healthy dogs.

  13. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  14. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  15. Alveolar osteitis (dry socket) in a dog: a case report.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwelaert de Wyels, S

    1998-06-01

    Following extraction of a maxillary left first molar tooth in an eight year-old retriever, the dog re-presented five days later because of oral pain, which did not respond to analgesic therapy. The extraction site contained a foul-smelling fluid, but did not contain a clot or granulation tissue. Alveolar osteitis (dry socket) was diagnosed. The alveolus was curetted and flushed, and the dog was given cefalexine and prednisolone. The alveolus was filling with healthy granulation tissue one week later and the dog was no longer in pain.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of two leishmanins in asymptomatic dogs.

    PubMed

    Solano-Gallego, L; Llull, J; Arboix, M; Ferrer, L; Alberola, J

    2001-12-03

    There are few studies in dogs concerning leishmanin skin test. We evaluated and compared the efficacy of two leishmanin preparations for the detection of dog Leishmania cellular-mediated immunity. Clinically healthy dogs living in an endemic area were studied. A leishmanin preparation 1 (3 x 10(8) promastigotes/ml) was superior to a leishmanin preparation 2 (5 x 10(6) promastigotes/ml), measured as the percentage of positive reactions and the diameter of the induced induration. The leishmanin skin test is a valuable tool, although the results show that the degree of response, as it has been shown in human beings, depends on the preparation used.

  17. A survey of intestinal parasites in dogs from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, M. Casey; Carr, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 124 apparently healthy dogs and 333 random source canine fecal samples from dog walking areas were analyzed by centrifuged flotation in Sheather’s solution to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Fecal flotation was positive in 4.4% of samples. Roundworm species were found in 1.5% of samples, hookworm species were found in 0.4% of samples, whipworm species were found in 0.7%, Strongyloides spp. were found in 0.6%, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and Alaria spp. were found in 0.4% of samples. PMID:22043068

  18. Seroprevalence for 2117-like vesiviruses in Italian household dogs.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Bodnar, Livia; Melegari, Irene; Sarchese, Vittorio; Massirio, Ivano; Dowgier, Giulia; Lanave, Gianvito; Marsilio, Fulvio; Bányai, Krisztián; Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2017-03-01

    In 2003, a novel calicivirus, the vesivirus (VeV) strain 2117, was identified incidentally as a contaminant in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell cultures by a German pharmaceutical company. Similar contaminations have been documented in three additional episodes, in bio-reactors used for production of recombinant drugs. More, recently 2117-like VeVs have also been identified at high prevalence in the stools from asymptomatic kennel dogs and only sporadically in diarrhoeic and healthy household dogs. In this study, antibodies for 2117-like viruses were detected in 21.5% of sera from household dogs, indicating that they are common viruses in the canine host.

  19. Ophthalmic corticosteroid therapy: systemic effects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Glaze, M B; Crawford, M A; Nachreiner, R F; Casey, H W; Nafe, L A; Kearney, M T

    1988-01-01

    Degenerative myopathy suggestive of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy was diagnosed in a 10-year-old female Poodle X Pekingese dog with a history of progressive lameness. Electromyography revealed bizarre high-frequency discharges. Evidence of adrenal suppression was obtained in response to exogenous ACTH. The predominant source of corticosteroid was an ophthalmic preparation used in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Considering the apparent adverse effects of the corticosteroid in this case, a study was undertaken to determine the systemic effects, if any, induced by long-term ophthalmic administration of 0.1% dexamethasone suspension in healthy adult dogs. Dogs in one group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 8 weeks, and dogs in another group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 16 weeks. All dogs remained healthy throughout the study, but dexamethasone-treated dogs developed marked adrenal suppression, beginning the second week of treatment and intensifying throughout the treatment period. Histopathologic changes in the liver of dexamethasone-treated dogs included scattered foci of vacuolated hepatocytes, increased hepatocytic glycogen content, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Muscle specimens were histologically, histochemically, and electromyographically normal.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal glands in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism or mimicking diseases.

    PubMed

    Wenger, M; Mueller, C; Kook, P H; Reusch, C E

    2010-08-07

    The adrenal glands of 30 dogs with primary adrenal insufficiency (hypoadrenocorticism) were measured ultrasonographically and compared with those of 14 healthy dogs and those of 10 dogs with diseases mimicking hypoadrenocorticism. Thickness and length of the adrenals were measured on abdominal ultrasonography and the results for each group were compared. Dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism had significantly thinner adrenals compared with the other two groups, and their left adrenal glands were also significantly shorter than those of healthy dogs. Adrenal ultrasonography may be of diagnostic value in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of primary hypoadrenocorticism, as a left adrenal gland measuring less than 3.2 mm in thickness is strongly suggestive of the disease.

  1. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the dog ill. Dead rodents, wildlife or birds may present an irresistible temptation for many dogs, ... your care has been exposed to a toxin, call the owner and a veterinarian immediately. Dog walking ...

  2. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  3. Serological survey of leptospiral infection in kennelled dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scanziani, E; Origgi, F; Giusti, A M; Iacchia, G; Vasino, A; Pirovano, G; Scarpa, P; Tagliabue, S

    2002-04-01

    Two hundred and forty-five dogs were examined serologically for the presence of antibodies against different serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The dogs belonged to five different groups: group 1 was composed of clinically healthy pet dogs referred for a regular veterinary check-up visit or for vaccination; group 2 was composed of stray dogs; and groups 3, 4 and 5 were composed of dogs maintained in three different kennels which had varying standards of hygiene. Seventy-two out of the 245 dogs examined were seropositive for leptospirosis. In group 1, there were 3-4 per cent seropositive dogs; in group 2, 30.3 per cent; in group 3, 13.8 per cent; in group 4, 38.6 per cent; and in group 5, 49.2 per cent. This study demonstrates that leptospiral infection is common in dogs housed in kennels, despite most of them being vaccinated, and that crowding of animals into unsanitary quarters is associated with a high prevalence of infection. The most common infecting serovars found were bratislava and grippotyphosa, confirming recent observations that demonstrate a significant change in the epidemiology of canine leptospirosis.

  4. Coexistence of two different genotypes of Sarcoptes scabiei derived from companion dogs and wild raccoon dogs in Gifu, Japan: The genetic evidence for transmission between domestic and wild canids.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Ryota; Yabusaki, Toshihiro; Kuninaga, Naotoshi; Morimoto, Tomoya; Okano, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Asano, Makoto

    2015-09-15

    Sarcoptes scabiei is the causal agent of sarcoptic mange in domestic/companion dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Although there have been successful cases of experimental transmission of S. scabiei from mangy wild Canidae hosts to healthy dogs, and suspected cases of transmission between raccoon dogs and companion dogs, no clear-cut evidence has been obtained. In the present study, the genetic relationships between Sarcoptes mites from raccoon dogs and companion dogs living in the same region were elucidated.One hundred and thirty Sarcoptes mites from 22 raccoon dogs and 5 companion dogs were collected from the Gifu area in Japan. Using 9 microsatellite markers, the genotypes were compared, and the genetic structure of these mites was analyzed. In 6 pairs of companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites, 17 out of the 18 alleles analyzed were identical. Using a Bayesian approach, these 130 mites were separated into at least two groups, and companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites were segregated into both groups. In addition, comparatively large numbers of alleles at these loci were revealed by comparison with data from past studies. These results demonstrated that the host specificity at the 9 microsatellite-level could not be confirmed, strongly suggesting the transmission of Sarcoptes mites between raccoon dogs and companion dogs. This is the first report to provide a genetic evidence of Sarcoptes transmission between domestic and wild mammals in the natural environment. The possibility of a prior introduction of mites with novel genotypes (e.g., spillover of sarcoptic mange from domestic/companion dogs to raccoon dogs) could not be eliminated when considering the cause of the large number of alleles, and the coexistence of 2 mite groups in sympatric raccoon dogs and companion dogs in this local area.

  5. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  6. Detection of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of dogs.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Camilla; Gualdi, Valentina; Tosi, Sabrina; Facchini, Roberto Vailati; Pengo, Graziano; Luini, Mario; Simpson, Kenneth W; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2007-01-31

    The mode of acquisition of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs has not been determined. It is suspected that oral-oral and faecal-oral transmission may be involved. The present study sought to determine if Helicobacter spp. DNA is present in the oral cavity of healthy and vomiting dogs. Thirty-eight pet dogs (27 vomiting and 11 clinically healthy) were studied. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined by single and nested PCR evaluation of DNA extracted from saliva, dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples. Helicobacter spp. DNA was detected by nested PCR in 36 (94.7%) gastric biopsies, 17 (44.7%) dental plaque and 19 (50%) saliva samples out of the 38 dogs examined. Overall 27 (71.1%) dogs screened by nested PCR were found to harbour Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity (dental plaque and/or saliva). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of vomiting and healthy dogs, and the time from vomiting to oral sampling did not have significant impact. This study confirms the high prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs, and reveals that Helicobacter spp. DNA is detectable in the oral cavity of over 70% of dogs. These findings support the possibility of oral-oral transmission between dogs and that the canine oral cavity may act as source of non-pylori Helicobacter spp. infection for humans.

  7. Anisocoria in the dog provoked by a toxic contact with an ornamental plant: Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Philippe; Clerc, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    We report an unusual case of anisocoria in the dog provoked by Datura stramonium, and an experimental clinical assay to reproduce the anisocoria using simple contact with part of the plant in four healthy dogs. Any part of the D. stramonium plant produced anisocoria following simple contact with the eye.

  8. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and other inflammatory parameters in Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nikolic Nielsen, Lise; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between cancer and the immune system, and the production of cytokines by the tumour itself have been associated with altered levels of cytokines in human cancer patients. Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS) show vague and non-specific clinical signs. Although histiocytes can secrete cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, serum cytokine concentrations in dogs with DHS have not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunological state of untreated Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS by assessing multiple serum cytokines and to correlate these with other inflammatory markers. As a prospective case control study, 17 Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS were included along with 18 healthy controls (12 Bernese Mountain dogs and 6 dogs of various breeds). Blood samples were examined for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count, monocyte count and the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1. Significant differences were observed in Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS compared to healthy control dogs for fibrinogen (P=0.002), CRP (P=0.02) and MCP-1 (P=0.004). Other important pro-inflammatory cytokines were not significantly increased in dogs with DHS and none of the measured cytokines were correlated to either WBC, monocyte count, CRP or fibrinogen concentration. The implications of this increased MCP-1 blood levels in Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS warrant further investigations.

  9. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  10. Measurement of serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one as a marker of bile acid malabsorption in dogs with chronic diarrhoea: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cross, G.; Taylor, D. R.; Sherwood, R. A.; Watson, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acid malabsorption is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea in people, however it has never previously been investigated in dogs, despite clinical suspicion of its existence. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) in dogs, as a potential marker of bile acid malabsorption, and to see whether this is related to clinical disease severity or the presence of hypocobalaminaemia. Serum C4 concentration was measured in 20 clinically healthy control dogs and 17 dogs with chronic diarrhoea. Three of the 17 affected dogs (17.6 per cent) had a C4 concentration significantly above the range of clinically healthy dogs; these dogs were all poorly responsive to conventional therapy. These results suggest that bile acid malabsorption may be a clinically relevant disorder in dogs with chronic diarrhoea and serum C4 may be a useful tool to investigate this further. PMID:27110372

  11. Characterisation of the Immunophenotype of Dogs with Primary Immune-Mediated Haemolytic Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Swann, James W.; Woods, Kelly; Wu, Ying; Glanemann, Barbara; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) is reported to be the most common autoimmune disease of dogs, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in affected animals. Haemolysis is caused by the action of autoantibodies, but the immunological changes that result in their production have not been elucidated. Aims To investigate the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and other lymphocyte subsets and to measure serum concentrations of cytokines and peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of cytokine genes in dogs with IMHA, healthy dogs and dogs with inflammatory diseases. Animals 19 dogs with primary IMHA, 22 dogs with inflammatory diseases and 32 healthy control dogs. Methods Residual EDTA-anti-coagulated blood samples were stained with fluorophore-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by flow cytometry to identify Tregs and other lymphocyte subsets. Total RNA was also extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells to investigate cytokine gene expression, and concentrations of serum cytokines (interleukins 2, 6 10, CXCL-8 and tumour necrosis factor α) were measured using enhanced chemiluminescent assays. Principal component analysis was used to investigate latent variables that might explain variability in the entire dataset. Results There was no difference in the frequency or absolute numbers of Tregs among groups, nor in the proportions of other lymphocyte subsets. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines were greater in dogs with IMHA compared to healthy controls, but the concentration of IL-10 and the expression of cytokine genes did not differ between groups. Principal component analysis identified four components that explained the majority of the variability in the dataset, which seemed to correspond to different aspects of the immune response. Conclusions The immunophenotype of dogs with IMHA differed from that of dogs with inflammatory diseases and from healthy control dogs; some of these changes could suggest

  12. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes in dogs infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Headley, S A; Soares, I C; Graça, D L

    2001-01-01

    An experiment based on astrocyte immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was designed to determine whether the astrocyte response in canine distemper encephalitis (CDE) was associated with the age of the animal, type of lesion and the cerebellar region affected. Four histopathological types of CDE lesion were examined, namely acute (11 dogs), acute with necrosis (four dogs), subacute (22 dogs) and chronic (six dogs). The animals were divided into three age groups, namely, 0-2 years (27 dogs), 2.1-4 years (12 dogs), and 4.1-12 years (four dogs). Three different cerebellar regions were evaluated. Cerebellar sections from three healthy dogs were used for control purposes. The highest number of astrocytes occurred in the cerebellar white matter and in dogs with acute distemper encephalopathy. In animals with subacute distemper encephalitis, the numbers of astrocytes appeared to increase with age, but the opposite effect occurred in dogs with acute or chronic encephalitis; age appeared not to influence the astrocyte numbers in dogs suffering from acute encephalitis with necrosis.

  13. [Bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].

    PubMed

    Bornand, V

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria Staphylococcus intermedius (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus spp. (6%) and Streptococcus canis (5%). A statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in otitic dogs. Many strains of S.intermedius, P.aeruginosa and Proteus spp. are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa. Therefore an antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using "Cobas Bact" for these bacterias. Furthermore, 80 strains of M.pachydermatis were submitted to identification-kits (API 20 CAUX, API STAPH, Cobas Micro). The observed results showed that an identification with these tests was not possible.

  14. Elevation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in non-azotemic dogs with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Daure, Evence; Belanger, Marie C; Beauchamp, Guy; Lapointe, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker in humans and dogs with kidney disease. This protein is expressed by many cells including renal tubular cells and neutrophils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infection (UTI) on urinary NGAL (uNGAL) concentration in dogs. Urine culture and measurement of uNGAL level were performed in 80 non-azotemic dogs suspected of UTI and 19 healthy dogs. Dogs were divided in three groups: 19 healthy dogs, 25 dogs with positive culture and 55 dogs suspected of UTI but with negative culture. uNGAL and uNGAL/Creatinine was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in dogs with UTI (14.22 ng/mL;19.74 μg/g) compared to Healthy (0.24 ng/mL;0.11 μg/g) and Negative (1.13 ng/mL;1.28 μg/g) dogs. A uNGAL value <3.38 ng/mL had a negative predictive value for UTI of 87%. Presence of UTI has to be considered when uNGAL is used to detect kidney disease.

  15. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be a Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU ...

  16. Healthy Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nutrition Environment Physical Activity Obesity Prevention Chronic Conditions Data & Statistics State Programs Professional Development & Training Tools & Resources Multimedia INFOGRAPHICS Parents for Healthy ...

  17. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  18. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

  19. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  20. Characterization of canine coronavirus spread among domestic dogs in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    van NGUYEN, Dung; TERADA, Yukata; MINAMI, Shohei; YONEMITSU, Kenzo; NAGATA, Nao; LE, Thanh Dinh Ha; KUWATA, Ryusei; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an important pathogen that causes enteritis in dogs, but there is no information on CCoV infection in Vietnam. To examine the prevalence of CCoV infection among Vietnamese dogs, 201 serum samples were analyzed by virus-neutralization (VN) test. The results showed that antibody against CCoV-II was present in 87 dogs (43.3%). To detect genes of CCoV, fecal samples collected from 30 diarrheic and 50 healthy dogs were examinated by RT-PCR, confirming that 2 diarrheic dogs and 5 healthy dogs were positive for CCoV. Nucleotide sequences of N-terminal region of spike (S) gene indicated that CCoV strains were divided into two subgenotypes, CCoV-IIa and -IIb, respectively. Furthemore, we succeeded in isolating CCoV/dog/HCM47/2015, the isolate was plaque-purified three times, and 3’-terminal one-third of the genome was analyzed. Interestingly, the plaque-purified virus had a large deletion in ORF3abc and E genes (1,165 nt), and a short deletion in ORF7b gene (60 nt), suggesting that these regions are not necessary for in vitro replication of CCoV. Next, the antigenicity between the isolated CCoV-IIb and the other CCoV-IIa was compared by VN test, revealing that antigenicty of the isolated CCoV is equal or higher than that of the other CCoV. In summary, two subgenotypes of CCoV-II are spreading among Vietnamese dogs. The isolated virus with a large deletion after in vitro passage may be useful for the development of vaccine, owing to its antigenicity and efficient viral growth in vitro. PMID:27840394

  1. Characterization of canine coronavirus spread among domestic dogs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    van Nguyen, Dung; Terada, Yukata; Minami, Shohei; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Nagata, Nao; LE, Thanh Dinh Ha; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Maeda, Ken

    2017-02-14

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an important pathogen that causes enteritis in dogs, but there is no information on CCoV infection in Vietnam. To examine the prevalence of CCoV infection among Vietnamese dogs, 201 serum samples were analyzed by virus-neutralization (VN) test. The results showed that antibody against CCoV-II was present in 87 dogs (43.3%). To detect genes of CCoV, fecal samples collected from 30 diarrheic and 50 healthy dogs were examinated by RT-PCR, confirming that 2 diarrheic dogs and 5 healthy dogs were positive for CCoV. Nucleotide sequences of N-terminal region of spike (S) gene indicated that CCoV strains were divided into two subgenotypes, CCoV-IIa and -IIb, respectively. Furthemore, we succeeded in isolating CCoV/dog/HCM47/2015, the isolate was plaque-purified three times, and 3'-terminal one-third of the genome was analyzed. Interestingly, the plaque-purified virus had a large deletion in ORF3abc and E genes (1,165 nt), and a short deletion in ORF7b gene (60 nt), suggesting that these regions are not necessary for in vitro replication of CCoV. Next, the antigenicity between the isolated CCoV-IIb and the other CCoV-IIa was compared by VN test, revealing that antigenicty of the isolated CCoV is equal or higher than that of the other CCoV. In summary, two subgenotypes of CCoV-II are spreading among Vietnamese dogs. The isolated virus with a large deletion after in vitro passage may be useful for the development of vaccine, owing to its antigenicity and efficient viral growth in vitro.

  2. Malassezia dermatitis in dogs in Brazil: diagnosis, evaluation of clinical signs and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mauro L S; Ferreiro, Laerte; Ferreira, Rafael R; Corbellini, Luis G; Deville, Manjula; Berthelemy, Madeleine; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Skin carriage and quantification of Malassezia yeasts were evaluated in 180 healthy dogs (group 1) and 117 dogs with clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, lichenification/seborrhoea, excoriations and alopecia) that could be related to Malassezia dermatitis (group 2) in Brazil. The lesions in the group 2 dogs were evaluated using CADESI-03 scores. Samples were collected from five different anatomical areas. Direct examination was performed using the tape strip technique, and results were expressed as the mean number of yeasts per ×1000 microscopic field per dog. For mycological culture, a single piece of sterilized carpet was applied to the same areas sampled for cytology, and transferred onto Dixon's modified medium. Yeast populations were expressed as mean colony forming units (CFU)/plate. Malassezia isolates were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA gene. The probability of culturing Malassezia from dogs with skin lesions was significantly higher (P<0.001) than from healthy dogs. There was a linear trend between CADESI-03 score and mean CFU/plate. Group 2 dogs with positive cultures had higher CADESI-03 scores than those with negative cultures (P<0.05). Almost all isolates were identified as Malassezia pachydermatis. Only one isolate (group 2) was identified as Malassezia furfur. These data suggest that dogs with skin disorders harbouring Malassezia yeasts in quantities higher than 120 mean CFU/plate should be considered as having Malassezia dermatitis. The presence of Malassezia appears to exacerbate clinical lesions in dogs.

  3. Seizure activity occurring in two dogs after S-ketamine-induction.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Spadavecchia, C; Casoni, D

    2013-10-01

    Two healthy dogs were anaesthetized to undergo elective orthopaedic procedures. After premedication with methadone and acepromazine, general anaesthesia was induced with midazolam and S-ketamine. Immediately after anaesthetic induction, seizures occurred in both dogs. In the first dog the syndrome was characterized by tonic and clonic motor activity, muscular hypertone, hypersalivation, urination, defecation and hyperthermia. In the second dog muscular twitches of the temporal and masseter regions were observed, followed by increased skeletal muscles tone, hypersalivation, spontaneous urination and increase in body temperature. Recoveries from anaesthesia were uneventful and no seizures were observed. Considering the temporal association between anaesthetic induction and occurrence of seizures, and the fact that other causative factors could not be identified, it is hypothesized that S-ketamine played a role in determining the convulsive phenomena observed in these patients. S-ketamine might carry the potential for inducing seizures in otherwise healthy dogs, despite the concomitant use of GABA-ergic drugs.

  4. Assessment of renal vascular resistance and blood pressure in dogs and cats with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Novellas, R; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Espada, Y

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the possible relationships between renal resistive index (RI) or pulsatility index (PI) and systolic blood pressure and biochemical and haematological parameters in dogs and cats with renal disease. The study included 50 dogs and 20 cats with renal disease. RI and PI were significantly higher in both dogs and cats with renal disease than in 27 healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. In dogs, a significant negative correlation was found between RI and red blood cell count, and a positive correlation was found between PI and serum creatinine. In cats, a positive correlation was found between RI and serum urea, between PI and serum creatinine, and between PI and serum urea. No relationship could be found between either RI or PI and systolic blood pressure.

  5. Staphylococci isolated from carriage sites and infected sites of dogs as a reservoir of multidrug resistance and methicillin resistance.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Katarzyna; Żarnowska, Sabina; Piechowicz, Lidia; Haras, Krystyna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci in healthy dogs and in dogs with evident symptoms of infection. The samples from 172 healthy and 197 infected dogs were examined. The staphylococci were identified with conventional methods and by means of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method (MboI). Susceptibility to 15 antibiotics from 10 different antimicrobial classes was tested. Resistance to methicillin was confirmed by the presence of Staphylococcus aureus mecA and S. sciuri mecA genes. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes. The oral mucosa to be the most frequent site of staphylococcal colonization (55.8 %), followed by nasal cavity (44.2 %), and anus (32.6 %). The prevalence of MDR staphylococci in infected dogs was significantly higher than in the healthy animals (74/137 vs. 34/95, P = 0.006). The MR strains of S. pseudintermedius (2.9 %) originated solely from infected dogs. In contrast, the MR coagulase-negative strains (7.4 %) were isolated solely from healthy dogs. S. aureus strains originated from nasal swabs, MRSA strains were not isolated. MDR staphylococci and MR S. pseudintermedius are more common among infected dogs, but coagulase-negative staphylococci (mostly S. sciuri) seem to be a reservoir of methicillin resistance in healthy dogs.

  6. Antibodies reacting to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (I and II) and albumin in sera from dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Toshiho; Miyazaki, Rui; Miyazaki, Takae; Ochiai, Hideharu; Orito, Kensuke

    2016-06-01

    IgGs to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) and albumin were identified in dog serum. IgG titers were determined in the sera of asymptomatic dogs, and in dogs with atopic dermatitis, diarrhea and/or vomiting, diabetes and/or pancreatitis, kidney disease, hepatic disease, and thyroid gland disease, using ELISA. Low titres of IgG-reactive CA-I, CA-II, BSA, and CSA were found in the sera of healthy beagles. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the titers of antibodies against CA-I in asymptomatic dogs, dogs with diabetes and/or pancreatitis, or thyroid gland disease, or hepatic disease. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-CA-II IgG in asymptomatic dogs and in those with hepatic disease. There was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-BSA IgG between healthy beagles and dogs with hepatic disease.

  7. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

    2014-01-31

    Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a

  8. Free-Roaming Dogs in Nepal: Demographics, Health and Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices.

    PubMed

    Massei, G; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L; Callaby, R; Sharma, K; Dhakal, I P; Dahal, U

    2017-02-01

    In Nepal, most dogs are free to roam and may transmit diseases to humans and animals. These dogs often suffer from malnutrition and lack basic health care. Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. We carried out a study in Chitwan District (central Nepal), to collect baseline data on free-roaming owned dog demographics, assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of dog owners concerning dogs and rabies, evaluate rabies vaccination coverage and anthelmintic treatment of dogs, measure dogs' response to rabies vaccination and assess dog health through body condition scores and parasites. We conducted household interviews with owners of free-roaming female dogs (n = 60) and administered dogs with rabies vaccination and anthelmintics. Dog owners regularly fed free-roaming dogs but provided minimal health care; 42% of respondents did not claim ownership of the dog for which they provided care. We collected skin, faecal and blood samples for parasite identification and for measuring rabies virus-specific antibodies. Ninety-two per cent of dog owners were aware of the routes of rabies virus transmission, but only 35% described the correct post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following a dog bite. Twenty-seven per cent of the dogs had measurable rabies virus-specific antibody titres and 14% had received anthelmintics in the previous year. Following rabies vaccination, 97% of dogs maintained an adequate antibody titre for ≥6 months. Most dogs appeared healthy, although haemoprotozoans, endoparasites and ectoparasites were identified in 12%, 73% and 40% of the dogs, respectively. Poor skin condition and parasite load were associated. Seventy-four per cent of the females had litters in 1 year (mean litter size = 4.5). Births occurred between September and February; we estimated 60% mortality in puppies. We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be

  9. Effect of service dogs on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Viau, Robert; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fecteau, Stéphanie; Champagne, Noël; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    Children with Autism Syndrome Disorders (ASDs) exhibit social, communicative, and behavioral deficits. We know that human interaction with dogs, which is thought to serve as a social catalyst, results in a decrease of cortisol levels in healthy adults. Introducing service dogs to children with ASD is an attractive idea that has received growing attention in recent decades. However, no study has measured the physiological impact of service dogs on these children. Therefore, the goal of our study was to assess the effects of service dogs on the basal salivary cortisol secretion of children with ASD. We measured the salivary cortisol levels of 42 children with ASD in three experimental conditions; prior to and during the introduction of a service dog to their family, and after a short period during which the dog was removed from their family. We compared average cortisol levels and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) before and during the introduction of the dog to the family and after its withdrawal. We found that the introduction of service dogs translated into a statistically significant diminished CAR. Before the introduction of service dogs, we measured a 58% increase in morning cortisol after awakening, which diminished to 10% when service dogs were present. The increase in morning cortisol jumped back to 48% once the dogs were removed from the families (p<0.05). However, service dogs did not have an effect on the children's average diurnal cortisol levels. These results show that the CAR of children with ASD is sensitive to the presence of service dogs, which lends support to the potential behavioral benefits of service dogs for children with autism.

  10. Trace minerals status and antioxidative enzyme activity in dogs with generalized demodecosis.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M

    2013-11-15

    The present study was aimed to determine the levels of trace elements zinc, copper, iron, erythrocyte oxidant/anti-oxidant balance, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with generalized demodecosis. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of generalized demodecosis and 6 dogs as control were included in the study. In comparison to healthy control, zinc and copper levels were significantly (P<0.01) lower in dogs with generalized demodecosis, whereas iron levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in diseased dogs whereas activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower. β-carotene and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in diseased dogs when compared to healthy control. SOD activity was positively correlated with zinc (rs=0.65, rs=0.71 and P<0.05) and copper (rs=0.51, rs=0.63 and P<0.05) in both healthy and diseased dogs. MDA levels were negatively correlated with iron (rs=-0.49, rs=-0.78 and P<0.05), β-carotene (rs=-0.26, P>0.05; rs=-0.54, P<0.05, respectively) in both healthy and diseased dogs and with SOD activity in diseased dogs only (rs=-0.68, P<0.05). From the present study, it was concluded that generalized demodecosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in trace elements and oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance and this imbalance might be secondary to changes caused by demodectic mange.

  11. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  12. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  13. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  14. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Dhanani, Naila; Markel, Melissa E; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-12-05

    Clostridium perfringens has been suspected as an enteropathogen in dogs. However, its exact role in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in dogs remains unknown. Recent studies suggest the importance of an altered intestinal microbiota in the activation of virulence factors of enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between diarrhea, dysbiosis, and the presence of C. perfringens and its enterotoxin (CPE). Fecal samples were collected prospectively from 95 healthy control dogs and 104 dogs with GI disease and assessed for bacterial abundances and the presence of CPE using quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. C. perfringens was detected in all dogs. Potentially enterotoxigenic C. perfringens were detected in 33.7% (32/95) of healthy control dogs and 48.1% (50/104) diseased dogs, respectively. CPE was detected by ELISA in 1.0% (1/95) of control dogs and 16.3% (17/104) of diseased dogs. Abundances of Fusobacteria, Ruminococcaceae, Blautia, and Faecalibacterium were significantly decreased in diseased dogs, while abundances of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli were significantly increased compared to control dogs. The microbial dysbiosis was independent of the presence of the enterotoxigenic C. perfringens or CPE. In conclusion, the presence of CPE as well as fecal dysbiosis was associated with GI disease. However, the presence of C. perfringens was not indicative of GI disease in all cases of diarrhea, and the observed increased abundance of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens may be part of intestinal dysbiosis occurring in GI disease. The significance of an intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with GI disease deserves further attention.

  15. Utility of cardiac biomarkers during adulticide treatment of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Carretón, E; Morchón, R; González-Miguel, J; Juste, M C; Simón, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2013-10-18

    Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic disease of dogs and other carnivores, characterized by the presence of adult worms in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle, leading to pulmonary hypertension which may progress to congestive heart failure. Cardiac biomarkers are biological parameters that can be objectively measured as indicators of pathological processes, or to assess the response to therapeutic interventions. To evaluate the myocardial damage during the adulticide treatment in 15 heartworm-infected dogs with ivermectin, doxycycline and melarsomine, measurements of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were carried out on days 0, 60 and afterwards weekly on days 67, 75, 82, 91, 106, 113 and 120. Dogs were divided by low parasite burden (n=9) and high parasite burden (n=6). On day 0, dogs with high worm burden showed increased cTnI concentrations (3.62 ± 4.78 ng/ml) while dogs with low worm burden had concentrations similar to those of healthy dogs (0.78 ± 0.22 ng/ml), CK-MB concentrations were increased only in dogs with high parasite burden as well (54.4 ± 54.2U/l) and 26.6% (4/15) of the dogs showed pathological concentrations of myoglobin. On day 91, most dogs showed pathological concentrations of myoglobin, CK-MB and AST, probably due to the myositis associated to the intramuscular injection of melarsomine. The rest of the measurements made in the study, the biomarkers concentrations were within normal values, except for cTnI in dogs with high parasite burden, which remained above reference concentrations for healthy dogs during all the study. The evaluation of cardiac biomarkers seems to be a helpful test in the assessment of the myocardium in dogs with heartworm disease during the adulticide treatment.

  16. Serum levels of ochratoxin A in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD): a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    MEUCCI, Valentina; LUCI, Giacomo; VANNI, Michele; GUIDI, Grazia; PERONDI, Francesca; INTORRE, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by secondary metabolism of several fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is potentially nephrotoxic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic in several animal species and in humans. This toxin has been detected in several human food and animal feed. The aim of this study was to determine OTA in blood samples of healthy and affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) dogs. CKD group showed higher incidence of OTA-positivity than healthy dogs (96 vs. 56%) and a significantly higher median value of OTA plasma concentration (0.008 vs. 0.144 ng/ml). No significant correlation was observed between OTA levels and creatinine values in CKD dogs. This is the first study regarding OTA detection in plasma samples of healthy and CKD dogs; the presence of this toxin is higher in nephropatic patients but is not yet clear, if it is correlated with progression of the disease. PMID:27941297

  17. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  18. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  19. Familial anthropophobia in pointer dogs?

    PubMed

    Dykman, R A; Murphree, O D; Reese, W G

    1979-08-01

    This article assesses a dog model in terms of a proposed cross-species definition of phobia, the model referring to a strain of unstable dogs that has been produced by selection and inbreeding. The unstable dogs are contrasted with a strain of stable dogs. New findings are presented on approach and activity behavior toward three stimulus objects (man, another dog, and a sheet-covered chair) in a naturalistic setting. The fear response of unstable dogs to objects other than man habituates gradually, whereas the fear response to the sight of man is far more enduring, suggesting a relatively specific fear of man.

  20. Multiplex cytokine analyses in dogs with pyometra suggest involvement of KC-like chemokine in canine bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Iulia; Hagman, Ragnvi; Johannisson, Anders; Wang, Liya; Södersten, Fredrik; Wernersson, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection) are unspecific and, therefore, biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis are needed for appropriate treatment and patient survival. Pyometra, a common disease caused by bacterial infection of the uterus, results in sepsis in nearly 60% of cases in dogs. We used dogs with pyometra as a natural model for sepsis and collected serum samples from 39 dogs, of which 22 with pyometra and 17 healthy controls. Dogs with pyometra were further grouped into dogs with sepsis (n=18) and without sepsis (n=4). Serum concentrations of a panel of cytokines, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)-like, granulocyte-macrophages colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using multiplex analyses. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined using an automated immunoturbidimetric assay. In addition to physical examination hematological and serum biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the overall status of the dogs. Significantly higher concentrations of KC-like (757 vs 304 pg/ml) were detected in dogs with pyometra as compared to healthy dogs. Within the pyometra group, dogs with sepsis compared to dogs without sepsis had a higher KC-like concentration (873 vs 300 pg/ml). Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in dogs with pyometra compared to healthy dogs, regardless of the presence or absence of sepsis, and correlated negatively with KC-like. KC-like concentrations correlated positively with CRP, number of hospitalization days, number of monocytes, concentrations of IL-8, and percentage band neutrophils. Our data suggest that bacterial infection triggers the expression of KC-like and further studies are warranted of KC-like as a possible biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and uterine bacterial infection in dogs.

  1. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  2. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  3. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Megan M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; KuKanich, Butch

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was obtained at predetermined intervals for the determination of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 hours for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 hr*μg/mL for horses and 17.253 hr*μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 minutes of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. PMID:21492187

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs.

  5. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  6. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dillitzer, N; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2016-10-01

    A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p < 0.001). Some breeds were above average: Jack Russell Terrier, Dalmatian, small Munsterlander and Magyar Viszla, Bearded Collies, Sight Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age

  7. Pharmacokinetic study and evaluation of the safety of taurolidine for dogs with osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma in dogs and humans share many similarities and the dog has been described as an excellent model to study this disease. The median survival in dogs has not improved in the last 25 years. Taurolidine has been shown to be cytotoxic to canine and human osteosarcoma in vitro. The goals of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of taurolidine in healthy dogs and the safety of taurolidine in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin in dogs with osteosarcoma. Methods Two percent taurolidine was infused into six healthy dogs (150 mg/kg) over a period of two hours and blood samples were taken periodically. One dog received taurolidine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as its carrier and later received PVP-free taurolidine as did all other dogs in this study. Serum taurolidine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) online coupled to ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Subsequently, the same dose of taurolidine was infused to seven dogs with osteosarcoma also treated with doxorubicin or carboplatin. Results Taurolidine infusion was safe in 6 healthy dogs and there were no significant side effects. Maximum taurolidine serum concentrations ranged between 229 to 646 μM. The dog that received taurolidine with PVP had an immediate allergic reaction but recovered fully after the infusion was stopped. Three additional dogs with osteosarcoma received doxorubicin and taurolidine without PVP. Toxicities included dilated cardiomyopathy, protein-losing nephropathy, renal insufficiency and vasculopathy at the injection site. One dog was switched to carboplatin instead of doxorubicin and an additional 4 dogs with osteosarcoma received taurolidine-carboplatin combination. One incidence of ototoxicity occurred with the taurolidine- carboplatin combination. Bone marrow and gastro-intestinal toxicity did not appear increased with taurolidine over doxorubicin or carboplatin alone

  8. Prospective study of bacteraemia in acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs.

    PubMed

    Unterer, S; Lechner, E; Mueller, R S; Wolf, G; Straubinger, R K; Schulz, B S; Hartmann, K

    2015-03-21

    In dogs with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS), a serious loss of intestinal mucosal barrier integrity occurs. However, the incidence of bacterial translocation in dogs with idiopathic AHDS is not known. Thus, the objectives of this prospective study were to identify the incidence of bacteraemia, to evaluate the frequency of septic events and the influence of bacteraemia on various clinical and laboratory parameters, duration of hospitalisation and survival of dogs with idiopathic AHDS. The study included 87 dogs with idiopathic AHDS. Twenty-one healthy dogs served as control group. To evaluate clinical significance of bacterial translocation, blood culture results were compared between patients and controls. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with positive and negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference in either incidence of bacteraemia between patients with idiopathic AHDS (11 per cent) and controls (14 per cent) or in severity of clinical signs, laboratory parameters, duration of hospitalisation or mortality between blood culture-positive and culture-negative dogs with idiopathic AHDS. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of bacteraemia in dogs with idiopathic AHDS is low and not different from that of healthy control dogs. Bacteraemia does not influence the clinical course or survival and thus antibiotic treatment is not indicated to prevent sepsis.

  9. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

    PubMed

    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.

  10. Experimental gingivitis and frequency of tooth brushing in the beagle dog model. Clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Tromp, J A; van Rijn, L J; Jansen, J

    1986-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study clinical parameters when 3 different frequencies of tooth brushing were applied to sites of experimental gingivitis in beagle dogs. 12 beagle dogs, at the start of the experiment 2 years of age, were used. After a thorough cleaning, the maxillary left and right first, second and third premolars were brushed daily for a period of 8 weeks. Subsequently, for 4 weeks, all brushing was omitted in order to establish an experimental gingivitis. After this pre-experimental period, the dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each: one group was brushed 7 times a week, a second was brushed 3 times a week and the third group was brushed only once a week. Brushing was carried out for 24 weeks, only on the right sides of the upper jaws, the left upper jaws serving as controls. At regular intervals, plaque index, gingival index and probing depths were assessed. A brushing effect was calculated for each dog, to include information on all within-dog and between-dog variations. The present study demonstrated that only by brushing every day can clinically healthy gingivae be obtained in the beagle dog model with experimental gingivitis at baseline. The state of gingival health at baseline may be used to determined the frequency of brushing necessary to create or maintain healthy gingivae.

  11. Gingival health and frequency of tooth brushing in the beagle dog model. Clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Tromp, J A; Jansen, J; Pilot, T

    1986-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study clinical parameters when 3 different frequencies of plaque removal were applied to healthy gingivae in the beagle dog model. The maxillary first, second and third premolars of 12 beagle dogs, at the start of the experiment 2 years of age, were, after a thorough cleaning, submitted to daily plaque removal during a pre-experimental period of 8 weeks. At the start of the experiment, the dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each: one group was brushed 7 times a week, a second group was brushed 3 times a week and another group was brushed only once a week. Brushing was executed over a period of 24 weeks, on the right sides of the upper jaws. The left upper jaws served as controls. At regular intervals, the plaque index, the gingival index and probing depths were assessed. A "brushing effect" was calculated for each dog, to include information on all within-dog and between dog variations. Comparison of brushing effects revealed that in this experimental model, plaque removal with a frequency of 3 times a week was sufficient to preserve gingival health, whereas tooth brushing once a week resulted in gingival inflammation. Therefore it can be concluded that 3 times a week is the critical brushing frequency in the beagle dog model with healthy gingiva at baseline.

  12. Tumour gastrin expression and serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with gastric carcinoma are poor diagnostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Seim-Wikse, T; Kolbjørnsen, O; Jörundsson, E; Benestad, S L; Bjornvad, C R; Grotmol, T; Kristensen, A T; Skancke, E

    2014-01-01

    Hypergastrinaemia is observed commonly in human patients with gastric carcinoma and is associated with atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, both of which predispose to development of gastric tumours. Increased expression of gastrin is also described as a prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma in man. Gastric carcinoma is rare in dogs and generally carries a grave prognosis. In this study, the expression of gastrin was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric biopsy samples from 64 dogs with gastric carcinoma. Serum gastrin concentrations were measured in 15 of these dogs and compared with those of seven healthy control dogs. Tumour tissue expressed gastrin in 8% (5/64) of the dogs with gastric carcinoma. There was no significant difference in serum gastrin concentrations between dogs with gastric carcinoma and healthy controls (P = 0.08). Expression of gastrin in gastric carcinomas is less common in dogs than in man and may therefore not be relied on as a prognostic marker in this species. Serum gastrin concentration alone is also not a useful biomarker for gastric carcinoma in dogs.

  13. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  14. Cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs with mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulou, A; Guazzetti, S; Borghetti, P; De Angelis, E; Quintavalla, C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). In humans with CHF, increased production and high plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-8 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have been associated with disease progression and a negative prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in cytokine blood mRNA expression exist between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD); to determine if the expression was related to the severity of MMVD, and to detect any correlations with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodelling. Twenty-three dogs with MMVD of varying severity and six clinically healthy dogs were included in the study. Whole blood samples were obtained for measurement of mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1, TNF-α by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). There were statistically significant differences between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD for IL-8 and TGF-β1 gene expression. IL-8 expression increased with increasing MMVD severity and TGF-β1 expression was higher in asymptomatic dogs with echocardiographic signs of cardiac remodelling (American College Veterinary Internal Medicine class B2) than in all other groups. These results could suggest the involvement of these cytokines at different stages of the disease.

  15. Serum biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C P; Martínez-Subiela, S; Hernández-Ruiz, J; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Cerón, J J; Allenspach, K

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study and compare a panel of various serum biomarkers evaluating both the antioxidant response and oxidative damage in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eighteen dogs with IBD and 20 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), total thiol concentrations, and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity were evaluated in serum to determine antioxidant response. To evaluate oxidative status, ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species production (ROS) concentrations in serum were determined. Mean concentrations of all antioxidant biomarkers analyzed, with exception of FRAP, were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the sera of dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. The oxidant markers studied were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in sera of dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. These findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress could play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine IBD.

  16. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R A; Pugh, R N

    2002-06-01

    Dogs are the source of a wide range of zoonotic infections that pose a significant threat to human health. This is particularly the case for immunocompromised people, although there are few robust studies that determine immunosuppression as a risk factor for transmission of zoonoses from dogs to humans. An increasing proportion of human society is immunodeficient, principally through the advent of HIV infection and through more people, particularly the expanding elderly group, being subjected to immunosuppressive agents. This is happening at a time when more such people are capitalizing on the acknowledged benefits of dog ownership, making for a potentially dangerous mix. Enteric pathogens (for example, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium species, that may be canine derived) are a frequent risk to the health of immunocompromised persons. Veterinarians and physicians can be criticised for not communicating with each other, and for not providing adequate risk assessment to pet owners. There is scope for voluntary groups to provide information and support for the immunosuppressed who wish to keep their dogs. Key recommendations are to maintain a clean personal environment and intact mucocutaneous barriers. Public health professionals could help rectify the current communications gap between veterinary and medical staff and so facilitate in the appropriate management of dog-owning immunocompromised people.

  17. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kaitlyn E.; Hoffman, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles) and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1) logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2) factors impacting dog selection; (3) medical requirements; (4) partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5) perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements. PMID:26848694

  18. Bartonella quintana Endocarditis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis. PMID:17326937

  19. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  20. Serovars of Leptospira isolated from dogs and rodents.

    PubMed

    Suepaul, S M; Carrington, C V F; Campbell, M; Borde, G; Adesiyun, A A

    2010-07-01

    We determined the frequency of isolation of Leptospira from dogs and rodents, the serovars of Leptospira, and the clinical, gross and histological manifestations in dogs with leptospirosis in Trinidad. From dogs, samples of urine, blood and kidney were collected while only kidney and blood samples of trapped rodents were used. Isolates were cultured and serotyped using a panel of 23 international serovars and monoclonal antibodies. The risk factors for leptospirosis were also determined in owned dogs using a standard questionnaire. Of a total of 468 animals investigated for Leptospira, 70 (15.0%) were positive, comprising nine (18.0%) of 50 suspected canine leptospirosis cases, seven (3.4%) of 207 stray dogs and 54 (25.6%) of 211 rodents. The observation that rodents have a statistically (P<0.05, chi2) higher frequency of isolation emphasizes the importance of rodents as reservoirs of leptospirosis in the country. Copenhageni was the predominant serovar found in 100.0% (7/7), 33.3% (2/6) and 68.5% (37/54) of isolates from suspected canine leptospirosis cases, stray dogs and rodents, respectively. Serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, the two serovars present in the commercial vaccines used locally, were detected in one (1.5%) and zero (0.0%) isolates respectively of the 67 tested. Data provided suggest that the apparent vaccine failure may be a consequence of the fact that the predominant serovar (Copenhageni) detected in sick, apparently healthy dogs and in rodents is not contained in the vaccines used locally to protect dogs against canine leptospirosis.

  1. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  2. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  3. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  4. NCR1+ cells in dogs show phenotypic characteristics of natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl-Rosado, Christine; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Brun-Hansen, Hege C; Storset, Anne K

    2015-03-01

    No specific markers for natural killer (NK) cells in dogs have currently been described. NCR1 (NKp46, CD355) has been considered a pan species NK cell marker and is expressed on most or all NK cells in all species investigated except for the pig which has both a NCR1(+) and a NCR1(-) population. In this study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 healthy dogs, 37 dogs with a clinical diagnosis, including a dog diagnosed with LGL leukemia, and tissue samples from 8 dogs were evaluated for NCR1(+) expression by a cross reacting anti bovine NCR1 antibody. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were found in the blood of 93 % of healthy dogs and comprised up to 2.5 % of lymphocytes in PBMC. In a selection of healthy dogs, sampling and immunophenotyping were repeated throughout a period of 1 year revealing a substantial variation in the percentage of CD3(-)NCR1(+) over time. Dogs allocated to 8 disease groups had comparable amounts of CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells in PBMC to the healthy individuals. All organs examined including liver, spleen and lymph nodes contained CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells. Circulating CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were further characterized as CD56(-)GranzymeB(+)CD8(-). A CD3(+)NCR1(+) population was observed in PBMC in 79 % of the healthy dogs examined representing at the most 4.8 % of the lymphocyte population. In canine samples examined for CD56 expression, CD56(+) cells were all CD3(+) and NCR1(-). To our knowledge, this is the first examination of NCR1 expression in the dog. The study shows that this NK cell associated receptor is expressed both on populations of CD3(+) and CD3(-) blood lymphocytes in dogs and the receptor is found on a CD3(+) GranzymeB(+) CD8(+) leukemia. Our results support that CD56 is expressed only on CD3(+) cells in dogs and shows that NCR1 defines a different CD3(+) lymphocyte population than CD56(+)CD3(+) cells in this species. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells may represent canine NK cells.

  5. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  6. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  7. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals.

  8. Serological report of pandemic and seasonal human influenza virus infection in dogs in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2014-11-01

    From January to July 2012, we looked for evidence of subclinical A (H1N1) pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses infections in healthy dogs in China. Sera from a total of 1920 dogs were collected from Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces. We also examined archived sera from 66 dogs and cats that were collected during 2008 from these provinces. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, we found that only the dogs sampled in 2012 had elevated antibodies (≥ 1:32) against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and seasonal human influenza viruses: Of the 1920 dog sera, 20.5 % (n = 393) had elevated antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 by the HI assay, 1.1 % (n = 22), and 4.7 % (n = 91) of the 1920 dogs sera had elevated antibodies against human seasonal H1N1 influenza virus and human seasonal H3N2 influenza virus by the HI assay. Compared with dogs that were raised on farms, dogs that were raised as pets were more likely to have elevated antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses. Seropositivity was highest among pet dogs, which likely had more diverse and frequent exposures to humans than farm dogs. These findings will help us better understand which influenza A viruses are present in dogs and will contribute to the prevention and control of influenza A virus. Moreover, further in-depth study is necessary for us to understand what roles dogs play in the ecology of influenza A.

  9. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    PubMed

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  10. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  11. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  12. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  13. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

  14. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  15. Detection of autoantibodies against survivin in sera from cancer dogs.

    PubMed

    Tango, Yumiko; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Asano, Kazushi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Astuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Survivin overexpression has been reported in relation to tumor malignancy, suggesting that it is an unfavorable prognostic marker, and antibody responses to this protein have been confirmed in human cancer patients. In this study, we investigated antibody responses to survivin in canine cancer cases, and examined the prevalence of such responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant canine survivin protein as the antigen. The cut-off value for positivity in the anti-survivin ELISA was 0.35, as determined using the mean absorbance +2 S.D. of samples from healthy dogs. Sera from 16 of 59 (27.1%) cancer and 3 of 25 (12%) non-cancer disease dogs were positive on ELISA. The highest positivity rates (>50%) among the cancer cases were seen in dogs with mammary tumor, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of blood copper stable isotopes ratio (65) Cu/(63) Cu as a biomarker of cancer in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chamel, G; Gourlan, A T; Télouk, P; Sayag, D; Milliard, V; Loiseau, C; Simon, M; Buff, S; Ponce, F

    2016-10-06

    Previous studies in humans with breast, colorectal or liver cancer showed that neoplasia was associated with a modification of the blood ratio between (65) Cu and (63) Cu (∂Cu). The aim of the present study was to compare the blood ∂Cu of dogs with cancer to healthy controls or dogs with non-oncologic disease. One hundred and seventeen dogs were included in the study (35 dogs with cancer, 33 dogs with non-neoplastic disease, and 49 healthy controls). The ∂Cu of dogs with cancer was significantly lower than the ratio of healthy controls (P < 0.0001) but not significantly different from dogs with non-oncologic disease. Six dogs with lymphoma were also evaluated after they achieved clinical remission and five out of six had an increase of ∂Cu. Further studies are warranted but these results suggest that ∂Cu could help in the diagnosis of cancer in a controlled clinical context, and may be a potential biomarker for the follow-up of cancer.

  17. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Older, Caitlin E.; Mansell, Joanne M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium—two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies. PMID:26542075

  18. Who Let the Dogs Out? Communicating First Nations Perspectives on a Canine Veterinary Intervention Through Digital Storytelling.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Okemow, Crystal; Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Beatch, Heather; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Dog-related human injuries affect public safety and animal welfare, and occur more frequently in rural, remote, and Indigenous communities than in urban centres in Canada. Little work has been done to identify the perspectives of those people most heavily affected by this issue or to report successful dog management programs. This project was undertaken by veterinarians and public health workers with the goal of documenting First Nations perspectives on dogs, and educating other rural health workers about introducing animal management services to Indigenous communities. We recruited 10-14 residents and healthcare workers from three First Nations to take dog-related photos in their communities and participate in group interviews during the summer of 2014. Audiovisual data were synthesised into four digital stories exploring the following aspects of participant relationships with community dogs: (1) Spay/neuter clinics; (2) Role of the dog (past and present); (3) Human-animal bond; and (4) Healthy dogs as a part of healthy communities. These videos document changes in dog husbandry behaviour, new acceptance of spay/neuter, three-way knowledge transfer between residents, researchers, and policy makers, and an overall desire to sustain the positive outcomes of the pilot dog management project. This work highlights cultural beliefs and success strategies that might guide other programs providing veterinary services in First Nations communities.

  19. Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; Banach, Tomasz; Bartnicki, Michał; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Łyp, Paweł; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. The study was conducted on two groups of dogs--healthy dogs and dogs infected with B. canis canis which demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS technique revealed the presence of a protein fraction of 51-52 kDa in the blood serum of all the animals infected with the protozoa, which was not found in the serum of healthy dogs. The proteins are suspected to be disease markers, whereas the MALDI-TOF technique itself has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis.

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of adrenal glands in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Paolo; Orlandi, Riccardo; Paloni, Chiara; Rubini, Giuseppe; Fonti, Paolo; Peterson, Mark E; Boiti, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    A noninvasive method for quantifying adrenal gland vascular patterns could be helpful for improving detection of adrenal gland disease in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of adrenal glands in 18 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) vs. four clinically healthy dogs. Each dog received a bolus of the contrast agent (SonoVue®, 0.03 ml/kg of body weight) into the cephalic vein, immediately followed by a 5 ml saline flush. Dynamic contrast enhancement was analyzed using time-intensity curves in two regions of interest drawn manually in the caudal part of the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. In healthy dogs, contrast enhancement distribution was homogeneous and exhibited increased intensity from the medulla to the cortex. In the washout phase, there was a gradual and homogeneous decrease of enhancement of the adrenal gland. For all dogs with PDH, there was rapid, chaotic, and simultaneous contrast enhancement in both the medulla and cortex. Three distinct perfusion patterns were observed. Peak perfusion intensity was approximately twice as high (P < 0.05) in dogs with PDH compared with that of healthy dogs (28.90 ± 10.36 vs. 48.47 ± 15.28, respectively). In dogs with PDH, adrenal blood flow and blood volume values were approximately two- to fourfold (P < 0.05) greater than those of controls. Findings from the present study support the use of CEUS as a clinical tool for characterizing canine adrenal gland disease based on changes in vascular patterns.

  1. Clinical and pathologic findings of blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    DeVries, S E; Galey, F D; Namikoshi, M; Woo, J C

    1993-07-01

    A healthy dog developed signs of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting water from a tide pool containing blue-green algae. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred, and the dog was euthanized 52 hours later. At necropsy, the liver was large, friable, and discolored a dark red. Histopathology showed hepatocyte dissociation, degeneration, and necrosis. The alga was identified as Microcystis aeruginosa, a known hepatotoxin. The intraperitoneal administration of lyophilized cell material from the bloom caused hepatic necrosis in mice.

  2. Alteration of the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy.

  3. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  4. Investigation of a screening programme and the possible identification of biomarkers for early disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in Bernese Mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L N; McEvoy, F; Jessen, L R; Kristensen, A T

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to construct a screening programme for disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS) in Bernese Mountain dogs using diagnostic imaging and blood analysis and evaluate blood borne biomarkers as early disease detection biomarkers. Healthy Bernese Mountain dogs were screened on four occasions in an attempt to detect early disease. Eleven blood borne biomarkers were examined for their worth as early tumour biomarkers. During 2.5 years, five dogs with early DHS were identified; four of these by diagnostic imaging. No dogs developed symptomatic DHS without being detected within 6 months of the screening programme. Only serum ferritin showed potential as a blood borne marker of the disease. Median survival times for the dogs with early DHS were 226 days. Screening programmes every 6 months for Bernese Mountain dogs over 4 years of age including diagnostic imaging and ferritin measurements may identify early DHS.

  5. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  6. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  7. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  8. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Elhiblu, M. A.; Dua, K.; Mohindroo, J.; Mahajan, S. K.; Sood, N. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG), and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for liver cirrhosis

  9. Reproductive patterns of stray male dogs in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Segura-Correa, J C; Bolio-Gonzalez, M E; Jiménez-Coello, M; Linde Forsberg, C

    2006-12-01

    Two studies were performed to determine annual reproductive patterns in stray male dogs in the tropics. In Study 1, four dogs housed individually outdoors were monitored once monthly for 12 months, including collection and assessment of semen, measurements of scrotal width, and determination of serum testosterone and prolactin concentrations. In Study 2 (conducted concurrently), a single blood sample (for serum testosterone concentration) was collected from 220 clinically healthy dogs, and after euthanasia, scrotal width and morphology of epididymal sperm were determined. The year was divided into three seasons: warm-dry (March to June); warm-humid (July to October) and fresh-humid (November to February). In Study 1, scrotal width, ejaculate volume, sperm count and motility were significantly lower during the fresh-humid season and sperm midpiece abnormalities were significantly more common during the warm-humid and fresh-humid seasons. Serum testosterone concentrations remained constant during the year. Prolactin concentrations did not differ significantly among seasons, but had a well-defined increase from the beginning of March to the end of August. In Study 2, sperm morphology was similar to in Study 1 and serum testosterone concentrations varied nonsignificantly during the year. Environmental factors, e.g. daylength may have influenced circannual changes in prolactin secretion. Seasonal variations in some reproductive tract and seminal traits were significant but of small magnitude and the percentage of morphologically normal sperm did not vary significantly among seasons. In conclusion, healthy male dogs constantly produced sperm and were apparently fertile throughout the year.

  10. MicroRNA expression profiling of cat and dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yabuki, Akira; Horino, Taro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. Here, we present the first analysis of miRNA expression in the kidneys of healthy cats and dogs. Kidneys were divided into renal cortex (CO) and medulla (MD), and RNA sequence analysis was performed using the mouse genome as a reference. A total of 277, 276, 295, and 297 miRNAs were detected in cat CO, cat MD, dog CO, and dog MD, respectively. By comparing the expression ratio of CO to MD, we identified highly expressed miRNAs in each tissue as follows: 41 miRNAs including miR-192-5p in cat CO; 45 miRNAs including miR-323-3p in dog CO; 78 miRNAs including miR-20a-5p in cat MD; and 11 miRNAs including miR-132-5p in dog MD. Further, the target mRNAs of these miRNAs were identified. These data provide veterinary medicine critical information regarding renal miRNA expression.

  11. Propagation of elite rescue dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficiency of two oocyte activation culture media to produce cloned dogs from an elite rescue dog and to analyze their behavioral tendencies. In somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure, fused couplets were activated by calcium ionophore treatment for 4 min, cultured in two media: modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) with 1.9 mmol/L 6-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (SOF-DMAP) or porcine zygote medium (PZM-5) with 1.9 mmol/L DMAP (PZM-DMAP) for 4 h, and then were transferred into recipients. After embryo transfer, pregnancy was detected in one out of three surrogate mothers that received cloned embryos from the PZM-DMAP group (33.3%), and one pregnancy (25%) was detected in four surrogate mothers receiving cloned embryos from the SOF-DMAP group. Each pregnant dog gave birth to one healthy cloned puppy by cesarean section. We conducted the puppy aptitude test with two cloned puppies; the two cloned puppies were classified as the same type, accepting humans and leaders easily. The present study indicated that the type of medium used in 6-DMAP culture did not increase in cloning efficiency and dogs cloned using donor cells derived from one elite dog have similar behavioral tendencies.

  12. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Cadieu, Jennifer; Kiupel, Matti; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steve R; Mansell, Joanne

    2012-05-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis has been previously reported in human beings, rarely reported in cats, and reported in 1 dog with systemic toxoplasmosis. The present report describes 2 cases of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in 2 dogs treated with immunosuppressive therapy. One of the dogs developed generalized cutaneous pustules and pruritus, and the other dog only had a single subcutaneous nodule. Microscopically, skin biopsies showed moderate to severe pyogranulomatous and necrotizing dermatitis and panniculitis, with multifocal vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Single or aggregates of protozoal tachyzoites were mostly intracytoplasmic and occasionally extracellular. The etiology was confirmed in both cases by immunohistochemistry and by polymerase chain reaction assays, which were followed by nucleic acid sequencing. Both patients were treated with clindamycin. The dog with generalized lesions developed pulmonary and neurological signs and was euthanized. The dog with a single nodule recovered completely with no remission of cutaneous lesions.

  13. Human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program.

    PubMed

    Koda, N; Shimoju, S

    1999-06-01

    We analyzed dyadic interactions between 12 neutered dogs (6 females and 6 males) and 44 humans (20 women, 14 men, and 10 girls) who were unfamiliar with each other. We also examined the effect of sex differences in dogs and humans as well as age differences in humans on human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program. Female dogs more actively regulated their distance from humans than male dogs. Dogs made contact with women more frequently than with men, and men made contact with dogs more frequently than women. Girls initiated interactions with dogs more frequently than women; girls formed reciprocal interactions with dogs less frequently than women.

  14. A study of skin diseases in dogs and cats. III. III. Microflora of the skin of dogs with chronic eczema.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, S; Krogh, H V

    1978-01-01

    The microflora of the skin was studied in 10 dogs with chronic eczema without clinical signs of secondary infection (Table I). The skin surface was swabbed at 7 different sites, making a total of 70 swabs, 25 of which were taken from visibly inflamed areas and 45 from apparently unaffected skin (Table II). Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, micrococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and Acinetobacter spp. were found consistently. Ten different Gram-negative bacteria, 3 different Gram-positive bacteria, and 2 yeasts were found to occur sporadically (Table III). Compared to a group of 10 healthy dogs a more prolific growth of aerobic microorganisms, a greater number of sites carrying Staph. aureus, and a higher recovery of Gram-negative transients were found in dogs with eczema (Table IV--VII). Within the group of dogs with eczema the growth of Staph. aureus was significantly heavier from eczematous skin areas than from clinically normal skin (Table VIII). In dogs with non-infective dermatitides the colonization of the skin by potentially pathogenic microorganisms may have to be considered in the clinical handling of these diseases.

  15. Pet Dogs and Children’s Health: Opportunities for Chronic Disease Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul; Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Olson, Ardis L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Positive associations between having a pet dog and adult health outcomes have been documented; however, little evidence exists regarding the benefits of pet dogs for young children. This study investigates the hypothesis that pet dogs are positively associated with healthy weight and mental health among children. Methods This cross-sectional study accrued a consecutive sample of children over 18 months in a pediatric primary care setting. The study enrolled 643 children (mean age, 6.7 years); 96% were white, 45% were female, 56% were privately insured, and 58% had pet dogs in the home. Before an annual visit, parents of children aged 4 to 10 years completed the DartScreen, a comprehensive Web-based health risk screener administered using an electronic tablet. The screener domains were child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, mental health, and pet-related questions. Results Children with and children without pet dogs did not differ in BMI (P = .80), screen time of 2 hours or less (P = 0.99), or physical activity (P = .07). A lower percentage of children with dogs (12%) met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5) of 3 or more, compared with children without dogs (21%, P = .002). The mean SCARED-5 score was lower among children with dogs (1.13) compared with children without dogs (1.40; P = .01). This relationship was retained in multivariate analysis after controlling for several covariates. Conclusions Having a pet dog in the home was associated with a decreased probability of childhood anxiety. Future studies need to establish whether this relationship is causal and, if so, how pet dogs alleviate childhood anxiety. PMID:26605705

  16. Diagnosis algorithm for leptospirosis in dogs: disease and vaccination effects on the serological results.

    PubMed

    Andre-Fontaine, G

    2013-05-11

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite their current vaccination. Vet surgeons may use a serological test to verify their clinical observations. The gold standard is the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). After infection, the dog produces agglutinating antibodies against the lipopolyosidic antigens shared by the infectious strain but also, after vaccination, against the lipopolyosidic antigens shared by the serovars used in the bacterins (Leptospira species serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola in most countries). MATs were performed in a group of 102 healthy field dogs and a group of 6 Canicola-challenged dogs. A diagnosis algorithm was constructed based on age, previous vaccinations, kinetics of the agglutinating antibodies after infection or vaccination and the delay after onset of the disease. This algorithm was applied to 169 well-documented sera (clinical and vaccine data) from 272 sick dogs with suspected leptospirosis. Totally, 102 dogs were vaccinated according to the usual vaccination scheme and 30 were not vaccinated. Leptospirosis was confirmed by MAT in 37/102 (36.2 per cent) vaccinated dogs and remained probable in 14 others (13.7 per cent), thus indicating the permanent exposure of dogs and the weakness of the protection offered by the current vaccines to pathogenic Leptospira.

  17. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  18. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  19. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1–5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs’ behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner’s emotion and reactivity to other dogs’ behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner’s empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog’s emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement “My dog is more important for me than any human being”. In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose

  20. Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: a pilot study with children and dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C; Engle, Randall W

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n: 55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Seven healthy young dogs with similar exposure to Mexico City air pollution had brain MRI, measurement of mRNA abundance of two inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin 1 beta in target brain areas, and histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. Children with no known risk factors for neurological or cognitive disorders residing in a polluted urban environment exhibited significant deficits in a combination of fluid and crystallized cognition tasks. Fifty-six percent of Mexico City children tested showed prefrontal white matter hyperintense lesions and similar lesions were observed in dogs (57%). Exposed dogs had frontal lesions with vascular subcortical pathology associated with neuroinflammation, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces, gliosis, and ultrafine particulate matter deposition. Based on the MRI findings, the prefrontal cortex was a target anatomical region in Mexico City children and its damage could have contributed to their cognitive dysfunction. The present work presents a groundbreaking, interdisciplinary methodology for addressing relationships between environmental pollution, structural brain alterations by MRI, and cognitive deficits/delays in healthy children.

  1. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG, IgM and leptospiral antigens. Three ...

  3. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  4. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected.

  5. Evidence of household transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae between humans and dogs – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungquist, Oskar; Ljungquist, Ditte; Myrenås, Mattias; Rydén, Cecilia; Finn, Maria; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCRE) are an increasing healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The spread of ESCRE is complex with multiple reservoirs and different transmission routes. The aim of this study was to investigate if ESCRE carriage in dogs is more prevalent in households with a known human carrier, compared to households where humans are known to be negative for ESCRE. Identical ESCRE strains in humans and dogs of the same household would suggest a possible spread between humans and dogs. Methods Twenty-two dog owners with a positive rectal culture for ESCRE each collected a rectal sample from their dog. In addition, a control group of 29 healthy dog owners with a documented negative rectal culture for ESCRE each sampled their household dog. Samples were cultivated for ESCRE using selective methods. In households where both humans and dogs carried ESCRE, isolates were further analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc diffusion or microdilution and for genotype and genetic relatedness using molecular methods. Results In 2 of 22 households studied, identical ESCRE strains with respect to bacterial species, antibiogram, genotype, and MLVA type were found in humans and dogs. The ESCRE found in the two households were ESBL-producing E. coli with the resistance gene blaCTX-M-27 and AmpC-producing E. coli with blaCMY-2, blaTEM-1. ESCRE were not found in dogs in the control group. Conclusions In households where humans are carrying ESCRE, identical strains were to a limited extent found also in household dogs, indicating a transfer between humans and dogs. In contrast, ESCRE were not found in dogs in households without human carriers. PMID:27330043

  6. TGF-β1 serum concentrations and receptor expressions in the lens capsular of dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stephan; Linek, Jens; Loesenbeck, Gerhard; Schüttler, Julia; Gaedke, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis as complication of diabetes mellitus is known in humans. Because TGF-β1induces fibrosis and is elevated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus we measured this growth factor in serum of dogs with diabetes mellitus and compared it with healthy dogs and those with fibrotic diseases. Further we measured the expression of TGF-β1receptor on lens capsule to investigate possible association between diabetes mellitus and cataract associated alterations. TGF-β1 was measured in serum of 12 dogs with diabetes mellitus, 20 healthy controls and 12 dogs with fibrotic diseases. Dogs with diabetes mellitus and fibrotic diseases have significantly increased TGF-β1 serum concentrations compared to healthy controls. Some dogs with diabetes mellitus showed increased expression of TGF-β1 receptor in lens capsule. Based on our observations we can conclude that TGF-β1 elevation in dogs with diabetes mellitus may induces complications of the disease and may participates on lens alteration.

  7. TGF-β1 serum concentrations and receptor expressions in the lens capsular of dogs with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Stephan; Linek, Jens; Loesenbeck, Gerhard; Schüttler, Julia; Gaedke, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis as complication of diabetes mellitus is known in humans. Because TGF-β1induces fibrosis and is elevated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus we measured this growth factor in serum of dogs with diabetes mellitus and compared it with healthy dogs and those with fibrotic diseases. Further we measured the expression of TGF-β1receptor on lens capsule to investigate possible association between diabetes mellitus and cataract associated alterations. TGF-β1 was measured in serum of 12 dogs with diabetes mellitus, 20 healthy controls and 12 dogs with fibrotic diseases. Dogs with diabetes mellitus and fibrotic diseases have significantly increased TGF-β1 serum concentrations compared to healthy controls. Some dogs with diabetes mellitus showed increased expression of TGF-β1 receptor in lens capsule. Based on our observations we can conclude that TGF-β1 elevation in dogs with diabetes mellitus may induces complications of the disease and may participates on lens alteration. PMID:28180095

  8. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  9. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports.

  10. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  11. Development and evaluation of a flow cytometry microsphere assay to detect anti-histone antibody in dogs.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shoma; Wilkerson, Melinda J; Shuman, Wilma; Harkin, Kenneth R

    2005-09-15

    Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) is one of the diagnostic parameters that support a diagnosis of autoimmune disorders in humans, dogs, and horses, particularly the condition systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The most commonly used method for detecting ANA in canine serum is the indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) that detects dog IgG with reactivity towards mammalian cell nuclei. Interpretation of the IFA results is very subjective and dependent on the source of tissue/cellular substrate. We have developed a flow cytometry based assay to detect canine serum antibodies specific to histones. Histones were chosen as the target antigen because these nuclear proteins are the most common nuclear substrate for ANA in dogs with SLE. Microsphere beads were coated with histones and incubated with canine sera. Bound anti-histone antibodies were detected by FITC-conjugated rabbit F(ab')2 anti-dog IgG. Sera from four groups of dogs (47 dogs total) were tested for anti-histone antibodies and compared with the traditional IFA assay. The groups included 15 healthy dogs, 15 dogs with noninflammatory diseases, 9 dogs with polyarthritis and positive ANA, and 8 German shepherds with perianal fistulas. The microsphere assay results indicated that only one dog in the noninflammatory group and four out of nine dogs in the polyarthritis group had mean fluorescent intensity values above our established cut-off (defined as 2 S.D. above the mean of healthy controls). There was moderate agreement between the anti-histone assay and the traditional ANA (kappa statistic=0.54). Absorption of ANA positive serum with total histones dramatically diminished the fluorescent signal detected by flow cytometry and the speckled nuclear pattern observed by IFA, whereas preabsorption did not change the diffuse nuclear staining pattern. These findings indicate that the anti-histone assay will not replace the ANA test and that other nuclear proteins, such as ribonucleoproteins may contribute to the

  12. Comparison of continuous versus intermittent enteral feeding in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Guilford, W G; Lawoko, C R

    1996-01-01

    In humans, continuous intragastric feeding has been suggested to cause fewer gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects, better weight gain and nitrogen balance, and less glucose intolerance than bolus feeding. The aim of this study was to compare the GI adverse effects and the metabolic and nutritional consequences of intragastric feeding of an enteral formula (Jevity; Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH) intermittently or continuously to dogs. Using a cross-over study design, 10 healthy dogs were randomly assigned to be fed Jevity via gastrostomy tube either continuously (CF) or in 3 bolus meals/day (IF) for 10 days. The dogs were weighed daily. Serum chemistry and glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed before and after each 10-day trial period. Fecal dry matter (FDM), serum osmolality (sOsm), and serum electrolytes (sElec) were determined 5 times during each 10 day trial period. Urine specific gravity was checked intermittently. Hydrogen breath tests were performed on days 0, 3, and 10. During the last 6 days of each trial period, nitrogen balance and digestibility of the Jevity were determined. There were no GI adverse effects noted on either protocol, and no significant (P > .05) differences in body weights, serum chemistry results, sElec, sOsm, GTT, hydrogen breath tests, digestibility trials, or nitrogen balance. There was a significant (P < .05) decrease in FDM over time for both protocols, and a significant (P < .05) increase in urine volume for IF compared with CF. In summary, there were no significant differences between treatments in weight maintenance, GI adverse effects, GTT, nitrogen balance, or feed digestibility. Changes in FDM suggest that the dogs received excess water. In conclusion, this study of healthy dogs provides no support for the preferential use of continuous intragastric feeding over bolus feeding.

  13. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  14. A service dog in group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Brian; Collins, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Service dogs are sanctioned by the Americans with Disabilities Act as having protected rights allowing them to assist owners with disabilities. These dogs are appearing with increasing frequency in healthcare settings, and it is important for healthcare providers to understand the rules and regulations given to service animals and owners. We discuss processes that transpired when a service dog was brought into a psychodynamic psychotherapy group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the unintended consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 2010 as it concerns service dogs and the impact on the group process. Problems resulting from the introduction of service dogs into therapy groups should be anticipated and explicitly discussed in the course of the group's transactions.

  15. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  16. Immunologic Progression of Canine Leishmaniosis Following Vertical Transmission in United States Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G.; Esch, Kevin J.; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M.

    2015-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto, 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4+ immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis. PMID:26827836

  17. Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

    2013-09-13

    Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the

  18. Achieving Population-Level Immunity to Rabies in Free-Roaming Dogs in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Schoeman, Johan P.; Restif, Olivier; Whay, Helen R.; Goddard, Amelia; Fooks, Anthony R.; Damriyasa, I. Made; Wood, James L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least two years to ensure

  19. Immunologic progression of canine leishmaniosis following vertical transmission in United States dogs.

    PubMed

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G; Esch, Kevin J; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M; Petersen, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto et al., 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4(+) immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis.

  20. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  1. Healthy Places for Healthy People 2016 Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Application form for the 2016 round of Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance to help communities work with health care partners to revitalize downtowns and neighborhoods while helping residents live healthier lives.

  2. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  3. Epidemiological Investigation of Asymptomatic Dogs with Leishmania Infection in Southwestern China Where Visceral Leishmaniasis is Intractable

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gui-Hua; Yin, Kun; Zhong, Wei-Xia; Xiao, Ting; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Cui, Yong; Liu, Gong-Zhen; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Heishui county, located in northwest Sichuan province, southwestern China, is an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is the most intractable area. VL is never destroyed in it. Asymptomatic dogs (Leishmania parasites have been diagnosed but clinically healthy) are considered to be a potential reservoir host in zoonotic VL area, and most can lead to infection of individuals, that is a new challenge for controlling VL in humans. The present study aimed to assess the Leishmania infection rate of asymptomatic dogs in Heishui county. Total 105 asymptomatic domestic dogs were gathered from 4 districts in Heishui county to investigate the infection rate with serological and molecular methods based on ELISA and kinetoplast minicircle DNA(kDNA) PCR, respectively. Out of 105 dogs, 44 (41.9%) were positive by more than 1 method; 21 (20.0%) were positive by ELISA, and 30 (28.6%) were positive by kDNA-PCR. Our study showed that Leishmania infection of domestic dogs which is clinically healthy is prevalent in the studied district, and the asymptomatic dogs infected by Leishmania may be the primary reason for the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in the area. PMID:28095666

  4. Genotyping and characterisation of the secretory lipolytic enzymes of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates collected from dogs

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hideshi; Kumeda, Yuko; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Hosomi, Koji; Kozaki, Shunji; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Kohda, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malassezia species are commensals of normal skin microbial flora of humans and animals. These may become pathogenic under certain conditions such as those associated with atopic dermatitis or otitis externa in dogs. Material and methods Isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis were obtained from 27 dogs with healthy external ears and 32 dogs with otitis externa. Isolates were characterised on the basis of their first internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and internal spacer 1 (IGS1) sequences. Their extracellular lipase and phospholipase activity were also analysed. Three types of phospholipase inhibitor were used to identify the subclasses of phospholipase associated with otitis externa. Results The clinical isolates were classified into three ITS and three IGS1 sequence types. No significant differences in pathogenicity were detected among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes, and all of the isolates exhibited similar levels of lipase activity. The isolates derived from the dogs with otitis externa showed significantly higher phospholipase activity than those obtained from the dogs with healthy external ears. A phospholipase D inhibitor reduced the phospholipase activity of the isolates obtained from the dogs with otitis externa. Conclusions This study did not show any significant differences in pathogenicity among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes but does suggest that phospholipase D might be one of the virulence factors involved in the inflammation of the external ear caused by M. pachydermatis. PMID:26392911

  5. Prevalence of antibody against rabies among confined, free-roaming and stray dogs in a transit city of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Aiyedun, Julius O; Emikpe, Benjamin O

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of anti-glycoprotein antibodies against rabies virus is studied in the sera of confined, free-roaming and stray dogs in Ilorin, the capital city of Kwara State, Nigeria. A quantitative indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (i-ELISA) was used to detect rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in sera from 116 confined, 61 free-roaming, and 13 stray dogs. The sera were collected between June and December 2008 from apparently healthy dogs. Of these 190 dogs, 81 (42.6%), consisting of 57 confined (49.1%), 23 free-roaming (37.7%) and 1 stray (7.7%), had antibody titres that exceeded the positive threshold of 0.5 equivalent units (eu)/ml against rabies, while 109 (57.4%) presented titres that were below the threshold. Prevalence of rabies anti-glycoprotein antibody was higher in the confined dogs compared to free-roaming and stray dogs. Our results indicated low anti-rabies sero-prevalence (42.6%) in the dog population of Ilorin, a transit city that lies between northern and southern Nigeria. This is the first community-based prevalence report on the anti-rabies serological profile of dogs in Nigeria. The need for primary and booster mass vaccination of dogs and the impact of these findings on rabies control in Nigeria are discussed.

  6. Effects of P-MAPA immunomodulator on Toll-like receptor 2, ROS, nitric oxide, MAPKp38 and IKK in PBMC and macrophages from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, L M; Perosso, J; Almeida, B F M; Silva, K L O; Somenzari, M A; de Lima, V M F

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that can be transmitted to humans and dogs. VL in Brazil represents a serious public health problem; therefore, it is important to study new alternatives to treat infected dogs. In dogs, the therapeutic arsenal against canine VL is limited. The immunomodulator protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) improves immunocompetence when the immune system is impaired, but its dependence on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the mechanisms involved in immune response remain unclear. The in vitro action of P-MAPA on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IKK phosphorylation was studied in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and macrophages from healthy and Leishmania-infected dogs. The PBMC or macrophages were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of P-MAPA (20,100 and 200 μg/ml) in a humid environment at 37°C with 5% CO(2). Observation revealed that Leishmania-infected dogs showed a decrease in TLR2 in macrophages compared with healthy dogs and in induction with P-MAPA. ROS were increased in PBMCs from Leishmania spp.-infected dogs compared with healthy dogs and P-MAPA improved ROS production. NO production was increased in culture supernatant from macrophages stimulated by P-MAPA in both healthy and Leishmania spp. infected dogs. Treatment of macrophages from healthy dogs with immunomodulatory P-MAPA induced p38 MAPK and IKK phosphorylation, suggesting signal transduction by this pathway. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  7. High levels of inactive thymidine kinase 1 polypeptide detected in sera from dogs with solid tumours by immunoaffinity methods: implications for in vitro diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar, J; Sharif, H; Westberg, S; von Euler, H; Eriksson, S

    2013-09-01

    Determination of serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) activity has been used as a proliferation marker for neoplastic diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine STK1 activity and enzyme levels in different dog tumours. Serum samples from three dogs with leukaemia, five with lymphoma, 21 with solid tumours and 18 healthy dogs were analyzed for STK1 activity, using an optimized [(3)H]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay, and for STK1 protein levels using an immunoaffinity/western blot assay. STK1 activity in dogs with haematological tumours was significantly higher than in the solid tumour and healthy dog groups (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 65 ± 79, 1.1 ± 0.5, and 1.0 ± 0.4 pmol/min/mL, respectively). Serum samples were analyzed after immunoaffinity isolation by western blot and the TK1 26 kDa band intensities quantified revealing that concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with haematological tumours and solid tumours compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD=33 ± 12, 30 ± 13, and 10 ± 5 ng/mL, respectively). Pre-incubation with the reducing agent dithioerythritol (DTE) showed a decrease in STK1 activity and protein levels in most samples, but an increase of about 20% in sera from healthy dogs and from those with haematological malignancies. Compared to animals with solid tumours, the specific STK1 activity (nmol [(3)H]-deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP)/min/mg of TK1 protein of 26 kDa) was 30-fold higher in haematological malignancies and 2.5-fold higher in healthy dogs, respectively. The results demonstrate that there is a large fraction of inactive TK1 protein, particularly in sera from dogs with solid tumours. The findings are important in the use of STK1 as a biomarker.

  8. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service dogs. 17.148..., Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: Service dogs are guide or service dogs prescribed for a disabled veteran under this section. (b)...

  9. Hypoadrenocorticism in a kindred of Pomeranian dogs.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Erin T; Hammond, Tara N; Mahony, Orla M

    2015-01-01

    Three adult Pomeranian dogs, full siblings from 2 litters, were diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism following onset of hypoadrenal crisis. Review of the family history revealed the dogs' maternal grandmother also had hypoadrenocorticism. All 4 dogs were pedigree-certified by the American Kennel Club. An inherited basis for hypoadrenocorticism is proposed in these Pomeranian dogs.

  10. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  11. Healthy Pets and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant women should avoid adopting or handling stray cats, especially kittens. They particularly should not clean litter ... may be sick. Many pets, such as dogs, cats, reptiles, rodents, and birds, carry germs that can ...

  12. Titanium implants in irradiated dog mandibles

    SciTech Connect

    Schweiger, J.W. )

    1989-08-01

    The use of osseointegrated titanium implants has been a great benefit to selected cancer patients who otherwise would not be able to wear conventional and/or maxillofacial prostheses. Cognizant of the risk of osteoradionecrosis, we used an animal model to seek experimental evidence for successful osseointegration in bone irradiated to tumoricidal levels. Five healthy male beagle dogs received 60 gray to a previously edentulated and healed area of the right hemimandible. The left hemimandible was kept as a nonirradiated control. After 9 months, titanium implants were placed and allowed an additional 5 1/2 months to osseointegrate. At that time, block specimens were obtained, radiographed, photographed, and analyzed histologically. Although statistical significance cannot be attached to the results, osseointegration was achieved in half of the irradiated specimens.

  13. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine A; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-11-15

    When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs' scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher's Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher's Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  14. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  15. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  16. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  17. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  18. Association between Leishmania infantum DNA in the hair of dogs and their infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Gonçalves, Rafaela; Franke, Carlos R; Magalhães-Junior, Jairo T; Souza, Bárbara M P S; Solcà, Manuela S; Larangeira, Daniela F; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-12-15

    Diagnosis of infection with Leishmania infantum by DNA detection in the hair has been recently demonstrated in dogs and wild animals. Our objective was to investigate if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hair might be used to identify infectious dogs. Thus, we assessed the infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis by xenodiagnosis in comparison with the detection of L. infantum DNA by PCR in the hair, and with serology for anti-Leishmania IgG by ELISA in 15 positive dogs for L. infantum infection. Eight healthy dogs were included as negative controls. Among the 15 infected dogs, 13 were found positive in the ELISA (87%), 12 were PCR positive in the hair (80%), and 10 were positive in xenodiagnosis (67%). Positivity in the hair was associated with positivity in spleen (p=0.0003), seropositivity for antibodies (p=0.0006) and parasite transmission to L. longipalpis (p=0.0028). Considering the benefits to animal welfare and feasibility of hair sampling method, studies in larger and more diverse populations of naturally infected dogs from endemic areas should be conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of PCR using hair as a possible biomarker of infectiousness in dogs.

  19. Antibody titers against canine distemper virus in unvaccinated rural dogs from Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Avizeh, R; Shapouri, M R Seyfiabad; Akhlaghi, N

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) in unvaccinated rural dogs without known immunization status and to assess risk factors for infection by means of indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), in Ahvaz district, southwest of Iran. Serum samples were randomly collected from 97 healthy dogs 6 months and older from villages around Ahvaz city between 2004 and 2005. Dogs were grouped by age and sex to determine whether these factors were associated with antibody titers, using Fisher's exact test. Seroprevalence to CDV antibodies in these dogs were 17.52% indicating that this virus is present in the ecosystem. Also there is evidence of previous natural exposure to CDV. Prevalence of antibodies to CDV did not differ between sexes or ages. Rural dogs are abundant in the ecosystem of area and interact with other species of wild carnivores and domestic animals in ways that could encourage disease transmission. Therefore the role of rural dogs in the epizootiology of CDV in both urban dogs and wildlife needs to be further explored.

  20. Detection and molecular identification of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli from domestic dogs in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Zaid, Taher; Ereqat, Suheir; Sawalha, Samer S; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    Dogs serve as hosts for a great number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. This study aimed to observe tick borne pathogens in dogs from Palestine including Hepatozoon canis and Babesia species. The prevalence of both H. canis and Babesia species infections in apparently healthy dogs, from ten districts of the West Bank was surveyed. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from dogs (n = 362) and ticks (n = 213) collected from dogs (n = 77). A primer set that amplifies a partial sequence of the Babesia and Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene was used for PCR and the DNA sequences of the PCR products of all samples were determined. Twenty-nine (8·0%) of the dogs were found infected including 20 with H. canis (5·5%), seven with Babesia vogeli (1·9%) and two with undefined Babesia spp. (0·6%). Twelve Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l ticks were pathogen-positive, including ten with H. canis (4·7%), one with B. vogeli (0·5%), and one with Hepatozoon felis (0·5%). The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens is circulating in the canine population in the surveyed region. This study is the first report on the prevalence of H. canis, B. vogeli and Babesia spp. in dogs in Palestine and its results will assist in the management of diseases associated with these blood parasites.

  1. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  2. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... Quinoa is rich in protein . It has almost twice the amount of protein found in oats, and ...

  3. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  4. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  5. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  6. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n = 21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs.

  7. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Following a Minor Dog Bite to the Finger: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Coghill, Sarah; Chandrashekar, Nanda Kumar S; Bindra, Randy R

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacillus present in the oral cavities of 22% to 74% of healthy dogs. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has unique virulence factors that enable it to evade the human immune system and cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite. We report a previously well 68-year-old woman who presented with septic shock and multiorgan failure following a seemingly minor dog bite to the finger. The patient required intensive care treatment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and multiple surgical procedures including amputation of the affected finger. The septicemia and coagulopathy that ensued resulted in gangrene and amputation of additional fingers and toes. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of this organism among hand surgeons when faced with a patient presenting in septic shock and minimal signs at the site of a dog bite.

  8. Phylogenetic identification of Cystoisospora spp. from dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Carreno, Ramon A; Tani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiuchi, Ryusaku; Kanai, Takenori; Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Furuya, Masaru; Sasai, Kazumi

    2011-03-10

    Cystoisospora spp. from feces in dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs were isolated, sequenced at the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene locus and compared to other Cystoisospora spp. Cystoisospora oocysts from dogs and raccoon dogs were morphologically similar with those of C. ohioensis, and cat isolates were similar with those of C. felis. The sequences from dogs and raccoon dogs, and cats have a homology with C. ohioensis and C. felis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences showed that the dog and raccoon dog isolates were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp. including C. ohioensis, C. belli, and C. orlovi. The cat isolate formed a sister group with C. felis that was a separate clade from the dog and raccoon dog group. We report sequence variation in these Cystoisospora sequences and have identified raccoon dogs as another carnivore host for Cystoisospora spp. infecting dogs.

  9. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  10. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in dogs with naturally occurring cancer.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Michelle R; Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R

    2012-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring cancer represent an important large animal model for drug development and testing novel immunotherapies. However, poorly defined immunophenotypes of canine leukocytes have limited the study of tumor immunology in dogs. The accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to be a key mechanism of immune suppression in tumor-bearing mice and in human patients. We sought to identify MDSCs in the blood of dogs with cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs with advanced or early stage cancer and from age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Suppressive function was tested in T cell proliferation and cytokine elaboration assays. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify potential mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression. PBMCs from dogs with advanced or metastatic cancer exhibited a significantly higher percentage of CD11b(+)CD14(-)MHCII(-) cells compared to dogs diagnosed with early stage non-metastatic tumors and healthy dogs. These CD11b(+) CD14(-)MHCII(-) cells constitute a subpopulation of activated granulocytes that co-purify with PBMCs, display polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology, and demonstrate a potent ability to suppress proliferation and IFN-γ production in T cells from normal and tumor-bearing donors. Furthermore, these cells expressed hallmark suppressive factors of human MDSC including ARG1, iNOS2, TGF-β and IL-10. In summary our data demonstrate that MDSCs accumulate in the blood of dogs with advanced cancer and can be measured using this three-marker immunophenotype, thereby enabling prospective studies that can monitor MDSC burden.

  11. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: assessment and comparison with walking dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J; Maas, H; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and compared with ground reaction forces of 24 healthy dogs. Force-time waveforms in cats generated by force plate analysis were consistent, as reflected by intra-class correlation coefficients for peak vertical force, peak propulsive force and peak braking force (0.94-0.95, 0.85-0.89 and 0.89-0.90, respectively). Compared with dogs, cats had a higher peak vertical force during the propulsion phase (cat, 3.89 ± 0.19 N/kg; dog, 3.03 ± 0.16 N/kg), and a higher hindlimb propulsive force (cat, -1.08 ± 0.13 N/kg; dog, (-0.87 ± 0.13 N/kg) and hindlimb impulse (cat, -0.18 ± 0.03 N/kg; dog, -0.14 ± 0.02 N/kg). Force plate analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of locomotion in cats, because it can be applied in the clinical setting and provides a non-invasive and objective measurement of locomotion characteristics with high repeatability in cats, as well as information about kinetic characteristics. Differences in force-time waveforms between cats and dogs can be explained by the more crouched position of cats during stance and their more compliant gait compared with dogs. Feline waveforms of the medio-lateral ground reaction forces also differ between cats and dogs and this can be explained by differences in paw supination-pronation.

  12. Associations between Stress and Quality of Life: Differences between Owners Keeping a Living Dog or Losing a Dog by Euthanasia

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The loss of a pet may be stressful to the owner. The main objectives of this study were to compare the levels of stress and to explore the correlates of QOL of healthy adults who currently own or who have just lost their dog. Methods The study sample contained 110 current, and 103 bereaved dog owners, all females, who lost their dogs due to euthanasia. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and divided into four major domains–Physical, Psychological, Relationship, and Environmental. Demographic variables, stress, health behaviors, and social support from family, friends, and significant other were included in multivariate analysis. Results Stress levels were significantly higher in bereaved owners. QOL in three of the four domains (Physical, Psychological, and Relationship) of current owners were significantly better than among bereaved owners. Stress was significantly associated with these three domains of QOL. Quality of life was found to be positively associated with social support. Age was related directly only to current owners’ QOL. Conclusions The results suggest that a loss of a dog is associated with stress for the bereaved owner and reduced physical, psychological, and relationship QOL. Lack of social support in the case of death of a companion animal has a strong effect on owners’ grief reactions. PMID:25826295

  13. [A survey on intestinal parasites of livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Frey, C F; Regotz, J; Rosenberg, G; Gottstein, B; Kohler, S

    2010-12-01

    The present study describes the occurrence of intestinal parasite infections in livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs. A total of 71 guardian dogs (more than half of the total number of guardian dogs in Switzerland) and 21 herding dogs were coprologically examined, using a combined sedimentation-flotation method. In 21 (23 %) of the dogs intestinal parasites were detected, and 8 (8.7 %) of these dogs shed either sporocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (n = 6) or taeniid eggs (n = 2). The evaluation of questionnaires providing data on age, origin and deworming schemes of the dogs completed the study.

  14. Phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Forrest, W C; Yang, Qiuhong; Groer, Chad; Mohr, Eva; Aires, Daniel J; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Flesner, Brian K; Henry, Carolyn J; Selting, Kimberly A; Tate, Deborah; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Forrest, M Laird

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate (HA-Pt) in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors. ANIMALS 18 healthy rats, 9 healthy mice, and 16 dogs with cancer. PROCEDURES HA-Pt was prepared and tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; DNA-platinum adduct formation and antiproliferation effects of cisplatin and HA-Pt were compared in vitro. Effects of cisplatin (IV) and HA-Pt (SC) in rodents were tested by clinicopathologic assays. In the clinical trial, dogs with cancer received 1 to 4 injections of HA-Pt (10 to 30 mg/m(2), intratumoral or peritumoral, q 3 wk). Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis; CBC, serum BUN and creatinine concentration measurement, and urinalysis were conducted before and 1 week after each treatment. Some dogs underwent hepatic enzyme testing. Tumors were measured before the first treatment and 3 weeks after each treatment to assess response. RESULTS No adverse drug effects were detected in pretrial assessments in rodents. Seven of 16 dogs completed the study; 3 had complete tumor responses, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had progressive disease. Three of 7 dogs with oral and nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that completed the study had complete responses. Myelosuppression and cardiotoxicosis were identified in 6 and 2 dogs, respectively; none had nephrotoxicosis. Four of 5 dogs with hepatic enzymes assessed had increased ALT activities, attributed to diaquated cisplatin products in the HA-Pt. Pharmacokinetic data fit a 3-compartment model. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE HA-Pt treatment resulted in positive tumor responses in some dogs, primarily those with SCC. The adverse effect rate was high. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Oral SCC in dogs has characteristics similar to human head and neck SCC; these results could be useful in developing human treatments.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Or, Matan; Peremans, Kathelijne; Martlé, Valentine; Vandermeulen, Eva; Bosmans, Tim; Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was compared with rCBF in eight healthy control dogs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a (99m)technetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) tracer. SPECT scans were abnormal in all PSS dogs. Compared to the control group, rCBF in PSS dogs was significantly decreased in the temporal lobes and increased in the subcortical (thalamic and striatal) area. Brain perfusion imaging alterations observed in the dogs with PSS and HE are similar to those in human patients with HE. These findings suggest that dogs with HE and PSS have altered perfusion of mainly the subcortical and the temporal regions of the brain.

  16. Aberrant expression and distribution of enzymes of the urea cycle and other ammonia metabolizing pathways in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Giora; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Grinwis, Guy C M; Favier, Robert P; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H; Fieten, Hille; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The detoxification of ammonia occurs mainly through conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver via the urea cycle and glutamine synthesis. Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs cause hyperammonemia eventually leading to hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, the gene expression of urea cycle enzymes (carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS1), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase (ARG1)), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1), and glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) was evaluated in dogs with CPSS before and after surgical closure of the shunt. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on urea cycle enzymes and GLUL on liver samples of healthy dogs and dogs with CPSS to investigate a possible zonal distribution of these enzymes within the liver lobule and to investigate possible differences in distribution in dogs with CPSS compared to healthy dogs. Furthermore, the effect of increasing ammonia concentrations on the expression of the urea cycle enzymes was investigated in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Gene-expression of CPS1, OTC, ASL, GLUD1 and NAGS was down regulated in dogs with CPSS and did not normalize after surgical closure of the shunt. In all dogs GLUL distribution was localized pericentrally. CPS1, OTC and ASS1 were localized periportally in healthy dogs, whereas in CPSS dogs, these enzymes lacked a clear zonal distribution. In primary hepatocytes higher ammonia concentrations induced mRNA levels of CPS1. We hypothesize that the reduction in expression of urea cycle enzymes, NAGS and GLUD1 as well as the alterations in zonal distribution in dogs with CPSS may be caused by a developmental arrest of these enzymes during the embryonic or early postnatal phase.

  17. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

  18. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008).

  19. Sperm quality and selected biochemical parameters of seminal fluid in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Wąchocka, A; Brodzki, P; Wrona, Z; Piech, T; Wawron, W; Chałabis-Mazurek, A

    2015-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs is most commonly associated with age and increasing concentrations of dihydrotesterone, a hormone that stimulates growth and secretion of the prostatic epithelial cells. During this process, the biochemical composition of prostatic secretion changes, which can affect the quality of semen and limit the ability of the sperm to contribute to fertilization. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine possible correlation between BPH and biological quality of semen. The study was performed in 11 sexually mature dogs of various breeds. Animals were divided into two groups: healthy dogs (Group I; n = 5; mean age 4.32; SEM = 1.28) and dogs with BPH (Group II n = 6; mean age 6.16; SEM = 0.65). Semen and prostate secretions were collected and evaluated in this study. Standard semen examinations were conducted in the ejaculates collected; moreover, the extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation was determined. The selected biochemical parameters were determined in the prostate secretion. According to the examination results, there were no significant differences in standard semen parameters between the two groups of dogs. Nevertheless, morphological tests of semen in dogs with BPH demonstrated elevated percentages of primary defects in spermatozoa. A significant increase (P = 0.01) in DNA defragmentation of sperm was found in dogs with BPH. Moreover, changes in the biochemical composition of prostate secretion were demonstrated. In dogs with BPH, pH of prostate secretions was greater (P = 0.03), concentrations of cholesterol increased while concentrations of Zn and Cu decreased. The study findings reveal that BPH does not change semen quality in dogs.

  20. Effects of dietary protein on glomerular mesangial area and basement membrane thickness in aged uninephrectomized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, R A; Steffens, W L; Brown, C A; Brown, S A; Ard, M; Finco, D R

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of diets containing 18% or 34% protein on glomerular mesangial area (GMA) and basement membrane thickness (GBMT) in uninephrectomized aged dogs. A secondary objective was to determine the combined effects of aging and uninephrectomy on GMA and GBMT in dogs. Ten clinically healthy, pure-bred dogs were unilaterally nephrectomized at about 8 y of age. After 2 mo, 5 dogs were fed an 18% protein diet and 5 dogs were fed a 34% protein diet for 48 mo. At month 48, the dogs were euthanized and the remaining kidney was collected. Samples of kidney from both times of collection were used to measure GMA and GBMT using electron microscopy. The effects of diet on GMA and GBMT were analyzed (student's t-test) using necropsy/nephrectomy score ratios. The effects of time-nephrectomy were determined by comparing nephrectomy values for GMA and GBMT with necropsy values (paired t-test). Dogs fed 34% dietary protein did not have a significant increase in GMA and GBM thickness when compared to dogs fed the 18% protein diet. A significant increase in GMA and GBMT occurred with time-nephrectomy (P = 0.011 and 0.018, respectively). Although dietary protein intake was not a significant factor in causing structural changes to glomeruli in uninephrectomized aged dogs, the power to detect a difference was low. However, significant effects of aging and nephrectomy were detected despite the low power of the study. These results suggest that the increases in GMA and GBMT that occur over time are not markedly influenced by dietary protein intake. However, subtle protein effects cannot be eliminated as a possibility based on this study. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:11346257

  1. Evaluation of intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Inés; Richter, Henning; Beckmann, Katrin; Meier, Dieter; Dennler, Matthias; Kircher, Patrick R

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3.0 T. ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel (1)H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same (1)H MRS technique. RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE (1)H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs.

  2. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    PubMed

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs.

  3. Anti-diabetic effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs: a dose-response experiment.

    PubMed

    Sboui, A; Khorchani, T; Djegham, M; Agrebi, A; Elhatmi, H; Belhadj, O

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs and to follow this effect at three doses of milk. Firstly, three groups of dogs were used: two groups composed each of four diabetic dogs and receiving raw camel milk (treatment 1) or cow milk (treatment 2), and four healthy dogs getting raw camel milk (treatment 3) were used as control. Each animal was treated with 500 ml of milk daily. Secondly, we compared the effects of three amounts of camel milk: 100 ml, 250 ml and 500 ml to treat the diabetic dogs. After week 3, the dogs treated with camel milk showed a statistically significant decrease in blood glucose (from 10.88 +/- 0.55 to 6.22 +/- 0.5 mmol/l) and total protein concentrations (from 78.16 +/- 2.61 g/l to 63.63 +/- 4.43 g/l). For cholesterol levels, there was a decrease from week 2 (from 6.17 +/- 0.5 mmol/l to 4.79 +/- 0.5 mmol/l). There were no significant difference in blood glucose, cholesterol or total protein concentrations in dogs drinking 250 and 500 ml of camel milk. The dogs treated with 100 ml of camel milk did not show any significant decrease in blood glucose levels, and cholesterol and total protein concentrations. The investigation was not limited to the improvement in glycemic balance, lipids and proteins control in diabetic dogs getting camel milk, but we also noted a stability of this state after the dogs stopped to drink milk. This effect depended on the quantity of camel milk used to treat diabetic dogs.

  4. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P < 0.05). Water content in the lesional skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were recognized in water content between non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P < 0.05). Conversely, no significant differences were recognized in the relative amounts of cholesterols and free fatty acids (FFA) between dogs with AD and controls. Moreover, there are statistical correlations between TEWL and the relative amounts of ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  5. Comparison of Toxocara eggs in hair and faecal samples from owned dogs and cats collected in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Özbakış, Gökben; Gürcan, Safa

    2014-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs on hair and in faeces of healthy owned cats and dogs and to make comparisons between data (sex, age, host factor, etc.) collected from dogs and cats. Toxocara eggs were found on the hair of 14% of 100 dogs and 22% of 100 cats. In total, 58 and 136 eggs were recovered from the hair samples of examined cats and dogs, respectively. Of the total number of eggs, 2 were classified as embryonated in cats. One of the eggs recovered was embryonating in dogs. The maximum number of eggs was found in the tail bottom of cats (28 eggs) and dogs (58 eggs). As well as finding Toxocara eggs in dogs and cats hair, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp., Dipylidium caninum and Toxascaris leonina. In addition, faecal samples of same dogs and cats were also examined by two techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation): Toxocara eggs were found in 5% and 13% of dogs and cats faeces, respectively. But, 14% of the dogs and 22% of the cats were positive for Toxocara eggs on hair. The prevalence of eggs in faecal samples was lower than those detected from hair samples (P < 0.05). Two techniques for recovering Toxocara eggs from faecal samples were tested for efficiency and suitability for routine use. The results were expressed as the percentage rate of recovery of Toxocara eggs in positive faecal samples. The recovery rate was better with the method of sedimentation than with the method of flotation (P < 0.05). This study indicates that dogs and cats without internal infections were shown to have eggs on their hair and so uninfected animals also pose a threat in terms of the eggs present on their hair, albeit a small risk.

  6. An APRT mutation is strongly associated with and likely causative for 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Furrow, Eva; Pfeifer, Randall J; Osborne, Carl A; Lulich, Jody P

    2014-03-01

    2,8-Dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) urolithiasis in people is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (APRT). 2,8-DHA urolithiasis has recently been reported in two dogs, but, to the authors' knowledge, no studies have yet investigated the genetic basis for susceptibility to the development of 2,8-DHA urolithiasis in this species. Our aim was to sequence APRT in dogs affected by 2,8-DHA urolithiasis and compare the results to clinically healthy dogs of similar ancestral lineages. Our hypothesis was that we would identify an autosomal recessive mutation in APRT that is associated with the disease. The case population consisted of six dogs with a history of 2,8-DHA urolithiasis: five Native American Indian Dogs (NAIDs) and a mixed breed. The control population consisted of adult NAIDs with no history of urolithiasis. We sequenced APRT and identified a missense mutation in a highly conserved codon of APRT (c.260G>A; p.Arg87Gln). The c.260A mutation was present in a homozygous state in all six dogs with 2,8-DHA urolithiasis, and it was strongly associated with the disease. This exact missense mutation has been previously reported to cause loss of APRT enzyme function in a human cell line, and it is likely a causative mutation in dogs. Therefore, the dog offers a naturally-occurring genetic animal model for 2,8-DHA urolithiasis.

  7. Terbinafine pharmacokinetics after single dose oral administration in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mary R; May, Elizabeth R; Imerman, Paula M; Felz, Charles; Day, Timothy A; Carlson, Steve A; Noxon, James O

    2011-12-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal prescribed for the treatment of mycoses in humans. It is increasingly being used in veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine in dogs after a single oral dose. Ten healthy adult dogs were included in the study. A single dose of terbinafine (30-35 mg/kg) was administered orally, and blood samples were periodically collected over a 24 h period during which dogs were monitored for adverse effects. Two of 10 dogs developed transient ocular changes. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and used to determine plasma terbinafine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using PK Solutions(®) computer software. Area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h was 15.4 μg·h/mL (range 5-27), maximal plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 3.5 μg/mL (range 3-4.9 μg/mL) and time to C(max) (T(max) ) was 3.6 h (range 2-6 h). The time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) as well as AUC/MIC was calculated for important invasive fungal pathogens and dermatophytes. The T > MIC was 17-18 h for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), while the MIC for Sporothrix schenckii and Coccidioides immitis was exceeded for 9.5-11 h. The AUC/MIC values ranged from 9 to 13 μg h/mL for these fungi. Our results provide evidence supporting the use of terbinafine as an oral therapeutic agent for treating systemic and subcutaneous mycoses in dogs.

  8. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  9. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  10. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  11. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  12. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  13. Evaluation of serum myeloperoxidase concentration in dogs with heart failure due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Suh, Sang-Il; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme involved in the process of heart failure and is found to have good diagnostic and prognostic values in humans with chronic heart failure. This study evaluated the relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of heart failure (HF) due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI) in dogs. Eighty-two client-owned dogs consisting of 69 dogs with different stages of HF due to CMVI and 13 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum MPO concentrations in the healthy and CMVI groups were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a canine-specific monoclonal anti-MPO antibody. Serum MPO concentrations were 273.3 ± 179.6 ng/L in the controls, 140.8 ± 114.1 ng/L in the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) I group, 109.0 ± 85.2 ng/L in the ISACHC II group, and 106.0 ± 42.3 ng/L in the ISACHC III group. Close negative correlation to serum MPO concentration was found in the severity of heart failure (ISACHC stage). Although this study found a modest relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of HF due to CMVI in dogs, it also suggested that serum MPO levels decreased as the severity of HF increased.

  14. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range <0.8–2.7 mmol l-1). In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range <0.8–2.1 mmol l-1). Of the 31 bitches 19 (61%) fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32%) fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS

  15. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  16. "I'm Just a'-Walking the Dog" correlates of regular dog walking.

    PubMed

    Christian nee Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking (N = 483) were examined. A greater proportion of regular (80%) than irregular (59%) dog walkers met the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Owners who perceived greater social support and motivation from their dogs to walk, and who had access to a dog-supportive park within their neighborhood, were more likely to regularly walk with their dogs, even after adjustment for other well-known correlates of physical activity. The higher level of physical activity of regular dog walkers can be attributed to the additional walking these owners perform with their dogs.

  17. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  18. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  19. Prevention and treatment of dog bites.

    PubMed

    Presutti, R J

    2001-04-15

    Almost one half of all dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or neighbors. A large percentage of dog bite victims are children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than other breeds, any dog may attack when threatened. All dog bites carry a risk of infection, but immediate copious irrigation can significantly decrease that risk. Assessment for the risk of tetanus and rabies virus infection, and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics, are essential in the management of dog bites. The dog bite injury should be documented with photographs and diagrams when appropriate. Family physicians should educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites.

  20. Alterations of endocannabinoids in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with epileptic seizure disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs characterized by recurrent seizures. The endocannabinoid (EC) system plays a central role in suppressing pathologic neuronal excitability and in controlling the spread of activity in an epileptic network. Endocannabinoids are released on demand and their dysregulation has been described in several pathological conditions. Recurrent seizures may lead to an adverse reorganization of the EC system and impairment of its protective effect. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) are altered in epileptic dogs. Concentrations of AEA and total AG (sum of 2AG and 1AG) were measured in 40 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and in 16 unaffected, healthy control dogs using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Results AEA and total AG were measured at 4.94 (3.18 – 9.17) pM and 1.43 (0.90 – 1.92) nM in epileptic dogs and at 3.19 (2.04 – 4.28) pM and 1.76 (1.08 – 2.69) nM in the control group, respectively (median, 25 – 75% percentiles in brackets). The AEA difference between epileptic and healthy dogs was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Values correlated with seizure severity and duration of seizure activity. Dogs with cluster seizures and/or status epilepticus and with seizure activity for more than six months displayed the highest EC concentrations. Conclusion In conclusion, we present the first endocannabinoid measurements in canine CSF and confirm the hypothesis that the EC system is altered in canine idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:24370333

  1. Characterization of Microbial Dysbiosis and Metabolomic Changes in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Guard, Blake C.; Barr, James W.; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M.; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states. PMID:26000959

  2. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guard, Blake C; Barr, James W; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states.

  3. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Dystrophic Dog Muscle after MuStem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Babarit, Candice; Larcher, Thibaut; Dubreil, Laurence; Leroux, Isabelle; Zuber, Céline; Ledevin, Mireille; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Fromes, Yves; Cherel, Yan; Guevel, Laetitia; Rouger, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background Several adult stem cell populations exhibit myogenic regenerative potential, thus representing attractive candidates for therapeutic approaches of neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). We have recently shown that systemic delivery of MuStem cells, skeletal muscle-resident stem cells isolated in healthy dog, generates the remodelling of muscle tissue and gives rise to striking clinical benefits in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog. This global effect, which is observed in the clinically relevant DMD animal model, leads us to question here the molecular pathways that are impacted by MuStem cell transplantation. To address this issue, we compare the global gene expression profile between healthy, GRMD and MuStem cell treated GRMD dog muscle, four months after allogenic MuStem cell transplantation. Results In the dystrophic context of the GRMD dog, disease-related deregulation is observed in the case of 282 genes related to various processes such as inflammatory response, regeneration, calcium ion binding, extracellular matrix organization, metabolism and apoptosis regulation. Importantly, we reveal the impact of MuStem cell transplantation on several molecular and cellular pathways based on a selection of 31 genes displaying signals specifically modulated by the treatment. Concomitant with a diffuse dystrophin expression, a histological remodelling and a stabilization of GRMD dog clinical status, we show that cell delivery is associated with an up-regulation of genes reflecting a sustained enhancement of muscle regeneration. We also identify a decreased mRNA expression of a set of genes having metabolic functions associated with lipid homeostasis and energy. Interestingly, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is highly enhanced in GRMD dog muscle after systemic delivery of MuStem cells. Conclusions Overall, our results provide the first high-throughput characterization of GRMD dog muscle and throw new light on the

  4. IN VIVO STUDY OF CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER IN THE DOG USING DIFFUSION TENSOR TRACTOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Anaya García, Mitzi Sarahí; Hernández Anaya, Jael Sarahí; Marrufo Meléndez, Oscar; Velázquez Ramírez, José Luis; Palacios Aguiar, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows investigators and clinicians to observe the anatomy and injuries of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dogs. However, dynamic images based on the diffusion tensor (DT) technique are required to assess fiber tract integrity of the CWM. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) produces a three-dimensional representation in which data are displayed on a colored map obtained from the anisotropy of water molecules in the CWM tracts. Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a value that measures changes in water diffusion, which can occur if the CWM tracts are displaced, disrupted, or infiltrated. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of DTT for in vivo examination of the normal appearance of CWM in dogs through visual and quantitative analysis of the most representative CWM tracts. Nine tractographies were performed on healthy dogs using a 3T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images and DTI were acquired at different planes. Using DTT, three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained. Fractional ansisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the right and left corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, cingulum, and right and left fronto-occipital fasciculus were determined. Tract reconstructions were similar in 8/9 healthy dogs. Values for FA and ADC were similar in all the dogs. In one dog, tract reconstructions were inhomogeneous; these were displaced because it had larger lateral ventricles. Findings indicated that DTT is a feasible technique for in vivo study of CWM in dogs and that it complements information from conventional MRI. PMID:25288360

  5. Detection of the anti-P53 antibodies in dogs with tumors.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Okuda, Masaru; Toyama, Naomi; Oikawa, Tatsuo; Inokuma, Hisashi; Morimoto, Masahiro; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Une, Satoshi; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Taura, Yasuho; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Onishi, Takafumi

    2002-11-01

    To detect the anti-P53 antibodies of dogs with tumors, a GST-recombinant canine (rc) P53 fusion protein was expressed and purified. Immunoblot analysis was performed using this GST-rcP53 fusion protein as an antigen and serum samples from dogs suffering from tumors as primary antibodies. Out of 16 serum samples obtained from various tumor cases, four samples showed reaction with GST-rcP53. In contrast, serum from other 12 dogs with tumors, four dogs with non-neoplastic diseases and two control healthy dogs (as controls) did not show any reaction with GST-rcP53 in immunoblotting. The p53 gene mutation and the P53 protein expression were examined, using the tumor tissues to explore the relationship between the existence of the GST-rcP53 bands, gene mutations of p53 and the accumulation of P53 protein. One case, which showed a clear GST-rcP53 band, had a point mutation of the p53 cDNA and showed nuclear accumulation of P53 protein. These results suggest that the anti-P53 antibodies are also produced in tumor dogs with p53 gene mutations.

  6. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.

  7. A study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dogs as a disease model for canine necrotizing encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Hee-Chun; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Ha, Jeongim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the use of dogs with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model for necrotizing encephalitis (NE) was assessed. Twelve healthy dogs were included in this study. Canine forebrain tissues (8 g), including white and grey matter, were homogenized with 4 mL of phosphate-buffered saline for 5 min in an ice bath. The suspension was emulsified with the same volume of Freund's complete adjuvant containing 1 mg/mL of killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Under sedation, each dog was injected subcutaneously with canine brain homogenate at four sites: two in the inguinal and two in the axillary regions. A second injection (booster) was administered to all the dogs using the same procedure 7 days after the first injection. Clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, necropsies, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed for the dogs with EAE. Out of the 12 animals, seven (58%) developed clinically manifest EAE at various times after immunization. Characteristics of canine EAE models were very similar to canine NE, suggesting that canine EAE can be a disease model for NE in dogs. PMID:25269720

  8. Telomerase and HER-2/neu as targets of genetic cancer vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Daniela; Mesiti, Giuseppe; Ciliberto, Gennaro; La Monica, Nicola; Aurisicchio, Luigi

    2010-02-03

    Pet dogs represent a valuable pre-clinical model to assess the efficacy of oncology drugs. Additionally, canine cancers occur with an incidence similar to that of humans and share many features with human malignancies including histological appearance, tumor genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional therapies. The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is reactivated in most of human and dog tumors. Similarly, HER-2/neu oncoprotein is overexpressed in a proportion of canine breast cancers. Therefore, TERT and HER-2/neu can constitute valid tumor associated antigens (TAA), suitable targets for translational cancer immunotherapy in dogs. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of DNA electroporation (DNA-EP) and Adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) to induce immune responses against dog TERT (dTERT) and HER-2/neu in healthy dogs. Vaccination was effective in all treated animals and the adaptive immune response remained detectable and long-lasting in the absence of autoimmunity or other side-effects. Our results show that DNA-EP/Ad6-based cancer vaccine induces adaptive immune responses against TAA in canine subjects and support further evaluation of this approach in cancer dog patients.

  9. Coagulation response in dogs with and without systemic inflammatory response syndrome - preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    The impact of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) on all phases of coagulation is largely unknown in dogs. Fifty-six healthy dogs (controls) and 25 diseased dogs were included. Based on physical and hematological examination, dogs were classified as "no-SIRS" (n=7) or "SIRS" (n=18). Evaluated coagulation variables included platelets, coagulation times, fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), FVIII, protein C, protein S, activated protein C (APC)-ratio, calculated from aPTT with and without presence of APC, and kaolin-activated thrombelastography (TEG). Overall, no-SIRS and SIRS were characterized by hypocoaguable state (P<0.001 compared to controls) i.e., prolonged coagulation times, decreased AT (median 59 U/L and 89 U/L versus 126 U/L), and FVIII (median 19 U/L and 70 U/L versus 102 U/L). In no-SIRS and SIRS, APC-ratio was significantly lower than in the controls (median 1.1 and 2.0 versus 2.5, P<0.01, P<0.001). Severe coagulopathies may be present in critically ill dogs without concurrent SIRS. APC-resistance is a frequent finding in severely diseased dogs.

  10. Cardiopulmonary function and morphologic changes in beagle dogs after multiple lung lavages

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Halliwell, W.H.; Slauson, D.O.

    1980-03-01

    This study evaluated the long-term biomedical risks of multiple, massive saline lung lavage using dogs. Risks were assessed using clinical examinations of cardiopulmonary function, thoracic radiographs, auscultation of the chest, body temperature, and hematologic values. Thirty-six dogs given 10 lavages over a 49-day period had no gross lesions at time of necropsy 7 days after the last lavage. Six dogs, followed with clinical examinations after each of 10 lung lavages, had no detectable effects from the lavage except for elevated body temperature and bronchial breathing at 24 hr after some procedures. No gross lesions were found at sacrifice 28 days after the last lavage. The only histologic lesions found were those also found in unlavaged control dogs. Six dogs that were lavaged 10 or more times had normal pulmonary function values for 4 yr after the last lung lavage. No chronic sequelae were found in healthy beagle dogs given 10 or more lung lavages suggesting a minimal long-term risk associated with these procedures.

  11. Artificial Blood for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain “blood” for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin–albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations. PMID:27830776

  12. Sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs by using peptides selected from hypothetical proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Martins, Vivian T; Testasicca, Miriam C S; Lage, Daniela P; Costa, Lourena E; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Ker, Henrique G; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Régis, Wiliam C B; Dos Reis, Alexandre B; Tavares, Carlos A P; Soto, Manuel; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, the percentage of infected dogs living in areas where canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic ranges from 10 to 62%; however, the prevalence of infection in dogs is probably higher than figures reported from serological studies. In addition, problems with the occurrence of false-positive or false-negative results in the serodiagnosis of CVL have been reported. The present work analyzed the potential of synthetic peptides mapped from hypothetical proteins for improvement of the serodiagnosis of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs. From 26 identified leishmanial proteins, eight were selected, considering that no homologies between these proteins and others from trypanosomatide sequence databases were encountered. The sequences of these proteins were mapped to identify linear B-cell epitopes, and 17 peptides were synthesized and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the serodiagnosis of L. infantum infection in dogs. Of these, three exhibited sensitivity and specificity values higher than 75% and 90%, respectively, to differentiate L. infantum-infected animals from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected animals and healthy animals. Soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) showed poor sensitivity (4%) and specificity (36%) to differentiate L. infantum-infected dogs from healthy and T. cruzi-infected dogs. Lastly, the three selected peptides were combined in different mixtures and higher sensitivity and specificity values were obtained, even when sera from T. cruzi-infected dogs were used. The study's findings suggest that these three peptides can constitute a potential tool for more sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of L. infantum infection in dogs.

  13. Internet resources cataloguing inherited disorders in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Crook, Alice; Sargan, David R

    2011-08-01

    Up-to-date annotated catalogues of known inherited disorders in dogs are freely available on the Internet, providing vital information to existing and prospective dog owners, dog breeders, veterinarians, geneticists and others interested in the occurrence and control of inherited disorders. These resources are the Canine Inherited Disorders Database (CIDD), Inherited Diseases in Dogs (IDID) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) the latter associated with Listing of Inherited Disorders in Animals (LIDA). The history and features of these resources are summarised.

  14. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  15. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  16. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  17. Healthy Eating and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  18. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  19. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  20. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  1. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  2. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  3. Dogs as pets, visitors, therapists and assistants.

    PubMed

    Winkle, Melissa Y; Wilder, Anna; Jackson, Liberty Z

    2014-01-01

    Dogs can play an integral role in the recovery of patients through companionship, animal-assisted therapy, and as assistance dogs. This article will define and differentiate these 3 categories and provide resources for home healthcare and hospice clinicians who may want to include dogs in the plan of care for select patients.

  4. Porencephaly and hydranencephaly in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Davies, E S S; Volk, H A; Behr, S; Summers, B; de Lahunta, A; Syme, H; Jull, P; Garosi, L

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed to identify dogs with cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavitatory lesions on MRI. Six dogs were included and the lesions were classified. In the three dogs in the present study with hydranencephaly, unilateral but complete loss of the temporal and parietal lobes was noted and had almost complete loss of the occipital and frontal lobes of a cerebral hemisphere. In the three dogs with porencephaly, there was unilateral incomplete loss of the parietal lobe and one dog had additional partial loss of the temporal and frontal lobes. Two of the dogs with porencephaly had seizures; the third showed no associated clinical signs. The dogs with hydranencephaly had mentation changes and circled compulsively. The two porencephalic dogs with seizures were treated with phenobarbitone. One of the dogs with hydranencephaly showed increased frequency and duration of circling; one dog's clinical signs did not progress and the third dog was euthanased due to increasing aggression. The dog with increased circling had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and the circling frequency reduced.

  5. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  6. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  8. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  9. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  10. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  11. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  12. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  13. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  14. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  15. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  16. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  17. Measurement of allergen-specific IgG in serum is of limited value for the management of dogs diagnosed with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Leistra, M H G; Sinke, J D; Vroom, M W; Savelkoul, H F J; Hendriks, W H

    2017-02-01

    Conflicting results have been reported in the literature in terms of the usefulness of serological testing for IgG against food allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available IgG ELISA for identifying food allergens in dogs, by challenging dogs with specific food ingredients, selected on the basis of IgG reactivity in serum samples. A total of 24 adult dogs with CAFR were enrolled into the study and 16 healthy dogs were included as a control group. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of specific IgG antibodies against 39 commonly used pet food ingredients by ELISA. Participating owners were surveyed to obtain information on their pet's dietary history. Eleven healthy control dogs and 12 dogs with CAFR were subsequently challenged in a blinded cross-over design experiment with both positive and negative food ingredients, selected on the basis of the ELISA test results. There was substantial individual variation in ELISA test results to the various food allergens, but no significant difference in IgG reactivity comparing the CAFR and control groups. None of the control dogs developed any clinical signs of an allergic reaction during the dietary challenge study. In the CAFR group, six of 12 dogs developed clinical signs after the negative challenge, and two of nine dogs developed clinical signs after the positive challenge. It was concluded that the ELISA test for dietary allergen-specific IgG is of limited value in the management of dogs with CAFR.

  18. The role of tooth-brushing and diet in the maintenance of periodontal health in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gorrel, C; Rawlings, J M

    1996-12-01

    Tooth-brushing every other day did not maintain clinically healthy gingivae in dogs. The daily addition of a dental hygiene chew to a regimen of tooth brushing every other day reduced the gingivitis scores and reduced the accumulation of dental deposits (plaque, calculus and stain). Daily tooth-brushing should be the recommendation to the dog owner irrespective of dietary regimen. Providing a dental hygiene chew daily seems to give an added health benefit when tooth-brushing is less frequent, and provides the pet owner with a useful adjunct for homecare.

  19. [Myopathy due to potassium deficiency in eight cats and a dog].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V; Opitz, M; Steeb, C; Skrodzki, M

    1993-01-01

    Eight cats and one dog with signs of cervical ventroflexion, reluctance to walk, a stiff and stilted gait and muscle weakness are introduced. Though blood potassium concentration was very low (< 3.0 mval/l) in one cat and the dog only, a potassium depletion myopathy was assumed as the cause of these symptoms. Two of three cats had elevated values of the urinary fractional potassium excretion compared to ten healthy cats. Blood creatinine values were within normal ranges. Five of seven cats had elevated creatine kinase values. All animals improved after potassium substitution. Causes of potassium depletion are discussed and differential diagnoses of myopathies are briefly mentioned.

  20. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    PubMed

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners.

  1. Aggressive dogs are characterized by low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status.

    PubMed

    Re, Simona; Zanoletti, Marco; Emanuele, Enzo

    2008-03-01

    Canine aggressive behaviour is one of the most common problems being reported by dog owners. However, the biochemical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In humans, alterations in omega-3 plasma polyunsatured fatty acids and elevated omega6/omega-3 ratio have been linked to behavioural alterations, including aggression. Thus far, however, the relationship between plasma polyunsatured fatty acid status and aggression has not been investigated in the dog. In the present study we sought to investigate whether polyunsatured fatty acid status could be altered in plasma of pathologically aggressive Canis familiaris. Eighteen adult male German Shepherd dogs, aged 4.9 +/- 0.9 years, showing no clinical signs but aggression, were investigated. Eighteen healthy male dogs, aged 4.8 +/- 0.7 years, with a negative history of behavioural and neurological disorders served as controls. Baseline fasting plasma polyunsatured fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Compared to normal dogs, aggressive dogs showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) concentrations and a higher omega6/omega-3 ratio. In addition, they showed reduced cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations compared to their normally behaving counterparts. Altogether, our results suggest that low omega-3 fatty acids may adversely impact behaviour in dogs, resulting in greater propensity to aggression. However, given the cross-sectional design of our study, we cannot claim any causal relationship between the presence of alterations in fatty acid status and canine aggressiveness. Whether omega-3 fatty acids supplementation may be useful to reduce aggressive behaviour in the dog deserves further investigation.

  2. Acute effects of intravenous dronedarone on electrocardiograms, hemodynamics and cardiac functions in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Saengklub, Nakkawee; Limprasutr, Vudhiporn; Sawangkoon, Suwanakiet; Buranakarl, Chollada; Hamlin, Robert L; Kijtawornrat, Anusak

    2016-02-01

    Dronedarone is a class III antiarrhythmic that has been used for management of atrial fibrillation in humans, but limited information was found in dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of escalating concentrations of dronedarone on electrocardiograms (ECG), hemodynamics and cardiac mechanics in healthy dogs. A total of 7 beagle dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented to obtain lead II ECG, pressures at ascending aorta, right atrium, pulmonary artery and left ventricle, and left ventricular pressure-volume relationship. Five dogs were given vehicle and followed by escalating doses of dronedarone (0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, 15 min for each dose), and two dogs were used as a vehicle-treated control. All parameters were measured at 15 min after the end of each dose. The results showed that all parameters in vehicle-treated dogs were unaltered. Dronedarone at 2.5 mg/kg significantly lengthened PQ interval (P<0.01), reduced cardiac output (P<0.01) and increased systemic vascular resistance (P<0.01). Dronedarone produced negative inotropy assessed by significantly lowered end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, preload recruitable stroke work, contractility index and dP/dtmax. It also impaired diastolic function by significantly increased end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship, tau and dP/dtmin. These results suggested that acute effects of dronedarone produced negative dromotropy, inotropy and lusitropy in anesthetized dogs. Care should be taken when given dronedarone to dogs, especially when the patients have impaired cardiac function.

  3. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine in the dog, calf and sheep.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Panayotis; Forbes, Ben; Mitchell, Stephen C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2010-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of employing S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine as a treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dogs. To this end the pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine were determined in the dog, cow and sheep. Six healthy beagle dogs, six endogenous Greek sheep and four Holstein Fresian calves were orally dosed with 10 mg/kg body weight of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine. No significant differences in T(max) and T(1/2) were reported between the species. However, significantly higher AUC((0-last)), 21.56+/-6.67 microg h ml(-1) and AUC((0-infinity)), 21.63+/-6.68 microg h ml(-1) were seen in the dogs compared to the sheep and calves. The calculated V(D) was significantly higher in the sheep (10.4+/-2.7 L kg(-1)) and the calves (3.8+/-0.7 L kg(-1)) compared to the dogs (1.0+/-0.6 L kg(-1)). The rank order of increasing C(L) was sheep (3.4+/-2.7 L h(-1)kg(-1))>calves (2.7+/-0.4 L h(-1) kg(-1))>dogs (0.5+/-0.2 L h(-1)kg(-1)). The result for the dogs was significantly lower that the calculated C(L) for the sheep and calves. All these results indicate that the oral administration of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine may be useful during the therapeutic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dogs.

  4. Evaluation of snake envenomation-induced renal dysfunction in dogs using early urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hrovat, A; Schoeman, J P; de Laat, B; Meyer, E; Smets, P; Goddard, A; Nagel, S; Daminet, S

    2013-10-01

    Renal dysfunction in dogs envenomed by poisonous snakes is currently detected using traditional serum and urinary biomarkers such as creatinine and proteinuria. However, these markers lack sensitivity at the early stages of renal dysfunction and their diagnostic accuracy is affected by pre-analytical factors commonly occurring in these dogs, such as haemolysis and haemoglobinuria. Early detection of renal dysfunction would allow for the identification of dogs requiring intensive treatment and monitoring and may help inform prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of several novel urinary biomarkers of glomerular dysfunction, namely, urinary albumin (uAlb), immunoglobulin G (uIgG) and C-reactive protein (uCRP) and of proximal tubular dysfunction (urinary retinol binding protein (uRBP)) compared to traditional end points in dogs with renal damage caused by snake envenomation. Biomarker results were compared between 19 dogs bitten by snakes producing either neurotoxins or cytotoxins and 10 clinically healthy controls. uAlb, uIgG, and uRBP were significantly increased in snake-envenomed dogs at presentation compared to controls, whereas only uIgG and uCRP were significantly elevated 24h post-envenomation. The urinary protein:creatinine ratio was also increased in envenomed dogs compared to controls, but because of the presence of haematuria and haemoglobinuria, differentiation between pre-renal and renal proteinuria was not possible. The results showed that these novel urinary biomarkers may assist in better detecting renal dysfunction in dogs envenomed by poisonous snakes at the acute disease stage compared to traditional laboratory endpoints.

  5. Evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamane, I; Thomford, J W; Gardner, I A; Dubey, J P; Levy, M; Conrad, P A

    1993-10-01

    We determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test for Babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. The lowest titer to B gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. Two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to B gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in IFA tests for B canis (titer < or = 640), Toxoplasma gondii (titer < or = 2,560), and Neospora caninum (titer < or = 10,240). Dogs that were experimentally infected with B canis and T gondii had titer < or = 160 to B gibsoni. Dogs that were experimentally infected with N caninum had titer (80 to 10,240) to N caninum, but failed to have serologic reactivity to B gibsoni. Serologic titer of healthy dogs from Australia, a country where B gibsoni is not known to exist, was < or = 160 to B gibsoni. On the basis of these findings, a cut-off titer of 320 was considered to be appropriate for serodiagnosis of B gibsoni in dogs with clinical signs of babesiosis. A more conservative titer of 1,280 was established as the cut-off titer for seroepidemiologic studies based on relative costs and benefits of false-positive results and failure to isolate B gibsoni parasites after splenectomy and immunosuppression from a clinically normal dog with B gibsoni titer of 640.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Oxidative stress indices in gastroenteritis in dogs with canine parvoviral infection.

    PubMed

    Panda, Debasis; Patra, R C; Nandi, S; Swarup, D

    2009-02-01

    Gastroenteritis of viral origin has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs during the last two decades. Amongst the viral etiologies responsible for gastroenteritis in dogs, canine parvovirus (CPV) is considered as the most pathogenic. The disease is characterized by hemorrhagic enteritis, bloody diarrhoea and myocarditis in young pups. The present study was carried out to examine alterations in oxidative stress indices in the erythrocytes from dogs suffering from gastroenteritis with or without canine parvoviral infection as confirmed by CPV-DNA amplification from faeces using specific primers for CPV-2 as well as CPV-2a and CPV-2b variants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The present investigation utilized clinical cases of dogs with signs of acute diarrhea (n=56), and 14 more apparently healthy dogs of similar age group. Erythrocytic oxidative stress indices such as lipid peroxides level and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and blood micro-mineral (iron, copper, cobalt and zinc) status were analyzed in each dog (n=70). The acute cases of gastroenteritis in dogs were associated with altered erythrocytic lipid peroxidation as evident by estimation of malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration. The activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, the first line of antioxidant defense against damaging effects of free radicals, were also altered. The alterations in oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with involvement of canine parvovirus as compared to parvo-negative cases. Our results also revealed decreased blood zinc level in diarrhoea in dogs irrespective of involvement of canine parvovirus.

  7. Influence of experimental protocol on response rate and repeatability of mechanical threshold testing in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L.K.; Murrell, J.C.; van Klink, E.G.M.; Whay, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical threshold (MT) testing is widely used to measure nociceptive thresholds. However, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the response rate and repeatability (collectively termed ‘efficacy’) of MT testing protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the efficacy of a protocol using a hand-held algometer to measure MTs (N) in healthy dogs (n = 12) was affected by varying (1) the area over which force was applied (tip diameter), (2) rate of force application, (3) position of dog during testing, and (4) anatomical site of testing. The effect of these factors on MT and the impact of individual dog effects on both efficacy and MT were also investigated. Overall, 3175/3888 tests (82%) resulted in a measurable response. The response rate was reduced by using wider tip diameters, testing at the tibia, and testing when the dog was lying down (compared to sitting upright). Wider tips were associated with higher, more variable MTs (mean ± standard deviation) with values of 4.18 ± 2.55 N for 2 mm diameter tips, 5.54 ± 3.33 for those of 4 mm, and 7.59 ± 4.73 for 8 mm tips. Individual dog effects had the most significant impact on efficacy and MT. The findings indicate that tip diameter, dog position, and anatomical site may affect both protocol efficacy and MTs, and should be taken into account when comparing different studies and in designing protocols to measure MTs in dogs. The predominant effect of the individual dog over other factors indicates that between-subject differences should always be accounted for in future studies. PMID:25744801

  8. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    PubMed

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, p<0.0001). Elevated BPA concentrations positively correlated with increased plasma bicarbonate concentrations and associated with fecal microbiome alterations. Short-term feeding of canned dog food increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health

  9. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis.

  10. ENCHONDROMATOSIS IN AN ADULT DOG.

    PubMed

    Movilla, Rebeca; Dominguez, Elisabet; Novellas, Rosa; Martinez, Jorge; Mesa, Ignacio; Roura, Xavier

    2017-02-24

    A 7-year-old crossbreed dog presented for lameness with diffuse soft tissue swelling in the right fore limb. Radiographs identified increased opacity of medullary cavity involving the radius and ulna. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed mineral attenuation in the medullary cavity of multiple bones. Histopathology of the right distal tibia showed a fibrocartilaginous matrix occupying intertrabecular spaces. The final diagnosis was enchondromatosis. Long-term favorable progression of the dog's clinical condition further supported the benign histopathologic classification. This is the fifth case of canine enchondromatosis reported so far and the first documentation of further characterization with CT.

  11. Consecutive CT-guided core needle tissue biopsy of lung lesions in the same dog at different phases of radiation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhongyuan; Deng, Sisi; Liang, Zhiwen; Wang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to set up a Beagle dog model of radiation-induced lung injury in order to supply fresh lung tissue samples in the different injury phases for gene and protein research. Three dogs received 18 Gy X-ray irradiation in one fraction, another three dogs received 8 Gy in each of three fractions at weekly intervals, and one control dog was not irradiated. Acute pneumonitis was observed during the first 3 months after radiation, and chronic lung fibrosis was found during the next 4–12 months in all the dogs exposed to radiation. CT-guided core needle lung lesion biopsies were extracted from each dog five times over the course of 1 year. The dogs remained healthy after each biopsy, and 50–100 mg fresh lung lesion tissues were collected in each operation. The incidence of pneumothorax and hemoptysis was 20% and 2.8%, respectively, in the 35 tissue biopsies. A successful and stable radiation-induced lung injury dog model was established. Lung lesion tissue samples from dogs in acute stage, recovery stage and fibrosis stage were found to be sufficient to support cytology, genomics and proteomics research. This model safely supplied fresh tissue samples that would allow future researchers to more easily explore and develop treatments for radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:27422930

  12. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  13. Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2009-11-01

    People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology.

  14. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A.L.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Santos, V.R.; Salomão, S.R.; Souza, C.; Berezovsky, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compared two electroretinography (ERG) electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype) were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS) was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment. PMID:23558860

  15. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

    1988-08-01

    Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.

  16. Evaluation of intraoperative fluorescence imaging-guided surgery in cancer-bearing dogs: a prospective proof-of-concept phase II study in 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Quentin; Sayag, David; Texier, Isabelle; Navarro, Fabrice; Boisgard, Raphaël; Virieux-Watrelot, Dorothée; Ponce, Frédérique; Carozzo, Claude

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to prospectively evaluate the application of intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IOFI) in the surgical excision of malignant masses in dogs, using a novel lipid nanoparticle contrast agent. Dogs presenting with spontaneous soft-tissue sarcoma or subcutaneous tumors were prospectively enrolled. Clinical staging and whole-body computed tomography (CT) were performed. All the dogs received an intravenous injection of dye-loaded lipid nanoparticles, LipImage 815. Wide or radical resection was realized after CT examination. Real-time IOFI was performed before skin incision and after tumor excision. In cases of radical resection, the lymph nodes (LNs) were imaged. The margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio or LN/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio was measured and compared with the histologic margins or LN status. Nine dogs were included. Limb amputation was performed in 3 dogs, and wide resection in 6. No adverse effect was noted. Fluorescence was observed in all 9 of the tumors. The margins were clean in 5 of 6 dogs after wide surgical resection, and the margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio was close to 1.0 in all these dogs. Infiltrated margins were observed in 1 case, with a margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio of 3.2. Metastasis was confirmed in 2 of 3 LNs, associated with LN/healthy tissues fluorescence ratios of 2.1 and 4.2, whereas nonmetastatic LN was associated with a ratio of 1.0. LipImage 815 used as a contrast agent during IOFI seemed to allow for good discrimination between tumoral and healthy tissues. Future studies are scheduled to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of IOFI using LipImage 815 as a tracer.

  17. Serum tryptophan and its metabolites in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy as treatment of pyometra or as elective spay surgery.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Pastor, Josep; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2015-05-01

    This study compares serum concentrations of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in healthy bitches and bitches with bacterial uterine infection (pyometra). The effects of surgery were also assessed by measuring these variables in both groups of dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Presurgery, mean (±standard deviation) TRP, KYN, and KYNA concentrations and IDO activity were 68.44 ± 21.77, 2.00 ± 0.33, 112.11 ± 111.91 μmol/L, and 29.22 ± 10.10, respectively, in the healthy dogs; and 40.16 ± 12.11, 8.27 ± 3.94, 411.11 ± 199.60 μmol/L, and 205.92 ± 154.20, respectively, in the dogs with pyometra. Tryptophan and KYN levels had normalized on suture removal (10 days after surgery) though IDO activity and KYNA concentrations remained elevated during the postoperative period compared with presurgery values in both study groups. Our results suggest that KYNA concentrations and IDO activity could be useful indicators of the inflammation induced by pyometra and could be also used to monitor recovery following ovariohysterectomy in both healthy dogs and dogs with pyometra.

  18. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-09

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being.

  19. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    PubMed Central

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  20. The clinical significance of Cyniclomyces guttulatus in dogs with chronic diarrhoea, a survey and a prospective treatment study.

    PubMed

    Mandigers, Paul J J; Duijvestijn, Mirjam B H M; Ankringa, Nynke; Maes, Sofie; van Essen, Elise; Schoormans, Anky H W; German, Alexander J; Houwers, Dirk J

    2014-08-06

    This study surveyed the prevalence of massive numbers of Cyniclomyces guttulatus in faecal samples from healthy dogs (18%) and dogs with chronic diarrhoea (14%) suggesting that this yeast has no clinical significance. Subsequently, a total of 57 referred dogs with chronic diarrhoea were selected because they excreted massive numbers of C. guttulatus and their initial diagnostic work-up yielded no other direct clues explaining their diarrhoea. Treatment with nystatin did not result in any clinical response in 36 out of these 57 dogs (63%), although they no longer shed the yeast. However, a response was noted in the remaining 21 (37%) dogs: 13 were 'responders', in that their diarrhoea subsided for more than two weeks and the faeces were cleared of the yeast. However, three of these dogs relapsed repeatedly, with signs of diarrhoea and massive shedding of the yeast. The other eight dogs were 'incomplete responders', whereby faecal quality initially normalised, but diarrhoea relapsed within two weeks, whilst still not shedding the yeast. In these cases, further diagnostic work up revealed other co-causes of diarrhoea. It was concluded that there was no direct evidence that C. guttulatus is a primary pathogen. However, the results of the prospective treatment study suggest that a possible role in a minority of cases, perhaps as an opportunist, cannot be ruled out.

  1. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Guido; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam; Holst, Jens J; van der Poel, Antonius F B; Janssens, Geert P J; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2009-07-01

    Depending on type and inclusion level, dietary fibre may increase and maintain satiety and postpone the onset of hunger. This 7-week study evaluated the effect of fibre fermentability on physiological satiety-related metabolites and voluntary food intake (VFI) in dogs. Sixteen healthy adult dogs were fed a low-fermentable fibre (LFF) diet containing 8.5 % cellulose or a high-fermentable fibre (HFF) diet containing 8.5 % sugarbeet pulp and 2 % inulin. Large intestinal fibre degradation was evaluated by apparent faecal digestibility of nutrients and faecal SCFA and NH3 concentrations. Postprandial blood samples were obtained to determine postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, total peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total ghrelin concentrations. At the end of the study, the dogs were given a single meal of a dry dog food to determine VFI. Dogs fed the HFF diet had a significantly higher large intestinal fibre degradation and production of SCFA compared with the dogs fed the LFF diet. The HFF-fed dogs tended (P = 0.058) to show a lower VFI at the end of the study. No treatment effects were found for postprandial plasma glucose, PYY, GLP-1 and ghrelin responses. The concentrations of these metabolites could not be related to the observed difference in VFI. The inclusion of fermentable fibre in canine diets may contribute to the prevention or mitigation of obesity through its effects on satiety. The underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

  2. Vaccination of dogs with Duramune DAPPi+LC protects against pathogenic canine parvovirus type 2c challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; Stirling, C; Borowski, S; Thomas, A; King, V; Salt, J

    2013-06-22

    In this study, we determined whether vaccination with Duramune DAPPi+LC containing canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2b protects against challenge with virulent CPV antigenic type 2c. Seven healthy dogs, seronegative for CPV2, were enrolled into two treatment groups; five were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with minimum titre vaccine, and two were given saline. Dogs were challenged with CPV 2c three weeks later. Clinical observations, body weight and rectal temperature measurements, blood samples for serology and white blood cell counts and faecal samples for virus excretion were collected. Control dogs remained seronegative until challenge; vaccinated dogs seroconverted and were positive for antibodies to CPV2 from day 21. Four days after challenge, clinical signs associated with parvovirus infection (vomiting, paroxysmal shivering, depression, loose stools) were observed in the control dogs. Both animals were withdrawn from the study for welfare reasons one day later. On day 47, leucopenia was observed in controls, with white blood cell counts less than 50 per cent prechallenge values. No specific clinical sign of parvovirus infection were observed in the vaccinated dogs, nor was (detectable) challenge virus shed in faeces suggesting that antibodies generated contributed sterilising immunity. We conclude that vaccination of dogs with Duramune DAPPi+LC protects against challenge with a virulent field strain of CPV 2c.

  3. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach.

  4. Electrolyte level and blood pH in dogs infected by various 18S RNA strains of Babaesia canis canis on the early stage of babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; Górna, Marta; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the studies was to determine electrolyte disturbances and blood pH changes in dogs with babesiosis and possibly show a connection between the Babesia (B.) canis strain causing the infection and the intensity of these irregularities. 40 animals (group 1) with early babesiosis and 40 healthy dogs (group 2) were studied and their blood pH and blood levels of potassium, chlorides; calcium and sodium were determined. At the same time, molecular typing of parasites was carried out to detect which B.canis strain (18S RNA-A or 185 RNA-B) had caused the disease in dogs of group 1. In group 1, four dogs were acidaemic, twelve had normal blood pH, and 24 were alkalaemic. Potassium concentration was below normal in 16 out of 40 dogs (40%) and normal in 24 dogs. Hypochloremia was present in 36 out of 40 dogs; chloride was normal in the remaining four animals. Serum sodium concentration was low in 16 of 40 dogs, normal in 20 of 40 dogs and high in four dogs. Calcium concentration was normal in all 40 dogs. In dogs of group 2 no abnormalities of haematological or blood biochemical parameters were observed. 29 out of the 40 dogs of group 1 were infected with the 18S RNA-A strain and eleven with the 18S RNA-B strain of Babesia canis canis. We did not observe any correlation between the type of strain causing the infection and the electrolyte disturbances in the serum of sick dogs. Hypocalaemia was observed in ten specimen infected with 18S RNA-A and six infected with 18S RNA-B. Additionally, in dogs infected with 18S RNA-A, hypochloraemia (28), hyponatraemia (10), hypernatraemia (2) were observed, as well as blood pH drop (4) or increase (14). The 18S RNA-B-infected dogs suffered from hypochloraemia (8), hyponatraemia (6), hypernatraemia (2) and increase in blood pH (10).The studies conducted did not answer the question of whether the type of electrolyte disturbances in dogs with babesiosis can be connected with the strain of the parasite that induced the disease, as

  5. Neurobiology of the aging dog.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Aged canines naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology that may have links to cognitive decline. On a gross level, significant cortical atrophy occurs with age along with an increase in ventricular volume based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Microscopically, there is evidence of select neuron loss and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged dogs, an area critical for intact learning and memory. The cause of neuronal loss and dysfunction may be related to the progressive accumulation of toxic proteins, oxidative damage, cerebrovascular pathology, and changes in gene expression. For example, aged dogs naturally accumulate human-type beta-amyloid peptide, a protein critically involved with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Further, oxidative damage to proteins, DNA/RNA and lipids occurs with age in dogs. Although less well explored in the aged canine brain, neuron loss, and cerebrovascular pathology observed with age are similar to human brain aging and may also be linked to cognitive decline. Interestingly, the prefrontal cortex appears to be particularly vulnerable early in the aging process in dogs and this may be reflected in dysfunction in specific cognitive domains with age.

  6. Training Dogs for Heroin Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The acquisition and maintenance of detection and search task behaviors are accomplished with positive control techniques. The principal controlling reinforcer (consequence) used is food. The dog is permitted to behave freely in the work environment without coercion and with minimal restraint. The conditioned reinforcers are then used to obtain the fundamental skills, and odor discrimination. Training procedures are described.

  7. Cricopharyngeal achalasia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Renate M

    2003-12-01

    A 4-month-old, female terrier-poodle cross was presented with a chronic history of dysphagia. Fluoroscopic swallowing studies localized the problem to the upper esophageal sphincter. A diagnosis of cricopharyngeal achalasia was made. After cricopharyngeal and thyropharyngeal myectomy, the dog was able to eat soft food without difficulty.

  8. Selective imitation in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Viranyi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig

    2007-05-15

    The transmission of cultural knowledge requires learners to identify what relevant information to retain and selectively imitate when observing others' skills. Young human infants--without relying on language or theory of mind--already show evidence of this ability. If, for example, in a communicative context, a model demonstrates a head action instead of a more efficient hand action, infants imitate the head action only if the demonstrator had no good reason to do so, suggesting that their imitation is a selective, interpretative process [1]. Early sensitivity to ostensive-communicative cues and to the efficiency of goal-directed actions is thought to be a crucial prerequisite for such relevance-guided selective imitation [2]. Although this competence is thought to be human specific [2], here we show an analog capacity in the dog. In our experiment, subjects watched a demonstrator dog pulling a rod with the paw instead of the preferred mouth action. In the first group, using the "inefficient" action was justified by the model's carrying of a ball in her mouth, whereas in the second group, no constraints could explain the demonstrator's choice. In the first trial after observation, dogs imitated the nonpreferred action only in the second group. Consequently, dogs, like children, demonstrated inferential selective imitation.

  9. Septicemia due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus following dog bite in an elderly male.

    PubMed

    Chary, Sowmya; Joshi, Megha; Reddy, Sriharshan; Ryan, Cheryl; Saddi, Venu

    2011-01-01

    A previously healthy, 67-year-old, man with past medical history of myocardial infarction and hypertension was rushed to the emergency room after sudden onset of fever, chills, severe rigors, hypotension, tachycardia and vomiting. The patient was diagnosed as being in septic shock, and investigations revealed intracellular gram-negative bacilli in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the peripheral smear. A history of dog contact was elicited after this very unusual and rare finding. Cultures confirmed septicemia due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a normal oral and nasal flora inhabitant of cats and dogs that can cause severe and sometimes fatal septicemia in humans. We report this very interesting case because of the common prevalence of dog homeownership and the rarity of C. canimorsus inducing sepsis.

  10. Sperm Morphological Features Associated with Chronic Chagas Disease in the Semen of Experimentally Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010

  11. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  12. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Dogs With Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maura K. W.; Barros, Michele A.; Martins, João Flávio P.; Vasconcellos, Jose Paulo C.; Morais, Bruna P.; Pompeia, Celine; Bittencourt, Matheus Domingues; Evangelho, Karine dos Santos; Kerkis, Irina; Wenceslau, Cristiane V.

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a dysfunction in tear production associated with clinical signs, which include conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge, discomfort, pain, and, eventually, corneal vascularization and pigmentation. Immunosuppressive drugs are routinely administrated for long periods to treat KCS but with side effects and limited results. Evaluation of the clinical benefits of intralacrimal transplantation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in dogs with mild–moderate and severe KCS was done. A total of 24 eyes with KCS from 15 dogs of different breeds were enrolled in the present study. A single transplantation of MSCs (1 × 106) directly into lacrimal glands (dorsal and third eyelid) was performed. The Schirmer tear tests (STTs) and ocular surface improvements were used to assess short- and long-term effects of these cells. The STTs were carried out on day 0 (before MSCs transplantation) and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, as well as 6 and 12 months after MSC transplantation. Our data demonstrate that allogeneic MSC transplantation in KCS dogs is safe since no adverse effects were observed immediately after transplantation and in short- and long-term follow-ups. A statistically significant increase in the STT and ocular surface improvements was found in all eyes studied. In all the eyes with mild–moderate KCS, STT values reverted to those of healthy eyes, while in eyes with severe KCS, although complete reversion was not found, there was improvement in tear production and in other clinical signs. Our study shows that a single dose of a low number of MSCs can be used to treat KCS in dogs. In contrast to immunosuppressive drug use, MSC transplantation has an effect over a long period (up to 12 months), even after a single administration, and does not require daily drug administration. PMID:28003932

  13. Immune modulation following immunization with polyvalent vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Alois; May, Bettina; Teltscher, Andrea; Wistrela, Eva; Niedermüller, Hans

    2003-08-15

    A decline in T-cell-mediated immunity and transient state of immunosuppression after immunization has been reported in dogs. Nevertheless, dogs are still routinely vaccinated with polyvalent live vaccines and severe disease does not generally occur. In order to investigate these effects on the canine immune system and to elucidate possible mechanisms we determined the following immune parameters in the blood of 33 clinically sound German shepherd dogs before and after standard vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against distemper, parvovirus, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, kennel cough and rabies: white and differential blood cell count, the serum concentrations and/or activities of IL-1, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, neopterin and IgG, natural killer (NK) cell activity, bactericidal activity and complement hemolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT). Our major findings were that significant postvaccinal decreases in T-cell mitogenic response to PHA and in neutrophil function and neopterin serum concentration were accompanied by simultaneous increase in plasma IgG and hemolytic complement activity. This suggests a transient shift in the balance between cell-mediated and humoral (T(H)1/T(H)2) immunity rather than immunosuppression. These results do not imply that dogs should not receive live vaccines, as the response to vaccines just seems to create a state of altered homeostasis when immunization elicits protection by humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, these recognized compromises of immune function should be considered and vaccines still be applied only in healthy animals and strictly according to the rules and regulations given by the manufacturer.

  14. Evaluation of serum cystatin-C and symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with heart failure from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bom-Sul; Moon, Hyeong-Sun; Seo, Sang-Hyuk; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-20

    Reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common complication in advanced stages of heart failure (HF). The convenient and precise assessment for GFR would be useful for early detection of renal impairment in HF dogs. Our hypothesis of this study was the GFR would be reduced in advanced stages of HF from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI), as indicated by renal markers including serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations. Forty-three client-owned dogs consisting of 33 dogs with different stages of HF from CMVI and 10 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations along with other renal (i.e., urea nitrogen and creatinine) and echocardiographic markers were evaluated in healthy and CMVI dogs. Serum Cys-C concentrations were 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/l in control, 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/l in ISACHC I, 2.9 ± 0.8 mg/l in ISACHC II and 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/l in ISACHC III dogs, whereas serum SDMA concentrations were 8 ± 2 µg/dl in control, 14 ± 3 µg/dl in ISACHC I, 18 ± 6 µg/dl in ISACHC II and 22 ± 7 µg/dl in ISACHC III dogs. There was close correlation of serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations to serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and the severity of HF. Our study demonstrated that the GFR was decreased in dogs with CMVI having earlier stages of HF.

  15. Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed.

  16. Evaluation of serum cystatin-C and symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with heart failure from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Bom-Sul; MOON, Hyeong-Sun; SEO, Sang-Hyuk; HYUN, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common complication in advanced stages of heart failure (HF). The convenient and precise assessment for GFR would be useful for early detection of renal impairment in HF dogs. Our hypothesis of this study was the GFR would be reduced in advanced stages of HF from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI), as indicated by renal markers including serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations. Forty-three client-owned dogs consisting of 33 dogs with different stages of HF from CMVI and 10 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations along with other renal (i.e., urea nitrogen and creatinine) and echocardiographic markers were evaluated in healthy and CMVI dogs. Serum Cys-C concentrations were 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/l in control, 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/l in ISACHC I, 2.9 ± 0.8 mg/l in ISACHC II and 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/l in ISACHC III dogs, whereas serum SDMA concentrations were 8 ± 2 µg/dl in control, 14 ± 3 µg/dl in ISACHC I, 18 ± 6 µg/dl in ISACHC II and 22 ± 7 µg/dl in ISACHC III dogs. There was close correlation of serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations to serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and the severity of HF. Our study demonstrated that the GFR was decreased in dogs with CMVI having earlier stages of HF. PMID:27725349

  17. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  18. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  19. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  20. Acute Phase Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly M.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Boudreau, C. Elizabeth; Reyes, Ismael; Mondragon, Armando; Griffin, John F.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people each year and there are no treatments that dramatically improve clinical outcome. Canine intervertebral disc herniation is a naturally-occurring SCI that has similarities to human injury and can be used as a translational model for evaluating therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acute phase proteins (APPs) that have altered expression across a spectrum of neurological disorders, using this canine model system. The concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1-glycoprotein, and serum amyloid A were determined in the CSF of 42 acutely injured dogs, compared with 21 healthy control dogs. Concentrations of APPs also were examined with respect to initial injury severity and motor outcome 42 d post-injury. Hp concentration was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the CSF of affected dogs, compared with healthy control dogs. Additionally, the concentrations of CRP and Hp were significantly (p=0.0001 and p=0.0079, respectively) and positively associated with CSF total protein concentration. The concentrations of CRP and Hp were significantly higher (p=0.0071 and p=0.0197, respectively) in dogs with severe injury, compared with those with mild-to-moderate SCI, but there was no significant correlation between assessed CSF APP concentrations and 42 d motor outcome. This study demonstrated that CSF APPs were dysregulated in dogs with naturally-occurring SCI and could be used as markers for SCI severity. As Hp was increased following severe SCI and is neuroprotective across a number of model systems, it may represent a viable therapeutic target. PMID:26186466

  1. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from breeding dogs.

    PubMed

    Rota, Ada; Milani, Chiara; Drigo, Ilenia; Drigo, Michele; Corrò, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The overuse of antimicrobials can select resistant bacteria strains; staphylococci have the ability to become resistant to all beta-lactam antimicrobials and are a significant concern in human medicine and a growing issue for veterinary medicine. Because antimicrobials are sometimes incorrectly used in breeding kennels, the objective of the work was to assess the occurrence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in breeding dogs. The research was carried out in 13 kennels that were allotted to three categories according to the intensity of antimicrobial use. Vaginal and milk swabs were taken from 87 healthy bitches around parturition and also from multiple organs of 27 of their pups that died within the first 2 weeks. Standard bacteriological examinations were carried out and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified. All the coagulase-positive staphylococci resulted to be Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Susceptibility to oxacillin and the presence of the mecA gene were tested. Nine out of 89 strains (six isolated from the bitches' milk and three from dead puppies, all belonging to kennels characterized by an excessive use of antimicrobials) were multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant and mecA positive. Our results confirm that excessive use of antimicrobials entails the risk of selecting resistant staphylococci strains. Our data also indicate that the bacterial flora of healthy dogs belonging to specific populations may act as a reservoir of resistance genes.

  2. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research A Healthy Mouth For Your Baby Healthy teeth are important—even ... fact sheet can help you keep your baby’s mouth healthy and give him a healthy start! 1. ...

  3. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  4. Anaplasma platys in dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Sosa, Nicolás; Félix, María Laura; Venzal, José Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Anaplasmataceae family members include vector-borne bacteria of veterinary importance that may also affect humans. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the main members of this family detected in dogs worldwide. In Uruguay there are not many published studies on tick-borne pathogens affecting dogs, the only haemoparasite molecularly confirmed in dogs, is the piroplasm Rangelia vitalii. The aim of the present work was to detect the presence of A. platys and E. canis in dogs and dogs-associated ticks of two localities in Northwestern Uruguay. Blood samples from dogs with and without clinical signs associated with vector-borne diseases, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus obtained from these dogs were analyzed by PCR for Anaplasmataceae. Positive dogs were further analyzed by PCR for Ehrlichia spp. and A. platys. All the ticks were found negative. No dog was detected infected with E. canis, while eight dogs (4.2%) were found to be infected with A. platys. Phylogenetic analysis of groESL operon sequence for A. platys revealed no differences with sequences described for A. platys in neighbor countries and from other regions of the world. This is the first report of the presence of A. platys in Uruguay.

  5. Safety Evaluation of Parastar® Plus in Dogs and Assessment of Transferable Residue of Fipronil and Cyphenothrin from Dogs to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Case, Katharine M.; Vega, Natalia M.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Lasher, Michelle A.; Canerdy, Terry D.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar® Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20.5 and 27.3 kg) received topical application of Parastar® Plus (2.68 mL; fipronil, 9.8%, and cyphenothrin, 5.2%) on the back between the shoulder blades. At predetermined intervals, dogs were given a full physical exam, and residues of fipronil and cyphenothrin were determined in dog blood and cotton glove extracts using GC/MS. Fipronil and cyphenothrin peaks eluted at 7.453 and 9.913 min, correspondingly, and the compounds were confirmed based on characteristic ions. At no time was fipronil or cyphenothrin residue detected in blood samples. In glove extracts, residues of fipronil and cyphenothrin were maximally present at 24-h posttreatment (43.84 ± 5.69 and 59.26 ± 8.97 ppm, respectively). By 48 h, the residue levels sharply declined (16.89 ± 2.82 and 17.98 ± 2.07 ppm, respectively). The insecticides’ residues were detected in insignificant amounts after 1 week (5.69 ± 2.16 and 10.00 ± 1.51 ppm, respectively), and only in trace amounts after 2 weeks. At no time did any dog show side effects, except itching at the site of Parastar® Plus application. The findings suggest that Parastar® Plus was safe for dogs, and transferable residues of fipronil and cyphenothrin were minimal, posing very little or no health concern to pet owners or veterinary personnel. Of course, veterinary personnel, who handle many dogs daily, may require proper protection to avoid cumulative exposure

  6. Effects of short-term cattle exclusion on plant community composition: Prairie dog and ecological site influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant community composition is an important indicator of healthy, proper functioning rangelands. We evaluated the impacts prairie dog grazing, ecological site and short term cattle exclusion on Northern Mixed-Grass prairie near McLaughlin, SD. Modified Daubenmire frames provided canopy cover, litte...

  7. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    PubMed

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds.

  8. Are bacterial load and synovitis related in dogs with inflammatory stifle arthritis?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Zeev; Zitzer, Nina C; Racette, Molly A; Manley, Paul A; Schaefer, Susan L; Markel, Mark D; Hao, Zhengling; Holzman, Gerianne; Muir, Peter

    2011-03-24

    It has been proposed that small quantities of microbial material within synovial joints may act as a trigger for development of synovitis. We have previously identified an association between intra-articular bacteria and development of inflammatory stifle arthritis and cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs, and now wished to quantify bacterial load and markers of synovitis in dogs with and without stifle arthritis and CCLR. Joint tissues were collected from dogs with CCLR (n=51) and healthy dogs with normal stifles (n=9). Arthritis was assessed radiographically in CCLR dogs. Bacterial load was assessed using qPCR and broad-ranging 16S rRNA primers. qRT-PCR was used to estimate expression of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor (TCR Vβ), CD3ɛ, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), IL-4, IL-17, and TNF-α genes. Severity of synovitis was assessed histologically. Bacterial load was increased in arthritic stifles, when compared with healthy stifles. Histologic synovitis in arthritic stifles was mononuclear and was significantly correlated with bacterial load (1 of 2 primer sets) (S(R)=0.49, p<0.001). In arthritic stifles, expression of TRAP in synovium was increased relative to healthy stifles. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes was not correlated with bacterial load, histologic inflammation, or radiographic arthritis. Translocation of bacterial material to the canine stifle is related to the presence of joint inflammation. The lack of a strong positive correlation suggests that bacterial load is unlikely to be a primary pro-inflammatory factor. However, dysregulation of immune responses within synovial tissues may be dependent upon an environmental microbial trigger.

  9. Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Silva-Antunes, Ilce; Morgado, Adilson de Aguiar; Menz, Ingrid; Palatnik, Marcos; Lavor, Carlile

    2009-06-02

    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very

  10. A New Sandwich ELISA for Quantification of Thymidine Kinase 1 Protein Levels in Sera from Dogs with Different Malignancies Can Aid in Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jagarlamudi, Kiran Kumar; Moreau, Laura; Westberg, Sara; Rönnberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a DNA precursor enzyme whose expression is closely correlated with cell proliferation and cell turnover. Sensitive serum TK1 activity assays have been used for monitoring and prognosis of hematological malignancies in both humans and dogs. Here we describe the development of a specific sandwich TK1-ELISA for the quantification of TK1 protein levels in sera from dogs with different malignancies. A combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-dog TK1 antibody and a mouse monoclonal anti-human TK1 antibody was used. Different concentrations of recombinant canine TK1 was used as standard. Clinical evaluation of the ELISA was done by using sera from 42 healthy dogs, 43 dogs with hematological tumors and 55 with solid tumors. An established [3H]-dThd phosphorylation assay was used to determine the TK1 activity levels in the same sera. The mean TK1 activities in dogs with hematological tumors were significantly higher than those found in healthy dogs. In agreement with earlier studies, no significant difference was observed in serum TK1 activities between healthy dogs and dogs with solid tumors. However, the mean TK1 protein levels determined by new TK1-ELISA were significantly higher not only in hematological tumors but also in solid tumors compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD = 1.30 ± 1.16, 0.67 ± 0.55 and 0.27± 0.10 ng/mL, respectively). Moreover, TK1-ELISA had significantly higher ability to distinguish lymphoma cases from healthy based on receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve, AUC, of 0.96) to that of the activity assay (AUC, 0.84). Furthermore, fluctuations in TK1 protein levels during the course of chemotherapy in dogs with lymphoma closely associated with clinical outcome. Overall, the TK1-ELISA showed significant linear correlation with the TK1 activity assay (rs = 0.6, p<0.0001). Thus, the new TK1-ELISA has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for routine clinical use in veterinary oncology.

  11. The Use of Trazodone to Facilitate Post-Surgical Confinement in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Roe, Simon C.; Griffith, Emily; Hamilton, Alexandra; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of the oral serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitor trazodone hydrochloride to facilitate confinement and calming after orthopedic surgery in dogs. Design Prospective open-label trial. Animals 36 client-owned dogs. Procedures Healthy dogs were recruited when presented for pre-surgical evaluation for orthopedic procedures. Starting the day after surgery, dogs were administered trazodone (~3.5 mg/kg, per os (PO), q12h) with tramadol (4–6 mg/kg, PO, q8–12h) for pain management. After 3 days, tramadol was discontinued and trazodone was increased (~7 mg/kg, PO, q12h) and maintained for at least 4 weeks. If needed, trazodone dosage was increased to 7–10 mg/kg, PO, q8h. Clients completed electronic surveys rating their dogs’ confinement tolerance, calmness/hyperactivity level, and responses to specific provocative situations, prior to surgery and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks and at the post-surgical evaluation (8–12 weeks). Results The majority of clients (~90%) reported that, when given trazodone during the 8–12 weeks following orthopedic surgery, their dogs improved moderately or extremely with regard to confinement tolerance and calmness. Trazodone was well tolerated, even in combination with non-steroidal drugs, antibiotics, and other medications; no dogs were withdrawn from the study due to adverse reactions. Client-reported median onset of action of trazodone was 31–45 minutes and median duration of action was four or more hours. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The results suggest that oral trazodone is a safe and efficacious medication that may be used to facilitate confinement and enhance behavioral calmness of dogs during the critical recovery period following orthopedic surgery. PMID:25029308

  12. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gugjoo, M. B.; Hoque, M.; Saxena, A. C.; Shamsuz Zama, M. M.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body weight and gender on these parameters. The data obtained were also compared with that of the other dog breeds. Conscious clinically healthy Labrador Retriever dogs (n=24) of both sexes were made the subject of the study. All the measurements were made from a right parasternal long axis left ventricular outflow tract view and the parameters measured were: left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular function, left ventricular volumes, left atrial and aortic root diameter and mitral valve parameters. Data obtained were also compared with that available for other dog breeds. Significant correlation (P<0.05) with body weight was obtained for some of the left ventricular, atrial and mitral valve parameters, being strong for LAD, AOD, LVIDd, LVIDs, IVSd and IVSs (r>0.5); moderate for LVPWd, LVPWs, EPSS, EF Slope and SV (r=0.3 to 0.5); weak for EDV and ESV (r<0.3). Non-significant effect of gender was seen on all the echocardiographic parameters. However, some of the parameters had a significant breed effect. It is expected that the obtained data will be valuable for the progress of studies on small animal cardiology. PMID:27175128

  13. Detection of toxins A/B and isolation of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from dogs in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Santos, Renata Lara Resende; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Pereira, Luiz Carlos; Pereira, Silvia Trindade; Duarte, Marina Carvalho; de Assis, Ronnie Antunes; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect C. difficile A/B toxins and to isolate strains of C. perfringens and C. difficile from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 57 dogs, 35 of which were apparently healthy, and 22 of which were diarrheic. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected by ELISA, and C. perfringens and C. difficile were identified by multiplex PCR. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected in 21 samples (36.8%). Of these, 16 (76.2%) were from diarrheic dogs, and five (23.8%) were from non-diarrheic dogs. Twelve C. difficile strains (21.1%) were isolated, of which ten were A+B+ and two were A−B−. All non-toxigenic strains were isolated from non-diarrheic animals. The binary toxin gene cdtB was found in one strain, which was A+B+ and was derived from a non-diarrheic dog. C. perfringens strains were isolated from 40 samples (70.2%). Of these, 18 (45%) were from the diarrheic group, and 22 (55%) belonged to the non-diarrheic group. All isolates were classified as C. perfringens type A and there was an association between the detection of the cpe gene and the presence of diarrhea. Interestingly, ten strains (25%) were positive for the presence of the cpb2 gene. The high rate of detection of the A/B toxins in non-diarrheic dogs suggests the occurrence of subclinical disease in dogs or carriage of its toxins without disease. More studies are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of C. difficile and C. perfringens in dogs and to better our understanding of C. difficile as a zoonotic agent. This is the first study to report the binary toxin gene in C. difficile strains isolated from dogs in Brazil. PMID:24159295

  14. Prevalence of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in rectal swabs from dogs in Slovakia: special reference to C. jejuni and C. coli.

    PubMed

    Badlík, Marián; Holoda, Emil; Pistl, Juraj; Koscová, Jana; Sihelská, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    This work focused on the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in samples obtained from dog droppings. There were 135 samples collected and examined from both clinically healthy and diseased dogs from households, clinics, rehabilitation centres and dog shelters in eastern Slovakia. The isolation of the Campylobacter spp. was achieved by the use of combined selective cultivation methods, followed by confirmation and species identification of the isolates using the PCR method.The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in dogs was 30.4%. Statistically significant differences were recorded (P < 0.05) within the age groups of all dogs examined: 40.6% of the older dogs (> or = 1 year) tested positive, compared to 19.7% of the younger ones (< 1 year). There was no significant difference in relation to dog gender. The most frequently isolated species was Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, present in 51.2% of all positive samples. Campylobacter coli was present in 9.8% of the samples. The remaining positive samples (39%) were confirmed as C upsaliensis, based on phenotypic traits. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter was found in samples from shelters (50%) and the lowest in those from households (11.5%), with samples from rehabilitation centres (42.3%) and clinics (18.8%) coming in second and third place.The high prevalence of Campylobacter confirms the hypothesis that dogs, mainly the ones kept in groups, are a source of Campylobacter spp. Further investigation is required to determine to what extent infected dogs may be a potential source of infection in humans.

  15. Plasma prostaglandin E2 concentrations after single dose administration of ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Pasloske, K; Burger, J; Conlon, P

    1998-01-01

    Ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) is a relatively new, potent, non-narcotic analgesic with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity and has been associated with gastric and renal toxicity in people and dogs. The objectives of this study were to establish whether endogenous PGE2 exists in the plasma of healthy dogs and to determine if, and to what magnitude, ketorolac alters PGE2 plasma concentrations after administration. Enzyme immunoassay measurement of a stable PGE2 derivative, bicyclo PGE2, showed that after i.v. administration of 0.5 mg/kg ketorolac tromethamine, 1 and 24 h plasma samples contained significantly (P < or = 0.01) less PGE2 than did plasma samples collected from dogs before the drug treatment. After p.o. administration, 1 h plasma samples contained significantly (P < or = 0.01) less PGE2 than did pretreatment samples, and the 24 h post-drug administration samples contained significantly (P < or = 0.01) less plasma PGE2 than the 96 h plasma samples. The results of this study suggest that a clinically effective single i.v. or p.o. dose of ketorolac tromethamine to healthy dogs causes a significant but reversible decrease in endogenous PGE2 production which may partially explain the drug's low therapeutic index. PMID:9684056

  16. Comprehensive longitudinal characterization of canine muscular dystrophy by serial NMR imaging of GRMD dogs.

    PubMed

    Thibaud, J-L; Azzabou, N; Barthelemy, I; Fleury, S; Cabrol, L; Blot, S; Carlier, P G

    2012-10-01

    The Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog is the closest animal counterpart of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans and has, for this reason, increasingly been used in preclinical therapeutic trials for this disease. The aim of this study was to describe the abnormalities in canine dystrophic muscle non-invasively, quantitatively, thoroughly and serially by means of NMR imaging. Thoracic and pelvic limbs of five healthy and five GRMD dogs were imaged in a 3T NMR scanner at 2, 4, 6 and 9months of age. Standard and fat-saturated T(1)-, T(2)- and proton-density-weighted images were acquired. A measurement of T(1) and a two-hour kinetic study of muscle enhancement after gadolinium-chelate injection were also performed. Ten out of the 15 indices evaluated differed between healthy and GRMD dogs. The maximal relative enhancement after gadolinium injection and the proton-density-weighted/T(2)-weighted signal ratio were the most discriminating indices. Inter-muscle heterogeneity was found to vary significantly for most of the indices. The body of data that has been acquired here will help in designing and interpreting preclinical trials using dystrophin-deficient dogs.

  17. Lidocaine, Dexmedetomidine and Their Combination Reduce Isoflurane Minimum Alveolar Concentration in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Arcique, Carlos M.; Ibancovichi, José A.; Chavez, Julio R.; Gutierrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Moran-Muñoz, Rafael; Victoria-Mora, José M.; Tendillo-Cortijo, Francisco; Santos-González, Martín; Sanchez-Aparicio, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (IV) lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination delivered as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO) in dogs were evaluated. Seven healthy adult dogs were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. For each dog, baseline MAC (MACISO/BASAL) was determined after a 90-minute equilibration period. Thereafter, each dog received one of the following treatments (loading dose, CRI): lidocaine 2 mg kg−1, 100 µg kg−1 minute−1; dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg−1, 2 µg kg−1 hour−1; or their combination. MAC was then determined again after 45- minutes of treatment by CRI. At the doses administered, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination significantly reduced MACISO by 27.3% (range: 12.5–39.2%), 43.4% (33.3–53.3%) and 60.9% (46.1–78.1%), respectively, when compared to MACISO/BASAL. The combination resulted in a greater MACISO reduction than the two drugs alone. Their use, at the doses studied, provides a clinically important reduction in the concentration of ISO during anaesthesia in dogs. PMID:25232737

  18. Resting and dobutamine stress test induced serum concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide in German Shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Kosić, Ljubica; Trailović, Dragiša R; Matunović, Radomir

    2012-12-01

    Studies of clinical uses of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) represent one of the most important advances in cardiology since the introduction of echocardiography as a clinical diagnostic procedure. Defining the clinical potential of BNP in canine cardiology has not been completed yet. The aim of this study is to measure BNP concentrations in healthy German Shepherd dogs of different ages as a baseline in resting and when conventional protocol of the dobutamine stress test (DST) is applied to dogs. Concentrations of BNP were measured in blood serum by the radioimmunoassay method. The values of BNP concentrations were compared to cardiac parameters obtained by standard cardiac diagnostic procedures (radiology, electrocardiography and echocardiography). No significant differences in serum BNP concentrations existed in dogs of different ages. A statistically significant increase in BNP concentrations was registered after DST. These changes in BNP concentrations were related to ST/T electrocardiographic changes, and correlated to changes in the left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVESD). These data suggest that BNP is not increased in aged dogs with normal cardiac systolic function and renal function, and that myocardial ischemia leads to a significant increase in BNP concentrations even in dogs with normal left ventricular function.

  19. Prevention of renal infection and urinary shedding in dogs by a Leptospira vaccination.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Paul; Martin, Virginie; Najbar, Wojciech; Sanquer, Annaelle; Gueguen, Sylvie; Lebreux, Bernard

    2005-06-15

    Prevention of urinary shedding of Leptospira interrogans spp. by chronically infected dogs remains a key objective of the vaccination in dogs against leptospirosis which is a zoonotic disease. An inactivated bivalent vaccine composed of Leptospira interrogans serovars icterohaemorrhagiae [L. icterohaemorrhagiae] and canicola [L. canicola] bacterins was tested for its ability to protect puppies against a challenge exposure with L. icterohaemorrhagiae. The vaccine was administered twice at a 3-week interval to six puppies aged from 8 to 9 weeks. Six other puppies were used as unvaccinated controls. All puppies were challenged 2 weeks after the second vaccine injection by intraperitoneal (IP) administration of L. icterohaemorrhagiae (day 0). Clinical signs, haematological and biochemical changes and evidence of Leptospira in blood, urine and kidney were monitored for 4 weeks after the challenge exposure (days 0-28). Puppies were euthanised on day 28 for post-mortem and histological examinations of liver and kidney. Control group presented clinical pictures of severe or subclinical infection. One dog developed severe clinical signs (hypothermia, depression, anorexia, abdominal pain, dehydration, icterus, weight loss) and died on post-infection day (PID) 7 due to an acute renal failure. Gross and microscopic lesions were in accordance with this clinical pattern. In the five remaining control dogs, the challenge exposure induced mainly a systemic infection including leptospiraemia, leptospiruria and renal carriage. The vaccinated group remained healthy throughout the study period. In conclusion, immunisation with a Leptospira vaccine was shown to protect dogs against symptomatology and leptospiraemia, urine shedding and renal infection.

  20. Validation of a Leishmania infantum ELISA rapid test for serological diagnosis of Leishmania chagasi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R

    2011-01-10

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of cimetidine in dogs after oral administration of cimetidine tablets.

    PubMed

    Le Traon, G; Burgaud, S; Horspool, L J I

    2009-06-01

    Long-term oral treatment with cimetidine is recommended to reduce vomiting in dogs with chronic gastritis. Despite this, few studies have specifically examined the plasma disposition and pharmacokinetics of cimetidine in dogs, particularly following repeated oral administration. The pharmacokinetics of cimetidine following oral administration as tablets was investigated in healthy dogs. Cimetidine was absorbed rapidly post-treatment (t(max) = 0.5 h). A mean absolute bioavailability of 75% was calculated following a single oral administration of 5 mg cimetidine/kg body weight. After intravenous administration, a plasma half-life of 1.6 h was calculated. Repeated oral administration at the recommended dose rate and regime (5 mg/kg body weight three times daily) for 30 consecutive days did not lead to any accumulation of cimetidine in plasma. Food intake concomitant with oral administration of cimetidine delayed (t(max) = 2.25 h) and decreased the rate and extent of absorption (AUC) by about 40%. Cimetidine was well absorbed in fasted dogs. Administration of food decreased the bioavailability of cimetidine by 40%. Cimetidine does not accumulate over time in plasma when administered long term to dogs.

  2. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  3. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  4. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family.

  5. Healthy Birth Practices Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2014-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes this special issue where distiguished authors provide updated evidence-based reviews of the Lamaze International Six Healthy Birth Practices that promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth. This issue is dedicated to Elisabeth Bing on the occasion of her 100th birthday.

  6. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  7. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  8. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  9. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  10. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  11. Midge-transmitted bluetongue in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; El Harrak, M

    2011-09-01

    The role of domestic dogs in the long-distance spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) remains unproven. It is currently known that dogs are capable of being infected with BTV, can mount an antibody response to the virus and in some cases die showing severe clinical signs of disease. Infection of dogs is currently thought to be by oral ingestion of infected meat or meat products rather than through vector feeding. In this study we show that a high percentage of domestic dogs in Morocco (21%) were seropositive for BTV and, as these dogs were fed tinned commercial food only, and had no access to other meat products, the most likely source of infection was through Culicoides midges. This finding increases the chances of dogs being infected with BTV during an outbreak but their role in the onward transmission of BTV remains unproven.

  12. Treatment of T cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Antony S

    2016-09-17

    Overall, canine lymphoma remains one of the most chemotherapy-responsive cancers in the dog. In addition to the stage and the substage of disease, T cell phenotype is the most consistently important prognostic factor. T cell lymphoma (TCL) in dogs is a heterogeneous disease; dogs with a separate entity of indolent TCL can have a considerably better prognosis than dogs with other forms of lymphoma, and indolent TCL may not always require immediate treatment. In contrast, high-grade TCL is an aggressive disease, and when treated with CHOP-based protocols, dogs with this high-grade TCL have a complete remission rate as low as 40 per cent, relapse earlier and have shorter survival time than dogs with a comparable stage, high-grade B cell lymphoma. This review describes the different disease entities that comprise canine TCL, discusses prognosis for each and treatment options that appear to give the best outcomes.

  13. Perineal herniorrhaphy: perioperative data from 100 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, G; Hedlund, C S; Pechman, R D; Dean, P W

    1995-01-01

    One hundred dogs (83 intact males, 15 castrated males, and two intact females) underwent 110 perineal herniorrhaphy procedures. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 32), miniature poodles (n = 14), Boston terriers (n = 11), and Pekingese (n = 9) were represented most frequently. Perineal swelling (n = 48) and a perineal defect on rectal palpation (n = 31) were common clinical signs. Twenty dogs had urinary bladder retroflexion and were significantly more likely to have elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis. Only five of 43 dogs evaluated radiographically had prostatomegaly. Of 30 dogs receiving oral barium, all had rectal deviation. The most frequent complications during the hospitalization period were incisional (n = 35), followed by rectal prolapse (n = 9), tenesmus (n = 8), and depression (n = 8). Fifty-six of 70 dogs with follow-up had no complications.

  14. Incentive contrast in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Bentosela, Mariana; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Papini, Mauricio R

    2009-05-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food (dog pellets). Dogs downshifted from dry liver to pellets rejected food more frequently than nonshifted controls. Gaze duration also decreased in downshifted dogs below the level of a group always reinforced with pellets. In addition, downshifted dogs tended to move away from the experimenter, adopting a lying down posture. This phenomenon, called successive negative contrast, has been described in analogous experiments with a variety of mammalian species, but has failed to occur in similar experiments with nonmammalian vertebrates. Unlike similar previous observations, the present data were obtained in an environment involving interspecific communication.

  15. Clonal dynamics of nasal Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dog-owning household members. Detection of MSSA ST(398).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Ceballos, Sara; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of nasal carriage by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) among healthy dog-owning household members involved in 7 previous index cases of suspected anthropozoonotic (n = 4) and zoonotic (n = 3) interspecies transmission [4 direct cases, identical SA (n = 3) or SP (n = 1) in owner and dog; three indirect, SP in owner (n = 2) or SA in dog (n = 1)]. Co-carriage with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) was also evaluated. Sixteen owners and 10 dogs were sampled once every three months for one year. In total, 50 SA and 31 SP were analysed by MLST, and SA also by spa typing. All isolates were subjected to ApaI/SmaI-PFGE and antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles were determined. All index owners were persistent SA carriers in all direct-anthropozoonotic transmission cases, while only one dog was persistent SA carrier. Owner and dog exhibited a persistent SP carriage status in the direct-zoonotic transmission case. SP was maintained in the index human over time in one indirect-zoonotic transmission case. Only one SP was methicillin-resistant. SA belonged to genetic backgrounds of MRSA pandemic clones: CC45, CC121, CC30, CC5 and CC398. Three individuals carried a MSSA t1451-ST398 clone with the erm(T)-cadD/cadX resistance genes. SA or SP were persistently detected in the nasal cavity of 7 (43.8%) and 2 (12.5%) owners, and in one and 2 dogs, respectively. SA was recovered as the single species in 10 owners and in one dog; SP in 3 owners and 4 dogs; and both bacterial species in one owner and 4 dogs. Co-carriage of SA or SP with MRCoNS isolates was common (30.7%). This is the first study on the dynamics of nasal carriage of SA and SP in healthy pet-owning household members. Dog-contact may play a role in the staphylococcal species distribution of in-contact individuals.

  16. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.

  17. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  18. Discrimination of human and dog faces and inversion responses in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Amadei, Eleonora; Ligout, Séverine; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Although domestic dogs can respond to many facial cues displayed by other dogs and humans, it remains unclear whether they can differentiate individual dogs or humans based on facial cues alone and, if so, whether they would demonstrate the face inversion effect, a behavioural hallmark commonly used in primates to differentiate face processing from object processing. In this study, we first established the applicability of the visual paired comparison (VPC or preferential looking) procedure for dogs using a simple object discrimination task with 2D pictures. The animals demonstrated a clear looking preference for novel objects when simultaneously presented with prior-exposed familiar objects. We then adopted this VPC procedure to assess their face discrimination and inversion responses. Dogs showed a deviation from random behaviour, indicating discrimination capability when inspecting upright dog faces, human faces and object images; but the pattern of viewing preference was dependent upon image category. They directed longer viewing time at novel (vs. familiar) human faces and objects, but not at dog faces, instead, a longer viewing time at familiar (vs. novel) dog faces was observed. No significant looking preference was detected for inverted images regardless of image category. Our results indicate that domestic dogs can use facial cues alone to differentiate individual dogs and humans and that they exhibit a non-specific inversion response. In addition, the discrimination response by dogs of human and dog faces appears to differ with the type of face involved.

  19. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  20. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  1. Effects of prophylactic incisional gastropexy on markers of gastric motility in dogs as determined by use of a novel wireless motility device.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Krista M; Nelson, Laura L; Fritz, Michele C; Clancy, Michelle R; Hauptman, Joe G

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy (LAIG) on gastric motility in dogs by use of a wireless motility device (WMD). ANIMALS 10 healthy client-owned large or giant-breed dogs. PROCEDURES 10 dogs owned by clients interested in prophylactic LAIG were enrolled. To determine effects of LAIG on gastrointestinal motility in dogs during the nonfed state, each dog was evaluated by use of a noninvasive WMD before and > 4 weeks after LAIG. All dogs underwent LAIG, with or without concurrent elective gonadectomy. Data obtained before and after LAIG were analyzed by use of proprietary software to determine the gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, large bowel transit time, whole bowel transit time, and motility index. RESULTS No changes in variables were detected between measurements obtained before and after prophylactic LAIG. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, prophylactic LAIG did not have an effect on gastrointestinal motility. The WMD was tolerated well by all dogs and appeared to be a safe and effective method for evaluating gastrointestinal motility in this population of dogs.

  2. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    ehrlichiosis. The potential of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus as a reservoir of Ehrlichia canis was investigated. R. sanguineus adults...harbored and efficiently transmitted E. canis to susceptible dogs for as long as 155 days after detachment as engorged nymphs from a dog experiencing...acute ehrlichiosis. Two modifications of the original tissue culture technique for the propagation of E. canis were developed to study the effect of

  3. [Is being licked by dogs not dirty?].

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, Paul; van Knapen, Frans

    2012-09-01

    Being licked by pet dogs is frequently a common advice in articles for the uninitiated. An overview is given about the special antibacterial and wound healing properties of human and canine saliva. New developments in the human area are presumably assigned to dog saliva. Because of the presence of a quite different mouth flora including various potential zoonotic pathogens, it is strictly not advised to let dogs lick the wounds or face of the human.

  4. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  5. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-11-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  6. Dynamic gearing in running dogs.

    PubMed

    Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A

    1998-12-01

    Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function.

  7. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house.

  8. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  9. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  10. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  11. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  12. Primary ciliary dyskinesia in Newfoundland dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, P J; Herrtage, M E; Peacock, M A; Sargan, D R

    1999-06-26

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia was diagnosed in three Newfoundland dogs with histories of chronic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia from an early age. Thoracic radiographs of two of them showed severe, dependent bronchopneumonia and right displacement of the cardiac apex but normal positioning of other organs. Histopathological examination of sections of lung from the other dog showed severe bronchopneumonia. A semen sample from one dog had a high percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal tails and poor progressive motility. Transmission electron microscopy of nasal brushings from all three dogs showed consistent ultrastructural defects in the cilia, including an absence of outer and inner dynein arms, disorganisation of peripheral doublets, occasional supernumerary doublets and singlets, and consistently disorganised basal bodies and foot processes; sections of trachea from one dog also had disorganised basal bodies. Pedigree analysis was consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance for the defect. One dog is still alive, one dog died aged five years two months, and one dog was euthanased aged nine months. This is the first time primary ciliary dyskinesia has been reported in Newfoundland dogs.

  13. The Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities national program.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Sarah L; Bussel, Jamie B

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation announced a bold and unprecedented commitment of $500 million to reverse the epidemic of childhood obesity by 2015, especially in communities at greatest risk based on income, race, ethnicity, and geographic location. To support this work, the foundation launched an array of complementary initiatives aimed at building the evidence base, testing advocacy approaches, and supporting on-the-ground action to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), a 5-year $33.4 million national program, was one of the foundation's earliest such investments. Building on previous successes, HKHC was designed to address the policies, systems, and environments that make it easier for low-income children and their families to engage in physical activity and play and to access healthy food in their communities. As part of its strategy, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 50 multidisciplinary partnerships across the country, with a special focus on 15 southern states where health disparities were most significant. The selection of Active Living By Design to lead the HKHC National Program Office and Transtria, LLC, to lead the evaluation leveraged these organizations' experience in addressing the systemic issues that contribute to physical inactivity and unhealthy eating, using a broader healthy community lens. Key elements of HKHC included funding, ongoing technical assistance and consultation, a peer learning network, and participatory evaluation. The successes of the HKHC grant program are well documented in this journal as well as through case studies and case reports, spotlights, leadership profiles, and other products available at www.healthykidshealthycommunities.org and http://www.transtria.com/hkhc.php.

  14. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Cryopreserved Autologous Platelets in the Treatment of Thrombocytopenic Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-08

    Blood Processor 30 Platelets were obtained from three dogs by plateletpheresis prior to treatment with 800 rads of whole body irradiation and were...used for the plateletpheresis process. Platelet-rich plasma containing red blood cells was collected in a 125 ml pediatric bowl. A volume of ACD...isolated either from a unit of whole blood or from a healthy donor by plateletpheresis using the Haemonetics Blood Processor 30. A 30 ml volume of

  15. Gliomatosis cerebri in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Porter, B; de Lahunta, A; Summers, B

    2003-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri is a well-recognized entity in human medicine characterized by unusually widespread infiltration of the neuraxis by neoplastic glial cells with relative preservation of brain architecture. This report describes the pathologic features of the disease in six dogs. The dogs ranged from 3 to 9 years of age (mean 6.1 years) without evidence of breed predilection; five of the six dogs were neutered or intact males. The clinical findings were mixed (including depression, circling, cranial nerve deficits), reflecting the diffuse nature of the disease. Histologically, there was remarkably diffuse infiltration of the white and gray matter of the brain by small numbers of elongated neoplastic cells. Areas of greater cellularity formed grossly visible lesions in four cases. Anisocytosis and pleomorphism were greater in areas of higher cellularity. Other features of tumor growth included subpial accumulation, neuronal satellitosis, perivascular cuffing, and tropism for cranial nerve and brain stem nuclei. Neoplastic cells were negative on immunohistochemical stains for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and leukocyte markers, reflecting the uncertain histogenesis of these unusual neoplasms.

  16. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  17. The effects of clopidogrel and omeprazole on platelet function in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Thames, B E; Lovvorn, J; Papich, M G; Wills, R; Archer, T; Mackin, A; Thomason, J

    2017-04-01

    Omeprazole is used concurrently with clopidogrel to reduce gastrointestinal adverse effects. In humans, the concurrent use of these two drugs can reduce the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. Our objective was to determine the effects of omeprazole and clopidogrel on platelet function in healthy dogs. A crossover study utilized turbidimetric aggregometry (ADP and collagen) and the PFA-100(®) with the collagen/ADP cartridge to evaluate platelet function in eight healthy dogs during the administration of clopidogrel (1 mg/kg/24 h p.o.), omeprazole (1 mg/kg/24 h p.o.), and a combination of clopidogrel and omeprazole. Drug metabolite concentrations were also measured. Compared to pretreatment, on Days 3 and 5, with ADP as the agonist, there was a significant decrease in maximum amplitude on aggregometry for both clopidogrel and clopidogrel/omeprazole groups. The following revealed no significant differences between clopidogrel and clopidogrel/omeprazole groups when compared on Days 3 and 5: maximum amplitude on aggregometry with ADP or collagen agonists, and PFA-100(®) closure times. When compared to the clopidogrel group, clopidogrel metabolite concentrations in the clopidogrel/omeprazole group were significantly higher on Days 3 and 5. The concurrent administration of omeprazole and clopidogrel in healthy dogs was associated with an increase in the plasma concentration of an inactive metabolite of clopidogrel, but does not significantly alter the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel.

  18. Evaluation of trace elements, oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M; Dar, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine zinc, copper and iron levels, erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis. A total of 23 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis by trichogram and positive fungal culture and six dogs as control were included in this study. On cultural examination 52.17% fungal isolates were found to be Microsporum canis, 30.43% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 17.39% were M. gypseum. In comparison to healthy control, the dogs with dermatophytosis had significantly lower levels of zinc (P < 0.01), copper (P < 0.05), β-carotene and vitamin C levels (P < 0.05) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05) and catalase (P < 0.01), whereas the iron (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) levels were significantly increased. On correlation analysis, SOD activity was observed to be positively correlated (P < 0.05) with zinc and copper in both healthy and dermatophytosis affected dogs. In dermatophytosis affected dogs the MDA levels were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with iron, β-carotene levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes; SOD and catalase. Our results demonstrated that dermatophytosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance and trace elements. It might be secondary consequence of dermatophytosis infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis.

  19. Dog obesity: owner attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bland, I M; Guthrie-Jones, A; Taylor, R D; Hill, J

    2009-12-01

    Animal (dog) factors that contribute to obesity are classified into three broad categories: genetic pre-disposition, reproductive management and dietary/exercise (human) management. This paper examined the latter-dietary/exercise (human) management. A quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses from dog owners and veterinarians was used to determine the routine care and obesity management strategies for dogs. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to dog owners in Victoria, Australia. Owners were asked to score the body condition of their animal by comparison with photographic images of animals with condition score ranging from 2 to 5. The management routines of 219 dog owners were received, including data on 302 dogs. There were 168 households with normal weight animals (BCS 2 and 3) and 51 with obese animals (BCS 4 and 5). The mean number of people per household (normally involved with caring for the animal(s)) with normal weight dogs was significantly lower than that of households with dogs categorised as overweight or obese (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi; chi(2)=6.28; 2.2 (s=0.79) vs. 2.5 (s=1.66); d.f.=2, P<0.05). Dog owners identified a preference for main meal feeding of 'twice a day' (60%), followed by 'once daily' (33%), 'greater than or equal to three times daily' (2%), and 'always feed available' (5%). There was a significant difference (Chi; chi(2)=6.30; d.f.=1; P<0.05) in the frequency of main meal feeding between households. Normal weight animals had food divided into two portions, whereas obese animals or animals from mixed households were more often fed their meal in either one or three-plus portions. Almost all owners fed treats (99%) in the daily feed. Households with normal weight dogs gave treats significantly less frequently than households with obese or mixed weight dogs (Chi; chi(2)=31.81; d.f.=6; P<0.001). The frequency of exercise differed between households (Chi; chi(2)=9.9; d.f.=1; P<0.01), with normal weight dogs being exercised daily

  20. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. I. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in mesaticephalic breeds.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Silvana; Pichetto, Michela; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The gross anatomy and overall structure of the soft palate has been described in the average dog's head, however, no descriptive microanatomical studies of the dog soft palate are available, despite their possible utility in view of the manifold and important repercussions of this organ physiology. This is the first of two companion papers, dealing with the caudal part of the soft palate in the canine species, in mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs. Specimens from mesaticephalic healthy dogs (N = 8) were collected after euthanasia, processed for histology and sectioned at six transversal levels. Morphological stainings were used for a microscopic evaluation of the tissue layers composing the distal part of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic dogs, and histochemical reactions were applied to assess mucin types within glandular tissue and to investigate the connective tissues. The organ was characteristically organized into a major deep musculo-connective axis mixed with salivary glands and covered by the mucosal lining on either the nasopharyngeal or the oral sides. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information for the parallel study on the long and thickened soft palate, which is typical of adult brachycephalic dogs.

  1. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.

  2. Effects of acepromazine and trazodone on anesthetic induction dose of propofol and cardiovascular variables in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lindsey A; Barletta, Michele; Graham, Lynelle F; Reichl, Lorna J; Duxbury, Margaret M; Quandt, Jane E

    2017-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery. DESIGN Prospective, randomized study. ANIMALS 30 systemically healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups. RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.

  3. Putative connection between zoonotic multiresistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in dog feces from a veterinary campus and clinical isolates from dogs

    PubMed Central

    Schaufler, Katharina; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ewers, Christa; Kohn, Barbara; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To contribute to the understanding of multiresistant bacteria, a ‘One Health’ approach in estimating the rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and getting insights into the transmission from clinical settings to the surrounding environment was employed by collecting fecal samples of dogs in a public area. Isolates were compared to those from samples of diseased dogs from a nearby small-animal clinic. Materials and methods One hundred fecal samples of dogs were collected on a single day in the public area of a veterinary faculty with a small-animal clinic and adjacent residential neighborhoods. All identified ESBL-producing strains were isolated by selective plating, genotypically analyzed by DNA microarray, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and compared to 11 clinical ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from diseased dogs treated in the small-animal clinic 2 months before and 2 months following the environmental sampling collection. Results and discussion Fourteen percent (14/100) of the extra-clinical samples harbored phenotypic ESBL/putative AmpC-producing E. coli with additional resistances against other antimicrobials. One ESBL-strain displayed an identical macrorestriction pattern to one clinical, another one to three clinical clonal ESBL-producing strains. The genotypic ESBL-determinants (bla CTX-M-1 and bla CTX-M-15) and detection rates (10%) in dog feces collected outside of the small-animal clinic are comparable to the rates and ESBL-types in the healthy human population in Germany and to clinical and non-clinical samples of humans and companion animals in Europe. The occurrence of identical strains detected both outside and inside the clinical setting suggests a connection between the small-animal clinic and the surrounding environment. In conclusion, dog feces collected in proximity to veterinary facilities should be considered as a non-point infection

  4. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    PubMed

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities.

  5. [Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in dogs from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Turkowicz, Monika; Cielecka, Danuta

    2002-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in dogs from Warsaw region. Investigation of prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs have been conducted in order to protect human and animal health. The aim of the study was to establish species composition of intestinal parasites and to evaluate their prevalence in dogs from the shelter in Józefów situated on north from Warsaw. Additionally, urban dogs from Warsaw and village dogs from areas near the shelter, were examined. The prevalence of nematodes was: 62.3% in dogs from shelter, 37.5% in village dogs and 18.8% in urban dogs. In homeless dogs, the most common parasite was Uncinaria stenocephala, then Trichuris vulpis