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Sample records for healthy deep-chested dogs

  1. The effect of body position, sedation, and thoracic bandaging on functional residual capacity in healthy deep-chested dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Bedenice, Daniela; Lofgren, Jennifer; Abrams, Julie; Bach, Jonathan; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body position, chest wrap, and sedation on functional residual capacity (FRC) in 6 healthy dogs. Functional residual capacity was determined by helium dilution (re-breathing) whilst in different clinically relevant conditions. These conditions included the standing (sternal) and lateral positions in unsedated dogs and then again both standing and lateral following chest bandaging, and sedation with acepromazine, IV and butorphanol, IV. The mean FRC at each measurement point was determined, as was the change in FRC (delta FRC) from one measurement point to another. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures with Fisher’s LSD post hoc test was used to evaluate the effect of interventions. The differences in delta FRC were evaluated using a t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The mean FRC at baseline, defined as standing, unsedated and unwrapped, was 75.3 ± 23.8 mL/kg. Body position or sedation had the most profound effect on FRC with right lateral recumbency lowering FRC by a median of 20.4 mL/kg and sedation lowering FRC by a median of 19.8 mL/kg. Common clinical procedures and positioning result in lowered FRC in healthy deep-chested dogs. In critically ill or injured dogs, the iatrogenic loss of FRC through chest bandaging, sedation, or body position may be clinically relevant. PMID:20357956

  2. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis.

  3. Characteristics of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from diseased and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Asako; Shimizu, Akira; Kawano, Junichi; Wakita, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Toshikatsu; Ootsuki, Shigenobu

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from diseased and healthy dogs were examined for production of extracellular enzymes and toxins, and phage patterns. There were no significant differences between the two groups of isolates in the production rates of DNase, protease, lipase, gelatinase, hyaluronidase, hemolysins, protein A, and TSST-1, or in phage patterns. But the production rate of enterotoxins in isolates from diseased dogs was significantly higher than that in isolates from healthy dogs. PFGE analysis was performed with isolates from different body sites in individual dogs. In 3 of 6 healthy dogs, identical PFGE patterns were seen in isolates from the nares, external auditory meatus or skin. The remaining 3 dogs yielded isolates of different patterns. In 4 of 6 diseased dogs, identical patterns were seen in isolates from lesions as well as from the other normal sites.

  4. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature. PMID:26599093

  5. Occurrence of Malassezia species in healthy and dermatologically diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, S; Mancianti, F; Corazza, M; Rum, A

    2004-05-01

    The presence of Malassezia spp. yeasts was investigated in dermatological specimens of 224 dogs, 164 dermatologically diseased and 60 normal dogs. Subjects included in the study were of different breed, age, sex and habitat. Malassezia spp. positive cultures were obtained in 142 (63.4%) specimens: 67.6% from dermatologically diseased subjects and 51.6% from healthy dogs. Malassezia pachydermatis, either as a pure culture or in association with lipid-dependent species, was identified in 138 (97%) specimens. Malassezia furfur was identified in 69 (48.6%) specimens and was associated with other Malassezia species in 68 dogs, as a pure culture in one subject: at the best of our knowledge, this species was identified before as the sole species from canine dermatitis. Malassezia sympodialis was identified in 11 (7.7%) specimens, always in association with other species: it was never isolated from kennel dogs. Statistical analysis of data showed a very significant difference (P < 0.01) in the prevalence of isolation of Malassezia spp. between animals with and without dermatological signs, and in the distribution of cultural burden between diseased and healthy dogs. A statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was also detected in the group of animals between 1- and 5-years of age. No significant difference was found between male and female dogs. PMID:15281400

  6. Patch test responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Habibah, A; Patterson-Kane, J C; Lloyd, D H

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the patch test application of Malassezia pachydermatis extracts to normal canine skin were evaluated in eight healthy beagle dogs. Antigens (4 and 0.4 mg/ml) and saline controls were applied for 48 h using filter paper discs in Finn chambers. At the first test, two dogs showed patch test reactivity 20 min and 24 h after patch removal. Four out of six dogs that did not react to the first patch test showed reactivity when re-tested on day 8. Two remaining dogs were patch tested for a third time on day 15, after 7 days of cutaneous challenge with suspensions of M. pachydermatis cells, but failed to display reactivity. Positive patch test reactions were characterized histologically by mild epidermal hyperplasia, superficial dermal oedema and mild to moderate perivascular, periadnexal and interstitial infiltrates of neutrophils and CD3+ lymphocytes. Four dogs showed delayed intradermal test reactivity to M. pachydermatis antigens but intradermal and patch test reactivity did not correlate. This study indicates that patch test reactivity to M. pachydermatis antigen occurs in some healthy dogs exposed to the yeast, or may develop after a short period of antigen exposure. Further studies of patch test reactivity are warranted in dogs with disease associated with this cutaneous yeast. PMID:16519021

  7. Immunoglobulin G responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Lloyd, D H

    2002-04-20

    Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses of healthy dogs and dogs with Malasseziapachydermatis dermatitis were compared by Western immunoblotting. M pachydermatis CBS 1879 was disrupted mechanically and its proteins were separated and blotted on to nitrocellulose membranes before being incubated with sera from eight healthy beagles, eight Irish setters with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, 15 healthy basset hounds, and 30 dogs with Mpachydermatis-associated dermatitis, 20 of which were basset hounds. The mean (se) numbers of bands of immunoreactivity observed in the seborrhoeic basset hounds (10.7 [0.4]) and affected mixed-breed dogs (9.4 [0.9]) were significantly greater than in the beagles (3-0 [1.0]), Irish setters (5.5 [1.1]) and healthy basset hounds (5.6 [0.7]). The number of bands identified was correlated (r(s) = 0.76, P < 0.001) with the anti-M pachydermatis IgG values measured by ELISA in a previous study. Most of the dogs were immunoreactive towards the 132, 66 and 50 to 54 kDa proteins and the affected dogs were also usually reactive towards the 219, 110, 71 and 42 kDa proteins. PMID:12017525

  8. The 1H NMR Profile of Healthy Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Musteata, Mihai; Nicolescu, Alina; Solcan, Gheorghe; Deleanu, Calin

    2013-01-01

    The availability of data for reference values in cerebrospinal fluid for healthy humans is limited due to obvious practical and ethical issues. The variability of reported values for metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid is quite large. Dogs present great similarities with humans, including in cases of central nervous system pathologies. The paper presents the first study on healthy dog cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A number of 13 metabolites have been identified and quantified from cerebrospinal fluid collected from a group of 10 mix breed healthy dogs. The biological variability as resulting from the relative standard deviation of the physiological concentrations of the identified metabolites had a mean of 18.20% (range between 9.3% and 44.8%). The reported concentrations for metabolites may be used as normal reference values. The homogeneity of the obtained results and the low biologic variability show that the 1H NMR analysis of the dog’s cerebrospinal fluid is reliable in designing and interpreting clinical and therapeutic trials in dogs with central nervous system pathologies. PMID:24376499

  9. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH.

  10. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH. PMID:26303126

  11. Frequency of yeasts and dermatophytes from healthy and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marilena R; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of dermatophytes and yeasts in healthy and diseased dogs. A total of 633 samples were collected from 26 healthy animals (104 samples), 131 with dermatitis (343 samples), 74 with otitis (148 samples), and 19 with ocular diseases (38 samples). Cultures from healthy animals were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis in 13.5% (7/52) of samples from skin, 42.3% (11/26) from ear, and 3.8% (1/26) from eye. Fungal growth was observed in 20.4% (70/343) samples from animals with dermatitis. Microsporum canis was the most isolated fungus (n = 39), followed by M. pachydermatis (n = 30) and Malassezia sp. (n = 3). Of the 148 samples from dogs with otitis, 90 (60.8%) were positive for M. pachydermatis, and of the clinical specimens from the conjunctiva of animals with ophthalmic disease, 2.6% (1/38) presented positive cultures for M. pachydermatis. Only 14.3% (2/14) of the positive cultures for M. pachydermatis and 40.9% (9/22) of those for M. canis were positive in the direct exam. Direct exams were positive in 84.3% (70/83) of the culture positive samples from affected ears of dogs with otitis. Malassezia pachydermatis may act as an aggravating factor in the occurrence of cutaneous diseases, or the isolation of M. canis may be associated with the onset of dermatophytosis. Fungal culture, rather than microscopic examination, should be used as the definitive diagnostic test for dermatomycoses and otitis. PMID:18319432

  12. Comparison of the expression, activity, and fecal concentration of intestinal alkaline phosphatase between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kaori; Kato, Kazuki; Sawa, Yuki; Hayashi, Akiko; Takizawa, Rei; Nishifuji, Koji

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare expression, activity, and fecal concentration of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). ANIMALS 9 healthy university-owned Beagles and 109 healthy client-owned dogs (controls) and 28 dogs with CE (cases). PROCEDURES Cases were defined as dogs with persistent (> 3 weeks) gastrointestinal signs that failed to respond to antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone or dietary trials, did not have mechanical gastrointestinal abnormalities as determined by abdominal radiography and ultrasonography, and had a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or eosinophilic gastroenteritis on histologic examination of biopsy specimens. Duodenal and colonic mucosa biopsy specimens were obtained from the 9 university-owned Beagles and all cases for histologic examination and determination of IAP expression (by real-time quantitative PCR assay) and activity (by enzyme histochemical analysis). Fecal samples were obtained from all dogs for determination of fecal IAP concentration by a quantitative enzyme reaction assay. RESULTS For dogs evaluated, IAP expression and activity were localized at the luminal side of epithelial cells in the mucosa and intestinal crypts, although both were greater in the duodenum than in the colon. Active IAP was detected in the feces of all dogs. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase expression and activity were lower for cases than for controls, and fecal IAP concentration for dogs with moderate and severe CE was lower than that for dogs with mild CE. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CE had impaired IAP expression and activity. Additional research is necessary to elucidate the role of IAP in the pathogenesis of CE. PMID:27347825

  13. Frequency, body distribution, and population size of Malassezia species in healthy dogs and in dogs with localized cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Gallo, Sabrina; Romito, Diana; Capelli, Gioia; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques; Otranto, Domenico

    2005-07-01

    Malassezia species are commensal organisms of human and animal skin that occasionally act as opportunistic pathogens. The lipid-dependent species are associated with human skin disorders, whereas the non-lipid-dependent species (Malassezia pachydermatis) is considered as an opportunistic secondary pathogen affecting the canine skin surface and ear canal. This study evaluated the relationship between Malassezia yeasts, their population size, and the occurrence of skin lesions from healthy and skin-diseased dogs. The efficiency of cytological examination and fungal culture for Malassezia detection was also evaluated. From March 2002 to July 2003, 33 healthy dogs and 54 dogs with pruritic localized skin diseases were examined; skin swabs (1218) were collected from 7 anatomical sites for culture and cytological examination. Malassezia prevalence according to anatomical site and the agreement between cytological results and fungal cultures were statistically analyzed. Differences in mean colony forming unit counts between positive healthy and diseased dogs were evaluated using the Bonferroni test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. In healthy dogs, Malassezia yeasts were most frequently isolated in the perianal and perioral areas. The frequency of isolation and population size of Malassezia species were higher in dogs with localized dermatitis, especially in affected areas, indicating a role for Malassezia in the occurrence of skin lesions. Malassezia pachydermatis was the species most commonly cultured from the skin and external ear canal of healthy and diseased dogs; isolation of lipid-dependent yeasts from healthy dogs was less frequent. Using fungal culture as the gold standard, cytological examination showed good relative specificity (95%) but very low relative sensitivity (30%). PMID:16130988

  14. Arterial blood pressure measurement in a population of healthy geriatric dogs.

    PubMed

    Meurs, K M; Miller, M W; Slater, M R; Glaze, K

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate healthy geriatric dogs for the presence of systemic hypertension. Thirty-three geriatric dogs (i.e., dogs exceeding the geriatric age range for their weight group) and 22 control dogs (i.e., dogs less than six years of age) were evaluated by measuring blood pressure with an oscillometric monitor. Five consecutive blood pressure measurements were taken in each dog, averaged, and compared. Diastolic and mean blood pressure measurements were significantly lower in the geriatric group as compared to the control group. Systolic blood pressure measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. Systemic hypertension does not appear to be a common clinical problem in the healthy geriatric dog.

  15. Higher incidence of Malassezia pachydermatis in the eyes of dogs with corneal ulcer than in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Prado, M R; Brito, E H S; Girão, M D; Monteiro, A J; Sidrim, J J C; Rocha, M F G

    2004-05-20

    Malassezia pachydermatis is usually associated with otitis and dermatitis in dogs but it can also cause diseases in other species, including humans. In a human neonatal intensive care unit, M. pachydermatis was isolated from an infant's ocular discharge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain the presence of Malassezia spp. and its possible consequences in dogs' eyes. This research included 19 dogs with unilateral or bilateral corneal ulcers and 60 healthy dogs. A total of 158 clinical specimens from both the groups were obtained from the conjunctival sac of each eye by a calibrated platinum loop. The samples were placed on Dixon and blood agar, incubated at 35 degrees C, and examined daily for 15 days. Then, the strains were subcultured on Sabouraud agar. Of 22 clinical specimens collected from the eyes with corneal ulcers, five cultures (23%) were positive for M. pachydermatis. Of 16 samples collected from the contralateral healthy eye, cultures were positive in three samples (19%). Three animals had unilateral corneal ulcer and positive cultures for M. pachydermatis in both the eyes. Two dogs had unilateral corneal ulcer and positive cultures for M. pachydermatis in the same eye. However, from the 120 samples of 60 healthy dogs, only four clinical specimens (3%) had positive cultures for M. pachydermatis. The findings of M. pachydermatis, in a considerable percentage of clinical specimens from dogs with corneal ulcer, suggest its possible role at least as an aggravating factor in the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:15135519

  16. Cerebral glucose utilization measured with high resolution positron emission tomography in epileptic Finnish Spitz dogs and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Viitmaa, Ranno; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Snellman, Marjatta; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Orro, Toomas; Kuusela, Erja; Johansson, Jarkko; Viljanen, Tapio; Jokinen, Tarja S; Bergamasco, Luciana; Metsähonkala, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    In human epileptic patients, changes in cerebral glucose utilization can be detected 2-deoxy-2-[(18) F] fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether epileptic dogs might show similar findings. Eleven Finnish Spitz dogs with focal idiopathic epilepsy and six healthy dogs were included. Dogs were examined using electroencephalography (EEG) and FDG-PET, with epileptic dogs being evaluated during the interictal period. Visual and semi-quantitative assessment methods of FDG-PET were compared and contrasted with EEG findings. Three independent observers, unaware of dog clinical status, detected FDG-PET uptake abnormalities in 9/11 epileptic (82%), and 4/8 healthy dogs (50%). Occipital cortex findings were significantly associated with epileptic status (P = 0.013). Epileptic dogs had significantly lower standardized uptake values (SUVs) in numerous cortical regions, the cerebellum, and the hippocampus compared to the control dogs. The lowest SUVs were found in the occipital lobe. White matter normalized and left-right asymmetry index values for all pairs of homologous regions did not differ between groups. Visual evaluation of the EEGs was less sensitive (36%) than FDG-PET. Both diagnostic tests were consensual and specific (100%) for occipital findings, but EEG had a lower sensitivity for detecting lateralized foci than FDG-PET. Findings supported the use of FDG-PET as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected idiopathic epilepsy. Visual and semiquantitative analyses of FDG-PET scans provided complementary information. Findings also supported the theory that epileptogenesis may occur in multiple brain regions in Finnish Spitz dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  17. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. PMID:26267107

  18. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis.

  19. Humoral and cell-mediated responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Elwood, C M; Littler, R M; Pinter, L; Lloyd, D H

    1998-10-01

    The in vitro proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seven healthy basset hounds exposed to Malassezia pachydermatis antigen (500 micrograms/ml) exceeded (P < 0.05) those of seborrhoeic basset hounds with high populations of M pachydermatis and eight Irish setters with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. The stimulation indices in the latter two groups and in eight healthy beagles were comparable. The stimulation indices of the four groups after exposure to phytohaemaglutinin did not differ significantly. The serum titres of M pachydermatis-specific IgG and IgA measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 21 seborrhoeic basset hounds and 11 affected dogs of various breeds exceeded those of 14 healthy basset hounds and eight healthy beagles (P < 0.01 for IgG, P < 0.05 for IgA). Total serum IgA concentrations measured by ELISA in the affected dogs were not lower than those of healthy dogs. PMID:9802194

  20. Urinary shedding of leptospires and presence of Leptospira antibodies in healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Julia-Rebecca; Krupka-Dyachenko, Inke; Rettinger, Anna Lena; Dyachenko, Viktor; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard Konrad; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is classified as a re-emerging zoonotic disease with global impor- tance. The aim of this study was to determine urinary shedding of leptospires in healthy dogs and to identify the shedded leptospire species. Furthermore, antibody presence against leptospires was evaluated. In a prospective study urine samples of 200 healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria were randomly collected and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira (L) spp. Positive samples were further character- ized via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify the Leptospira species. Microagglutination test (MAT) was performed to determine serum antibody titers. Three of 200 urine samples were found to be PCR-positive resulting in a urinary shedding prevalence of 1.5% (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.5%). All three dogs had been vaccinated before with a bivalent vaccine, covering the serogroups Canicola and lcterohaemorrhagiae. One dog shed leptospires of the species L. borgpetersenii, and two of the species L. interrogans. Of all dogs, 17.0% had antibody titers ≥ 1:100, and 3.5% titers ≥ 1:400 to serovars of non-vaccinal sero- groups. Healthy dogs that shed leptospires represent a possible risk for humans and other animals. The study emphasizes the importance of general hygiene measures in veterinary practice while handling urine of all dogs, and the use of vaccines that protect against a broader range of serogroups and that prevent urinary shedding. PMID:27344919

  1. Urinary shedding of leptospires and presence of Leptospira antibodies in healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Julia-Rebecca; Krupka-Dyachenko, Inke; Rettinger, Anna Lena; Dyachenko, Viktor; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard Konrad; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is classified as a re-emerging zoonotic disease with global impor- tance. The aim of this study was to determine urinary shedding of leptospires in healthy dogs and to identify the shedded leptospire species. Furthermore, antibody presence against leptospires was evaluated. In a prospective study urine samples of 200 healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria were randomly collected and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira (L) spp. Positive samples were further character- ized via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify the Leptospira species. Microagglutination test (MAT) was performed to determine serum antibody titers. Three of 200 urine samples were found to be PCR-positive resulting in a urinary shedding prevalence of 1.5% (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.5%). All three dogs had been vaccinated before with a bivalent vaccine, covering the serogroups Canicola and lcterohaemorrhagiae. One dog shed leptospires of the species L. borgpetersenii, and two of the species L. interrogans. Of all dogs, 17.0% had antibody titers ≥ 1:100, and 3.5% titers ≥ 1:400 to serovars of non-vaccinal sero- groups. Healthy dogs that shed leptospires represent a possible risk for humans and other animals. The study emphasizes the importance of general hygiene measures in veterinary practice while handling urine of all dogs, and the use of vaccines that protect against a broader range of serogroups and that prevent urinary shedding.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and rRNA gene restriction patterns among Staphylococcus intermedius from healthy dogs and from dogs suffering from pyoderma or otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Wegener, H C

    1995-01-01

    A total of 60 Staphylococcus intermedius strains from dogs were investigated by their sensitivity to various antibiotics (50 strains) and by their rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) (60 strains). Fifteen isolates were from healthy dogs, 9 with otitis externa, and 36 with pyoderma, including 10 strains from a previous study. Sixty per cent of the 50 strains tested for antibiotic susceptibility demonstrated resistance to penicillin, 24% to spiramycin, 20% to tetracycline, 16% to chloramphenicol, and 2% to fucidic acid. All isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin with clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and sulphonamides with trimethoprim. There were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns observed among isolates from pyoderma, otitis externa or healthy dogs. Among the 60 strains studied by ribotyping, 10 different ribotypes were identified: 6 different ribotypes among isolates from otitis externa, 8 among isolates from pyoderma, and 5 among isolates from healthy dogs. One ribotype (profile C) was dominant among the isolates from healthy dogs while another ribotype (profile A) was dominant among strains from dogs suffering from pyoderma. This profile was not demonstrated in any of the strains from healthy dogs. From 5 different dogs suffering from pyoderma, 2 different clones were demonstrated based on their plasmid profile and antibiogram. In these dogs 1 of the clones always belonged to ribotype A. The results concerning strains of S. intermedius isolated from furunculosis suggest the existence of distinct subpopulations with different pathogenicity to dogs.

  3. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria and yeasts isolated from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Lyskova, P; Vydrzalova, M; Mazurova, J

    2007-12-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of the external ear canal of dogs with otitis externa and of healthy dogs were studied. The most frequently isolated microorganism from otitic ears was Staphylococcus intermedius (58.8%), followed by Malassezia pachydermatis (30.9%), Streptococcus canis (29.9%), Proteus spp. (14.4%) and Escherichia coli (10.3%). A statistical analysis of our results showed that the prevalence of these microorganisms is significant in dogs with otitis externa. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains were determined. Majority of all bacterial isolates were most susceptible to gentamicin. Malassezia pachydermatis, the most prevalent yeast in this study, showed an excellent level of susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested.

  4. Evaluation of respiratory function by barometric whole-body plethysmography in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Jesús; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Schuller, Simone; Garrérès, Alain Le; Gustin, Pascal; Detilleux, Johanne; Clercx, Cécile

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the validity of barometric whole-body plethysmography (BWBP), to establish reference values, and to standardise a bronchoprovocative test to investigate airway responsiveness using BWBP in healthy dogs. BWBP measurements were obtained from six healthy beagle dogs using different protocols: (1) during three consecutive periods (3.5min each) in two morning and two evening sessions; (2) before and after administration of two protocols of sedation; (3) before and after nebulisation of saline and increasing concentrations of carbachol and histamine both in conscious dogs and in dogs under both protocols of sedation. Enhanced pause (PENH) was used as index of bronchoconstriction. Basal BWBP measurements were also obtained in 22 healthy dogs of different breeds, age and weight. No significant influence of either time spent in the chamber or daytime was found for most respiratory variables but a significant dog effect was detected for most variables. A significant body weight effect was found on tidal volume and peak flow values (P<0.05). Response to carbachol was not reproducible and always associated with side effects. Nebulisation of histamine induced a significant increase in respiratory rate, peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow/peak inspiratory flow ratio and PENH (P<0.05). The response was reproduced in each dog at different concentrations of histamine. Sedation with acepromazine+buprenorphine had little influence on basal measurements and did not change the results of histamine challenge. It was concluded that BWBP is a safe, non invasive and reliable technique of investigation of lung function in dogs which provides new opportunities to characterise respiratory status, to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness and to assess therapeutic interventions. PMID:15996882

  5. Clinical significance of plasma mannose concentrations in healthy and diabetic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mori, A; Sato, T; Lee, P; Furuuchi, M; Tazaki, H; Katayama, K; Mizutani, H; Sako, T; Arai, T

    2009-06-01

    Circulating levels of monosaccharides can act as a reflection of systemic glucose/ energy metabolism. Characteristic changes observed in these levels can be seen in patients with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. There have been a few reports describing the significance of mannose metabolism as an energy source under physiological and pathological conditions. However, the relationship between circulating levels of mannose and the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus are unknown in dogs. This study examined circulating levels of mannose between healthy control and diabetic dogs and evaluated the clinical significance of mannose levels in dogs. Diabetic dogs demonstrated a higher circulating level of mannose in comparison to normal healthy control dogs. Plasma mannose was positively correlated with plasma glucose and fructosamine, respectively. Interestingly, plasma mannose levels were affected by plasma insulin levels. In the context of feeding and glucose tolerance tests, plasma mannose levels responded to changes in circulating insulin levels. Circulating plasma mannose levels decreased after feeding in both control and diabetic animals in spite of observed insulin level differences. However, when glucose tolerance tests were given, a positive correlation between mannose levels and insulin levels was observed. Therefore, plasma mannose levels obtained via glucose tolerance testing may be used as a new diagnostic method for evaluating insulin resistance or deficiency in diabetic dogs.

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs.

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs. PMID:26514756

  8. Evaluation of neutrophilic function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis and microbicidal activity) in healthy dogs and in dogs suffering from recurrent deep pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Chammas, P P; Hagiwara, M K

    1998-07-01

    The modified Boyden's technique of chemotaxis ('leading front' method) and the bacterial killing test with Staphylococcus sp. stained with acridine orange were performed with suspensions of granulocytes from 50 healthy dogs. Lipopolisacharide of Escherichia coli, in normal dog serum was used as the chemotactic factor. The mean value for the chemotactic differential found was 30.41 +/- 12.14 mu. The optimal concentration of bacteria and opsonins (normal dog serum) was 4 and 15%, respectively, and the ideal incubation period was 30 min. The mean values obtained for phagocytosis percentage, number of bacteria per PMN, phagocytosis index and percentage of dead bacteria, were 97.01 +/- 3.22%, 22.20 +/- 4.6, 21.53 +/- 4.50 and 45.30 +/- 9.18%, respectively. Granulocyte functions in 18 dogs with recurrent, chronic, deep pyoderma were assessed by the same methods. No significant difference between the two groups, for any of the evaluated parameters, was found. For elucidation of the pathogenesis of recurrent pyoderma, further studies involving humoral and cellular immunity and the complement system are required. PMID:9661262

  9. Seroepidemiology of reovirus in healthy dogs in six prefectures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2014-03-01

    Reovirus infection is common in mammals. However, seroepidemiological data of reovirus neutralizing antibodies are limited in dogs. In this study, sera of 65 healthy dogs from six prefectures across Japan were tested for neutralizing antibodies against reovirus serotype 1 strain Lang (T1L), serotype 2 strain Amy (T2A) and serotype 3 strain Dearing (T3D) using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Seropositivity against reovirus T1L, T2A and T3D was 53.85%, 33.85% and 46.15%, respectively. Distribution of reovirus seropositive samples displayed no distinguishable geographical pattern. However, reovirus seropositivity increased with age and in dogs housed outdoor. Co-infection of multiple reovirus serotypes in dogs was also detected. These data will provide valuable insights towards the usage of reovirus in oncolytic virotherapy in canine cancers.

  10. Immunohistochemical investigation of Foxp3 expression in the intestine in healthy and diseased dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal immune regulation including development of oral tolerance is of great importance for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Concerning this, regulatory T cells (Tregs) occupy a pivotal role in cell-mediated immunosuppression. Dysregulation of mucosal immunology leading to an abnormal interaction with commensal bacteria is suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in men and dogs. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression of Foxp3 in the normal canine gut of 18 dogs (mean age: 6.03 years), in 16 dogs suffering from IBD (mean age: 5.05 years), and of 6 dogs with intestinal nematode infection (mean age: 0.87 years) using immunohistochemistry. In the duodenum, Tregs in healthy dogs declined from villi (median: 10.67/62 500 μm2) to crypts (median: 1.89/62 500 μm2). Tregs were further increased in the villi of middle-aged dogs (median: 18.92/62 500 μm2) in contrast to juvenile (median: 3.50/62 500 μm2) and old (median: 9.56/62 500 μm2) individuals. Compared to healthy controls, animals suffering from IBD revealed reduced numbers of Tregs in duodenal villi (median: 4.13/62 500 μm2). Dogs with intestinal nematode infection displayed increased numbers of Tregs (median: 21.06/62 500 μm2) compared to healthy animals. Age-related changes indicate a progressive establishment of oral tolerance and immunosenescence in the canine elderly. The results further suggest that a defect in Treg homeostasis may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. In contrast, increased numbers of Tregs in the duodenum may be due to nematode infection. PMID:22440243

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C.; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%. PMID:26740701

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonizing healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Priyantha, Roshan; Gaunt, Mathew C; Rubin, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    This study reports antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carried by healthy dogs in Saskatoon, and describes changes in antimicrobial resistance since a 2008 study. One hundred healthy dogs presenting to the wellness service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine were screened for S. pseudintermedius by culturing rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified biochemically and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the mecA gene. Of 221 S. pseudintermedius isolates from 78 dogs, 7 were methicillin resistant. No resistance to the fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, or daptomycin was identified. Of the 78 positive dogs, isolates resistant to penicillin were found in 78%, to ampicillin in 61% and to tetracycline in 26%; resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin was found in < 10% of dogs. Compared to the 2008 study, the frequency of resistance to all drugs increased, and the frequency of colonization with pan-susceptible isolates decreased from 46% to 30%.

  13. Development and validation of a survey for quality of life assessment by owners of healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavan, R P

    2013-09-01

    Assessing and maintaining quality of life (QOL) is a growing concern in companion animal practice, as improved nutrition and healthcare have extended canine longevity. The objective of this study was to develop a validated survey for evaluating QOL in healthy dogs for use in clinical and research settings. A total of 174 dog owners completed an initial QOL survey containing 21 items grouped into seven domains (CHQLS-21). After factor analysis of the responses, a final survey was constructed containing 15 items grouped into four domains (happiness, physical functioning, hygiene and mental status), plus two questions on general health and an item asking for a direct QOL assessment (CHQLS-15). Psychometric analysis indicated that the CHQLS-15 had good validity, reliability, and internal consistency and was able to detect QOL changes affecting several domains across age groups in healthy dogs. The CHQLS-15 therefore provides a basis for dialog between clinicians and dog owners regarding the health of their pets, particularly in tracking changes in health status, evaluating response to treatment, and guiding end-of-life decisions. A validated QOL survey could be particularly useful in recognizing and managing functional decline as the healthy canine patient ages. PMID:23639368

  14. Development and validation of a survey for quality of life assessment by owners of healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavan, R P

    2013-09-01

    Assessing and maintaining quality of life (QOL) is a growing concern in companion animal practice, as improved nutrition and healthcare have extended canine longevity. The objective of this study was to develop a validated survey for evaluating QOL in healthy dogs for use in clinical and research settings. A total of 174 dog owners completed an initial QOL survey containing 21 items grouped into seven domains (CHQLS-21). After factor analysis of the responses, a final survey was constructed containing 15 items grouped into four domains (happiness, physical functioning, hygiene and mental status), plus two questions on general health and an item asking for a direct QOL assessment (CHQLS-15). Psychometric analysis indicated that the CHQLS-15 had good validity, reliability, and internal consistency and was able to detect QOL changes affecting several domains across age groups in healthy dogs. The CHQLS-15 therefore provides a basis for dialog between clinicians and dog owners regarding the health of their pets, particularly in tracking changes in health status, evaluating response to treatment, and guiding end-of-life decisions. A validated QOL survey could be particularly useful in recognizing and managing functional decline as the healthy canine patient ages.

  15. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pessina, Paula; Fernández-Foren, Andrea; Cueto, Enrique; Delucchi, Luis; Castillo, Victor; Meikle, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males) were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males) received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group). Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal) to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males) while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group). Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex. PMID:19686591

  16. Cyclooxygenase Expression and Platelet Function in Healthy Dogs Receiving Low Dose Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Alicia; Thomason, John; Fritz, Sara; Grady, Jesse; Stokes, John; Wills, Robert; Pinchuk, Lesya; Mackin, Andrew; Lunsford, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Background Low dose aspirin is used to prevent thromboembolic complications in dogs, but some animals are non-responsive to the anti-platelet effects of aspirin (‘aspirin resistance’). Hypothesis/Objectives That low dose aspirin would inhibit platelet function, decrease thromboxane synthesis, and alter platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) expression. Animals Twenty-four healthy dogs Methods A repeated measures study. Platelet function (PFA-100® closure time, collagen/epinephrine), platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression, and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) was evaluated prior to and during aspirin administration (1 mg/kg Q24 hours PO, 10 days). Based on prolongation of closure times after aspirin administration, dogs were divided into categories according to aspirin responsiveness: responders, non-responders, and inconsistent responders. Results Low dose aspirin increased closure times significantly (62% by Day 10, P<0.001), with an equal distribution among aspirin responsiveness categories, 8 dogs per group. Platelet COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased significantly during treatment, 13% on Day 3 (range, −29.7%–136.1%) (P=0.047) and 72% on Day 10 (range, −0.37–210.36%) (P<0.001). Platelet COX-2 MFI increased significantly by 34% (range, −29.2–270.4%) on Day 3 (P = 0.003) and 74% (range, −19.7–226.2%) on Day 10 (P<0.001). Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations significantly (P=0.005, P<0.001) decreased at both time points. There was no difference between aspirin responsiveness and either platelet COX expression or thromboxane production. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Low dose aspirin consistently inhibits platelet function in approximately one third of healthy dogs, despite decreased thromboxane synthesis and increased platelet COX expression in most dogs. Pre-treatment COX isoform expression did not predict aspirin resistance. PMID:23278865

  17. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on xylazine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Hasanuzzaman; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Matsuu, Aya; Kawamura, Hiroe

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on xylazine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs. Five healthy male beagles were assigned to each of the 8 treatment groups in a randomized design at 1-week intervals in the same dog. One group was not medicated. The dogs in the other groups received 2 mg/kg xylazine intramuscularly (IM) and a treatment of saline (control), 50, 100 or 300 microg/kg of each atipamezole or yohimbine IM 0.5 hr later. Urine and blood samples were collected 11 times over the course of 24 hr. Urine volume, pH, specific gravity and creatinine values; osmolality, electrolyte and arginine vasopressin (AVP) values in both urine and plasma; and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized xylazine-induced diuresis. The reversal effect of yohimbine was more potent, but not dose-dependent at the tested doses, in contrast with atipamezole. Both atipamezole and yohimbine exhibited similar potency in reversing the decreases in urine specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, sodium and chloride concentrations and the increase in the plasma potassium concentration induced by xylazine. Both also inhibited xylazine-induced diuresis without significantly altering the hormonal profile in the dogs. A higher dose of atipamezole tended to increase the plasma ANP concentration. This may not be due only to actions mediated by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Both drugs can be used as antagonistic agents against xylazine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs.

  18. Determination of Morphological, Biometric and Biochemical Susceptibilities in Healthy Eurasier Dogs with Suspected Inherited Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1–3 years old), adult males and adult females (4–8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the

  19. Determination of morphological, biometric and biochemical susceptibilities in healthy Eurasier dogs with suspected inherited glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Boillot, Thomas; Rosolen, Serge G; Dulaurent, Thomas; Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1-3 years old), adult males and adult females (4-8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the

  20. Synbiotic administration of canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 and inulin to healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Strompfová, Viola; Lauková, Andrea; Cilik, Dušan

    2013-05-01

    The canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 has been demonstrated to exert certain health benefits as a probiotic in dogs. Synbiotic combinations are widely used but are rarely studied in dogs. In this study the prebiotic inulin in combination with L. fermentum CCM 7421 was tested for its effects on faecal microbial populations, faecal characteristics, and blood biochemistry in canine experiments. Healthy adult dogs (n = 36) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (12 dogs/treatment): (i) the control group (C), (ii) the probiotic group (LF group: L. fermentum CCM 7421, 10(8) CFU/mL of Ringer buffer, 0.1 mL/kg of body mass), and (iii) the synbiotic group (LF+I group: L. fermentum CCM 7421 + inulin (I; Raftifeed IPS) added as 1% of diet). The experiment lasted for 7 weeks with a 2-week treatment period. We detected a significant increase of lactic acid bacteria (LF versus C, day 7; LF versus C and LF versus LF+I, days 28 and 49), a decrease of clostridia (LF versus C, day 14), a lower pH value (LF versus LF+I, day 28), and a higher ammonia concentration (LF versus LF+I, days 14 and 49) in faecal samples. The synbiotic LF+I combination did not intensify the probiotic L. fermentum CCM 7421 efficacy, but its slight laxative effect can be useful to prevent constipation, e.g., in senior dogs.

  1. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. PMID:26250395

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-03-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μ g/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μ g-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤ 0.25 to ≥ 8.0 μ g/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27025816

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline-Free Acid in Clinically Healthy Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Sarah E; Korte, Scott W; Giguère, Steeve; Fales, William H; Davis, Jennifer L; Dixon, Lonny W

    2016-01-01

    Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs. The study population comprised of 5 dogs (age, 1 y; weight, 24.7 to 26.9 kg) that were deemed healthy after no abnormalities were found on physical exam, CBC analysis, and clinical chemistry panel. Each dog received CCFA at 5.0 mg/kg SC, and blood samples were collected before administration of CCFA and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h after injection. The maximal plasma concentration (mean ± 1 SD) of CCFA was 1.98 ± 0.40 μg/mL, time to reach maximal concentration was 22.3 ± 8.9 h, half-life was 56.6 ± 16.9 h, and AUC0-last was 124.98 ± 18.45 μg-h/mL. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur ranged from ≤0.25 to ≥8.0 μg/mL; ceftiofur was most effective against Pasteurella spp., Proteus spp., and Escherichia coli haemolytica and least effective against Bordatella bronchiseptica, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27025816

  4. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and α2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E. canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  5. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD INTAKE AND ITS FAT COMPOSITION ON INTESTINAL ECHOGENICITY IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Granger, L Abbigail; Oubre, Olivia; Shannon, Dylan; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Dogs presenting for ultrasonography due to suspected gastrointestinal disease might have residual ingesta and this could have an affect on the appearance of intestinal mucosa unrelated to pathology. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to determine effects of a recent meal consisting of the recommended daily fat content (meal 1) and a higher fat one (meal 2) on mucosal echogenicity in healthy dogs. Sixty client-owned and clinically healthy dogs were recruited. Two meals, one with 15% fat dry matter basis (meal 1) and a second with 1.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil added to result in a range of 41-63% fat dry matter basis (meal 2), were fed 1 week apart after a 12 h fast. Mucosal echogenicity scores were assigned at fasting, immediate postprandial and at 60 min after each meal. Duodenal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at 60 min (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the duodenal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) at the immediate and 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Jejunal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at the 60-min data point (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the jejunal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) only at the 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Intestinal mucosal echogenicity can be increased in healthy dogs after food intake, regardless of fat content. This effect should be taken into consideration when increased mucosal echogenicity is identified in clinical patients. PMID:27363531

  6. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD INTAKE AND ITS FAT COMPOSITION ON INTESTINAL ECHOGENICITY IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Granger, L Abbigail; Oubre, Olivia; Shannon, Dylan; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Dogs presenting for ultrasonography due to suspected gastrointestinal disease might have residual ingesta and this could have an affect on the appearance of intestinal mucosa unrelated to pathology. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to determine effects of a recent meal consisting of the recommended daily fat content (meal 1) and a higher fat one (meal 2) on mucosal echogenicity in healthy dogs. Sixty client-owned and clinically healthy dogs were recruited. Two meals, one with 15% fat dry matter basis (meal 1) and a second with 1.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil added to result in a range of 41-63% fat dry matter basis (meal 2), were fed 1 week apart after a 12 h fast. Mucosal echogenicity scores were assigned at fasting, immediate postprandial and at 60 min after each meal. Duodenal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at 60 min (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the duodenal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) at the immediate and 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Jejunal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at the 60-min data point (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the jejunal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) only at the 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Intestinal mucosal echogenicity can be increased in healthy dogs after food intake, regardless of fat content. This effect should be taken into consideration when increased mucosal echogenicity is identified in clinical patients.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of intravenous fentanyl and buprenorphine in healthy Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    KuKanich, Butch; Allen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of two highly protein bound, lipophilic opioid drugs. Fentanyl (10 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) were administered intravenously (IV) to six healthy Greyhound dogs (3 males and 3 females). The doses were based on clinically administered doses for dogs. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and noncompartmental pharmacokinetics were estimated with computer software. The volume of distribution (area) was larger for fentanyl (7.42 L/kg) compared to buprenorphine (3.54 L/kg). The plasma clearance of fentanyl (38.6 mL/min/kg) was faster than buprenorphine (10.3 mL/min/kg). The terminal half-life of fentanyl (2.22 h) was shorter than buprenorphine (3.96 h). Despite similar physicochemical properties including: octanol:water partition coefficient and pKa the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and buprenorphine were not similar. Both fentanyl (84%) and buprenorphine (95-98%) are considered highly protein bound, but the differences in protein binding may contribute to the lack of similarity of pharmacokinetics in healthy dogs. PMID:24684621

  8. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from healthy dogs in Nsukka, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Kennedy F; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Nwanta, John A; Asadu, Brendan; Agbo, Ifeoma C; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence, resistance phenotype and molecular mechanisms of resistance of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from groin swabs of 109 clinically healthy dogs in Nsukka, Nigeria were investigated. The groin swab samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 10 μg of cloxacillin. Sixteen methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), all harbouring the mecA gene were isolated from 14 (12.8%) of the 109 dogs studied. The MRCoNS isolated were: S. sciuri subspecies rodentium, S. lentus, S. haemolyticus, and S. simulans with S. sciuri subspecies rodentium (62.5%) being the predominant species. Thirteen (81.3%) of the MRCoNS were resistant to tetracycline while 12 (75%) and 10 (62.5%) were resistant to kanamycin and trimthoprim-sulphamethoxazole respectively. None of the isolates was resistant to fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Thirteen (81.3%) of the MRCoNS were multi-drug resistance (MDR). Other antimicrobial genes detected were: blaZ, tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), lnu(A), aacA-aphD, aphA3, str, dfr(G), cat pC221 , and cat pC223 . Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are common colonizers of healthy dogs in Nigeria with a major species detected being S. sciuri subsp. rodentium. PMID:24948934

  9. Stimulation of duodenal biopsies and whole blood from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy and healthy dogs with Toll-like receptor ligands and probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, S; Henrich, M; Neiger, R; Werling, D; Allenspach, K

    2014-08-01

    The composition of the microbiome plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans and chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. The administration of probiotic micro-organisms is one way of modulating the microbiome, but experiments elucidating mechanisms of action of probiotics in the intestine of healthy and CE dogs are lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and Enterococcus faecium (EF) on ex vivo cultured duodenal samples and whole blood (WB) from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy (FRE) when compared to healthy dogs. Biopsy stimulation was performed in 17 FRE and 11 healthy dogs; WB stimulation was performed in 16 FRE and 16 healthy dogs. Expression of TLR2, 4, 5 and 9, IL-17A, IL-22, IFNy, TNFα, IL-4, IL-10, TGFβ and PPARy was determined in biopsies by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, production of TNFα, IL-10, IFNy and IL-17A protein in WB and biopsy supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Treatment with individual TLR ligands or EF induced a variety of changes in the expression of different TLRs and cytokines, but not necessarily a consistent change with a single stimulating agent. Even though cytokine protein could not be detected in supernatants from ex vivo stimulated biopsies, we found TNFα protein responses in blood to be opposite of the transcriptional responses seen in the biopsies. Stimulation of canine duodenal biopsies with TLR ligands can potentially induce anti-inflammatory gene expression, especially in healthy tissue, whereas the effects of EF were limited.

  10. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process. PMID:15578454

  11. Effects of experimental cardiac volume loading on left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Morita, Tomoya; Nisa, Khoirun; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Sasaki, Noboru; Morishita, Keitaro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To elucidate the relationship between acute volume overload and left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized. A Swan-Ganz catheter was placed to measure mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Cardiac preload was increased by IV infusion with lactated Ringer solution at 150 mL/kg/h for 90 minutes. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after volume loading began. At each echocardiographic assessment point, apical 4-chamber images were recorded and analyzed to derive time-left atrial area curves. Left atrial total (for reservoir function), passive (for conduit function), and active (for booster-pump function) fractional area changes were calculated from the curves. RESULTS Volume overload resulted in a significant increase from baseline in PCWP from 15 to 90 minutes after volume loading began. All fractional area changes at 15 to 90 minutes were significantly increased from baseline. In multiple regression analysis, quadratic regression models were better fitted to the relationships between PCWP and each of the total and active fractional area changes than were linear regression models. A linear regression model was better fitted to the relationship between PCWP and passive fractional area change. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that left atrial phasic function assessed on the basis of left atrial phasic areas was enhanced during experimental cardiac volume loading in healthy dogs. The effect of volume load should be considered when evaluating left atrial phasic function by indices derived from left atrial phasic sizes. PMID:27580106

  12. Lethal septic shock after dental scaling in a healthy dog due to Ochrobactrum anthropi-contaminated propofol.

    PubMed

    Franci, P; Dotto, G; Cattai, A; Pasotto, D

    2015-05-01

    A 10-year-old, 6-kg male Yorkshire terrier dog was scheduled for routine dental cleaning. No significant problem was observed either during anaesthesia, which was induced with propofol, or during recovery. However, 2 hours after discharge, the dog's owner returned to the clinic, complaining that the animal was lethargic and had had bloody diarrhoea. On physical examination the dog was depressed, dyspnoeic, tachycardic and hypoglycaemic. Despite supportive treatment, the dog deteriorated and died within a few hours.A presumed diagnosis of sepsis was confirmed by laboratory testing. Bacteriological and molecular examinations of both premortem blood samples and the anaesthetic, highlighted the presence of Ochrobactrum anthropi, an opportunistic pathogen usually associated with immunocompromised hosts with indwelling medical devices. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of sepsis in a healthy dog due to contamination of an anaesthetic solution by O. anthropi, suggesting a potential role of this microorganism as an emerging pathogen.

  13. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m(2) (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m(2) (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m(2) or at 125 μg/m(2) or at 375 μg/m(2) in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  14. The effects of intravenous alfaxalone with and without premedication on intraocular pressure in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Bianca S; Ambros, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous alfaxalone with and without premedication on intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy dogs. Thirty-three dogs were randomized to receive 1 of 3 treatments: acepromazine [0.03 mg/kg body weight (BW)] with butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg BW) intramuscularly (IM), followed by intravenous (IV) alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg BW); dexmedetomidine (0.002 mg/kg BW) with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg BW) IM, followed by alfaxalone (1 mg/kg BW) IV; and saline 0.9% (0.02 mL/kg BW) IM, followed by alfaxalone (3 mg/kg BW) IV. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at baseline, 15 min, and 30 min after premedication, after pre-oxygenation, after administration of alfaxalone, and after intubation. After induction and after intubation, the IOP was significantly increased in all groups compared to baseline. While premedication with acepromazine/butorphanol or dexmedetomidine/hydromorphone did not cause a significant increase in IOP, the risk of vomiting and the associated peak in IOP after dexmedetomidine/hydromorphone should be considered when selecting an anesthetic protocol for dogs with poor tolerance for transient increases in IOP. PMID:27127343

  15. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m2 (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m2 (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m2 or at 125 μg/m2 or at 375 μg/m2 in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  16. EFFECT OF BOLUS SIZE ON DEGLUTITION AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Diane M; Marks, Stanley L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2016-07-01

    Contrast videofluoroscopy is the gold standard procedure for evaluating dysphagia in humans, but quantitative measures vary depending on bolus size and consistency. We hypothesized that quantitative measures made during videofluoroscopy of swallowing in dogs would differ between bolus sizes and consistencies. Ten healthy adult dogs were enrolled a prospective, crossover experimental study and underwent contrast videofluoroscopy while swallowing liquid (5, 10, and 15 ml) and canned food (3, 8, and 12 g) boluses. Maximum pharyngeal contraction occurred significantly later with medium solid boluses than with medium liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.021 s (adjusted P = 0.042). Upper esophageal sphincter opening occurred significantly earlier with large solid boluses than with medium solid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.018 s (adjusted P = 0.025). Thoracic esophageal transit time was significantly longer with small solid boluses than with small liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.68 s (adjusted P = 0.004). Odds of primary esophageal peristalsis occurring were significantly (18.5 times) higher with large solid vs. large liquid boluses (adjusted P = 0.031). No other statistical comparisons reached significance. Based on these results, we recommend a standardized approach to videofluoscopy in dogs with determination of quantitative measures using medium liquid and soft food boluses to minimize effects of size. Furthermore, we conclude that measurements made on liquid swallows should not be directly compared to measurements made on soft food boluses. PMID:27075234

  17. Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Debnath, C; Mitra, T; Kumar, A; Samanta, I

    2016-01-01

    In recent times increasing occurrence of dermatophytosis, especially among the school children in eastern India was evidenced along with increased tendency of keeping companion animals such as dogs and cats. This study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of dermatophytes with antifungal susceptibility among the companion animals. A total of 1501 healthy companion animals comprising 1209 dogs and 292 cats belonged to individual owners in and around Kolkata (West Bengal, India) were examined for the evidence of dermatophytosis during 2011-2013. The collected samples were subjected to direct examination by standard KOH mount technique. The samples were inoculated into both Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide and dermatophyte test medium (DTM). Each of the fungal isolate was identified based upon its colony characteristics and hyphal and conidial cells it produced. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution assay using fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin and amphotericin-B antifungals. Among the 1209 samples from dogs and 292 samples from cats, 253 (20.93%) and 109 (37.33%) samples were positive for dermatophytes by direct examination. Three identified species of dermatophytes with predominant occurrence were Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ketoconazole (0.06-0.5 µgm/ml), itraconazole (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) and amphotericin-B (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) showed lowest MIC values against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum, respectively. This is the first systemic report of dermatophytes in healthy companion animals with large numbers of samples in India. PMID:27656224

  18. Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Debnath, C; Mitra, T; Kumar, A; Samanta, I

    2016-01-01

    In recent times increasing occurrence of dermatophytosis, especially among the school children in eastern India was evidenced along with increased tendency of keeping companion animals such as dogs and cats. This study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of dermatophytes with antifungal susceptibility among the companion animals. A total of 1501 healthy companion animals comprising 1209 dogs and 292 cats belonged to individual owners in and around Kolkata (West Bengal, India) were examined for the evidence of dermatophytosis during 2011-2013. The collected samples were subjected to direct examination by standard KOH mount technique. The samples were inoculated into both Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide and dermatophyte test medium (DTM). Each of the fungal isolate was identified based upon its colony characteristics and hyphal and conidial cells it produced. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution assay using fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin and amphotericin-B antifungals. Among the 1209 samples from dogs and 292 samples from cats, 253 (20.93%) and 109 (37.33%) samples were positive for dermatophytes by direct examination. Three identified species of dermatophytes with predominant occurrence were Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ketoconazole (0.06-0.5 µgm/ml), itraconazole (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) and amphotericin-B (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) showed lowest MIC values against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum, respectively. This is the first systemic report of dermatophytes in healthy companion animals with large numbers of samples in India.

  19. Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, C.; Mitra, T.; Kumar, A.; Samanta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times increasing occurrence of dermatophytosis, especially among the school children in eastern India was evidenced along with increased tendency of keeping companion animals such as dogs and cats. This study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of dermatophytes with antifungal susceptibility among the companion animals. A total of 1501 healthy companion animals comprising 1209 dogs and 292 cats belonged to individual owners in and around Kolkata (West Bengal, India) were examined for the evidence of dermatophytosis during 2011-2013. The collected samples were subjected to direct examination by standard KOH mount technique. The samples were inoculated into both Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide and dermatophyte test medium (DTM). Each of the fungal isolate was identified based upon its colony characteristics and hyphal and conidial cells it produced. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution assay using fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin and amphotericin-B antifungals. Among the 1209 samples from dogs and 292 samples from cats, 253 (20.93%) and 109 (37.33%) samples were positive for dermatophytes by direct examination. Three identified species of dermatophytes with predominant occurrence were Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ketoconazole (0.06-0.5 µgm/ml), itraconazole (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) and amphotericin-B (0.03-0.5 µgm/ml) showed lowest MIC values against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum, respectively. This is the first systemic report of dermatophytes in healthy companion animals with large numbers of samples in India. PMID:27656224

  20. Ultrasound biomicroscopic findings of the iridocorneal angle in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Takashi; KAWATA, Manabu; OTA, Mitsuharu

    2015-01-01

    By using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), the cross-sectional structures of the entire iridocorneal angle (ICA) which are unable to assess with gonioscopic examination were evaluated objectively and quantitatively in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs. The ICAs of normotensive eyes in healthy dogs with normal open angle (NOR), a predisposition to primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG) (PREDIS) and suffering from unilateral PCAG (UNI), as well as the ICAs of hypertensive eyes with acute and chronic PCAG (ACG and CRG), were assessed. The opening of the ciliary cleft in PREDIS was smaller than that in NOR. In UNI, the opening and area of the ciliary cleft were significantly decreased compared with those of NOR and PREDIS. ACG had widespread structural abnormalities including marked decrease in the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus, and a thinner sclera than those in normotensive eyes, whereas the ICA collapsed in CRG with the thinnest sclera. Medical therapy-responsive glaucomatous cases had wider ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus than unresponsive ones. These findings suggest that the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus of the ICA are key structures contributing to not only the pathophysiology of canine glaucoma but also the responsiveness to medical therapy in glaucomatous eyes, and cross-sectional entire structures of the ICA should be evaluated quantitatively with UBM when diagnosing and managing canine glaucoma. PMID:26212256

  1. Evaluation of gallbladder volume and contraction index with three-dimensional ultrasonography in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Vahideh; Molazem, Mohammad; Jamshidi, Shahram; Vali, Yasamin; Hanifeh, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography has been shown to be an accurate and appropriate tool for measurement of gallbladder volume in humans. Therefore, we applied this novel technique for the first time to study fasting and postprandial gallbladder volume in 10 healthy dogs and compared the results with those of 2-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography. Fasting gallbladder volumes determined by 3D ultrasonography were significantly higher than corresponding volumes determined by 2D ultrasonography (P<0.01). Additionally, gallbladder volumes were significantly decreased in the postprandial state compared with the fasting state using 3D ultrasonography (P<0.001), but 2D ultrasonography showed no significant difference (P=0.189). The Gallbladder contraction index was higher in 3D ultrasonography than 2D ultrasonography; however, it did not reach statistical significance (P=0.25). In conclusion, 3D ultrasonography was able to measure gallbladder volume in healthy dogs in this study. It is suggested that 3D ultrasonography can be used to accurately estimate gallbladder volume and contractility.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Modified Low-Density Lipoproteins in the Serum of Healthy and Obese Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Tsuchida, Naoto; Hatano, Yutaka; Habara, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shingo; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play an important role in the inflammatory response associated with human obesity. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine oxidized LDL concentrations in healthy dogs and cats, and to evaluate whether obesity affects oxidized LDL concentration, using 39 cats and 19 dogs that had visited two different veterinary clinics in Japan. We hypothesized that oxidized LDL concentrations measured against body condition score (BCS) may have a potential value in evaluating the qualities of accumulated or circulating lipids in obese dogs and cats that do not show signs of metabolic diseases. The mean oxidized LDL value in BCS3 dogs (2.4 ± 0.9 μg/dl) was very similar to that of BCS5 dogs (2.2 ± 0.3 μg/dl). The mean oxidized LDL value of BCS4 dogs was 7.2 ± 10.3 μg/dl and the highest among three groups. BCS4 dogs included two dogs whose oxidized LDL values were higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans (11.2 ± 0.3 μg/dl). On the other hand, the mean oxidized LDL value of BCS3 cats was 2.5 ± 0.9 μg/dl, and those of BCS4 and 5 cats were higher than that of BCS3, but there was no significant difference. The BCS4 cat group included one cat with a higher oxidized LDL value, and the BCS5 group also included two cats with oxidized LDL values higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans. Interestingly, the oxidized LDL values in two obese dogs and three obese cats were indeed higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of humans with coronary artery disease (20.1 ± 1.1 μg/dl). In conclusion, this preliminary study showed reference ranges of oxidized dogs and cats against BCS. Obesity alone does not appear to have any direct effect on serum oxidized LDL values in healthy dogs and cats. PMID:26664963

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING ESTIMATES OF EXTRACRANIAL CEREBROSPINAL FLUID VOLUME AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, László Z; Bajzik, Gábor; Garamvölgyi, Rita; Petneházy, Örs; Lassó, András; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Borbála; Sótonyi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Dosages for myelography procedures in dogs are based on a hypothetical proportional relationship between bodyweight and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Anecdotal radiographic evidence and recent studies have challenged the existence of such a defined relationship in dogs. The objectives of this prospective cross-sectional study were to describe CSF volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a group of clinically healthy dogs, measure the accuracy of MRI CSF volumes, and compare MRI CSF volumes with dog physical measurements. A sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip-angle evolution MRI examination of the central nervous system was carried out on 12 healthy, male mongrel dogs, aged between 3 and 5 years with a bodyweight range of 7.5-35.0 kg. The images were processed with image analysis freeware (3D Slicer) in order to calculate the volume of extracranial CSF. Cylindrical phantoms of known volume were included in scans and used to calculate accuracy of MRI volume estimates. The accuracy of MRI volume estimates was 99.8%. Extracranial compartment CSF volumes ranged from 20.21 to 44.06 ml. Overall volume of the extracranial CSF increased linearly with bodyweight, but the proportional volume (ml/bodyweight kilograms) of the extracranial CSF was inversely proportional to bodyweight. Relative ratios of volumes in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral regions were constant. Findings indicated that the current standard method of using body weight to calculate dosages of myelographic contrast agents in dogs may need to be revised. PMID:26311617

  4. [Qualification of the Stewart variables for the assessment of the acid-base status in healthy dogs and dogs with different diseases].

    PubMed

    Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara; Kellermeier, Claudia; Schmitz, Rose; Hartmann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Peter Stewart criticized the traditional theory of the acid-base status by Henderson-Hasselbalch as too simple and incomplete. He developed a new model with 3 independent variables: (1) pCO2, (2) SID (strong ion difference) and (3) Atot (Acid total). In healthy and ill dogs the diagnostic usefulness of both acid-base models were compared. This study included n=58 healthy dogs and 3 clinical cases of sick dogs. The age of the healthy dogs was 5.0 (2.0-7.0) years (= median (1.-3. quartil)). The 3 clinical cases included (1) a dog with septic shock, (2) with acute renal insufficiency, and (3) with hypovolaemic shock due to gastric torsion. Venous blood was taken of all dogs and the acid-base parameters were determined within < or =30 minutes. Electrolytes and albumin were determined in blood serum and used for calculation of the Stewart variables. Limits of reference intervals (x+/-1.96 - s) were determined for the healthy dogs yielding pCO2 = 3.6-6.5 kPa, [SID3] = 33.1-50.9 mmol/l resp. [SID4] = 31.8-49.6 mmol/l and [Al = 8.5-13.1 mmol/l. In Case 1 the Henderson-Hasselbalch parameters demonstrated the presence of a strong metabolic acidosis with mild respiratory influence (pH, [HCO3-], [BE] and PCO2 at upper range of normal). Analysis of the Stewart variables [SID3] resp. [SID4] revealed an electrolyte imbalance with [Cl-] and [lactate-] as the reason for metabolic acidosis. Case 2 showed a metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation (pH, [HCO3-], [BE] and PCO2). Analysis of the Stewart variables with [SID3] resp. [SID4 caused by [K+], [Na+] and [lactate-]demonstrated the acidotic metabolism due to a renal malfunction. Case 3 had a metabolic acidosis (pH-value in the lower range) caused by electrolyte imbalances ([SID4]. The Stewart variables allow a better understanding of the causes of acid-base-disturbances in animals with implications for successful therapy via infusion.

  5. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (< 0.0001) and time to peak (TTP; P < 0.0001), and decreased peak intensity (PI; P = 0.0108), wash-in (P = 0.0014), and area under the curve (AUC; P = 0.0421). Findings supported the use of butorphanol and contraindicated the use of dexmedetomidine as sedatives for splenic contrast ultrasound procedures in dogs. Short-term and diffuse heterogeneity of the spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding. PMID:26777031

  6. Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. The primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important CVBDs. Methods Clinically healthy dogs (n = 118), comprising three different groups: Gp I blood donor candidates (n = 47), Gp II healthy dog volunteers (n = 50), and Gp III stray dogs (n = 21) were included in the study. Serum and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anti-coagulated blood specimens collected from each dog were tested for CVBD pathogens. Results Of the 118 dogs tested, 97 (82%) dogs had been exposed to or were infected with one or more CVBD pathogens. By IFA testing, 9% of Gp I, 42% of Gp II and 19% of Gp III dogs were seroreactive to one or more CVBD pathogens. Using the SNAP 4DX® assay, Gp I dogs were seronegative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) antibodies and D. immitis antigen. In Gp II, 8 dogs were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive, 2 were infected with D. immitis and 1 was B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) seroreactive. In Gp III, 6 dogs were infected with D. immitis and 4 were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive. Using the BAPGM diagnostic platform, Bartonella DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from 19% of Gp I, 20% of Gp II and 10% of Gp III dogs. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 6% of Gps I and II and 19% of Gp III dogs were infected with other CVBD pathogens. Conclusion The development and validation of specific diagnostic testing modalities has facilitated more accurate detection of CVBDs. Once identified, exposure to vectors should be limited and flea and tick prevention enforced. PMID:24655461

  7. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  8. Effects of a synbiotic on fecal quality, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and the microbiome of healthy sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sled dogs commonly suffer from diarrhea. Although multiple etiologies exist there are limited field studies using synbiotics as a supplement to prevent or treat diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine alterations in fecal quality, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and the fecal microbiome in two groups of training sled dogs fed a synbiotic or microcrystalline cellulose placebo. Twenty clinically healthy training sled dogs randomized into two cohorts (9 synbiotic-fed, 8 placebo-fed) for a 6 week prospective study were examined. Fecal pH and fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were measured and tag-encoded FLX 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed at baseline (10 d prior to the study) and after 2 weeks of treatment with a total treatment time of 6 weeks. Fecal scores for all dogs were assessed at baseline and every day for 6 wk after initiation of treatment. Results Alterations in the fecal microbiome were observed with a significant rise in Lactobacillaceae in the synbiotic group (P = 0.004) after 2 wk of treatment. A positive correlation was found between Lactobacillaceae and overall butyrate concentration (R = 0.62, p = 0.011) in all dogs. After 5 wk of treatment, there was an improved fecal score and fewer days of diarrhea (Χ2 = 5.482, P = 0.019) in the dogs given synbiotic, which coincided with a presumed contagious outbreak shared by all dogs in the study. Conclusions Use of this synbiotic results in an increase in presumed beneficial bacterial flora of the host colon which was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of diarrhea in training sled dogs. PMID:24313995

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF INJECTED GELIFIED ETHANOL INTO THE LUMBOSACRAL INTERVERTEBRAL DISC IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Shawn D; Brisson, Brigitte A; Gaitero, Luis; Caswell, Jeff L; Liao, Penting; Sinclair, Melissa; Chalmers, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Radiopaque gelified ethanol preparation has been described as a useful agent for treatment of humans with intervertebral disc protrusion. The material is injected into the nucleus pulposus under image guidance with intention to cause the protruded disc material to recede. Because treatment options for dogs with chronic protrusions are limited, new and minimally invasive treatments are desirable. The aim of this experimental, descriptive, prospective study was to assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous injection of gelified ethanol into the lumbosacral intervertebral disc of dogs. Lumbosacral intervertebral discs of normal dogs (n = 9) were imaged with magnetic resonance imaging and then injected with gelified ethanol using image guidance. The accuracy of gelified ethanol placement in the nucleus pulposus and presence of leakage of the injected material were documented. Postinjection computed tomography (CT) findings (n = 9), short-term (n = 9) and long-term (n = 4) follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and CT findings were compared to document the distribution of the injected preparation and identify effects on adjacent tissues. Percutaneous injection of the intervertebral disc was successful in delivering radiopaque gelified ethanol to the nucleus pulposus in all dogs. Leakage of the injected material into the vertebral canal was present in three dogs immediately following injection and in another additional dog at 1 year following injection. All dogs tolerated the injection well and had no clinical adverse reactions within the study period. Findings indicated that injection of the nucleus pulposus of healthy dogs was well tolerated, even in the presence of mild leakage of material from the intervertebral disc. PMID:26626409

  10. Clinical effects of computed tomography-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Annalisa P; Girod, Maud; Peeters, Dominique; Sandersen, Charlotte; Couvreur, Thierry; Bolen, Géraldine

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure. RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures. PMID:27668585

  11. The effect of imepitoin, a recently developed antiepileptic drug, on thyroid parameters and fat metabolism in healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bossens, K; Daminet, S; Duchateau, L; Rick, M; Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S

    2016-07-01

    Since early 2013, imepitoin has been used in most European countries for the management of recurrent single generalised epileptic seizures in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. It has been reported that imepitoin is as effective as phenobarbital (PB) in controlling seizures in dogs with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy and it has a clinically superior safety profile. As the use of imepitoin gains popularity, its effect on serum thyroid parameters warrants further investigation since long-term PB administration influences thyroid parameters in dogs, which could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results and incorrect diagnosis of thyroidal illness. A prospective study was conducted to compare the effect of orally administered PB and imepitoin on serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin autoantibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, cholesterol and triglycerides in healthy Beagle dogs. These parameters were determined prior to and at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after antiepileptic drug administration. The starting dose of PB (5 mg/kg PO twice daily; range, 4.4-6.0 mg/kg) was monitored and adjusted to obtain optimal therapeutic serum concentrations (30-35 g/mL). Imepitoin was administered at 30 mg/kg PO twice daily (range, 29.2-35.7 mg/kg). Imepitoin administration did not affect any of the thyroid parameters over an 18-week period. In contrast, serum TT4 concentrations decreased significantly over time in dogs receiving PB (P <0.05). Serum cholesterol concentrations increased significantly over time in dogs in the imepitoin group, but not to the same extent as commonly seen in dogs with primary hypothyroidism.

  12. The effect of imepitoin, a recently developed antiepileptic drug, on thyroid parameters and fat metabolism in healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bossens, K; Daminet, S; Duchateau, L; Rick, M; Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S

    2016-07-01

    Since early 2013, imepitoin has been used in most European countries for the management of recurrent single generalised epileptic seizures in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. It has been reported that imepitoin is as effective as phenobarbital (PB) in controlling seizures in dogs with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy and it has a clinically superior safety profile. As the use of imepitoin gains popularity, its effect on serum thyroid parameters warrants further investigation since long-term PB administration influences thyroid parameters in dogs, which could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results and incorrect diagnosis of thyroidal illness. A prospective study was conducted to compare the effect of orally administered PB and imepitoin on serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin autoantibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, cholesterol and triglycerides in healthy Beagle dogs. These parameters were determined prior to and at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after antiepileptic drug administration. The starting dose of PB (5 mg/kg PO twice daily; range, 4.4-6.0 mg/kg) was monitored and adjusted to obtain optimal therapeutic serum concentrations (30-35 g/mL). Imepitoin was administered at 30 mg/kg PO twice daily (range, 29.2-35.7 mg/kg). Imepitoin administration did not affect any of the thyroid parameters over an 18-week period. In contrast, serum TT4 concentrations decreased significantly over time in dogs receiving PB (P <0.05). Serum cholesterol concentrations increased significantly over time in dogs in the imepitoin group, but not to the same extent as commonly seen in dogs with primary hypothyroidism. PMID:27240915

  13. The Microscopic Structure of the Omentum in Healthy Dogs: The Mystery Unravelled.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, S; de Rooster, H; Doom, M; Van den Broeck, W

    2016-06-01

    The canine omentum has many valuable properties but is still an underestimated organ. It contributes in many ways to the protection of the peritoneal cavity through its versatility on immunological level, but also through its role during angiogenesis, absorption, adhesion and fat storage. Despite a wide range of applications, the basic structure of the omentum is not well documented. This study provides an insight in the microscopic structure of the canine omentum through both light microscopic and electron microscopic investigations. Two regions could be distinguished in the canine omentum: translucent and adipose-rich regions. The translucent regions were composed of two different layers: a continuous flattened mesothelium on top of a submesothelial connective tissue matrix. The adipose-rich regions consisted of a substantial layer of adipocytes on which a flattened continuous mesothelium was present. Between those two layers, a few strands of collagen fibres could be detected. Large aggregates of immune cells, the so-called milky spots, were not observed in the omentum of healthy dogs. Only a limited number of leucocytes, macrophages and neutrophils were found, scattered throughout the connective tissue in the translucent regions. At the level of the adipose-rich regions, the immunological population was virtually non-existent.

  14. Composition and Predicted Metabolic Capacity of Upper and Lower Airway Microbiota of Healthy Dogs in Relation to the Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Personett, Alexa R.; Grobman, Megan E.; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    The upper and lower airways of healthy humans are reported to harbor stable and consistent bacterial populations, and the composition of these communities is altered in individuals affected with several respiratory diseases. Data regarding the presence of airway microbiota in other animals are scant and a better understanding of the composition and metabolic function of such bacterial populations is essential for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for use in both veterinary and human medicine. Based on targeted next-generation sequencing of feces and samples collected at multiple levels of the airways from 16 healthy female dogs, we demonstrate that canine airways harbor a topographically continuous microbiota with increasing relative abundance of proteobacterial species from the upper to lower airways. The lung-associated microbiota, as assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), was the most consistent between dogs and was dominated by three distinct taxa, two of which were resolved to the species level and one to the level of family. The gene content of the nasal, oropharyngeal, and lung-associated microbiota, predicted using the Phylogenetic Investigations into Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) software, provided information regarding the glyoxylate and citrate cycle metabolic pathways utilized by these bacterial populations to colonize such nutrient-poor, low-throughput environments. These data generated in healthy subjects provide context for future analysis of diseased canine airways. Moreover, as dogs have similar respiratory anatomy, physiology, and immune systems as humans, are exposed to many of the same environmental stimuli, and spontaneously develop similar respiratory diseases, these data support the use of dogs as a model species for prospective studies of the airway microbiota, with findings translatable to the human condition. PMID:27136381

  15. DNA Sequence Variants in the Five Prime Untranslated Region of the Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Are Commonly Found in Healthy Dogs and Gray Wolves.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hayward, Louisa J; Aguilar, Miriam; Sacks, Benjamin N; Westropp, Jodi L; Mohr, F Charles; Mellersh, Cathryn S; Bannasch, Danika L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of regional DNA variants upstream to the translation initiation site of the canine Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) gene in healthy dogs. Cox-2 plays a role in various disease conditions such as acute and chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis and malignancy. A role for Cox-2 DNA variants in genetic predisposition to canine renal dysplasia has been proposed and dog breeders have been encouraged to select against these DNA variants. We sequenced 272-422 bases in 152 dogs unaffected by renal dysplasia and found 19 different haplotypes including 11 genetic variants which had not been described previously. We genotyped 7 gray wolves to ascertain the wildtype variant and found that the wolves we analyzed had predominantly the second most common DNA variant found in dogs. Our results demonstrate an elevated level of regional polymorphism that appears to be a feature of healthy domesticated dogs.

  16. DNA Sequence Variants in the Five Prime Untranslated Region of the Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Are Commonly Found in Healthy Dogs and Gray Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Safra, Noa; Hayward, Louisa J.; Aguilar, Miriam; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Mohr, F. Charles; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Bannasch, Danika L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of regional DNA variants upstream to the translation initiation site of the canine Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) gene in healthy dogs. Cox-2 plays a role in various disease conditions such as acute and chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis and malignancy. A role for Cox-2 DNA variants in genetic predisposition to canine renal dysplasia has been proposed and dog breeders have been encouraged to select against these DNA variants. We sequenced 272–422 bases in 152 dogs unaffected by renal dysplasia and found 19 different haplotypes including 11 genetic variants which had not been described previously. We genotyped 7 gray wolves to ascertain the wildtype variant and found that the wolves we analyzed had predominantly the second most common DNA variant found in dogs. Our results demonstrate an elevated level of regional polymorphism that appears to be a feature of healthy domesticated dogs. PMID:26244515

  17. Scintigraphic tracking of mesenchymal stem cells after portal, systemic intravenous and splenic administration in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Spriet, Mathieu; Hunt, Geraldine B; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed to treat liver disease in the dog. The objective of this study was to compare portal, systemic intravenous and splenic injections for administration of mesenchymal stem cells to target the liver in healthy beagle dogs. Four healthy beagle dogs were included in the study. Each dog received mesenchymal stem cells via all three delivery methods in randomized order, 1 week apart. Ten million fat-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells labeled with Technetium-99m (99mTc)-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime(HMPAO) were used for each injection. Right lateral, left lateral, ventral, and dorsal scintigraphic images were obtained with a gamma camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose collimator immediately after injection and 1, 6, and 24 h later. Mesenchymal stem cells distribution was assessed subjectively using all four views. Pulmonary, hepatic, and splenic uptake was quantified from the right lateral view, at each time point. Portal injection resulted in diffuse homogeneous high uptake through the liver, whereas the systemic intravenous injection led to mesenchymal stem cell trapping in the lungs. After splenic injection, mild splenic retention and high homogeneous diffuse hepatic uptake were observed. Systemic injection of mesenchymal stem cells may not be a desirable technique for liver therapy due to pulmonary trapping. Splenic injection represents a good alternative to portal injection. Scintigraphic tracking with 99mTc-HMPAO is a valuable technique for assessing mesenchymal stem cells distribution and quantification shortly after administration. Data obtained at 24 h should be interpreted cautiously due to suboptimal labeling persistence. PMID:25582730

  18. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum among healthy dogs and horses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levi, O; Waner, T; Baneth, G; Keysary, A; Bruchim, Y; Silverman, J; Harrus, S

    2006-03-01

    The presence of reacting antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum has previously been demonstrated in Israel, both in humans and the golden jackal (Canis aureus syriacus). This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum antibodies in two additional potential hosts, domestic dogs and horses in order to investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Israel. Of 195 dogs tested, 9% were seroreactive with A. phagocytophilum antigen and 30% were seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis. Twenty-nine percent of the dogs seropositive for E. canis were also reactive to A. phagocytophilum. Two dogs had immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) antibody titres for A. phagocytophilum greater than E. canis. The equine serological survey (n = 300) revealed no seroreactive horses. The results presented in this study suggest that dogs in Israel could have been accidentally exposed to A. phagocytophilum, for example by ticks carried on migrating birds, however, the possibility of cross-reaction with E. canis should also be considered. In spite of the high prevalence of ticks on horses in Israel during the summer months, no evidence for exposure to A. phagocytophilum was apparent. PMID:16626404

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered. PMID:23820161

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered.

  1. Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse fecal bacterial and fungal communities in healthy dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces.

  2. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (< 1 year old), adult (1~5 years old), and senile animals (≥ 6 years old). Normal ERG ranges were obtained. Significant differences in b-wave amplitude along with b/a ratio of the combined rod-cone response were found between the young and adult animals as well as young and senile dogs. No significant differences were observed between the left and right eyes. ERG variables in beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing. PMID:23388429

  3. Assessment of right ventricular function by feature-tracking echocardiography in conscious healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Chiara; Spalla, Ilaria; Zanaboni, Anna M; Brambilla, Paola G; Bussadori, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Advanced two-dimensional echocardiographic techniques allow strain (S) analysis of regional function and thus can provide information on regional myocardial deformation. Feature-tracking echocardiography (FTE) is based on a mono-dimensional technology and may offer more detailed information about septal deformation because it can analyse the activity of left- and right-sided septal fibres separately. The present study aimed to quantify global and regional (free wall and septal) right ventricular (RV) longitudinal S and strain rate (SR). We also investigated the relationships of S and SR with age, sex, weight, breed (sighthound breed vs other breeds), and heart rate. Cine loops were acquired from the left apical four-chamber view, optimized for the RV, in 60 dogs. The within-day and between-day intra-observer coefficient of variation for global RV S and SR in normal dogs using FTE was acceptable (<8.5%). Global longitudinal S (GLS) and SR showed a significant correlation with breed. GLS showed a significant weak positive correlation with weight. Global longitudinal SR showed a significant moderate negative correlation with heart rate. No correlation was found between GLS/SR and age. There was no significant difference between male and female dogs. This study shows, for the first time, that a novel FTE algorithm represents a promising and feasible non-invasive technique to assess RV myocardial function (free wall and septal deformation) in dogs. Based on our results, sighthound breeds appear to need specific reference values.

  4. Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area.

  5. Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

  6. The genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma flora of healthy and diseased dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Doig, P A; Ruhnke, H L; Bosu, W T

    1981-01-01

    The genital mycoplasma and ureaplasma flora was compared in 136 dogs with varied reproductive histories. Mycoplasmas were recovered from 88% of vulvovaginal swabs, 85% preputial swabs and 72% semen samples. Isolation rates were slightly higher from dogs that were infertile or had evidence of genital disease but the differences from those that were fertile or clinically normal were statistically significant only in the male. Ureaplasmas were recovered from half the females sampled. Higher, but not statistically significant isolation rates (75%) were made from infertile females with purulent vulvar discharge versus those that were clinically normal and fertile (40%). In the male dog there was a significantly higher incidence of ureaplasmas in the prepuce of infertile animals (69%) than those that were fertile (0%) (p less than or equal to 0.05). Semen isolations although not significantly higher in infertile males, were all made from ejaculates, with subnormal motility, low sperm counts and/or a high percentage of midpiece and tail abnormalities (bent or tightly coiled). PMID:7340908

  7. The pharmacokinetics of DPH after the administration of a single intravenous or intramuscular dose in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, A; Valverde, A; Sinclair, M; Mosley, C; Singh, A; Mutsaers, A J; Hanna, B; Gu, Y; Johnson, R

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of diphenhydramine (DPH) in healthy dogs following a single i.v. or i.m. dose. Dogs were randomly allocated in two treatment groups and received DPH at 1 mg/kg, i.v., or 2 mg/kg, i.m. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Plasma concentrations of DPH were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with the commercially available software. Cardio-respiratory parameters, rectal temperature and effects on behaviour, such as sedation or excitement, were recorded. Diphenhydramine Clarea , Vdarea and T1/2 were 20.7 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min, 7.6 ± 0.7 L/kg and 4.2 ± 0.5 h for the i.v. route, respectively, and Clarea /F, Vdarea /F and T1/2 20.8 ± 2.7 mL/kg/min, 12.3 ± 1.2 L/kg and 6.8 ± 0.7 h for the i.m. route, respectively. Bioavailability was 88% after i.m. administration. No significant differences were found in physiological parameters between groups or within dogs of the same group, and values remained within normal limits. No adverse effects or changes in mental status were observed after the administration of DPH. Both routes of administration resulted in DPH plasma concentrations which exceeded levels considered therapeutic in humans.

  8. High-resolution manometric evaluation of the effects of cisapride on the esophagus during administration of solid and liquid boluses in awake healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Ullal, Tarini V; Kass, Philip H; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Belafsky, Peter C; Marks, Stanley L

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate the use of high-resolution manometry (HRM) in awake, healthy dogs and compare the effects of bolus type (liquid vs solid) and drug treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [SS] vs cisapride) on esophageal pressure profiles. ANIMALS 8 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, each dog received SS (10 mL) IV, and HRM was performed during oral administration of 10 boluses (5 mL each) of water or 10 boluses (5 g each) of canned food. Cisapride (1 mg/kg in 60 mL of SS) was subsequently administered IV to 7 dogs; HRM and bolus administration procedures were repeated. Two to 4 weeks later, HRM was repeated following administration of SS and water and food boluses in 4 dogs. Pressure profile data were obtained for all swallows, and 11 outcome variables were statistically analyzed. RESULTS After SS administration, predicted means for the esophageal contractile integral were 850.4 cm/mm Hg/s for food boluses and 660.3 cm/mm Hg/s for water boluses. Predicted means for esophageal contraction front velocity were 6.2 cm/s for water boluses and 5.6 cm/s for food boluses after SS administration. Predicted means for residual LES pressure were significantly higher following cisapride administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM was feasible and repeatable in awake healthy dogs of various breeds and sizes. Stronger esophageal contractions and faster esophageal contraction velocity occurred during solid bolus and liquid bolus swallows, respectively. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure increased significantly following cisapride administration. Esophageal contractions and bolus transit latency should be further evaluated by HRM in clinically dysphagic dogs. PMID:27463544

  9. Multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebral metabolites in healthy dogs at 1.5 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sooyoung; Song, Yumi; Lee, Kija; Lee, Youngwon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the difference in levels of cerebral metabolites in the right and left hemispheres, gray (GM) and white matter (WM), imaging planes, and anatomical regions of healthy dogs to establish normal variations. Eight male Beagle dogs (1 to 4 years of age; mean age, 2 years) with no evidence of neurologic disease were studied. Using the multi-voxel technique on a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner, metabolite values (N-acetyl aspartate [NAA], choline [Cho], creatine [Cr]) were obtained from the frontoparietal WM, parietal GM, temporal GM, occipital GM, thalamus, cerebellum, mid-brain, and pons. There was no significant difference in levels of these metabolites between the right and left in any locations or between the GM and WM in the cerebral hemispheres. However, there were significant differences in metabolite ratios within imaging planes. The NAA/Cr was lower in the cerebellum than other regions and the thalamus had a higher Cho/Cr and lower NAA/Cho ratio than in other regions. The spectral and metabolic values will provide a useful internal reference for clinical practice and research involving multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Measurement of metabolite values in the transverse plane is recommended for comparing levels of regional metabolites. PMID:26645339

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Nitrosylcobalamin, an Antitumor Agent, in Healthy Beagle Dogs: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Horne, Walter I.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl) is a cobalamin-based anti-tumor agent. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic parameters of NO-Cbl following intravenous administration in dogs. Materials and Methods Four dogs received 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg intravenous bolus doses of NO-Cbl, with a 14-day washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected at baseline and post-dosing, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Results Average peak serum concentrations of 2265, 5523 and 13,866 pg/mL were achieved following single-dose bolus intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg of NO-Cbl respectively. The average area under the curve was 12,697 h × pg/mL, 24,497 h × pg/mL and 44,976 h × pg/mL respectively, with an average elimination half-life of 16.2 h, 13.5 h and 13.1 h respectively. Conclusion These results can be used to determine the dose and dosing intervals for clinical trials evaluating NO-Cbl in humans and companion animals. PMID:22993315

  11. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health. PMID:26101607

  12. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  13. Modulation of the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs by inclusion of potato fibre in the diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Kerr, Katherine R; Dilger, Ryan N; Fahey, George C; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lynch, Gary L; Wils, Daniel; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steer, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-14

    Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (SEM 0·17) years; 22·0 (SEM 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6% as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4-V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre. PMID:25418803

  14. Modulation of the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs by inclusion of potato fibre in the diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Kerr, Katherine R; Dilger, Ryan N; Fahey, George C; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lynch, Gary L; Wils, Daniel; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steer, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-14

    Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (SEM 0·17) years; 22·0 (SEM 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6% as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4-V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre.

  15. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention.

  16. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention. PMID:22367072

  17. A pharmacokinetic comparison of meloxicam and ketoprofen following oral administration to healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, L; Ambros, L; Kreil, V; Bonafine, R; Albarellos, G; Hallu, R; Soraci, A

    2004-07-01

    Ketoprofen (KTP) and meloxicam (MLX) are non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs used extensively in veterinary medicine. The pharmacokinetics of these drugs were studied in eight dogs following a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg of KTP as a racemate or 0.2 mg/kg of MLX. The concentrations of the drugs in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There were differences between the disposition curves of the KTP enantiomers, confirming that the pharmacokinetics of KTP is enantioselective. (S)-(+)-KTP was the predominant enantiomer; the S:R ratio in the plasma increased from 2.58 +/- 0.38 at 15 min to 5.72 +/- 2.35 at 1 h. The area under the concentration time curve (AUC) of (S)-(+)-KTP was approximately 6 times greater than that of (R)-(-)-KTP. The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters for (S)-(+)-KTP were characterized as Tmax = 0.76 +/- 0.19 h, Cmax = 2.02 +/- 0.41 microg/ml, t1/2el = 1.65 +/- 0.48 h, AUC = 6.06 +/- 1.16 microg.h/ml, Vd/F = 0.39 +/- 0.07 L/kg, Cl/F = 170 +/- 39 ml/(kg.h). The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters of MLX were Tmax = 8.5 +/- 1.91 h, Cmax = 0.82 +/- 0.29 microg/ml, t1/2lambda(z) = 12.13 +/- 2.15 h, AUCinf = 15.41 +/- 1.24 microg.h/ml, Vd/F = 0.23 +/- 0.03 L/ kg, and Cl/F = 10 +/- 1.4 ml/(kg.h). Our results indicate significant pharmacokinetic differences between MLX and KTP after therapeutic doses.

  18. Diurnal ACTH and plasma cortisol variations in healthy dogs and in those with pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome before and after treatment with retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Castillo, V A; Cabrera Blatter, M F; Gómez, N V; Sinatra, V; Gallelli, M F; Ghersevich, M C

    2009-04-01

    Daytime variations in ACTH and plasma cortisol were studied in healthy dogs and in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH), before and after treatment with retinoic acid. In control dogs ACTH showed a higher concentration at 8.00 AM and between 2.00 and 6.00 PM, with the lowest concentration registered at 10.00 AM (p<0.05 vs. 8.00 AM and 2.00 PM and p<0.01 vs. 4.00 PM). Cortisol did not show significant differences. In dogs with PDH, ACTH was lower at 8.00 AM (ACTH: p<0.01 vs. 2.00 and 4.00 PM; and p<0.05 vs. 6.00 PM). The lowest cortisol concentration was registered at 8.00 AM and 8.00 PM and the highest at 4.00 PM (p<0.05 vs. 8.00 AM and p<0.01 vs. 8.00 PM). After treatment, the lowest ACTH concentration was registered at 10.00 AM (p<0.01 vs. 2.00 and 4.00 PM). To conclude, the adrenal is desensitized in PDH possibly showing negative in diagnostic tests.

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands in healthy dogs: repeatability, reproducibility, observer-dependent variability, and the effect of bodyweight, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Layssol-Lamour, C; Conchou, F; Diquelou, A; Raharison, F; Sautet, J; Concordet, D

    2011-02-01

    Adrenal length and width were determined from two-dimensional ultrasound longitudinal images. In study 1, 540 measurements of adrenal glands were attempted from five healthy beagle dogs by three different observers with different levels of expertise in ultrasonography, to determine the variability of adrenal gland measurements. Of these, 484 measurements were included in the statistical analysis, since 16 measurements of the left adrenal gland and 40 for the right could not be visualised by the observer. In study 2, a single measurement of both adrenal glands was taken from each of 146 dogs by the most trained observer from study 1, and the effects of different health status (healthy dogs v dogs with non-adrenal diseases), bodyweight, age and sex were assessed. A total of 267 measurements were included in the statistical analysis. The lowest intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation values were observed for the left adrenal gland and by the most trained observer. The health status had no statistically significant effect on adrenal gland length or width, whereas age had a significant effect only for the left adrenal gland (the greater the age, the greater the width or length) and sex had a significant effect only for the right adrenal gland (the width was larger in males and the length larger in females). The bodyweight had a significant effect for the length of both adrenal glands (the greater the bodyweight, the greater the length), but not the width. The differences between sd and coefficient of variation values for the width of the left adrenal gland were not statistically significant between the three observers, whereas they were statistically significant for the right adrenal gland.

  20. High occurrence of multi-antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from healthy and diseased dogs and domesticated pigeons.

    PubMed

    Futagawa-Saito, Keiko; Ba-Thein, William; Fukuyasu, Tsuguaki

    2007-12-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius isolates (n=106), including 44 dog isolates and 62 pigeon isolates, were examined for their susceptibility to ampicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin by standard disk-diffusion test. The frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher in dog isolates than pigeon isolates (95.5% vs. 0%, 31.8% vs. 0%, and 45.5% vs. 9.7%, respectively; P<0.01). Antimicrobial resistance patterns of dog isolates and pigeon isolates were categorized respectively into nine and five distinct profiles. Significantly higher occurrence of resistance to two or more antimicrobials was observed in dog isolates than pigeon isolates (54.5% vs. 12.9%; P<0.01) and also in domesticated pigeon isolates than non-domesticated pigeon isolates (53.3% vs. 0%; P<0.01).

  1. A comparison of the effects of hydromorphone HCl and a novel extended release hydromorphone on arterial blood gas values in conscious healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, L.A.; Schmidt, B.K.; Krugner-Higby, L.A.; Smith, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate arterial blood gases in dogs that were given hydromorphone or extended release liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone (LEH). Dogs were randomly administered LEH, n = 6, (2.0 mg kg−1), hydromorphone, n = 6, (0.2 mg kg−1) or a placebo of blank liposomes, n = 3, subcutaneously on separate occasions. Arterial blood samples were drawn at serial time points over a 6-h time period for blood gas analysis. There was no change from baseline values in PaCO2, PaO2, (HCO3−), pH, and SBEc in the dogs that received the placebo. Administration of hydromorphone resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD] 44.4 + 1.1 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaCO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 82.4 + 4.7 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.31 + 0.01) compared with baseline. Administration of LEH resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD) 44.6 + 0.9 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 84.8 + 2.6 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.34 + 0.02) compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between these two groups at any time point. The changes observed in PaCO2, PaO2, and pH, however, were within clinically acceptable limits for healthy dogs. LEH was determined to cause moderate changes in arterial blood gas values similar to those caused by hydromorphone. PMID:19692102

  2. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  3. Effect of changes in intra-abdominal pressure on diameter, cross-sectional area, and distensibility of the lower esophageal sphincter of healthy dogs as determined by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Philipp D; Pitt, Kathryn A; Steffey, Michele A; Culp, William T N; Kass, Philip H; Marks, Stanley L

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on morphology and compliance of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by use of impedance planimetry in healthy dogs and to quantify the effect of changes in IAP. ANIMALS 7 healthy, purpose-bred sexually intact male hound-cross dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and cross-sectional area (CSA), minimal diameter (MD), LES length, LES volume, and distensibility index (DI) of the LES were evaluated by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe. For each dog, measurements were obtained before (baseline) and after creation of a pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg. Order of the IAPs was determined by use of a randomization software program. RESULTS CSA and MD at 4 and 8 mm Hg were not significantly different from baseline measurements; however, CSA and MD at 15 mm Hg were both significantly greater than baseline measurements. The LES length and LES volume did not differ significantly from baseline measurements at any IAP. The DI differed inconsistently from the baseline measurement but was not substantially affected by IAP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pneumoperitoneum created with an IAP of 4 or 8 mm Hg did not significantly alter LES morphology in healthy dogs. Pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 15 mm Hg caused a significant increase in CSA and MD of the LES. Compliance of the LES as measured by the DI was not greatly altered by pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of up to 15 mm Hg. PMID:27463542

  4. Expression stability of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR of healthy and diseased pituitary tissue samples varies between humans, mice, and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Riemers, Frank M; van den Heuvel, Douwe; Wolfswinkel, Jeannette; Hofland, Leo; Meij, Björn P; Penning, Louis C

    2014-04-01

    Pituitary surgery generates pituitary tissue for histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biological research. In the last decade, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been extensively studied in humans, and to a lesser degree in dogs, and tumor oncogenesis has been studied in knock-out mice, often by means of quantitative reversed-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). A precondition of such analyses is that so-called reference genes are stably expressed regardless of changes in disease status or treatment. In this study, the expression of six frequently used reference genes, namely, tata box binding protein (tbp), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (ywhaz), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (sdha), and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (gapdh), was studied in pituitary tissue (normal and adenoma) from three species (humans, mice, and dogs). The stability of expression of these reference genes differed between species and between healthy and diseased tissue within one species. Quantitative analysis based on a single reference gene that is assumed to be stably expressed might lead to wrong conclusions. This cross-species analysis clearly emphasizes the need to evaluate the expression stability of reference genes as a standard and integral aspect of study design and data analysis, in order to improve the validity of the conclusions drawn on the basis of quantitative molecular analyses.

  5. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease. PMID:24349448

  6. Differential secretion of adipokines from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in healthy dogs: Association with body condition and response to troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Bolin, S R; Schenck, P A

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of body condition, fat depot, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-agonist (troglitazone) on secretion of adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) from adipose tissue of healthy dogs. Subcutaneous and omental visceral adipose tissue samples were collected from 16 healthy intact female dogs, and body condition score (range 4-8/9) was determined. Concentrations of adiponectin were measured in mature adipocytes cultures and concentrations of IL6 and TNFα were measured in stromovascular cells cultures after 48 h incubation in fresh control medium, or fresh medium containing 10 µM troglitazone. Mature adipocytes and stromovascular cells of subcutaneous origin secreted higher concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentration of IL6 and TNFα, respectively, than corresponding cells of visceral origin, in both the control (P = 0.015, P = 0.004, and P = 0.016, respectively) and troglitazone-treated cultures (P <0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.016, respectively). Troglitazone increased adiponectin secretion from mature adipocytes in visceral (P = 0.019), but not in subcutaneous fat cultures (P = 0.4). Troglitazone decreased IL6 and TNFα secretion from stromovascular cells both in visceral (P = 0.047 and P = 0.016, respectively) and subcutaneous (P = 0.047 and P = 0.016, respectively) fat cultures. Higher body condition score was associated with lower secretion of adiponectin from mature adipocytes (P = 0.007), lower secretion of IL6 (P = 0.040) and higher secretion of TNFα (P = 0.040) from stromovascular cells. This study showed differential secretion of adipokines by subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in dogs and association between body condition and adipokine secretion. Activation of PPARγ altered adipokine secretion. PMID:27687941

  7. Absorption, elimination and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of nimodipine in healthy beagle dogs receiving human intravenous and oral formulation.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2016-06-01

    Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel blocker and is used to treat vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its putative mechanism of action is relaxation of smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteries. In addition, nimodipine may have pleiotropic effects against vasospasm. Systemic hypotension is an adverse effect when patients are treated with oral or intravenous nimodipine. Intracranial administration of nimodipine formulations may produce higher concentration of nimodipine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than is possible to achieve orally or intravenously, while resulting in lower incidence of systemic hypotension. The aim of this study was to provide information on plasma and CSF levels of nimodipine in beagle dogs as a comparative data for development of experimental intracranial treatment modalities. Plasma levels of nimodipine were measured after current 30 and 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 30 mg tablets), a single intravenous bolus 0.72 mg/dog of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 0.2 mg/ml infusion solution) and CSF levels after 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine. CSF/Plasma concentration ratio of nimodipine after oral administration of 60 mg at 1 h was 0.013 ± 0.0005. The mean terminal elimination half-life of nimodipine after i.v. bolus dose 0.72 mg was 1.8 h and mean plasma clearance was 40.3 and 3.4 l/h/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 22 %. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration until the last measurable plasma concentration increased in a dose-proportional manner comparing the exposure parameters at oral doses of 30 and 60 mg. Individual variation in the kinetic profile of nimodipine was measured.

  8. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings.

  9. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1) and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5) dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6), E. canis (OR = 4.1) and D. immitis (OR = 2.4) were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in place to protect dogs

  10. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    PubMed

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (P<0.05, AnoSim) difference between the Giardia-positive and -negative groups when evaluating bacterial genera. No such difference was demonstrated between Ancylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans.

  11. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  12. Fecal microbial communities of healthy adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extracts as assessed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Duclos, Laura; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on fecal microbial communities of dogs using 454 pyrosequencing. Six healthy female adult beagles (5.5 ± 0.5 years; 8.5 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to six test diets using a Latin square design: (1) beef control; (2) beef + 1.4% inulin; (3) beef + 1.4% YCW; (4) chicken control; (5) chicken + 1.4% inulin; and (6) chicken + 1.4% YCW. Following 14 days of adaptation, fresh fecal samples were collected on day 15 or day 16 of each period. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and used to create 16S rRNA gene amplicons, which were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR. Predominant fecal bacterial phyla included Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Beef-based diets increased (P < 0.05) Escherichia, but decreased (P < 0.05) Anaerobiospirillum vs. chicken-based diets. Inulin decreased (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae. Inulin increased (P < 0.05) Megamonas vs. control. Inulin also decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia vs. YCW. qPCR data showed that YCW increased (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium vs. inulin and control and inulin increased (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus vs. YCW. Although a few changes in fecal microbiota were observed with inulin or YCW consumption, a strong prebiotic effect was not observed.

  13. Evaluation of the shock index in dogs presenting as emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Adam E.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Sharp, Claire R.; Dixon, Kursten L.; Lyn Price, Lori; Shaw, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine the normal range for Shock Index (SI) [defined as heart rate (HR)/systolic blood pressure (SBP)], in healthy dogs, and 2) compare SI in healthy dogs with dogs presenting to the emergency room (ER) deemed to be in or not in a state of shock. Design Prospective study. Animals 68 clinically normal dogs,,18 dogs that were presented to the ER deemed to be in shock and 19 dogs presenting to the ER not deemed to be in shock. Setting University teaching hospital. Interventions Peripheral or central venous blood sampling. Measurements and Main Results Heart rate and SBP were recorded on simulated presentation (healthy dogs), and emergency presentations for both dogs deemed to be in shock and dogs not deemed in shock. Dogs in shock had a median SI of 1.37 (0.87–3.13), which was significantly higher than both other groups; dogs not deemed in shock had median SI 0.73 (0.56–1.20), P<0.0001 and healthy dogs had median SI 0.78 (0.37–1.30) P<0.0001), respectively. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis suggested a SI cut-off of 1.0, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) of 0.89 (Specificity (Sp) 89, Sensitivity (Sn) 90) when comparing dogs deemed in shock with healthy dogs, and 0.92 (Sp 95, Sn 89) when comparing dogs in shock with to dogs not deemed in shock. Conclusions The SI is an easy and non-invasive patient parameter that is higher in dogs that are deemed to be in shock than both healthy dogs and dogs presented as emergencies but not deemed to be in a state of shock. The measurement of SI may have some benefit in clinical assessment of emergency patients. PMID:23855723

  14. Prevalence of gallbladder sludge in dogs as assessed by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Brömel, C; Barthez, P Y; Léveillé, R; Scrivani, P V

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the gallbladder was performed in 3 groups of dogs: 30 clinically healthy dogs, 50 dogs with hepatobiliary disease, and 50 dogs with diseases other than hepatobiliary disease. The gallbladder was evaluated for the presence of sludge (echogenic material without acoustic shadowing). Maximal gallbladder length, width, height, and area were measured as well as the gallbladder wall thickness. The relative sludge area was calculated as the ratio of sludge area over gallbladder area on longitudinal images. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of gallbladder sludge among healthy dogs (53%), dogs with hepatobiliary diseases (62%), and dogs with other diseases (48%). The mean age of dogs with sludge was higher than the mean age of dogs without sludge in dogs with hepatobiliary disease and dogs with other diseases (p < 0.05). The mean relative sludge area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. A trend to larger gallbladder dimensions in dogs with sludge compared to dogs without sludge was detected within the 3 groups. The gallbladder wall thickness was not different between dogs with and without sludge within the 3 groups. However, the gallbladder wall was more frequently isoechoic than hyperechoic to the liver in dogs with sludge than in dogs without sludge. The results of this study indicate that gallbladder sludge, in dogs, is not particularly associated with hepatobiliary disease and should be considered an incidental finding.

  15. Development of a duplex rapid assay for immunoglobulins M and G to evaluate the parvoviral immune status of clinically healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marco; de la Roja, Nuria; Montón, Mercedes; Sastre, Patricia; Ramírez, Susana; Barreiro, Belén; Venteo, Angel; Rueda, Paloma

    2016-05-01

    A duplex rapid assay for detection of serum antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) was developed. Canine immunoglobulin (Ig)M or IgG were captured in immunotubes with anti-canine IgM or IgG and detected with parvovirus VP2 recombinant protein followed by an anti-VP2 monoclonal antibody. The assay was tested using a collection of sera from dogs that were vaccinated against CPV on arrival at an animal shelter in Madrid, Spain. Results were compared with those of 2 commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) considered as reference techniques. A high correlation was found between the duplex rapid assay and the ELISAs, presenting an accuracy of 98% and 100% for IgG and IgM, respectively. According to the IgG and IgM levels at days 0-3 postvaccination, the samples were divided into 2 groups. One group of dogs showed high IgG and low IgM values at the first sampling post-vaccination and during the following 14 days, indicating that they had previously been in contact with the virus, either by vaccination or infection before arrival at the animal shelter. A second group of dogs appeared to be unvaccinated or uninfected before arrival at the animal shelter because they had negative IgM and IgG values soon after vaccination. These animals responded to vaccination, as demonstrated by seroconversion of both isotypes of immunoglobulins. The developed assay appears to be useful in determining the unknown immune status of dogs to CPV, especially in kennels and shelters where the rate of infection by CPV is relatively high. PMID:26951330

  16. In vitro assessment of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from faecal microbiota of healthy dogs for potential use as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, B C; Jung, L R C; Sandes, S H C; Alvim, L B; Bomfim, M R Q; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Nunes, A C

    2013-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified in the faeces of Chinese Crested and Yorkshire terrier pups and their probiotic features were investigated in vitro. Thirty seven isolates were identified as Lactobacillus or Enterococcus. Out of these isolates, 31 were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and belonged to the species Lactobacillus reuteri (16/37; 43.3%), Lactobacillus animalis (7/37; 18.9%), Lactobacillus acidophilus (3/37; 8.1%), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (2/37; 5.4%), Lactobacillus murinus (2/37; 5.4%), and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1/37; 2.7%), while six other LAB isolates were Enterococcus spp. (6/37; 16.2%). Strains were tested for resistance to gastric acidity (pH 2.5 for 3 h) and bile salts (0.3% ox gall), cell surface hydrophobicity by microbial adhesion to solvents, antagonism against pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes), production of hydrogen peroxide, and antibiotic susceptibility. Thirty four strains were highly resistant to acidic conditions with slight (18 strains) to moderate (16 strains) growth inhibition by bile salts. Seven isolates had highly hydrophobic cellular surfaces and 28 strains exhibited strong antagonism against the bacterial pathogens tested, although 8 isolates tested against Leptospira interrogans had no effect on pathogen growth. All isolates produced low rates of hydrogen peroxide. Based on these results, two Lactobacillus strains showed promising probiotic-related features and merit investigation as probiotics for dogs.

  17. Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; McGraw, Sabrina; Zhu, Kevin; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Marks, Stanley L.; Kubiski, Steven; Gaffney, Patricia; Dela Cruz Jr, Florante N.; Wang, Chunlin; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs. PMID:23628223

  18. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs from North Carolina and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Goldman, E E; Breitschwerdt, E B; Grindem, C B; Hegarty, B C; Walls, J J; Dumler, J S

    1998-01-01

    Medical records of 3 dogs from North Carolina and 3 dogs from Virginia with ehrlichial morulae in circulating neutrophils were studied retrospectively. Two clinically distinct disease syndromes, including chronic, moderate to severe anemia (n = 3) and polyarthritis (n = 2) were associated with canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE) in these dogs. One dog was clinically healthy, and abnormalities were not detected during physical examination. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included fever, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. The most frequent laboratory abnormalities were normocytic normochromic nonregenerative anemia, moderate thrombocytopenia with large platelets, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. Considerable variability was found in the serologic responses to Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis antigens among the 5 dogs for which stored sera were available for indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of portions of the 16S rRNA gene from blood (collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) of 1 severely anemic dog (dog 3) and 1 polyarthritic dog (dog 4) resulted in DNA sequences nearly identical to the GenBank accessions for Ehrlichia ewingii. The DNA sequence from a 3rd dog (dog 5) was most similar to that of E. canis. Serologic or molecular results support the possibility of E. ewingii, E. equi, and E. canis coinfection or serologic cross-reactivity among canine granulocytic and monocytic Ehrlichia species in dogs from North Carolina and Virginia. Variability in response to tetracycline or doxycycline treatment was noted in these dogs, with more rapid resolution of signs in dogs with polyarthritis. We report the 1st cases of CGE in dogs from North Carolina and Virginia, including recognition of CGE in a healthy dog.

  19. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  20. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  1. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  2. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  3. Pregnancy following homologous prepubertal ovarian transplantation in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Pullium, Jennifer K; Milner, Ross; Tuma, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    In several canine models of hereditary human disease the homozygote dogs die prior to puberty, or have substantially reduced fertility. To create a clinically healthy animal that can be bred, but can also transmit the gene of interest, a model of homologous ovarian transplantation in prepubertal dogs was developed. Six dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) identical littermates underwent transplantation of ovarian cortical strips (n = 2) or the entire ovary (n = 4). Immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine and MMF in the immediate post-operative period and cyclosporine alone thereafter. All 6 dogs entered puberty and normal semiannual estrus cycles as demonstrated by both physical changes and increasing serum progesterone. Four dogs were bred to a proven stud male, and one became pregnant. Three viable fetuses with observable heartbeats were detected on ultrasound examination. Although the dog eventually aborted the litter, this work represents the first pregnancy achieved following a prepubertal ovarian transplant in the dog. PMID:18430233

  4. The role of apoptosis in immunosuppression of dogs with demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh C; Swarup, Devendra; Sharma, Bhaskar; Pandey, Hari Om; Kumari, Priyambada

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the status of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs with demodicosis. A total of 26 dogs suffering from demodicosis, and positive for Demodex canis mites by skin scraping, participated in the study, 13 with localized demodicosis (LD) and 13 with generalized demodicosis (GD). A further 13 clinically healthy dogs, all of whom were negative for mites upon skin scraping, were used as controls. The dogs with GD revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.0001) percentage of leukocytes with externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potentials (ΔΨm) as compared with the dogs with LD and healthy controls. These dogs also revealed significantly lower values (P ≤ 0.0001) of hematological parameters viz. hemoglobin, total erythrocytes count total leukocytes count, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Significantly higher (P ≤ 0.0001) percentages of leukocytes with externalization of PS and depolarized ΔΨm were also found in dogs with LD as compared with the healthy controls. These dogs also revealed significantly lower values of Hb (P ≤ 0.0001), TEC (P=0.025), TLC (P ≤ 0.0001), lymphocytes (P=0.008), monocytes (P ≤ 0.0001) and neutrophils (P=0.03). It is concluded that premature apoptosis of PBL may be implicated in the immunosuppression of the dogs with demodicosis.

  5. Free p-Cresol Alters Neutrophil Function in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Anelise Maria; Pereira, Priscila Preve; Almeida, Breno Fernando Martins; Narciso, Luis Gustavo; Dos Santos, Diego Borba; Santos-Neto, Álvaro José Dos; Ferreira, Wagner Luis; Ciarlini, Paulo César

    2016-05-01

    To achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for neutrophil dysfunction recently described in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF), the plasma concentrations of free p-cresol in healthy dogs (n = 20) and those with CRF (n = 20) were compared. The degree of correlation was determined between plasma levels of p-cresol and markers of oxidative stress and function of neutrophils in these dogs. The effect of this compound on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis was assessed in neutrophils isolated from 16 healthy dogs incubated in RPMI 1640 supplemented with p-cresol (0.405 mg/L) and compared with medium supplemented with uremic plasma (50%). To achieve this, the plasma concentration of p-cresol was quantified by liquid phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The neutrophil oxidative metabolism was determined using the probes hydroethidine and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and apoptosis was measured using Annexin V-PE by capillary flow cytometry. Compared with the healthy dogs, uremic dogs presented higher concentrations of free p-cresol, greater oxidative stress, and neutrophils primed for accelerated apoptosis. The free p-cresol induced in neutrophils from healthy dogs increased apoptosis and decreased reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that the health status presented during uremia concomitant with the increase in plasma free p-cresol can contribute to the presence of immunosuppression in dogs with CRF. PMID:26496142

  6. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  7. Evaluation of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs of Missouri, including serologic status to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi and Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Stockham, S L; Schmidt, D A; Curtis, K S; Schauf, B G; Tyler, J W; Simpson, S T

    1992-01-01

    Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in 37 dogs by finding ehrlichial morulae in 0.1 to 26.2% of their blood neutrophils and eosinophils. All 37 dogs had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Titer to Ehrlichia canis was determined in sera from 31 of the 37 dogs; 25 dogs had titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. In the other 6 dogs, titer to E canis was less than 1:10. The most common hematologic abnormality in these dogs, other than rickettsiemia, was thrombocytopenia. Granulocytes infected with ehrlichial organisms were not found in another 10 dogs that had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. Of these 10 dogs, 3 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:40 to 1:320. Titer in the other 7 dogs was less than 1:10. Ehrlichial morulae were not found in the granulocytes of 18 healthy dogs. Of these 18 dogs, 9 had titer to E canis ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. Titer in the other 9 dogs was less than 1:10 Titer to Borrelia burgdorferi was determined in dogs with granulocytic ehrlichiosis, arthritic dogs without detected rickettsiemia, and in healthy dogs. Low titer determined by 2 laboratories was considered to be nonspecific reaction in all 3 groups of dogs and, thus, did not indicate that the arthritic disorders were attributable to canine borreliosis. PMID:1539918

  8. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  9. Infection of domestic dogs in peru by zoonotic bartonella species: a cross-sectional prevalence study of 219 asymptomatic dogs.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Morton, Bridget A; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Angulo, Noelia P; Brenner, Elliott C; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  10. [Proliferating ability of the lymphocytes of demodectic dogs during immune cell-stimulating therapy].

    PubMed

    Kraiss, A

    1987-01-01

    8 dogs with clinical manifest generalized demodicosis were treated with muramyldipeptide and the multipotent inducer PIND-ORF. Before treatment as well as 10 and 20 days after the beginning of therapy the lymphocyte stimulation indices of these animals were investigated and compared with the values of untreated healthy dogs. In these investigations it was determined that a PIND-ORF and muramyldipeptide therapy has the effect of rising the lymphocyte response to mitogen without, however, reaching the comparative values of healthy dogs.

  11. Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

  12. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  13. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana. PMID:27529998

  14. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana.

  15. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle; and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  16. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs. PMID:26972334

  17. Determination of oxidative status and apoptosis in peripheral blood of dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Swarup, D; Sharma, B

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the erythrocytic oxidant/antioxidant balance and apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs with natural Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis mite infestation. A total of twenty four clinically Sarcoptes-infested dogs were examined and used to execute the study. While another twenty four healthy dogs free of any ecto-parasite were used as controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from each infested only once on the day of dermatological examinations. Determination of oxidant/antioxidant balance was conceded by estimating the levels of lipid peroxides and antioxidants in erythrocytes. While, apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined by estimating externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the cell surface as well as by detection of depolarization mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by flow cytometry. Sarcoptes-infested dogs had revealed significantly higher (P≤0.001) contents of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with the healthy controls. Whereas the level of reduced glutathione was found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase was also found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The dogs with sarcoptic mange had revealed significantly lower (P≤0.001) activity of superoxide dismutase in coparision with the healthy dogs. The dogs with sarcoptic mange had also revealed significantly lower (P≤0.001) activity of catalase in coparision with the healthy dogs. The percentage of apoptotic leukocytes was found to be significantly higher (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy controls. Sarcoptes-infested dogs had also exhibited significantly (P≤0.001) higher

  18. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs. PMID:12738588

  19. Serum cholecystokinin concentrations in dogs with naturally acquired pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sungjun; Kim, Hye-Sun; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Chang, Dongwoo; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6). Serum CCK concentrations were then measured before and 1, 2, and 4 hours after consumption of a high-fat meal. Concentrations in dogs with PDH were also measured before and after trilostane treatment. Results were compared among groups and assessment points. RESULTS Preprandial serum CCK concentrations in group C were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, and D, but no significant differences in postprandial CCK concentrations were identified among the groups 1, 2, or 4 hours after the meal. With respect to trilostane treatment of dogs with PDH, no significant differences were identified between pre- and post-trilostane serum CCK concentrations in group C or D. Median CCK concentration after trilostane treatment was higher in group D than in group C, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcomes in this study did not support the hypothesis that a low circulating CCK concentration affects the development of GBM in dogs with PDH. PMID:27668581

  20. [Immunomodulatory effect of levamisole and administration of amitraz in dogs with uncomplicated generalized demodicosis].

    PubMed

    Mojzisová, J; Paulík, S; Bajová, V; Baranová, D

    1997-10-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of levamisole (Decaris tbl.) in the course of acaricide therapy with amitraz (Taktic) on the functional activity of blood neutrophils (% of phagocytizing cells and ingestion capacity) and lymphocytes (blastogenic response to Con A) in dogs with uncomplicated generalized demodicosis (NGD) was studied. The level of examined parameters was evaluated before treatment, week 3 and 7 after the first application of these preparations; and compared with the values of NGD dogs treated only with amitraz and with those in clinically healthy dogs. In comparison with healthy dogs the initial level of examined activities of both cell populations was significantly depressed. A significantly earlier (4 weeks earlier) increase (when compared with values before treatment) of investigated activities of neutrophils and lymphocytes occurred in dogs treated with amitraz and levamisole in comparison with those in dogs treated only with amitraz. It was manifested especially significantly in phagocytosis, the ingestion capacity of neutrophils at this time of therapy has reached the level of those in healthy dogs. Functional activity of lymphocytes in both groups of NGD dogs has not reached a comparable value with that in healthy dogs either at the end of observation. The presented results indicate that significantly earlier improvement of functional activity of phagocytes and lymphocytes in demodectic dogs treated with amitraz and levamisole was connected with the immunorestorative effect of levamisole.

  1. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes. PMID:26902805

  2. The renal effects of NSAIDs in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Amy L; Grauer, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life for dogs with osteoarthritis can often be improved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, the number of adverse drug events associated with NSAID use reported to the Federal Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine is higher than that for any other companion animal drug. Of those events, adverse renal reactions are the second most reported. NSAIDs produce pharmacologic effects via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), which decreases production of prostanoids. Prostaglandins are synthesized by both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in the healthy kidney and influence renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renin release, and Na excretion. There are important species differences in the renal expression of COX-1 and COX-2. For example, dogs have higher basal levels of COX-2 expression in the kidney compared with humans. In addition, in dogs with chronic kidney disease, an increase in COX-2 expression occurs and synthesis of prostaglandins shifts to the COX-2 pathway. For those reasons, NSAIDs that target COX-2 may be expected to adversely affect renal function in dogs, especially dogs with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature to report the renal effects of NSAIDs in dogs.

  3. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  4. Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

    2014-09-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P < 0.001 for each pathogen) and were the most common infectious agents in dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. PMID:24980809

  5. Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

    2014-09-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P < 0.001 for each pathogen) and were the most common infectious agents in dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs.

  6. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  7. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  8. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  9. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs. PMID:26435541

  10. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-09-30

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs.

  11. Decreased gallbladder emptying in dogs with biliary sludge or gallbladder mucocele.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Taro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Biliary sludge in dogs is dismissed commonly as an incidental finding. On the other hand, gallbladder mucocele is reported increasingly in dogs and can lead to biliary obstruction or gallbladder rupture. Cholestasis is suspected to play a role in development of sludge and mucoceles, though there are no data in dogs to support this. We investigated gallbladder emptying, a key factor in biliary flow, in dogs with mobile sludge, immobile sludge, or gallbladder mucocele and in healthy controls. Gallbladder ejection fraction estimated by ultrasonography was used as the index of gallbladder emptying. The ejection fraction at 60 min after eating was significantly decreased in all three abnormal groups. Moreover, all dogs with sludge or a mucocele had gallbladder distension. These changes were the greatest in the mucocele group. Thus, biliary stasis occurs not only in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but also in dogs with biliary sludge. Cholestasis may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of these diseases in dogs.

  12. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017), with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia. PMID:26244587

  13. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3 days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours.

  14. Serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, Diego; Di Loria, Antonio; Guccione, Jacopo; De Rosa, Angela; Fabbri, Silvia; Cortese, Laura; Carta, Sergio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs. Twenty obese and 20 normal weight healthy pet dogs were recruited into the study, where they underwent blood testing and assessment of cardiovascular function (blood pressure analysis, electrocardiography and echocardiography). Higher concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, total serum proteins, α-globulins, total bilirubin, insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, alkaline phosphate and alanine aminotransferase were observed in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. There were no differences in concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-6 between the two groups. Obese dogs had higher serum leptin but lower adiponectin concentrations than dogs of normal weight. Systolic arterial blood pressure was higher in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. The values for the thickness of the free wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septal thickness were greater at end-diastole in obese dogs compared to dogs of normal weight. Four of 20 obese dogs were determined to have obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD). The findings indicate that a chronic inflammatory state is not necessarily evident in obese dogs, as has been described in human beings, and the criteria used for ORMD can be used to define this syndrome in dogs. In this study, canine obesity was associated with cardiac and vascular dysfunction. PMID:27687929

  15. Serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, Diego; Di Loria, Antonio; Guccione, Jacopo; De Rosa, Angela; Fabbri, Silvia; Cortese, Laura; Carta, Sergio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and cardiovascular findings in obese dogs. Twenty obese and 20 normal weight healthy pet dogs were recruited into the study, where they underwent blood testing and assessment of cardiovascular function (blood pressure analysis, electrocardiography and echocardiography). Higher concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, total serum proteins, α-globulins, total bilirubin, insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, alkaline phosphate and alanine aminotransferase were observed in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. There were no differences in concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-6 between the two groups. Obese dogs had higher serum leptin but lower adiponectin concentrations than dogs of normal weight. Systolic arterial blood pressure was higher in obese dogs than dogs of normal weight. The values for the thickness of the free wall of the left ventricle and interventricular septal thickness were greater at end-diastole in obese dogs compared to dogs of normal weight. Four of 20 obese dogs were determined to have obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD). The findings indicate that a chronic inflammatory state is not necessarily evident in obese dogs, as has been described in human beings, and the criteria used for ORMD can be used to define this syndrome in dogs. In this study, canine obesity was associated with cardiac and vascular dysfunction.

  16. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  17. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  18. Modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty. Experimental study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective experimental study evaluated the surgical procedure and results of modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty in dogs. Methods Ten skeletally mature healthy mongrel dogs with weights varying between 19 and 27 kg were used. Cemented modular femoral stems and uncemented porous-coated acetabular cups were employed. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 360 days post-operation. Results Excellent weight bearing was noticed in the operated limb in seven dogs. Dislocation followed by loosening of the prosthesis was noticed in two dogs, which were therefore properly treated with a femoral head osteotomy. Femoral fracture occurred in one dog, which was promptly treated with full implant removal and femoral osteosynthesis. Conclusions The canine modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty provided excellent functionality of the operated limb. PMID:21736758

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal glands in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism or mimicking diseases.

    PubMed

    Wenger, M; Mueller, C; Kook, P H; Reusch, C E

    2010-08-01

    The adrenal glands of 30 dogs with primary adrenal insufficiency (hypoadrenocorticism) were measured ultrasonographically and compared with those of 14 healthy dogs and those of 10 dogs with diseases mimicking hypoadrenocorticism. Thickness and length of the adrenals were measured on abdominal ultrasonography and the results for each group were compared. Dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism had significantly thinner adrenals compared with the other two groups, and their left adrenal glands were also significantly shorter than those of healthy dogs. Adrenal ultrasonography may be of diagnostic value in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of primary hypoadrenocorticism, as a left adrenal gland measuring less than 3.2 mm in thickness is strongly suggestive of the disease.

  20. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  1. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  2. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  3. Cutaneous histiocytosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mays, M B; Bergeron, J A

    1986-02-15

    Multifocal cutaneous histiocytic lesions were recognized in 9 dogs. Clinically, the dogs had multiple erythematous plaques or nodules in the skin (1 to 5 cm diameter). Histologically, the lesions were comprised of dermal or pannicular infiltrates of large histiocytic cells, with varying numbers of other inflammatory cells intermixed. By electron microscopy, the cells resembled those of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. The lesions seemed to wax and wane and appeared in new sites, regardless of treatment. The dogs ranged in age from 2 to 13 years; 7 dogs were under 6 years of age. Both sexes and various breeds were represented. An infectious agent could not be identified.

  4. Coexistence of two different genotypes of Sarcoptes scabiei derived from companion dogs and wild raccoon dogs in Gifu, Japan: The genetic evidence for transmission between domestic and wild canids.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Ryota; Yabusaki, Toshihiro; Kuninaga, Naotoshi; Morimoto, Tomoya; Okano, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Asano, Makoto

    2015-09-15

    Sarcoptes scabiei is the causal agent of sarcoptic mange in domestic/companion dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Although there have been successful cases of experimental transmission of S. scabiei from mangy wild Canidae hosts to healthy dogs, and suspected cases of transmission between raccoon dogs and companion dogs, no clear-cut evidence has been obtained. In the present study, the genetic relationships between Sarcoptes mites from raccoon dogs and companion dogs living in the same region were elucidated.One hundred and thirty Sarcoptes mites from 22 raccoon dogs and 5 companion dogs were collected from the Gifu area in Japan. Using 9 microsatellite markers, the genotypes were compared, and the genetic structure of these mites was analyzed. In 6 pairs of companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites, 17 out of the 18 alleles analyzed were identical. Using a Bayesian approach, these 130 mites were separated into at least two groups, and companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites were segregated into both groups. In addition, comparatively large numbers of alleles at these loci were revealed by comparison with data from past studies. These results demonstrated that the host specificity at the 9 microsatellite-level could not be confirmed, strongly suggesting the transmission of Sarcoptes mites between raccoon dogs and companion dogs. This is the first report to provide a genetic evidence of Sarcoptes transmission between domestic and wild mammals in the natural environment. The possibility of a prior introduction of mites with novel genotypes (e.g., spillover of sarcoptic mange from domestic/companion dogs to raccoon dogs) could not be eliminated when considering the cause of the large number of alleles, and the coexistence of 2 mite groups in sympatric raccoon dogs and companion dogs in this local area.

  5. Coexistence of two different genotypes of Sarcoptes scabiei derived from companion dogs and wild raccoon dogs in Gifu, Japan: The genetic evidence for transmission between domestic and wild canids.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Ryota; Yabusaki, Toshihiro; Kuninaga, Naotoshi; Morimoto, Tomoya; Okano, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Asano, Makoto

    2015-09-15

    Sarcoptes scabiei is the causal agent of sarcoptic mange in domestic/companion dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Although there have been successful cases of experimental transmission of S. scabiei from mangy wild Canidae hosts to healthy dogs, and suspected cases of transmission between raccoon dogs and companion dogs, no clear-cut evidence has been obtained. In the present study, the genetic relationships between Sarcoptes mites from raccoon dogs and companion dogs living in the same region were elucidated.One hundred and thirty Sarcoptes mites from 22 raccoon dogs and 5 companion dogs were collected from the Gifu area in Japan. Using 9 microsatellite markers, the genotypes were compared, and the genetic structure of these mites was analyzed. In 6 pairs of companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites, 17 out of the 18 alleles analyzed were identical. Using a Bayesian approach, these 130 mites were separated into at least two groups, and companion dog- and raccoon dog-derived mites were segregated into both groups. In addition, comparatively large numbers of alleles at these loci were revealed by comparison with data from past studies. These results demonstrated that the host specificity at the 9 microsatellite-level could not be confirmed, strongly suggesting the transmission of Sarcoptes mites between raccoon dogs and companion dogs. This is the first report to provide a genetic evidence of Sarcoptes transmission between domestic and wild mammals in the natural environment. The possibility of a prior introduction of mites with novel genotypes (e.g., spillover of sarcoptic mange from domestic/companion dogs to raccoon dogs) could not be eliminated when considering the cause of the large number of alleles, and the coexistence of 2 mite groups in sympatric raccoon dogs and companion dogs in this local area. PMID:26165631

  6. Pathology of acute graft-versus-host disease in the dog. An autopsy study of ninety-five dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, H.; Sale, G. E.; Lerner, K. G.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E. D.

    1979-01-01

    The morphology of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in canine radiation chimeras was studied by examination of autopsy tissue from 95 dogs including: 1) 13 healthy, untreated dogs; 2) 9 dogs given 1200 R total body irradiation and no marrow infusion; 3) 17 dogs given 1200 R and autologous marrow infusion; 4) 25 dogs given 1200 R and hemopoietic cells from dog-leukocyte-antigen (DLA)--identical littermates; and 5) 31 dogs given 1200 R and nonidentical DLA hemopoietic cells. Some of the dogs in Groups 3--5 received a postgrafting methotrexate (MTX) regimen of 0.25--0.5 mg/kg body weight on Days 1, 3, 6, and 11 and once weekly until Day 102. Prominent lesions were found in the small and large intestines, skin, and liver of dogs with allogeneic grafts. Skin lesions consisted of lymphocytic infiltrates of epidermis with necrosis of basal epidermal cells progressing to denudation. Gut lesions consisted of mucosal destruction progressing from crypt abscess formation to denudation. Liver lesions consisted of portal triaditis, plasmacytic and lymphocytic infiltrates, necorsis and atypia of small bile ducts, and scattered individual hepatocyte necrosis. These lesions were differentiated from changes caused by irradiation and MTX and were deemed characteristic of GVHD. The overall severity of GVHD lesions was less in the identical DLA group than in the nonidentical DLA group, and also less in dogs treated with MTX than in those not given MTX. The degree of lymphoid depletion in the lymph nodes, spleen, and intestinal lymphoid tissue was very similar in dogs with autologous and allogeneic grafts at comparable survival times. No specific evidence of pancreatic or renal involvement in GVHD was discovered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:38670

  7. Detection of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of dogs.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Camilla; Gualdi, Valentina; Tosi, Sabrina; Facchini, Roberto Vailati; Pengo, Graziano; Luini, Mario; Simpson, Kenneth W; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2007-01-31

    The mode of acquisition of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs has not been determined. It is suspected that oral-oral and faecal-oral transmission may be involved. The present study sought to determine if Helicobacter spp. DNA is present in the oral cavity of healthy and vomiting dogs. Thirty-eight pet dogs (27 vomiting and 11 clinically healthy) were studied. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined by single and nested PCR evaluation of DNA extracted from saliva, dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples. Helicobacter spp. DNA was detected by nested PCR in 36 (94.7%) gastric biopsies, 17 (44.7%) dental plaque and 19 (50%) saliva samples out of the 38 dogs examined. Overall 27 (71.1%) dogs screened by nested PCR were found to harbour Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity (dental plaque and/or saliva). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of vomiting and healthy dogs, and the time from vomiting to oral sampling did not have significant impact. This study confirms the high prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs, and reveals that Helicobacter spp. DNA is detectable in the oral cavity of over 70% of dogs. These findings support the possibility of oral-oral transmission between dogs and that the canine oral cavity may act as source of non-pylori Helicobacter spp. infection for humans.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oral rufinamide in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wright, H M; Chen, A V; Martinez, S E; Davies, N M

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties and short-term adverse effect profile of single-dose oral rufinamide in healthy dogs. Six healthy adult dogs were included in the study. The pharmacokinetics of rufinamide were calculated following administration of a single mean oral dose of 20.0 mg/kg (range 18.6-20.8 mg/kg). Plasma rufinamide concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic data were analyzed using commercial software. No adverse effects were observed. The mean terminal half-life was 9.86 ± 4.77 h. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 19.6 ± 5.8 μg/mL, and the mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 9.33 ± 4.68 h. Mean clearance was 1.45 ± 0.70 L/h. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 411 ± 176 μg · h/mL. Results of this study suggest that rufinamide given orally at 20 mg/kg every 12 h in healthy dogs should result in a plasma concentration and half-life sufficient to achieve the therapeutic level extrapolated from humans without short-term adverse effects. Further investigation into the efficacy and long-term safety of rufinamide in the treatment of canine epilepsy is warranted. PMID:22132708

  9. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and other inflammatory parameters in Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nikolic Nielsen, Lise; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between cancer and the immune system, and the production of cytokines by the tumour itself have been associated with altered levels of cytokines in human cancer patients. Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS) show vague and non-specific clinical signs. Although histiocytes can secrete cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, serum cytokine concentrations in dogs with DHS have not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunological state of untreated Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS by assessing multiple serum cytokines and to correlate these with other inflammatory markers. As a prospective case control study, 17 Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS were included along with 18 healthy controls (12 Bernese Mountain dogs and 6 dogs of various breeds). Blood samples were examined for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count, monocyte count and the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1. Significant differences were observed in Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS compared to healthy control dogs for fibrinogen (P=0.002), CRP (P=0.02) and MCP-1 (P=0.004). Other important pro-inflammatory cytokines were not significantly increased in dogs with DHS and none of the measured cytokines were correlated to either WBC, monocyte count, CRP or fibrinogen concentration. The implications of this increased MCP-1 blood levels in Bernese Mountain dogs with DHS warrant further investigations.

  10. Upregulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Response to Bacterial Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns in Dogs with Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    DeClue, Amy E; Nickell, Jordan; Chang, Chee-hoon; Honaker, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic alterations associated with diabetes mellitus alter innate immunity. Dogs often develop infectious or inflammatory complications related to diabetes mellitus, yet little is known about the effects of diabetes mellitus on the immune system in this species. Methods Prospective evaluation in dogs with poorly regulated spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In vitro leukocyte cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PG) was compared between dogs with T1DM and healthy dogs. Additionally, the effect of acute in vitro glucose exposure on leukocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production from healthy dogs was measured. Results Leukocytes from dogs with T1DM had significantly greater TNF production after LTA and PG stimulation compared with leukocytes from healthy dogs. Leukocyte interleukin (IL)-6 production was greater after stimulation with LPS, LTA, PG, and phosphate-buffered saline in the T1DM group. No such difference was noted when evaluating IL-10 production between groups regardless of stimulant. Dogs with T1DM had significantly greater IL-6 to IL-10 production ratios than healthy dogs. Acute exposure to dextrose did not augment cytokine production from healthy canine leukocytes. Conclusions Dogs with T1DM have altered innate immunity characterized by upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production without a concurrent change in anti-inflammatory cytokine production. This may be one explanation for the common infectious and inflammatory complications associated with T1DM in dogs. PMID:22768879

  11. Chloramphenicol toxicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1977-07-01

    Twenty dogs were given chloramphenicol by mouth night and morning for 14 days: six dogs were dosed at 225 mg/kg/day, four each at 175 and 125 mg/kg/day and three each at 275 and 75 mg/kg/day. Six control dogs were given empty gelatin capsules twice daily for the same period. Dogs dosed at 75 mg/kg consumed more food and gained a little more weight than the control dogs, while those in the 175, 225 and 275 mg/kg groups ate less and lost weight. Four dogs dosed at 175 mg/kg or above became dull and depressed and virtually ceased to eat. No changes were observed in erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume or total and differential leukocyte counts during the experiment. Bone marrow examination showed suppression of erythropoiesis in four of nine dogs dosed at 225 or 275 mg/kg/day. In addition, there was evidence of decreased mitotic activity and reduced rate of granulocytopoiesis in the 275 mg/kg group. Vacuolation of marrow cells was not observed. The two toxic effects observed (depression and hypophagia on the one hand, marrow suppression on the other) occurred separately or together in individual dogs.

  12. Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, W B

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures for which there is no identifiable cause. It is the most common neurologic disorder in the dog. This article discusses the diagnostic evaluation and rational treatment of dogs with recurrent seizures. Types of seizures, client education, choice of therapy, use of specific drugs, therapeutic monitoring, and nondrug treatments are reviewed.

  13. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  14. Measurement of serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one as a marker of bile acid malabsorption in dogs with chronic diarrhoea: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cross, G.; Taylor, D. R.; Sherwood, R. A.; Watson, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acid malabsorption is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea in people, however it has never previously been investigated in dogs, despite clinical suspicion of its existence. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) in dogs, as a potential marker of bile acid malabsorption, and to see whether this is related to clinical disease severity or the presence of hypocobalaminaemia. Serum C4 concentration was measured in 20 clinically healthy control dogs and 17 dogs with chronic diarrhoea. Three of the 17 affected dogs (17.6 per cent) had a C4 concentration significantly above the range of clinically healthy dogs; these dogs were all poorly responsive to conventional therapy. These results suggest that bile acid malabsorption may be a clinically relevant disorder in dogs with chronic diarrhoea and serum C4 may be a useful tool to investigate this further. PMID:27110372

  15. Sarcoptic mange in dogs: Its effect on liver, oxidative stress, trace minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Bhat, A M

    2016-08-30

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect on liver, associated oxidative stress, trace element and vitamin alteration in dogs with sarcoptic mange. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of sarcoptic mange, divided into two groups, severely infested group (n=9) and mild/moderately infested group (n=15), according to the extent of skin lesions caused by sarcoptic mange and 6 dogs as control group were included in the present study. In comparison to healthy control hemoglobin, PCV, and TEC were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in dogs with sarcoptic mange however, significant increase in TLC along with neutrophilia and lymphopenia was observed only in severely infested dogs. The albumin, glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased and globulin, ALT, AST and bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in severely infested dogs when compared to other two groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in dogs with sarcoptic mange, with levels highest in severely infested groups. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared with the healthy control group. Zinc and copper levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly (P<0.05) lower when compared with healthy control group with the levels lowest in severely infested group. Vitamin A and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared to healthy control. From the present study, it was concluded that sarcoptic mange in dogs affects the liver and the infestation is associated with oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance, significant alteration in trace elements and vitamins. PMID:27523934

  16. Sarcoptic mange in dogs: Its effect on liver, oxidative stress, trace minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Bhat, A M

    2016-08-30

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect on liver, associated oxidative stress, trace element and vitamin alteration in dogs with sarcoptic mange. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of sarcoptic mange, divided into two groups, severely infested group (n=9) and mild/moderately infested group (n=15), according to the extent of skin lesions caused by sarcoptic mange and 6 dogs as control group were included in the present study. In comparison to healthy control hemoglobin, PCV, and TEC were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in dogs with sarcoptic mange however, significant increase in TLC along with neutrophilia and lymphopenia was observed only in severely infested dogs. The albumin, glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased and globulin, ALT, AST and bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in severely infested dogs when compared to other two groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in dogs with sarcoptic mange, with levels highest in severely infested groups. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared with the healthy control group. Zinc and copper levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly (P<0.05) lower when compared with healthy control group with the levels lowest in severely infested group. Vitamin A and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared to healthy control. From the present study, it was concluded that sarcoptic mange in dogs affects the liver and the infestation is associated with oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance, significant alteration in trace elements and vitamins.

  17. Computed tomographic findings of pulmonary atelectasis in healthy anesthetized Beagles.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Christelle; Cassel, Nicolette; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent and location of atelectasis in healthy anesthetized dogs positioned in lateral recumbency and to determine whether repositioning dogs in sternal recumbency would resolve atelectasis. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent a CT examination twice with a 2-week interval between examinations. Once anesthetized, each dog was positioned in sternal recumbency, and a breath-hold helical transverse thoracic CT scan was acquired. The dog was then positioned in lateral recumbency for 30 minutes, and images were obtained at 5 preselected sites at 3, 8, 13, 20, and 30 minutes after repositioning (phase 1). Then, the dog was repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT images were obtained at the 5 preselected sites at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after repositioning (phase 2). The protocol for the second examination was the same as the first except the dog was positioned in the opposite lateral recumbency during phase 1. The attenuation and cross-sectional area of the lung lobes at the preselected sites were measured and compared over time. RESULTS Lateral recumbency did not cause atelectasis in any of the dogs. Patchy areas of abnormally increased attenuation were infrequently detected in the left cranial lung lobe when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and those areas failed to resolve when dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of lung attenuation changes was minimal in healthy anesthetized Beagles positioned in lateral recumbency and should not preclude CT examination. PMID:27668579

  18. [Bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].

    PubMed

    Bornand, V

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria Staphylococcus intermedius (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus spp. (6%) and Streptococcus canis (5%). A statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in otitic dogs. Many strains of S.intermedius, P.aeruginosa and Proteus spp. are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa. Therefore an antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using "Cobas Bact" for these bacterias. Furthermore, 80 strains of M.pachydermatis were submitted to identification-kits (API 20 CAUX, API STAPH, Cobas Micro). The observed results showed that an identification with these tests was not possible.

  19. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  20. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  1. Elevation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in non-azotemic dogs with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Daure, Evence; Belanger, Marie C; Beauchamp, Guy; Lapointe, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker in humans and dogs with kidney disease. This protein is expressed by many cells including renal tubular cells and neutrophils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infection (UTI) on urinary NGAL (uNGAL) concentration in dogs. Urine culture and measurement of uNGAL level were performed in 80 non-azotemic dogs suspected of UTI and 19 healthy dogs. Dogs were divided in three groups: 19 healthy dogs, 25 dogs with positive culture and 55 dogs suspected of UTI but with negative culture. uNGAL and uNGAL/Creatinine was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in dogs with UTI (14.22 ng/mL;19.74 μg/g) compared to Healthy (0.24 ng/mL;0.11 μg/g) and Negative (1.13 ng/mL;1.28 μg/g) dogs. A uNGAL value <3.38 ng/mL had a negative predictive value for UTI of 87%. Presence of UTI has to be considered when uNGAL is used to detect kidney disease.

  2. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Jun; HATAKEYAMA, Naohiro; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; ITAMI, Takaharu; FUKUI, Sho; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; SANO, Tadashi; PASLOSKE, Kirby; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  3. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Hatakeyama, Naohiro; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  4. Assessment of renal vascular resistance and blood pressure in dogs and cats with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Novellas, R; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Espada, Y

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the possible relationships between renal resistive index (RI) or pulsatility index (PI) and systolic blood pressure and biochemical and haematological parameters in dogs and cats with renal disease. The study included 50 dogs and 20 cats with renal disease. RI and PI were significantly higher in both dogs and cats with renal disease than in 27 healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. In dogs, a significant negative correlation was found between RI and red blood cell count, and a positive correlation was found between PI and serum creatinine. In cats, a positive correlation was found between RI and serum urea, between PI and serum creatinine, and between PI and serum urea. No relationship could be found between either RI or PI and systolic blood pressure.

  5. Seizure activity occurring in two dogs after S-ketamine-induction.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Spadavecchia, C; Casoni, D

    2013-10-01

    Two healthy dogs were anaesthetized to undergo elective orthopaedic procedures. After premedication with methadone and acepromazine, general anaesthesia was induced with midazolam and S-ketamine. Immediately after anaesthetic induction, seizures occurred in both dogs. In the first dog the syndrome was characterized by tonic and clonic motor activity, muscular hypertone, hypersalivation, urination, defecation and hyperthermia. In the second dog muscular twitches of the temporal and masseter regions were observed, followed by increased skeletal muscles tone, hypersalivation, spontaneous urination and increase in body temperature. Recoveries from anaesthesia were uneventful and no seizures were observed. Considering the temporal association between anaesthetic induction and occurrence of seizures, and the fact that other causative factors could not be identified, it is hypothesized that S-ketamine played a role in determining the convulsive phenomena observed in these patients. S-ketamine might carry the potential for inducing seizures in otherwise healthy dogs, despite the concomitant use of GABA-ergic drugs.

  6. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

    2014-01-31

    Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a

  7. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  8. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in a Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production for a biological product recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to the... shall be used when a serial of vaccine is tested for safety before release. (1) Each of two healthy...

  9. Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein as a specific marker for necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hizuru; Inoue, Akiko; Tanaka, Miho; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentration as a diagnostic marker for canine central nervous system (CNS) disorders, sera from dogs with various CNS (n=47) and non-CNS (n=56) disorders were measured for GFAP by using an ELISA kit. Healthy Beagles (n=15) and Pug dogs (n=12) were also examined as controls. Interestingly, only Pug dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) showed elevated serum GFAP concentrations (<0.01 to 1.14 ng/ml), while other breeds of dogs with NME did not. Among the Pug dogs with NME, serum GFAP concentrations did not correlate with their clinical features, such as ages or survival times. Our data indicate the usefulness of serum GFAP as a novel marker for Pug dogs with NME.

  10. Determination of renal vascular resistance in dogs with diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Novellas, R; de Gopegui, R Ruiz; Espada, Y

    2008-11-15

    In dogs, diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism are causes of hypertension associated with increases in vascular peripheral resistance. In human patients, the renal resistive index (ri) and pulsatility index (pi) are related to hypertension and diabetes and are used as indicators of disease severity. In this study the renal vascular resistance was measured in 12 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, three with diabetes mellitus and four with both conditions, and the possible relationships between the two indices, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were investigated. Hypertension, defined as a systolic blood pressure more than 150 mmHg, was recorded in two of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and three of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes. The overall mean values for ri, pi and systolic blood pressure were higher in the diseased group of dogs than in 27 healthy dogs, and both indices were correlated with blood glucose concentration.

  11. Trace minerals status and antioxidative enzyme activity in dogs with generalized demodecosis.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M

    2013-11-15

    The present study was aimed to determine the levels of trace elements zinc, copper, iron, erythrocyte oxidant/anti-oxidant balance, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with generalized demodecosis. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of generalized demodecosis and 6 dogs as control were included in the study. In comparison to healthy control, zinc and copper levels were significantly (P<0.01) lower in dogs with generalized demodecosis, whereas iron levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in diseased dogs whereas activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower. β-carotene and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in diseased dogs when compared to healthy control. SOD activity was positively correlated with zinc (rs=0.65, rs=0.71 and P<0.05) and copper (rs=0.51, rs=0.63 and P<0.05) in both healthy and diseased dogs. MDA levels were negatively correlated with iron (rs=-0.49, rs=-0.78 and P<0.05), β-carotene (rs=-0.26, P>0.05; rs=-0.54, P<0.05, respectively) in both healthy and diseased dogs and with SOD activity in diseased dogs only (rs=-0.68, P<0.05). From the present study, it was concluded that generalized demodecosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in trace elements and oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance and this imbalance might be secondary to changes caused by demodectic mange.

  12. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  13. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  14. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  15. [Case report: dirofilariasis in a dog].

    PubMed

    Arnold, P; Deplazes, P; Ruckstuhl, H; Flückiger, M

    1994-01-01

    A Siberian Husky from the Milan region was referred to the Clinic for clarification of a history of weight loss and rapid fatigue. On clinical examination increased vesicular sounds and dyspnea after physical excitement and effort were the only abnormal findings demonstrable. Radiologically demonstrated changes of the pulmonary arteries led to a tentative diagnosis of Dirofilariosis. The parasitological diagnosis based on serology and the morphology of microfilariae isolated from the blood indicated an infection by microfilariae and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis. After premedication with Aspirin, the patient was treated against adult filariae with Caparsolate, and a month later with Ivermectin against the microfilariae. At the time of reexamination, 5 months after initiation of therapy, the dog was clinically healthy and free of any demonstrable infection with Dirofilaria. In a second, clinically normal Husky from the same kennel, isolated Dirofilaria repens microfilariae were demonstrated. This dog was not treated.

  16. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  17. Comparing the effects of first-line antiepileptic drugs on the gait of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suiter, E J; Packer, R M A; Volk, H A

    2016-06-25

    Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common chronic neurological disease of the dog. Previous studies of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment have indicated that acceptable AED adverse effects are as important to owners as reductions in seizure frequency. AEDs in both dogs and human beings are frequently associated with the adverse-effect ataxia. The aim of this study was to compare ataxia levels in dogs with IE treated chronically with phenobarbitone or imepitoin, the two currently available first-line AED treatments. The gait of 6 imepitoin-treated dogs, 8 phenobarbitone-treated dogs and 10 age-matched healthy control dogs were compared. Fifty strides from a walking gait were analysed for each dog, quantifying ataxia via the variability in six established gait parameters. Three variables differed significantly between groups: lateral distance between (i) pelvic paw placements, (ii) thoracic paw placements and (iii) stance time, which were significantly more variable in the phenobarbitone-treated dogs than imepitoin-treated or control dogs. These results indicate that dogs treated with phenobarbitone experience ataxia compared with controls and imepitoin-treated dogs. Conversely, there was no difference between imepitoin-treated dogs and controls. These results along with further research are needed to quantify AEDs adverse effects, to help vets and owners make more informed drug-choices.

  18. Comparing the effects of first-line antiepileptic drugs on the gait of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suiter, E J; Packer, R M A; Volk, H A

    2016-06-25

    Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common chronic neurological disease of the dog. Previous studies of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment have indicated that acceptable AED adverse effects are as important to owners as reductions in seizure frequency. AEDs in both dogs and human beings are frequently associated with the adverse-effect ataxia. The aim of this study was to compare ataxia levels in dogs with IE treated chronically with phenobarbitone or imepitoin, the two currently available first-line AED treatments. The gait of 6 imepitoin-treated dogs, 8 phenobarbitone-treated dogs and 10 age-matched healthy control dogs were compared. Fifty strides from a walking gait were analysed for each dog, quantifying ataxia via the variability in six established gait parameters. Three variables differed significantly between groups: lateral distance between (i) pelvic paw placements, (ii) thoracic paw placements and (iii) stance time, which were significantly more variable in the phenobarbitone-treated dogs than imepitoin-treated or control dogs. These results indicate that dogs treated with phenobarbitone experience ataxia compared with controls and imepitoin-treated dogs. Conversely, there was no difference between imepitoin-treated dogs and controls. These results along with further research are needed to quantify AEDs adverse effects, to help vets and owners make more informed drug-choices. PMID:27302918

  19. Multiplex cytokine analyses in dogs with pyometra suggest involvement of KC-like chemokine in canine bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Iulia; Hagman, Ragnvi; Johannisson, Anders; Wang, Liya; Södersten, Fredrik; Wernersson, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection) are unspecific and, therefore, biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis are needed for appropriate treatment and patient survival. Pyometra, a common disease caused by bacterial infection of the uterus, results in sepsis in nearly 60% of cases in dogs. We used dogs with pyometra as a natural model for sepsis and collected serum samples from 39 dogs, of which 22 with pyometra and 17 healthy controls. Dogs with pyometra were further grouped into dogs with sepsis (n=18) and without sepsis (n=4). Serum concentrations of a panel of cytokines, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)-like, granulocyte-macrophages colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using multiplex analyses. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined using an automated immunoturbidimetric assay. In addition to physical examination hematological and serum biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the overall status of the dogs. Significantly higher concentrations of KC-like (757 vs 304 pg/ml) were detected in dogs with pyometra as compared to healthy dogs. Within the pyometra group, dogs with sepsis compared to dogs without sepsis had a higher KC-like concentration (873 vs 300 pg/ml). Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in dogs with pyometra compared to healthy dogs, regardless of the presence or absence of sepsis, and correlated negatively with KC-like. KC-like concentrations correlated positively with CRP, number of hospitalization days, number of monocytes, concentrations of IL-8, and percentage band neutrophils. Our data suggest that bacterial infection triggers the expression of KC-like and further studies are warranted of KC-like as a possible biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and uterine bacterial infection in dogs. PMID:26837616

  20. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Megan M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; KuKanich, Butch

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was obtained at predetermined intervals for the determination of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 hours for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 hr*μg/mL for horses and 17.253 hr*μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 minutes of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. PMID:21492187

  1. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  2. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  3. Determination of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of dogs with demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Sharma, B; Saxena, M

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood of dogs with localized and generalized demodicosis. Sixteen dogs were examined, 8 with localized and 8 with generalized demodicosis, while 8 healthy dogs were used as controls. Peripheral blood was obtained and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Significantly higher numbers of CD8+ T cells and lower numbers of CD4+ T cells were found in dogs with generalized demodicosis compared to dogs with localized demodicosis and healthy controls. Significantly higher numbers of CD8+ T cells and lower numbers of CD4+ T cells were also found in dogs with localized demodicosis compared to healthy controls. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also found to be significantly lower in dogs with generalized demodicosis in comparison with dogs with localized demodicosis and healthy controls. It is concluded that significant alteration in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio may be implicated in the pathogenesis of generalized canine demodicosis.

  4. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  5. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs. PMID:27487354

  6. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

    PubMed

    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.

  7. Cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs with mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulou, A; Guazzetti, S; Borghetti, P; De Angelis, E; Quintavalla, C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). In humans with CHF, increased production and high plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-8 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have been associated with disease progression and a negative prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in cytokine blood mRNA expression exist between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD); to determine if the expression was related to the severity of MMVD, and to detect any correlations with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodelling. Twenty-three dogs with MMVD of varying severity and six clinically healthy dogs were included in the study. Whole blood samples were obtained for measurement of mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1, TNF-α by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). There were statistically significant differences between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD for IL-8 and TGF-β1 gene expression. IL-8 expression increased with increasing MMVD severity and TGF-β1 expression was higher in asymptomatic dogs with echocardiographic signs of cardiac remodelling (American College Veterinary Internal Medicine class B2) than in all other groups. These results could suggest the involvement of these cytokines at different stages of the disease.

  8. Altered cutaneous expression of beta-defensins in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    van Damme, Catharina M M; Willemse, Ton; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2009-08-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic allergic skin disorder with an immunopathogenesis comparable to that in humans with AD. The high frequency of recurrent infections with Staphylococcus pseudo intermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis may indicate a defective innate immune response in the skin of atopic dogs. Production of beta-defensins constitutes an important role in skin defense but information on canine beta-defensin localization and regulation is scarce. We conducted a gene-expression study of 16 canine beta-defensins (cBDs) in 11 tissues of healthy dogs, which revealed a variable expression of cBDs in different organ systems of the dog. In skin, three beta-defensins, cBD1, cBD103 and cBD107, were extensively expressed, while inconsistent expression of five other beta-defensins was detected. Using immunohistochemistry abundant expression of cBD103 peptide was detected in the epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, comparable to hBD3 expression in human skin. To examine the gene-expression of beta-defensins in atopic dogs, full thickness skin biopsy specimens (non-lesional and lesional) of 10 atopic dogs and 7 healthy dogs were examined with real-time PCR. A significant 12-fold increased expression of cBD1 was detected in lesional atopic skin compared to healthy skin, while non-lesional skin showed a 5-fold increase. Contrary to cBD1, expression of cBD103 was slightly (2-fold) downregulated in skin of atopic dogs. Gene-expression levels of S100A8, a marker for atopic dermatitis, were also highly upregulated in skin of atopic dogs, confirming the diagnostics of the skin biopsies. Taken together these results provide new evidence for a possible defect in the innate immune response of dogs with atopic dermatitis, and indicate the potential of the dog as a model for human AD. PMID:19576634

  9. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations' Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kaitlyn E; Hoffman, Christy L

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations' decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles) and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1) logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2) factors impacting dog selection; (3) medical requirements; (4) partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5) perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization's willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements. PMID:26848694

  10. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kaitlyn E.; Hoffman, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles) and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1) logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2) factors impacting dog selection; (3) medical requirements; (4) partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5) perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements. PMID:26848694

  11. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  12. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  13. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  14. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  15. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  16. Variability of CAG tandem repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene is not related with dog intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Switonski, M

    2010-02-01

    Numerous mutations of the human androgen receptor (AR) gene cause an intersexual phenotype, called the androgen insensitivity syndrome. The intersexual phenotype is also quite often diagnosed in dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the entire coding sequence (eight exons) of the AR gene in healthy and four intersex dogs, as well as in three other canids (the red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). The coding sequence of the studied species appeared to be conserved (similarity above 97%) and polymorphism was found in exon 1 only. Altogether, 2 SNPs were identified in healthy dogs, 14 in red foxes, 16 in arctic foxes and 6 were found in Chinese raccoon dogs, respectively. Moreover, a variable number of tandem repeats (CAG and CAA), encoding an array of glutamines, was also observed in this exon. The CAA codon numbers were invariable within species, but the CAG repeats were polymorphic. The highest number of the CAG and CAA repeats was found in dogs (from 40 to 42) and the observed variability was similar in intersex and healthy dogs. In the other canids the variability fell within the following ranges: 29-37 (red fox), 37-39 (arctic fox) and 29-32 (Chinese raccoon dog). In addition, a polymorphic microsatellite marker in intron 2 was found in the dog, red fox and Chinese raccoon dog. It was concluded that the polymorphism level of the AR gene in the dog was lower than in the other canids and none of the detected polymorphisms, including variability of the CAG tandem repeats, could be related with the intersexual phenotype of the studied dogs.

  17. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  18. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  19. NCR1+ cells in dogs show phenotypic characteristics of natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl-Rosado, Christine; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Brun-Hansen, Hege C; Storset, Anne K

    2015-03-01

    No specific markers for natural killer (NK) cells in dogs have currently been described. NCR1 (NKp46, CD355) has been considered a pan species NK cell marker and is expressed on most or all NK cells in all species investigated except for the pig which has both a NCR1(+) and a NCR1(-) population. In this study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 healthy dogs, 37 dogs with a clinical diagnosis, including a dog diagnosed with LGL leukemia, and tissue samples from 8 dogs were evaluated for NCR1(+) expression by a cross reacting anti bovine NCR1 antibody. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were found in the blood of 93 % of healthy dogs and comprised up to 2.5 % of lymphocytes in PBMC. In a selection of healthy dogs, sampling and immunophenotyping were repeated throughout a period of 1 year revealing a substantial variation in the percentage of CD3(-)NCR1(+) over time. Dogs allocated to 8 disease groups had comparable amounts of CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells in PBMC to the healthy individuals. All organs examined including liver, spleen and lymph nodes contained CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells. Circulating CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were further characterized as CD56(-)GranzymeB(+)CD8(-). A CD3(+)NCR1(+) population was observed in PBMC in 79 % of the healthy dogs examined representing at the most 4.8 % of the lymphocyte population. In canine samples examined for CD56 expression, CD56(+) cells were all CD3(+) and NCR1(-). To our knowledge, this is the first examination of NCR1 expression in the dog. The study shows that this NK cell associated receptor is expressed both on populations of CD3(+) and CD3(-) blood lymphocytes in dogs and the receptor is found on a CD3(+) GranzymeB(+) CD8(+) leukemia. Our results support that CD56 is expressed only on CD3(+) cells in dogs and shows that NCR1 defines a different CD3(+) lymphocyte population than CD56(+)CD3(+) cells in this species. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells may represent canine NK cells.

  20. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals.

  1. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  2. Renal Function and Morphology in Aged Beagle Dogs Before and after Hydrocortisone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Lefebvre, Hervé P.; Aresu, Luca; Croubels, Siska; Haers, Hendrik; Piron, Koen; Meyer, Evelyne; Daminet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC) administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6) or placebo (control group, n = 5). Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0), during (T16 wks) and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks). Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c) ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:22393368

  3. Serological report of pandemic and seasonal human influenza virus infection in dogs in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2014-11-01

    From January to July 2012, we looked for evidence of subclinical A (H1N1) pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses infections in healthy dogs in China. Sera from a total of 1920 dogs were collected from Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces. We also examined archived sera from 66 dogs and cats that were collected during 2008 from these provinces. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, we found that only the dogs sampled in 2012 had elevated antibodies (≥ 1:32) against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and seasonal human influenza viruses: Of the 1920 dog sera, 20.5 % (n = 393) had elevated antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 by the HI assay, 1.1 % (n = 22), and 4.7 % (n = 91) of the 1920 dogs sera had elevated antibodies against human seasonal H1N1 influenza virus and human seasonal H3N2 influenza virus by the HI assay. Compared with dogs that were raised on farms, dogs that were raised as pets were more likely to have elevated antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal human influenza viruses. Seropositivity was highest among pet dogs, which likely had more diverse and frequent exposures to humans than farm dogs. These findings will help us better understand which influenza A viruses are present in dogs and will contribute to the prevention and control of influenza A virus. Moreover, further in-depth study is necessary for us to understand what roles dogs play in the ecology of influenza A.

  4. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes. PMID:25320382

  5. Protothecosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Vince, Andrew R.; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T.; Tan, Emmeline O.; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C.G.

    2014-01-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes. PMID:25320382

  6. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  7. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  8. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  9. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P.; Older, Caitlin E.; Mansell, Joanne M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium—two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies. PMID:26542075

  10. What is living on your dog's skin? Characterization of the canine cutaneous mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis in canine allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2015-12-01

    To characterize the skin-associated fungal microbiota (mycobiota) in dogs, and to evaluate the influence of body site, individual dog or health status on the distribution of fungi, next-generation sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 10 dogs with no history of skin disease were sampled at 10 distinct body sites consisting of haired and mucosal skin, and 8 dogs with diagnosed skin allergies were sampled at six body sites commonly affected by allergic disease. Analysis of similarities revealed that body site was not an influencing factor on membership or structure of fungal communities in healthy skin; however, the mucosal sites were significantly reduced in fungal richness. The mycobiota from body sites in healthy dogs tended to be similar within a dog, which was visualized in principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) by clustering of all sites from one dog separate from other dogs. The mycobiota of allergic skin was significantly less rich than that of healthy skin, and all sites sampled clustered by health status in PCoA. Interestingly, the most abundant fungi present on canine skin, across all body sites and health statuses, were Alternaria and Cladosporium--two of the most common fungal allergens in human environmental allergies.

  11. New approach to surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and polyposis coli without pelvic pouch. Experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chaimoff, C; Kyzer, S; Karib, N; Kessler, H; Bayer, I

    1989-07-01

    A new method for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and polyposis coli is described. Instead of preparing a pelvic pouch, the natural rectal pouch stripped of the diseased mucosa was used experimentally in dogs. The undisturbed muscular cuff of the rectum (12 cm from the anal verge) was covered by healthy vascularized mucosa of small bowel in such a manner that the dog could use its rectum as usual before surgery. The results are encouraging. The rectal reservoir is spared, with its sensitivity, continence and motor activity covered by healthy mucosa. The dogs thrived. PMID:2544382

  12. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  13. Investigation of the role of aldosterone in hypertension associated with spontaneous pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Goy-Thollot, I; Péchereau, D; Kéroack, S; Dezempte, J C; Bonnet, J M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of aldosterone as an initiating and/or perpetuating factor in hypertension associated with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) in dogs. Thirteen dogs with PDH and 11 healthy control dogs were used. In all dogs, arterial blood pressure and plasma sodium, potassium, basal aldosterone, post-ACTH aldosterone, basal cortisol and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations were measured. The tests were repeated 10 days and three months after the beginning of o,p'-DDD treatment in PDH dogs. In untreated PDH dogs, plasma aldosterone was significantly decreased, whereas cortisol, sodium and arterial blood pressure were significantly increased compared to healthy dogs. Hypertension remained in most treated PDH dogs despite normalisation of cortisol and persistently low aldosterone levels. These results did not demonstrate that aldosterone is involved in the development and perpetuation of hypertension in PDH. However, glucocorticoids seemed to play a major role as an initiating and perpetuating factor in PDH in dogs.

  14. Who Let the Dogs Out? Communicating First Nations Perspectives on a Canine Veterinary Intervention Through Digital Storytelling.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Okemow, Crystal; Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Beatch, Heather; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Dog-related human injuries affect public safety and animal welfare, and occur more frequently in rural, remote, and Indigenous communities than in urban centres in Canada. Little work has been done to identify the perspectives of those people most heavily affected by this issue or to report successful dog management programs. This project was undertaken by veterinarians and public health workers with the goal of documenting First Nations perspectives on dogs, and educating other rural health workers about introducing animal management services to Indigenous communities. We recruited 10-14 residents and healthcare workers from three First Nations to take dog-related photos in their communities and participate in group interviews during the summer of 2014. Audiovisual data were synthesised into four digital stories exploring the following aspects of participant relationships with community dogs: (1) Spay/neuter clinics; (2) Role of the dog (past and present); (3) Human-animal bond; and (4) Healthy dogs as a part of healthy communities. These videos document changes in dog husbandry behaviour, new acceptance of spay/neuter, three-way knowledge transfer between residents, researchers, and policy makers, and an overall desire to sustain the positive outcomes of the pilot dog management project. This work highlights cultural beliefs and success strategies that might guide other programs providing veterinary services in First Nations communities. PMID:26302958

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of adrenal glands in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Paolo; Orlandi, Riccardo; Paloni, Chiara; Rubini, Giuseppe; Fonti, Paolo; Peterson, Mark E; Boiti, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    A noninvasive method for quantifying adrenal gland vascular patterns could be helpful for improving detection of adrenal gland disease in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of adrenal glands in 18 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) vs. four clinically healthy dogs. Each dog received a bolus of the contrast agent (SonoVue®, 0.03 ml/kg of body weight) into the cephalic vein, immediately followed by a 5 ml saline flush. Dynamic contrast enhancement was analyzed using time-intensity curves in two regions of interest drawn manually in the caudal part of the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. In healthy dogs, contrast enhancement distribution was homogeneous and exhibited increased intensity from the medulla to the cortex. In the washout phase, there was a gradual and homogeneous decrease of enhancement of the adrenal gland. For all dogs with PDH, there was rapid, chaotic, and simultaneous contrast enhancement in both the medulla and cortex. Three distinct perfusion patterns were observed. Peak perfusion intensity was approximately twice as high (P < 0.05) in dogs with PDH compared with that of healthy dogs (28.90 ± 10.36 vs. 48.47 ± 15.28, respectively). In dogs with PDH, adrenal blood flow and blood volume values were approximately two- to fourfold (P < 0.05) greater than those of controls. Findings from the present study support the use of CEUS as a clinical tool for characterizing canine adrenal gland disease based on changes in vascular patterns.

  16. Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adaszek, Łukasz; Banach, Tomasz; Bartnicki, Michał; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Łyp, Paweł; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of Babesia canis canis infections in dogs. The study was conducted on two groups of dogs--healthy dogs and dogs infected with B. canis canis which demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS technique revealed the presence of a protein fraction of 51-52 kDa in the blood serum of all the animals infected with the protozoa, which was not found in the serum of healthy dogs. The proteins are suspected to be disease markers, whereas the MALDI-TOF technique itself has high specificity and sensitivity and can be applied in analytical laboratories in the diagnosis of canine babesiosis.

  17. Alteration of the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Otoni, Cristiane C; Steelman, Samantha M; Büyükleblebici, Olga; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease in dogs. The combination of an underlying host genetic susceptibility, an intestinal dysbiosis, and dietary/environmental factors are suspected as main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. However, actual mechanisms of the host-microbe interactions remain elusive. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota and serum metabolite profiles between healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with IBD before and after 3 weeks of medical therapy (n = 12). Fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes and by an untargeted metabolomics approach, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with IBD compared to the healthy control dogs. While Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented, Erysipelotrichia, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia were underrepresented in dogs with IBD. The functional gene content was predicted from the 16 S rRNA gene data using PICRUSt, and revealed overrepresented bacterial secretion system and transcription factors, and underrepresented amino acid metabolism in dogs with IBD. The serum metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate, hexuronic acid, ribose, and gluconic acid lactone were significantly more abundant in dogs with IBD. Although a clinical improvement was observed after medical therapy in all dogs with IBD, this was not accompanied by significant changes in the fecal microbiota or in serum metabolite profiles. These results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and a functional alteration of the GI microbiota in dogs with IBD, which persisted even in the face of a clinical response to medical therapy.

  18. Serum concentrations of eicosanoids and lipids in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kučer, Nada; Kuleš, Josipa; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Brkljačić, Mirna; Crnogaj, Martina; Zivičnjak, Tatjana; Smit, Iva; Ceron, Jose Joaquin; Rafaj, Renata Barić

    2014-03-17

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with world-wide significance caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. The eicosanoids, as inflammatory mediators, are involved in the regulation of the immune response and inflammatory reaction. Metabolism of lipids is of great importance in babesiosis. In this study it was aimed to investigate the dynamics of serum concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), triglycerides, total cholesterol (Chol), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis and healthy dogs. Both groups were measured for all parameters on the admission day and on the first, second and seventh day of the disease. Dogs that were included in this study had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It was demonstrated that the level of LTB4, PGE2, TxB2 in dogs naturally infected with B. canis significantly changed during the disease. The level of LTB4 was significantly higher during the study, while the concentration of PGE2 was significantly higher second, third and seventh day of disease in relation with healthy dogs. The level of TxB2 was significantly lower at the beginning of the disease, but after seven days concentration was significantly higher. Both group of patients with SIRS and MODS had significantly higher level of LTB4. Substained high concentrations of PGE2 were observed in dogs with MODS after therapy but not in dogs with SIRS, and LTB4 followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, increases in TxB2 were only significant in dogs with SIRS. The lipid profile in naturally infected dogs with B. canis infection was significantly changed. Further studies are needed to assess the prognostic values of lipid mediators in dogs with B. canis infection, and the ability of these markers to predict the progress of SIRS and MODS.

  19. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner's-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner's-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  20. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner's-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner's-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  1. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  2. Experimental Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: effects of doxycycline and Advantage Multi® administration on immature adult parasites.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, R; Beall, M J; Saucier, J; O'Connor, T; McCall, J W; McCall, S D

    2014-11-15

    To better understand the efficacy of doxycycline and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (Advantage Multi(®); Bayer Animal Health, Shawnee Mission, Kansas) on immature adult Dirofilaria immitis parasites and the results of antigen tests, 12 healthy, randomly selected dogs were experimentally infected with D. immitis and monitored for 407 days. Two dogs in each of three subgroups of four dogs were each infected with six (total of 6 dogs) or 12 (total of 6 dogs) D. immitis infective third-stage larvae (L3) obtained from infected mosquitoes. Doxycycline (10mg/kg per os twice daily×30 days) and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (1ml/kg by topical application every 30 days) treatment was initiated at 105 (Group A) and 149 (Group B) days post infection (PI) in two groups. One subgroup of two dogs given 6 L3 and one subgroup of two dogs given 12 L3 remained as untreated controls (GroupC). Serum obtained regularly throughout the study was evaluated by ELISA (PetChek(®) Heartworm-PF Antigen Test, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.) for D. immitis adult circulating antigens. Six of the eight dogs in the treated groups had detectable antigenemia starting between 148 and 240 days post infection, but antigen was not detected in any treated dog at the end of the study. In the control subgroups, the dogs that received 6 L3 had no detectable antigen while the two dogs that received 12 L3 had detectable antigen beginning on Day 180 that persisted until the end of the study. None of the infected dogs had evidence of circulating microfilariae. At necropsy, no heartworms were recovered from the treated dogs, but all dogs in the untreated group had viable adult heartworms. These results indicate that early immature adult worms (3.5 and 5 months of age) of D. immitis were susceptible to a combined treatment regimen of doxycycline and 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin.

  3. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  4. In vivo study of cerebral white matter in the dog using diffusion tensor tractography.

    PubMed

    Anaya García, Mitzi Sarahí; Hernández Anaya, Jael Sarahí; Marrufo Meléndez, Oscar; Velázquez Ramírez, José Luis; Palacios Aguiar, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows investigators and clinicians to observe the anatomy and injuries of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dogs. However, dynamic images based on the diffusion tensor (DT) technique are required to assess fiber tract integrity of the CWM. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) produces a three-dimensional representation in which data are displayed on a colored map obtained from the anisotropy of water molecules in the CWM tracts. Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a value that measures changes in water diffusion, which can occur if the CWM tracts are displaced, disrupted, or infiltrated. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of DTT for in vivo examination of the normal appearance of CWM in dogs through visual and quantitative analysis of the most representative CWM tracts. Nine tractographies were performed on healthy dogs using a 3T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images and DTI were acquired at different planes. Using DTT, three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained. Fractional ansisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the right and left corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, cingulum, and right and left fronto-occipital fasciculus were determined. Tract reconstructions were similar in 8/9 healthy dogs. Values for FA and ADC were similar in all the dogs. In one dog, tract reconstructions were inhomogeneous; these were displaced because it had larger lateral ventricles. Findings indicated that DTT is a feasible technique for in vivo study of CWM in dogs and that it complements information from conventional MRI.

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories (< 10 kg, 10-30 kg, and > 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement.

  6. Protein C activity in dogs envenomed by Vipera palaestinae.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Gil; Kelmer, Efrat; Segev, Gilad; Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar

    2014-09-01

    Vipera palaestinae is responsible for most envenomations in humans and domestic animal in Israel. Its venom has pro- and anticoagulant properties. Protein C is a major natural anticoagulant, preventing excess clotting and thrombosis. This study investigated protein C activity and its prognostic value, as well as several other hemostatic analytes in dogs (Canis familiaris) accidently envenomed by V. palaestinae. Protein C activity was compared between envenomed dogs and 33 healthy control dogs. Mean protein C was lower in dogs envenomed by V. palaestinae compared to controls (12.9% vs. 22.9%, respectively; P < 0.01). It was positively correlated with antithrombin activity (r = 0.3, P = 0.04), but not with other hemostatic analytes. The overall mortality rate was 13%, and at presentation no significant protein C activity difference was noted between survivors and non-survivors. A receiver operator characteristics analysis of protein C activity as a predictor of mortality had an area under the curve of 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.87). A protein C cutoff point of 8% corresponded to sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 57%, respectively. Dogs diagnosed with consumptive coagulopathy (14%) tended to have lower protein C activity compared to others; however, their mortality did differ from that of other dogs. This is the first study assessing protein C activity in V. palaestinae victims. Decreased protein C activity in such dogs may play a role in formation of thrombosis and hemostatic derangement as well as inflammation in V. palaestinae envenomations.

  7. MicroRNA expression profiling of cat and dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yabuki, Akira; Horino, Taro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. Here, we present the first analysis of miRNA expression in the kidneys of healthy cats and dogs. Kidneys were divided into renal cortex (CO) and medulla (MD), and RNA sequence analysis was performed using the mouse genome as a reference. A total of 277, 276, 295, and 297 miRNAs were detected in cat CO, cat MD, dog CO, and dog MD, respectively. By comparing the expression ratio of CO to MD, we identified highly expressed miRNAs in each tissue as follows: 41 miRNAs including miR-192-5p in cat CO; 45 miRNAs including miR-323-3p in dog CO; 78 miRNAs including miR-20a-5p in cat MD; and 11 miRNAs including miR-132-5p in dog MD. Further, the target mRNAs of these miRNAs were identified. These data provide veterinary medicine critical information regarding renal miRNA expression.

  8. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  9. Paw preferences in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tan, U

    1987-02-01

    The distribution of paw preferences were studied in 28 dogs. The paw preference was assessed by counting the right and left paw movements performed to remove an adhesive plaster from the eyes. The significance of the right minus left paw reaches in percentages was evaluated statistically in each animal. There were three distinct groups in respect to paw preferences in dogs: right-preferent (57.1%), left-preferent (17.9%), and ambidextrous (25.0%). Statistical analysis showed that the observed frequencies for each group were not merely chance variations which would be expected in a random sample. It was concluded that the population bias can be expressed in a distribution skewed toward a right-hand bias as seen in man.

  10. Preoperative and postoperative hemostatic profiles of dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Millis, D L; Hauptman, J G; Richter, M

    1992-10-01

    Hemostatic profiles were evaluated in 15 healthy dogs immediately before and 24 hours after celiotomy for routine ovariohysterectomy. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, antithrombin III activity, platelet count, and hemogram were measured. There were no significant changes in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrin degradation products, antithrombin III activity, or platelet count. Fibrinogen concentration was significantly higher following surgery. Postoperative leukocyte differential counts were typical of stress leukograms, and were characterized by leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Mild decreases in packed cell volume, red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration were consistent with minor blood loss during surgery or fluid retention and hemodilution postoperatively. It was concluded that celiotomy and routine ovariohysterectomy in healthy dogs did not alter hemostatic profiles 24 hours after surgery. Abnormal postoperative hemostatic profiles should not be attributed to surgery alone; other causes of abnormal hemostatic profiles should be investigated.

  11. Pet Dogs and Children’s Health: Opportunities for Chronic Disease Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul; Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Olson, Ardis L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Positive associations between having a pet dog and adult health outcomes have been documented; however, little evidence exists regarding the benefits of pet dogs for young children. This study investigates the hypothesis that pet dogs are positively associated with healthy weight and mental health among children. Methods This cross-sectional study accrued a consecutive sample of children over 18 months in a pediatric primary care setting. The study enrolled 643 children (mean age, 6.7 years); 96% were white, 45% were female, 56% were privately insured, and 58% had pet dogs in the home. Before an annual visit, parents of children aged 4 to 10 years completed the DartScreen, a comprehensive Web-based health risk screener administered using an electronic tablet. The screener domains were child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, mental health, and pet-related questions. Results Children with and children without pet dogs did not differ in BMI (P = .80), screen time of 2 hours or less (P = 0.99), or physical activity (P = .07). A lower percentage of children with dogs (12%) met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5) of 3 or more, compared with children without dogs (21%, P = .002). The mean SCARED-5 score was lower among children with dogs (1.13) compared with children without dogs (1.40; P = .01). This relationship was retained in multivariate analysis after controlling for several covariates. Conclusions Having a pet dog in the home was associated with a decreased probability of childhood anxiety. Future studies need to establish whether this relationship is causal and, if so, how pet dogs alleviate childhood anxiety. PMID:26605705

  12. Antibiotic resistance and R-factors in the fecal coliform flora of urban and rural dogs.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, C; Tierney, U; Colleran, E

    1981-02-01

    The incidence of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in the rectal flora of 106 healthy dogs in the Galway area was investigated. As far as could be determined, none of the dogs had received antimicrobial drugs. Half of the dogs sampled were from homes within the city boundaries, whereas the remainder were from farms within a 40-mile (24.8-km) radius of the city. Of the dogs sampled, 47 had a highly susceptible fecal coliform flora, with less than 1% of the coliform population resistant to any of the four test antibiotics. Fecal coliforms resistant to one or more of the test drugs comprised between 40 and 100% of the total fecal coliform population of 36% of the rural dogs and 13% of the urban dogs sampled. Of the 473 resistant Escherichia coli isolates studied, the highest number of associated resistance determinants encountered was 5, with a medium number of 2.5. Of the E. coli isolates from rural dogs, 52% were resistant to three or more antibiotics compared with 37% of the isolates from urban dogs. A total of 64% of the isolates were shown to transfer some or all of their resistance determinants by conjugation. The transferability of ampicillin (77%) and chloramphenicol (70%) resistance determinants was higher than that of streptomycin (40%) or tetracycline (44%). PMID:6751217

  13. Survey on Trypanosoma spp. infection of dogs in Gabon and its epidemiological implications for sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Watier-Grillot, S; Herder, S; Marié, J-L; Bourry, O; Cuny, G; Davoust, B

    2016-05-01

    This survey screened native dogs (Canis familiaris) in Gabon (Africa) for trypanosome infection. A total of 376 apparently healthy dogs, divided into two populations, were examined. The first group included 252 semi-domesticated dogs inhabiting 16 villages of the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, a rural inland area in northeast Gabon, and the second group 124 dogs belonging to protection companies or families from Libreville (n = 113) and Port-Gentil (n = 11), in the coastal area of Gabon. Both study areas include active or former foci of sleeping sickness in Gabon. Molecular testing (polymerase chain reaction) was performed on blood samples from dogs in both groups. All dogs were negative for T. congolense ("savanna type" and "forest type"). Eighteen dogs (4.7%), however, tested positive for T. brucei s.l.: 3% (8/252) were from the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, and 8% (10/124) from the coastal area. These animals may be potential reservoirs of the parasite T. brucei gambiense, responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. This hypothesis, as well as the role of the dog as a sentinel of human infection by T. brucei gambiense, should be investigated in further studies.

  14. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  15. Dogs steal in the dark.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Juliane; Pitsch, Andrea; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-05-01

    All current evidence of visual perspective taking in dogs can possibly be explained by dogs reacting to certain stimuli rather than understanding what others see. In the current study, we set up a situation in which contextual information and social cues are in conflict. A human always forbade the dog from taking a piece of food. The part of the room being illuminated was then varied, for example, either the area where the human was seated or the area where the food was located was lit. Results show that dogs steal significantly more food when it is dark compared to when it is light. While stealing forbidden food the dog's behaviour also depends on the type of illumination in the room. Illumination around the food, but not the human, affected the dogs' behaviour. This indicates that dogs do not take the sight of the human as a signal to avoid the food. It also cannot be explained by a low-level associative rule of avoiding illuminated food which dogs actually approach faster when they are in private. The current finding therefore raises the possibility that dogs take into account the human's visual access to the food while making their decision to steal it.

  16. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  17. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers.

  18. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

  19. Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: a pilot study with children and dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C; Engle, Randall W

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n: 55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Seven healthy young dogs with similar exposure to Mexico City air pollution had brain MRI, measurement of mRNA abundance of two inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin 1 beta in target brain areas, and histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. Children with no known risk factors for neurological or cognitive disorders residing in a polluted urban environment exhibited significant deficits in a combination of fluid and crystallized cognition tasks. Fifty-six percent of Mexico City children tested showed prefrontal white matter hyperintense lesions and similar lesions were observed in dogs (57%). Exposed dogs had frontal lesions with vascular subcortical pathology associated with neuroinflammation, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces, gliosis, and ultrafine particulate matter deposition. Based on the MRI findings, the prefrontal cortex was a target anatomical region in Mexico City children and its damage could have contributed to their cognitive dysfunction. The present work presents a groundbreaking, interdisciplinary methodology for addressing relationships between environmental pollution, structural brain alterations by MRI, and cognitive deficits/delays in healthy children.

  20. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  1. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of IgM and IgG in lung tissue of dogs with leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) is a severe form of leptospirosis. Pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Lung tissues from 26 dogs with LPHS, 5 dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage due to other causes and 6 healthy lungs were labelled for IgG, IgM and leptospiral antigens. Three ...

  3. Evidence of household transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae between humans and dogs – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungquist, Oskar; Ljungquist, Ditte; Myrenås, Mattias; Rydén, Cecilia; Finn, Maria; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCRE) are an increasing healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The spread of ESCRE is complex with multiple reservoirs and different transmission routes. The aim of this study was to investigate if ESCRE carriage in dogs is more prevalent in households with a known human carrier, compared to households where humans are known to be negative for ESCRE. Identical ESCRE strains in humans and dogs of the same household would suggest a possible spread between humans and dogs. Methods Twenty-two dog owners with a positive rectal culture for ESCRE each collected a rectal sample from their dog. In addition, a control group of 29 healthy dog owners with a documented negative rectal culture for ESCRE each sampled their household dog. Samples were cultivated for ESCRE using selective methods. In households where both humans and dogs carried ESCRE, isolates were further analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc diffusion or microdilution and for genotype and genetic relatedness using molecular methods. Results In 2 of 22 households studied, identical ESCRE strains with respect to bacterial species, antibiogram, genotype, and MLVA type were found in humans and dogs. The ESCRE found in the two households were ESBL-producing E. coli with the resistance gene blaCTX-M-27 and AmpC-producing E. coli with blaCMY-2, blaTEM-1. ESCRE were not found in dogs in the control group. Conclusions In households where humans are carrying ESCRE, identical strains were to a limited extent found also in household dogs, indicating a transfer between humans and dogs. In contrast, ESCRE were not found in dogs in households without human carriers. PMID:27330043

  4. Malassezia dermatitis in dogs in Brazil: diagnosis, evaluation of clinical signs and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mauro L S; Ferreiro, Laerte; Ferreira, Rafael R; Corbellini, Luis G; Deville, Manjula; Berthelemy, Madeleine; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Skin carriage and quantification of Malassezia yeasts were evaluated in 180 healthy dogs (group 1) and 117 dogs with clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, lichenification/seborrhoea, excoriations and alopecia) that could be related to Malassezia dermatitis (group 2) in Brazil. The lesions in the group 2 dogs were evaluated using CADESI-03 scores. Samples were collected from five different anatomical areas. Direct examination was performed using the tape strip technique, and results were expressed as the mean number of yeasts per ×1000 microscopic field per dog. For mycological culture, a single piece of sterilized carpet was applied to the same areas sampled for cytology, and transferred onto Dixon's modified medium. Yeast populations were expressed as mean colony forming units (CFU)/plate. Malassezia isolates were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA gene. The probability of culturing Malassezia from dogs with skin lesions was significantly higher (P<0.001) than from healthy dogs. There was a linear trend between CADESI-03 score and mean CFU/plate. Group 2 dogs with positive cultures had higher CADESI-03 scores than those with negative cultures (P<0.05). Almost all isolates were identified as Malassezia pachydermatis. Only one isolate (group 2) was identified as Malassezia furfur. These data suggest that dogs with skin disorders harbouring Malassezia yeasts in quantities higher than 120 mean CFU/plate should be considered as having Malassezia dermatitis. The presence of Malassezia appears to exacerbate clinical lesions in dogs. PMID:20609207

  5. Cytokines as immunological markers for systemic inflammation in dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, I; Hagman, R; Johannisson, A; Wang, L; Karlstam, E; Wernersson, S

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra is a disease in dogs caused by bacterial infection of the uterus and resulting in SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) in nearly 6 of 10 cases. Clinical diagnostic criteria for SIRS are relatively unspecific, and biomarkers for the diagnosis of pyometra and SIRS in dogs are needed. Serum samples from 32 dogs were used in this study and grouped into dogs with pyometra and SIRS, dogs with pyometra without SIRS and healthy controls. The serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18 and TNF-α were measured using multiplex analyses. The serum concentrations of CRP (C-reactive protein) were determined using sandwich ELISA. IL-7, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18 and TNF-α were detected in >94% of samples. IL-10 was detected in 28% of samples, and IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ were undetectable. Higher serum concentrations of IL-7 (p < 0.05) were detected in SIRS-positive dogs with pyometra (n = 13) as compared with healthy controls (n = 11). The concentrations of IL-8 were higher in SIRS-positive dogs with pyometra compared to the SIRS-negative group (n = 8; p < 0.05). Positive correlations of IL-15 with IL-18 (p < 0.0001) and with the concentrations of IL-7 (p < 0.0001 for both) were found, although there was no significant difference between groups. Furthermore, IL-15 correlated with concentrations of CRP (p < 0.05), which were higher in dogs with pyometra compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Our data suggest a role of several cytokines in the development of a systemic disease in dogs with pyometra and a possible diagnostic value for serum CRP, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-18 in canine SIRS caused by pyometra. PMID:23279533

  6. Ehrlichiosis, Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis and Hepatozoonosis in Dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patrick J.; Xu, Chuanling; Lucas, Helene; Loftis, Amanda; Abete, Jamie; Zeoli, Frank; Stevens, Audrey; Jaegersen, Kirsten; Ackerson, Kate; Gessner, April; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Wang, Chengming

    2013-01-01

    Background Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. Methodology We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E.) canis, Babesia (B.) spp., Anaplasma (A.) spp. and Hepatozoon (H.) spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. Principal findings There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170), Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372) including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372) and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372), A. platys (11%; 17/157) and H. canis (6%; 15/266). We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179) or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170) being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67) showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67) having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. Conclusions Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities. PMID:23335965

  7. Genetic variability and phospholipase production of Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from dogs with diverse grades of skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mauro L S; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Ferreira, Rafael R; Bianchi, Simone P; Latrofa, Maria S; Parisi, Antonio; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2010-09-01

    Little detailed information is available on the association of Malassezia pachydermatis genotypes and the extent of skin damage that they cause. In the present study, isolates of M. pachydermatis, recovered from the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with dermatitis in Brazil, were characterized on the basis of partial sequencing of the large subunit (LSU), first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) and chitin synthase 2 gene (chs-2). The determination of phospholipase production was also included in the investigations. The severity of lesions and hyperpigmentation of dogs with skin disease were evaluated. For each locus, two main sequence types were designated as genotypes A and C. Two other minor sequence types (A2(I)-C2(I)) were also recorded and defined for the ITS-1. Genotype A isolates were the most prevalent, being recovered from healthy and diseased animals. No significant difference was detected among genotypes or ITS-1 sequence types and grades of skin damage or hyperpigmentation in the dogs with skin lesions. The number of M. pachydermatis isolates that produced phospholipase was statistically higher for diseased dogs than for strains found in healthy animals. The present study reveals that multiple genetic variants of M. pachydermatis occur in dogs and that the distribution patterns of particular genotypes on the skin of dogs in Brazil might be related to environmental and ecological factors which maintain distinctive genotype assemblages in specific geographical areas. PMID:20105099

  8. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  9. A service dog in group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Brian; Collins, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Service dogs are sanctioned by the Americans with Disabilities Act as having protected rights allowing them to assist owners with disabilities. These dogs are appearing with increasing frequency in healthcare settings, and it is important for healthcare providers to understand the rules and regulations given to service animals and owners. We discuss processes that transpired when a service dog was brought into a psychodynamic psychotherapy group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the unintended consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 2010 as it concerns service dogs and the impact on the group process. Problems resulting from the introduction of service dogs into therapy groups should be anticipated and explicitly discussed in the course of the group's transactions.

  10. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  11. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid lactate and plasma lactate concentrations in anesthetized dogs with and without intracranial disease.

    PubMed

    Caines, Deanne; Sinclair, Melissa; Wood, Darren; Valverde, Alexander; Dyson, Doris; Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish a reference interval for canine cerebrospinal fluid lactate (CSFL) and to compare CSFL and plasma lactate (PL) concentrations in anesthetized dogs with and without intracranial disease. Using a prospective study, canine blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected for lactate analysis in 11 dogs with intracranial disease after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Group ID-MRI), in 10 healthy dogs post-MRI (Group H-MRI), and in 39 healthy dogs after induction of anesthesia (Group H-Sx). Dogs were anesthetized for the procedures using different anesthetic protocols. Neurological scores (NS) and sedation scores (SS) were assessed pre-anesthesia in ID-MRI dogs. The CSFL reference interval [90% confidence interval (CI) for lower and upper limits] was 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2) to 2.0 (2.0 to 2.1) mmol/L. Mean ± SD CSFL concentrations were: ID-MRI, 2.1 ± 0.8; H-MRI, 1.6 ± 0.4; and H-Sx, 1.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L. There was a tendency for higher CSFL in dogs in the ID-MRI group than in those in the H-MRI or H-Sx groups (P = 0.12). There was agreement between CSFL and PL in ID-MRI dogs (P = 0.007), but not in dogs in H-MRI (P = 0.5) or H-Sx (P = 0.2). Of the ID-MRI dogs, those with worse NS had higher CSFL (r (2) = 0.44). The correlation between CSFL and PL in dogs with intracranial disease and between worse NS and higher CSFL warrants further investigation into the use of CSFL and PL for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

  12. Ability of immunodiagnostic tests to differentiate between dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, R A N; Teixeira-Neto, R G; Belo, V S; Ferreira, E C; Schallig, H D F H; Silva, E S

    2015-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious chronic disease with a lethality rate of up to 10% in humans. In urban areas of Brazil, dogs are the main reservoirs of the etiological agent (Leishmania infantum) of VL, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the euthanasia of animals that are seropositive in both the immunochromatographic dual path platform rapid test (DPP(®); Bio-Manguinhos) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an L. major-like antigen (Bio-Manguinhos). Vaccination is an additional tool in the control of canine VL, but the use of Leishmune(®) (Zoetis Indústria de Produtos Veterinários, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), which contains the fucose mannose ligand (FML) isolated from L. donovani, is not currently recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health because vaccinated animals may exhibit positive serology and there are reservations regarding the efficacy of the vaccine. The aims of the present study were: (i) to verify the abilities of the fast agglutination screening test (FAST), the direct agglutination test (DAT), the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT), the DPP rapid test, and ELISA tests with L. major-like and FML antigens to differentiate between L. infantum-infected and Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs, and (ii) to analyze the sensitivities and specificities of the different methods. The reactivities to these tests of Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs (n = 71), asymptomatic (n = 20) and symptomatic (n = 20) naturally infected dogs, and unvaccinated healthy control dogs (n = 5) were compared. None of the Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs tested seropositive in FAST and DAT, although one dog was reactive to DPP and four dogs to ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. While 69 (97%) of vaccinated dogs reacted to ELISA/FML, only one was seropositive in both ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. Individually, all immunodiagnostic tests presented high specificities and positive likelihood ratios (LR+), and high specificity values were

  13. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  14. Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

    2013-09-13

    Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the

  15. Immunologic progression of canine leishmaniosis following vertical transmission in United States dogs.

    PubMed

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G; Esch, Kevin J; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M; Petersen, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto et al., 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4(+) immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis.

  16. Achieving Population-Level Immunity to Rabies in Free-Roaming Dogs in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Schoeman, Johan P.; Restif, Olivier; Whay, Helen R.; Goddard, Amelia; Fooks, Anthony R.; Damriyasa, I. Made; Wood, James L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least two years to ensure

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs - correlation with health and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Thamm, D H; Backus, R

    2016-09-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is important in bone health as well as many diseases including cancer. Supplementation may increase responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and canine C-reactive protein (c-CRP) were measured in healthy dogs and dogs with haemoabdomen. Regression analysis determined optimal 25(OH)D concentrations. In healthy dogs (n = 282), mean iPTH concentrations correlated inversely (r(2) = 0.88, P < 0.001) to 25(OH)D concentrations. Variation in both iPTH and c-CRP plateaued at 25(OH)D concentrations of 100-120 ng mL(-1) . Haemoabdomen dogs (n = 63, 43 malignant and 20 benign) had 25(OH)D concentrations ranging from 19.4 to >150 ng mL(-1) . Relative risk of cancer increased with decreasing 25(OH)D concentrations [RR = 3.9 for 25(OH)D below 40 ng mL(-1) (P = 0.0001)]. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs vary widely, and are influenced by dietary VitD content. Serum vitD measurement can identify dogs for which supplementation may improve health and response to cancer therapy.

  18. Genotyping and characterisation of the secretory lipolytic enzymes of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates collected from dogs

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hideshi; Kumeda, Yuko; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Hosomi, Koji; Kozaki, Shunji; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Kohda, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malassezia species are commensals of normal skin microbial flora of humans and animals. These may become pathogenic under certain conditions such as those associated with atopic dermatitis or otitis externa in dogs. Material and methods Isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis were obtained from 27 dogs with healthy external ears and 32 dogs with otitis externa. Isolates were characterised on the basis of their first internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and internal spacer 1 (IGS1) sequences. Their extracellular lipase and phospholipase activity were also analysed. Three types of phospholipase inhibitor were used to identify the subclasses of phospholipase associated with otitis externa. Results The clinical isolates were classified into three ITS and three IGS1 sequence types. No significant differences in pathogenicity were detected among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes, and all of the isolates exhibited similar levels of lipase activity. The isolates derived from the dogs with otitis externa showed significantly higher phospholipase activity than those obtained from the dogs with healthy external ears. A phospholipase D inhibitor reduced the phospholipase activity of the isolates obtained from the dogs with otitis externa. Conclusions This study did not show any significant differences in pathogenicity among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes but does suggest that phospholipase D might be one of the virulence factors involved in the inflammation of the external ear caused by M. pachydermatis. PMID:26392911

  19. Effects of P-MAPA immunomodulator on Toll-like receptor 2, ROS, nitric oxide, MAPKp38 and IKK in PBMC and macrophages from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, L M; Perosso, J; Almeida, B F M; Silva, K L O; Somenzari, M A; de Lima, V M F

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that can be transmitted to humans and dogs. VL in Brazil represents a serious public health problem; therefore, it is important to study new alternatives to treat infected dogs. In dogs, the therapeutic arsenal against canine VL is limited. The immunomodulator protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) improves immunocompetence when the immune system is impaired, but its dependence on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the mechanisms involved in immune response remain unclear. The in vitro action of P-MAPA on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IKK phosphorylation was studied in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and macrophages from healthy and Leishmania-infected dogs. The PBMC or macrophages were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of P-MAPA (20,100 and 200 μg/ml) in a humid environment at 37°C with 5% CO(2). Observation revealed that Leishmania-infected dogs showed a decrease in TLR2 in macrophages compared with healthy dogs and in induction with P-MAPA. ROS were increased in PBMCs from Leishmania spp.-infected dogs compared with healthy dogs and P-MAPA improved ROS production. NO production was increased in culture supernatant from macrophages stimulated by P-MAPA in both healthy and Leishmania spp. infected dogs. Treatment of macrophages from healthy dogs with immunomodulatory P-MAPA induced p38 MAPK and IKK phosphorylation, suggesting signal transduction by this pathway. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  1. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  2. Distribution of uropathogenic virulence factors among Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Yuri, K; Nakata, K; Katae, H; Yamamoto, S; Hasegawa, A

    1998-03-01

    A variety of virulence factors (VFs) such as type 1 fimbriae, pilus associated with pyelonephritis, S fimbriae, afimbrial adhesin, alpha-hemolysin, aerobactin and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 are associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In this study, 80 uropathogenic E. coli strains in 50 dogs and 30 cats suffering from UTI. In addition, 60 E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples from 30 each of healthy dogs and cats. The distribution of VFs of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from dogs and cats suffering from urinary tract infections (UTI) were examined by the colony hybridization test with seven DNA probes specific for VFs, and the results were compared with those obtained in the studies on strains from humans with UTI. In uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from dogs and cats suffering from UTI, VFs were detected as frequently as in the strains isolated from humans with UTI. Although less frequently, genes encoding these VFs especially pap, sfa, hly, and cnf 1 genes were also associated with E. coli strains isolated from feces of healthy cats, in contrast to the distribution pattern of uropathogenic E. coli observed in humans. Furthermore, all VFs except pil were significantly more frequently detected in strains isolated from urine of animals with cystitis than in those isolated from feces of healthy humans. These results indicate that VFs of E. coli contribute to the pathogenesis of UTI in dogs and cats.

  3. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  4. Reactivity of Dogs' Brain Oscillations to Visual Stimuli Measured with Non-Invasive Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Studying cognition of domestic dogs has gone through a renaissance within the last decades. However, although the behavioral studies of dogs are beginning to be common in the field of animal cognition, the neural events underlying cognition remain unknown. Here, we employed a non-invasive electroencephalography, with adhesive electrodes attached to the top of the skin, to measure brain activity of from 8 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) while they stayed still to observe photos of dog and human faces. Spontaneous oscillatory activity of the dogs, peaking in the sensors over the parieto-occipital cortex, was suppressed statistically significantly during visual task compared with resting activity at the frequency of 15–30 Hz. Moreover, a stimulus-induced low-frequency (∼2–6 Hz) suppression locked to the stimulus onset was evident at the frontal sensors, possibly reflecting a motor rhythm guiding the exploratory eye movements. The results suggest task-related reactivity of the macroscopic oscillatory activity in the dog brain. To our knowledge, the study is the first to reveal non-invasively measured reactivity of brain electrophysiological oscillations in healthy dogs, and it has been based purely on positive operant conditional training, without the need for movement restriction or medication. PMID:23650504

  5. Ecological Characterization of the Colonic Microbiota of Normal and Diarrheic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Julia A.; Kopper, Jamie J.; Turnbull, Judy A.; Barbu, Nicholas I.; Murphy, Alice J.; Mansfield, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    We used terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to assess (1) stability of the fecal microbiota in dogs living in environments characterized by varying degrees of exposure to factors that might alter the microbiota and (2) changes in the microbiota associated with acute episodes of diarrhea. Results showed that the healthy canine GI tract harbors potential enteric pathogens. Dogs living in an environment providing minimal exposure to factors that might alter the microbiota had similar microbiotas; the microbiotas of dogs kept in more variable environments were more variable. Substantial changes in the microbiota occurred during diarrheic episodes, including increased levels of Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium. When diet and medications of a dog having a previously stable microbiota were changed repeatedly, the microbiota also changed repeatedly. Temporal trend analysis showed directional changes in the microbiota after perturbation, a return to the starting condition, and then fluctuating changes over time. PMID:19282974

  6. Serum DHEA-S increases in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, M C H; Munhoz, T D; Catandi, P B; Freschi, C R; Palacios Junior, R J G; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical disturbances are expected in canine ehrlichiosis due to the immunological challenges caused by infection and consequent inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of adrenocortical hormonal alterations in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis (n = 21) as positively confirmed by the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies (Dot-ELISA) and nested PCR (nPCR). Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed via ELISA before and one hour after ACTH stimulation. Another 10 healthy dogs were subjected to the same stimulation protocol and used as controls. The results revealed that baseline and post-ACTH DHEA-S concentrations were significantly greater in sick dogs, regardless of gender, and this finding illustrates the stress induced by naturally acquired ehrlichiosis in dogs. PMID:25956636

  7. Phylogenetic identification of Cystoisospora spp. from dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Carreno, Ramon A; Tani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiuchi, Ryusaku; Kanai, Takenori; Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Furuya, Masaru; Sasai, Kazumi

    2011-03-10

    Cystoisospora spp. from feces in dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs were isolated, sequenced at the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene locus and compared to other Cystoisospora spp. Cystoisospora oocysts from dogs and raccoon dogs were morphologically similar with those of C. ohioensis, and cat isolates were similar with those of C. felis. The sequences from dogs and raccoon dogs, and cats have a homology with C. ohioensis and C. felis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences showed that the dog and raccoon dog isolates were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp. including C. ohioensis, C. belli, and C. orlovi. The cat isolate formed a sister group with C. felis that was a separate clade from the dog and raccoon dog group. We report sequence variation in these Cystoisospora sequences and have identified raccoon dogs as another carnivore host for Cystoisospora spp. infecting dogs.

  8. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  10. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2012-02-01

    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221

  11. Temporal IgG subclasses response in dogs following vaccination against Leishmania with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; Ikeda, Fabiana A; Vieira, Rafael F C; Day, Michael J; Lima, Valéria M F; Rossi, Cláudio N; Perri, Sílvia H V; Biondo, Alexander W

    2011-09-27

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a widespread zoonotic disease with mandatory euthanasia of infected dogs determined by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Development of vaccines against CVL may provide a prophylactic barrier, but transitory peak of antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques in vaccinated dogs may be interpreted as natural infection. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to sequentially evaluate total and IgG subclasses response between naturally Leishmania-infected and dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 172 mongrel dogs were divided in four groups: Group 1 (G1) with 45 clinically healthy dogs, Group 2 (G2) and Group 3 (G3) with 45 dogs naturally infected by Leishmania sp. each, symptomatic and asymptomatic respectively, and G4 (G4) with 37 healthy dogs submitted to a complete protocol of a commercially available vaccine against CVL, monitored and evaluated in 5 different chronological moments (M0-M4) up to 180 days after M0. Total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 were unable to differentiate between infected (G2 and G3) and vaccinated (G4) dogs, demonstrating that polyclonal commercial antibodies do not distinguish these groups apart. Total and IgG subclasses antibodies were not detected until 21 days of the second vaccination dose; however, seroconversion was observed on 21 days and sustained positivity up to 6 months after the vaccination start. A peak of antibodies response was observed on 90 days (M3), when results for total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 where highly significant when compared to M0 (P<0.0001). Neither total IgG nor IgG1 effectively differentiated between infected (G2 and G3) and vaccinated (G4) dogs. In conclusion, despite dogs may test serologically negative immediately after vaccination against CVL with Leishmune(®), subsequent seroconversion, antibody peak and positivity up to six months may lead vaccinated dogs to be mistakenly identified as naturally infected dogs during this period. PMID

  12. Investigation of risk factors for mortality in aged guide dogs: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoummady, S; Hua, J; Muller, C; Pouchelon, J L; Blondot, M; Gilbert, C; Desquilbet, L

    2016-09-15

    The overall median lifespan of domestic dogs has been estimated to 9-12 years, but little is known about risk factors for mortality in aged and a priori healthy dogs. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine which characteristics are associated with mortality in aged and a priori healthy guide dogs, in a retrospective cohort study of 116 guide dogs followed from a systematic geriatric examination at the age of 8-10 years old. A geriatric grid collected the clinical data and usual biological parameters were measured at the time of examination. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier estimates) and multivariable (Cox proportional hazard model) survival analyses were used to assess the associations with time to all-cause death. The majority of dogs were Golden Retrievers (n=48) and Labrador Retrievers (n=27). Median age at geriatric examination was 8.9 years. A total of 76 dogs died during follow-up, leading to a median survival time from geriatric examination of 4.4 years. After adjustment for demographic and biological variables, an increased alanine amionotransferase level (adjusted Hazard Ratio (adjusted HR), 6.2; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 2.0-19.0; P<0.01), presenting skin nodules (adjusted HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4; P=0.04), and not being a Labrador Retriever (adjusted HR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.4-10; P<0.01) were independently associated with a shorter time to death. This study documents independent associations of alanine aminotransferase level, skin nodules and breed with mortality in aged guide dogs. These results may be useful for preventive medical care when conducting a geriatric examination in working dogs. PMID:27616361

  13. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: assessment and comparison with walking dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J; Maas, H; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and compared with ground reaction forces of 24 healthy dogs. Force-time waveforms in cats generated by force plate analysis were consistent, as reflected by intra-class correlation coefficients for peak vertical force, peak propulsive force and peak braking force (0.94-0.95, 0.85-0.89 and 0.89-0.90, respectively). Compared with dogs, cats had a higher peak vertical force during the propulsion phase (cat, 3.89 ± 0.19 N/kg; dog, 3.03 ± 0.16 N/kg), and a higher hindlimb propulsive force (cat, -1.08 ± 0.13 N/kg; dog, (-0.87 ± 0.13 N/kg) and hindlimb impulse (cat, -0.18 ± 0.03 N/kg; dog, -0.14 ± 0.02 N/kg). Force plate analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of locomotion in cats, because it can be applied in the clinical setting and provides a non-invasive and objective measurement of locomotion characteristics with high repeatability in cats, as well as information about kinetic characteristics. Differences in force-time waveforms between cats and dogs can be explained by the more crouched position of cats during stance and their more compliant gait compared with dogs. Feline waveforms of the medio-lateral ground reaction forces also differ between cats and dogs and this can be explained by differences in paw supination-pronation.

  14. Healthy Pets and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant women should avoid adopting or handling stray cats, especially kittens. They particularly should not clean litter ... may be sick. Many pets, such as dogs, cats, reptiles, rodents, and birds, carry germs that can ...

  15. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... undercooked meat and fish processed meats, such as hot dogs and deli meats soft, unpasteurized cheeses, such ...

  16. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saxena, Meeta; Kumari, Priyambada

    2014-12-15

    The mechanism of cytokine secretion from T lymphocytes plays an important role in the immune response of dogs and parasitic skin infestations. Assessment of the cytokine profile of naturally S. scabiei var. canis infested dogs could augment understanding of the pathobiology of canine sarcoptic mange. Therefore, the present study examined the cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange. Thirteen dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange participated in the study. The dogs were found positive for S. scabiei var. canis mites in skin scraping examinations and revealed at least three clinical inclusion criteria. Another five clinically healthy dogs were kept as healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from heparinized blood samples and used for extraction of mRNA. Further, cDNA was synthesized by using 1 mg of mRNA by reverse transcription using oligonucleotide primers. Relative levels of cytokine expression were compared with normalized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcripts. The levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the healthy dogs. No remarkable difference was seen for interleukin-2 mRNA expression between these animals. An overproduction IL-4 and IL-5 might be involved in immuno-pathogenesis of canine sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var. canis mites possibly induce an overproduction of TGF-β and reduced expression of TNF-α and thus could be conferring the immune suppression of infested dogs.

  17. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saxena, Meeta; Kumari, Priyambada

    2014-12-15

    The mechanism of cytokine secretion from T lymphocytes plays an important role in the immune response of dogs and parasitic skin infestations. Assessment of the cytokine profile of naturally S. scabiei var. canis infested dogs could augment understanding of the pathobiology of canine sarcoptic mange. Therefore, the present study examined the cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange. Thirteen dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange participated in the study. The dogs were found positive for S. scabiei var. canis mites in skin scraping examinations and revealed at least three clinical inclusion criteria. Another five clinically healthy dogs were kept as healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from heparinized blood samples and used for extraction of mRNA. Further, cDNA was synthesized by using 1 mg of mRNA by reverse transcription using oligonucleotide primers. Relative levels of cytokine expression were compared with normalized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcripts. The levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the healthy dogs. No remarkable difference was seen for interleukin-2 mRNA expression between these animals. An overproduction IL-4 and IL-5 might be involved in immuno-pathogenesis of canine sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var. canis mites possibly induce an overproduction of TGF-β and reduced expression of TNF-α and thus could be conferring the immune suppression of infested dogs. PMID:25468023

  18. Dog Tear Film Proteome In-Depth Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Lukasz; Madany, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Jerzy; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Winiarczyk, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mass spectrometry was used to explore the canine tear proteome. Tear samples were obtained from six healthy dogs, and one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE) was used as a first step to separate intact proteins into 17 bands. Each fraction was then trypsin digested and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) to characterize the protein components in each fraction. In total, 125 tear proteins were identified, with MCA (Major Canine Allergen), Serum albumin, UPF0557 protein C10orf119 homolog, Collagen alpha-2(I) chain, Tyrosine -protein kinase Fer, Keratine type II cytoskeletal, Beta-crystallin B2, Interleukin-6 and Desmin occuring as the most confident ones with the highest scores. The results showed that the proteomic strategy used in this study was successful in the analysis of the dog tear proteome. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the comprehensive proteome profile of tears from healthy dogs by 1D SDS PAGE and MALDI-TOF. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003124. PMID:26701646

  19. Associations between Stress and Quality of Life: Differences between Owners Keeping a Living Dog or Losing a Dog by Euthanasia

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The loss of a pet may be stressful to the owner. The main objectives of this study were to compare the levels of stress and to explore the correlates of QOL of healthy adults who currently own or who have just lost their dog. Methods The study sample contained 110 current, and 103 bereaved dog owners, all females, who lost their dogs due to euthanasia. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and divided into four major domains–Physical, Psychological, Relationship, and Environmental. Demographic variables, stress, health behaviors, and social support from family, friends, and significant other were included in multivariate analysis. Results Stress levels were significantly higher in bereaved owners. QOL in three of the four domains (Physical, Psychological, and Relationship) of current owners were significantly better than among bereaved owners. Stress was significantly associated with these three domains of QOL. Quality of life was found to be positively associated with social support. Age was related directly only to current owners’ QOL. Conclusions The results suggest that a loss of a dog is associated with stress for the bereaved owner and reduced physical, psychological, and relationship QOL. Lack of social support in the case of death of a companion animal has a strong effect on owners’ grief reactions. PMID:25826295

  20. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  1. Phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Forrest, W C; Yang, Qiuhong; Groer, Chad; Mohr, Eva; Aires, Daniel J; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Flesner, Brian K; Henry, Carolyn J; Selting, Kimberly A; Tate, Deborah; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Forrest, M Laird

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate (HA-Pt) in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors. ANIMALS 18 healthy rats, 9 healthy mice, and 16 dogs with cancer. PROCEDURES HA-Pt was prepared and tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; DNA-platinum adduct formation and antiproliferation effects of cisplatin and HA-Pt were compared in vitro. Effects of cisplatin (IV) and HA-Pt (SC) in rodents were tested by clinicopathologic assays. In the clinical trial, dogs with cancer received 1 to 4 injections of HA-Pt (10 to 30 mg/m(2), intratumoral or peritumoral, q 3 wk). Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis; CBC, serum BUN and creatinine concentration measurement, and urinalysis were conducted before and 1 week after each treatment. Some dogs underwent hepatic enzyme testing. Tumors were measured before the first treatment and 3 weeks after each treatment to assess response. RESULTS No adverse drug effects were detected in pretrial assessments in rodents. Seven of 16 dogs completed the study; 3 had complete tumor responses, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had progressive disease. Three of 7 dogs with oral and nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that completed the study had complete responses. Myelosuppression and cardiotoxicosis were identified in 6 and 2 dogs, respectively; none had nephrotoxicosis. Four of 5 dogs with hepatic enzymes assessed had increased ALT activities, attributed to diaquated cisplatin products in the HA-Pt. Pharmacokinetic data fit a 3-compartment model. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE HA-Pt treatment resulted in positive tumor responses in some dogs, primarily those with SCC. The adverse effect rate was high. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Oral SCC in dogs has characteristics similar to human head and neck SCC; these results could be useful in developing human treatments. PMID:27580113

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among dogs and their owners: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Yang, Cheol-Ho; Park, Hee-Myung

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated colonization and association of staphylococci between healthy dogs and their owners. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated staphylococci were determined for 119 dogs and 107 owners. Relatedness of the Staphylococcus isolates in dogs and their owners was investigated using antibiograms, toxin profiles, and genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence type, and spa typing. Risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in dogs were also evaluated. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 65 (60.7%) owners and 44 (37.0%) dogs. The following species were isolated, listed in order of decreasing frequency: S. epidermidis, S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. scheiferi subsp. coagulans, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. S. pseudintermedius (65.9%) was the major isolate in dogs while S. epidermidis (81.5%) was the major type in owners. Among the isolates, 71.6% were methicillin resistant (MR) and 95.4% of the isolates demonstrated multi-drug resistance regardless of the origin. Only one dog-owner pair shared the same Staphylococcus spp. (S. pseudintermedius); however, the organisms were of different PFGE subtypes and exhibited different antibiotic resistance and toxin profiles while both isolates displayed same sequence type (ST365). While the dog-origin isolate showed spa type t02, the owner-origin isolate was negative to PCRs targeting spa gene sequence. Risk factor analysis showed that the presence of cohabitant animals was correlated with the nasal carriage of MR staphylococci in dogs. The cumulative data indicated that animal- and owner-origin staphylococci have various subtypes with high prevalence of MR; however, the bacteria are not shared between healthy dogs and their owners. PMID:27256020

  3. Bromocyclen poisoning in the dog.

    PubMed

    Jones, R S

    1979-05-19

    An 18-week-old male German shepherd dog had a convulsion following the accidental ingestion of bromocyclen two hours previously. The dog then vomited and had a second convulsion. A pulse rate of 150 per minute and a respiratory rate of 54 per minute were recorded. The dog was treated with 2mg acepromazine and 0.6mg atropine administered intramuscularly (im) and repeated every four hours, 10ml of 20 per cent calcium borogluconate administered subcutaneously and 2ml penicillin and streptomycin im. Eighteen hours later, the respiratory rate was in excess of 60 per minute, and penicillin and streptomycin plus 2mg betamethasone were administered im. Only atropine was administered over the next 12 hours and then discontinued. Forty hours after the original convulsion, the respiratory rate had fallen to 30 per minute and the pulse rate to 84 per minute. A day later, the dog had fully recovered.

  4. Mushroom Poisoning in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The false morel (Gyromitra esculenta), a mushroom responsible for occasional fatalities in man, caused a fatal hemolytic episode in a ten week old dog. The clinical symptoms observed and the gross and histopathological findings, are discussed. PMID:436103

  5. Aberrant expression and distribution of enzymes of the urea cycle and other ammonia metabolizing pathways in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Giora; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Grinwis, Guy C M; Favier, Robert P; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H; Fieten, Hille; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The detoxification of ammonia occurs mainly through conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver via the urea cycle and glutamine synthesis. Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs cause hyperammonemia eventually leading to hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, the gene expression of urea cycle enzymes (carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS1), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase (ARG1)), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1), and glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) was evaluated in dogs with CPSS before and after surgical closure of the shunt. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on urea cycle enzymes and GLUL on liver samples of healthy dogs and dogs with CPSS to investigate a possible zonal distribution of these enzymes within the liver lobule and to investigate possible differences in distribution in dogs with CPSS compared to healthy dogs. Furthermore, the effect of increasing ammonia concentrations on the expression of the urea cycle enzymes was investigated in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Gene-expression of CPS1, OTC, ASL, GLUD1 and NAGS was down regulated in dogs with CPSS and did not normalize after surgical closure of the shunt. In all dogs GLUL distribution was localized pericentrally. CPS1, OTC and ASS1 were localized periportally in healthy dogs, whereas in CPSS dogs, these enzymes lacked a clear zonal distribution. In primary hepatocytes higher ammonia concentrations induced mRNA levels of CPS1. We hypothesize that the reduction in expression of urea cycle enzymes, NAGS and GLUD1 as well as the alterations in zonal distribution in dogs with CPSS may be caused by a developmental arrest of these enzymes during the embryonic or early postnatal phase. PMID:24945279

  6. Hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lobetti, R G

    1998-03-01

    A 9-year-old male German shepherd dog was evaluated for clinical and clinico-pathological changes that were suggestive of Addison's disease. On further investigation the basal plasma cortisol concentration was high, a normal cortisol response to ACTH stimulation occurred, plasma renin activity was elevated and low serum aldosterone concentration was present. A diagnosis of hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism was made. Replacement fludrocortisone resulted in complete normalisation of the electrolyte and fluid imbalances. Hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism has never been reported in the dog.

  7. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  8. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  9. Seroprevalence of some vector-borne infections of dogs in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Robert; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Lukács, Zoltán; Aladics, Balázs; Solymosi, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    The first comprehensive study on the prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis) was carried in Hungary because, except for babesiosis and dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens, there were no data on their regional distribution and prevalence. In 2011 and 2012, 1305 blood samples were collected from randomly selected, apparently healthy pet dogs in 167 localities of 19 counties of Hungary. All sera samples from dogs were screened for simultaneous qualitative detection of circulating antibodies to E. canis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen using SNAP(®) 4Dx (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, 170 dogs (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 11-15) were serologically positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent pathogen detected in 102 dogs by antibody titers (7.9%, 95% CI 6.5-9.5), followed by D. immitis (2.4%, 95% CI 1.0-4.0, n=64) and B. burgdorferi (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0-1.1, n=11) out of 1305 tested dogs. The least prevalent infection was with E. canis, with only two positive dogs (0.16%, 95% CI 0.03-0.6). Co-infection was found in eight dogs (0.61%, 95% CI 0.29-1.21), of which seven were seropositive to two pathogens (five with A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis, two with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi). One dog was serologically positive to three pathogens (A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi, and D. immitis). Purebred and crossbred animals did not show significantly different levels of seropositivity. There was no significant association between the gender and the results of diagnostic testing. Logistic regression analysis showed a higher chance of seropositivity in the older dogs.

  10. Seroprevalence of Some Vector-Borne Infections of Dogs in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Lukács, Zoltán; Aladics, Balázs; Solymosi, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The first comprehensive study on the prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis) was carried in Hungary because, except for babesiosis and dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens, there were no data on their regional distribution and prevalence. In 2011 and 2012, 1305 blood samples were collected from randomly selected, apparently healthy pet dogs in 167 localities of 19 counties of Hungary. All sera samples from dogs were screened for simultaneous qualitative detection of circulating antibodies to E. canis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen using SNAP® 4Dx (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, 170 dogs (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 11–15) were serologically positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent pathogen detected in 102 dogs by antibody titers (7.9%, 95% CI 6.5–9.5), followed by D. immitis (2.4%, 95% CI 1.0–4.0, n=64) and B. burgdorferi (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0–1.1, n=11) out of 1305 tested dogs. The least prevalent infection was with E. canis, with only two positive dogs (0.16%, 95% CI 0.03–0.6). Co-infection was found in eight dogs (0.61%, 95% CI 0.29–1.21), of which seven were seropositive to two pathogens (five with A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis, two with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi). One dog was serologically positive to three pathogens (A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi, and D. immitis). Purebred and crossbred animals did not show significantly different levels of seropositivity. There was no significant association between the gender and the results of diagnostic testing. Logistic regression analysis showed a higher chance of seropositivity in the older dogs. PMID:24689833

  11. Serosurvey for selected viral diseases and demography of African wild dogs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Creel, S; Creel, N M; Munson, L; Sanderlin, D; Appel, M J

    1997-10-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered, with only 3,000-5,000 remaining in the wild. It is believed that wild dogs are unusually vulnerable to viral diseases, particularly rabies and canine distemper (CDV). However, canine distemper has been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis in only one free-living wild dog. The 43,000 km2 Selous Game Reserve (SGR; Tanzania) holds approximately 900 adult wild dogs. In a study area of 2,600 km2, the population maintained high density (> or = 1 dog/20.5 km2) from 1991 to 1996. The population was stable, varying 18% below and 9% above the mean density over the 6-yr period. Serum samples (n = 22) collected over 3 yr showed that most individuals were exposed to CDV (59%:95% confidence interval = 43-76% seropositive) and canine parvovirus (68%:95% CI = 54-81% seropositive), although none were seropositive for rabies (0%:95% CI = 0-17%). CDV titers were positively related to age, with no seropositive dogs younger than 1.9 yr. At least five of 13 dogs positive for CDV seroconverted during the study. Dogs with high CDV titers did not survive better in the years after sampling (mean survival +/- SE for those that died = 638 +/- 92 days,). Variation in mean litter size was inversely related to CPV exposure in the SGR and elsewhere. Annual mortality rates were low in comparison to other populations for all age classes (pups: 31 +/- 8%, n = 127, yearlings: 22 +/- 10%, n = 93, adults: 20 +/- 6%, n = 235). Annual mortality rates fluctuated little between 1992 and 1996. These data show that wild dog populations, like those of other canids, can remain stable and demographically healthy despite exposure to CDV and CPV.

  12. Increased Feeding Speed Is Associated with Higher Subsequent Sympathetic Activity in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Okamoto, Yuta; Tateishi, Kanako; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females). Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19), Slow (n = 24) and Leftover (n = 13). The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system. PMID:26569112

  13. Increased Feeding Speed Is Associated with Higher Subsequent Sympathetic Activity in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Okamoto, Yuta; Tateishi, Kanako; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females). Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19), Slow (n = 24) and Leftover (n = 13). The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system. PMID:26569112

  14. PM-16IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE FACTORS, MDSC AND ARGINASE, ARE ELEVATED IN DOGS WITH MALIGNANT GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Pluhar, Liz; Goulart, Michelle; Seiler, Charles; Olin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy for malignant gliomas has striking efficacy in rodent models but very limited effects in clinical trials, which may reflect immunological differences between induced and spontaneous tumors. The monocytes that heavily infiltrate GBM develop myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype, and these immunosuppressive cells are increased in GBM patients, but not in murine models. Canine primary brain tumors may offer a more faithful representation of the human disease due to similarities in clinical and pathobiological characteristics. We were recently first to identify MDSC in dogs and found significantly increased in number in dogs with advanced cancers. To add further support to pet dogs with glioma as a translational model, we assessed whether canine glioma patients also have elevated numbers of MDSC relative to healthy dogs. MDSC secrete arginase that removes L-arginine from the microenvironment profoundly impairing T cell proliferation and function. Therefore we also measured serum levels of arginase 1 in all dogs. The mean percentage of monocytic MDSC in peripheral blood of dogs with glioma (n = 26) was 7.51 ± 1.31, which was significantly greater than healthy controls (n = 10) with 0.74 ± 0.34 (P< 0.0001). The median percentages of granulocytic MDSC did not differ between dogs with glioma versus controls, 15.95% and 12.5% respectively. There were also significantly increased levels of arginase in the serum of dogs with gliomas, 8.00 ± 3.32 U/L, relative to that of healthy controls, 2.40 ± 1.40 U/L (P < 0.0001). These data demonstrate that some of the immunosuppressive mechanisms present in human gliomas patients are also found in dogs with malignant gliomas. These findings lend further support that the pet dog with spontaneous brain cancer that shares our environment is an excellent translational model for the human disease. We are currently working to correlate changes in numbers of MDSC and arginase levels in serum with disease burden as

  15. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  16. Oral vitamin D supplementation at five times the recommended allowance marginally affects serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Young, Lauren R; Backus, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding optimal vitamin D status in adult dogs. To date no studies on vitamin D supplementation for improving vitamin D status have been reported for adult dogs. The aims of this study were to identify dogs with low vitamin D status and evaluate an oral dosage of cholecalciferol (D3) for effectiveness in increasing vitamin D status. For this, forty-six privately owned dogs were evaluated. Of the dogs, thirty-three (or 71·7 %) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations less than 100 ng/ml, a minimum previously suggested for vitamin D sufficiency in dogs. Subsequently, thirteen dogs were enrolled in a supplementation trial. Dogs were given either a D3 supplement (n 7; 2·3 µg/kg(0·75)) or olive oil placebo (n 6) daily with food. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were determined at weeks 1, 3 and 6, and at the trial end. Only at the trial end (weeks 9-10) was 25(OH)D significantly greater (P = 0·05) in supplemented v. placebo dogs. Serum concentrations of 24R,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol determined at the trial end were about 40 % of that of 25(OH)D3 and not significantly different between the groups. Concentrations of parathyroid hormone, ionised Ca, P and creatinine measured in initial and final serum samples indicated supplementation caused no toxicity. We conclude that vitamin D3 supplementation at a dosage near the National Research Council recommended safe-upper limit was not effective for rapidly raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy, adult dogs. Further work is needed in evaluating the metabolism of orally administered D3 in dogs before dosing recommendations can be made. PMID:27547394

  17. Architectonics of the hair of sled dogs of Chukotka.

    PubMed

    Chernova, O F; Vasyukov, D D; Savinetsky, A B

    2016-03-01

    Architectonics of guard hairs from dogs of recent breeds, mongrel sled dogs, and fossil dogs from ancient settlements of Chukotka have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Distinct features of hair structure important for adaptation, including the adaptation to harness in sled dogs, were identified. Hairs of Chukchi sled dogs were most similar to those of the fossil dogs. PMID:27193881

  18. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  19. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  20. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  1. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  2. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  3. Evaluation of the risks of shedding Salmonellae and other potential pathogens by therapy dogs fed raw diets in Ontario and Alberta.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, S L; Reid-Smith, R; Boerlin, P; Weese, J S

    2008-10-01

    Dogs that participate in animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), often called 'therapy dogs', commonly interact with humans whose immune systems are not functioning optimally. The advisability of feeding raw meat (including poultry) to these animals remains a highly contentious issue, in spite of increasing evidence that raw meat is frequently contaminated with Salmonella. We set out to determine if consuming raw meat influences the risk of therapy dogs shedding Salmonella and other pathogens. Two hundred healthy therapy dogs from Ontario and Alberta were enrolled. Between May 2005 and November 2006, fecal specimens were collected from each dog every 2 months for 1 year, along with a log of places visited, antimicrobial use within the home, dog health status and diet. Specimens were cultured for Salmonella, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC) Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile. Forty (20%) of the dogs were reported to have been fed raw meat at some point during the year. The incidence rate of Salmonella shedding in the raw meat-fed dogs was 0.61 cases/dog-year, compared with 0.08 cases/dog-year in dogs that were not fed raw meat (P<0.001). Controlling for therapy dog group, the repeated measures, and pig ear consumption and diarrhoea in the 2 months prior to specimen submission, dogs that consumed raw meat were significantly more likely to test positive for Salmonella at least once during the year than dogs that did not eat raw meat [odds ratio (OR) 22.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.1-58.8; P<0.001]. Specific Salmonella serovars were more common among dogs that consumed raw meat versus those that did not include S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky. Raw meat consumption was also significantly associated with shedding ESC E. coli (OR 17.2; 95% CI 9.4-32.3). No associations between C. difficile, MRSA or VRE and consumption of raw meat were detected. We

  4. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  5. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  6. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients. PMID:27506086

  7. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients.

  8. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  9. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  10. A retrospective comparison of cervical intervertebral disk disease in nonchondrodystrophic large dogs versus small dogs.

    PubMed

    Cherrone, Karen L; Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Bergman, Robert L

    2004-01-01

    Medical records of 144 small-breed dogs (< or =15 kg) and 46 medium- to large-breed dogs (>15 kg) with surgically confirmed, Hansen type I, cervical intervertebral disk extrusions were reviewed. The most common clinical presentation was cervical hyperesthesia. The most common sites affected were the second (C(2)) to third (C(3)) cervical intervertebral disk space in small-breed dogs and the sixth (C(6)) to seventh (C(7)) cervical intervertebral disk space in the larger dogs. Following surgery, 99% of the dogs had resolution of cervical hyperesthesia and were able to ambulate unassisted. Seven (4%) dogs required a second surgery; four of these were large-breed dogs.

  11. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guard, Blake C; Barr, James W; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states.

  12. Alterations of endocannabinoids in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with epileptic seizure disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs characterized by recurrent seizures. The endocannabinoid (EC) system plays a central role in suppressing pathologic neuronal excitability and in controlling the spread of activity in an epileptic network. Endocannabinoids are released on demand and their dysregulation has been described in several pathological conditions. Recurrent seizures may lead to an adverse reorganization of the EC system and impairment of its protective effect. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) are altered in epileptic dogs. Concentrations of AEA and total AG (sum of 2AG and 1AG) were measured in 40 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and in 16 unaffected, healthy control dogs using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Results AEA and total AG were measured at 4.94 (3.18 – 9.17) pM and 1.43 (0.90 – 1.92) nM in epileptic dogs and at 3.19 (2.04 – 4.28) pM and 1.76 (1.08 – 2.69) nM in the control group, respectively (median, 25 – 75% percentiles in brackets). The AEA difference between epileptic and healthy dogs was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Values correlated with seizure severity and duration of seizure activity. Dogs with cluster seizures and/or status epilepticus and with seizure activity for more than six months displayed the highest EC concentrations. Conclusion In conclusion, we present the first endocannabinoid measurements in canine CSF and confirm the hypothesis that the EC system is altered in canine idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:24370333

  13. Capnocytophaga canimorsus: an emerging cause of sepsis, meningitis, and post-splenectomy infection after dog bites.

    PubMed

    Butler, T

    2015-07-01

    Newly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26%. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60%; additionally, in 27%, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis (p < 0.05). Patients with prior splenectomy presented more frequently with high-grade bacteremia than patients with intact spleens (p < 0.05). The organism possesses virulence attributes of catalase and sialidase production, gliding motility, cytotoxin production, and resistance to killing by serum complement due to its unique lipopolysaccharide. Penicillin is the drug of choice, but some practitioners prefer third-generation cephalosporins or beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. C. canimorsus has emerged as a leading cause of sepsis, particularly post-splenectomy sepsis, and meningitis after dog bites. PMID:25828064

  14. Alteration of cardiac progenitor cell potency in GRMD dogs.

    PubMed

    Cassano, M; Berardi, E; Crippa, S; Toelen, J; Barthelemy, I; Micheletti, R; Chuah, M; Vandendriessche, T; Debyser, Z; Blot, S; Sampaolesi, M

    2012-01-01

    Among the animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog is considered the best model in terms of size and pathological onset of the disease. As in human patients presenting with DMD or Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD), the GRMD is related to a spontaneous X-linked mutation of dystrophin and is characterized by myocardial lesions. In this respect, GRMD is a useful model to explore cardiac pathogenesis and for the development of therapeutic protocols. To investigate whether cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated from healthy and GRMD dogs may differentiate into myocardial cell types and to test the feasibility of cell therapy for cardiomyopathies in a preclinical model of DMD, CPCs were isolated from cardiac biopsies of healthy and GRMD dogs. Gene profile analysis revealed an active cardiac transcription network in both healthy and GRMD CPCs. However, GRMD CPCs showed impaired self-renewal and cardiac differentiation. Population doubling and telomerase analyses highlighted earlier senescence and proliferation impairment in progenitors isolated from GRMD cardiac biopsies. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that only wt CPCs showed efficient although not terminal cardiac differentiation, consistent with the upregulation of cardiac-specific proteins and microRNAs. Thus, the pathological condition adversely influences the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of cardiac progenitors. Using PiggyBac transposon technology we marked CPCs for nuclear dsRed expression, providing a stable nonviral gene marking method for in vivo tracing of CPCs. Xenotransplantation experiments in neonatal immunodeficient mice revealed a valuable contribution of CPCs to cardiomyogenesis with homing differences between wt and dystrophic progenitors. These results suggest that cardiac degeneration in dystrophinopathies may account for the progressive exhaustion of local cardiac progenitors and shed light on cardiac stemness in

  15. Familial Glomerulonephritis in Doberman Pinscher Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, B. P; Patterson, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Progressive renal disease in 13 related Doberman pinscher dogs had the histological criteria of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss were the usual initial abnormalities and were observed at one year of age or less in seven of 11 dogs diagnosed antemortem as having renal disease. There was no sex predilection. All dogs were traced to a common male dog no more than four generations previously. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5. PMID:498006

  16. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  17. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  18. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  20. Dogs as pets, visitors, therapists and assistants.

    PubMed

    Winkle, Melissa Y; Wilder, Anna; Jackson, Liberty Z

    2014-01-01

    Dogs can play an integral role in the recovery of patients through companionship, animal-assisted therapy, and as assistance dogs. This article will define and differentiate these 3 categories and provide resources for home healthcare and hospice clinicians who may want to include dogs in the plan of care for select patients. PMID:25370974

  1. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  2. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  3. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  4. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  5. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  6. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  8. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  9. Periaortic haemangiosarcoma in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, A; Lane, E

    2009-06-01

    A 9-year-old apparently healthy male African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) was found dead in its enclosure at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre. Necropsy revealed a pericardium distended by approximately 250 ml of thick blood. A soft, red, lobulated mass was attached to the periaortic fat between the level of the aortic valves and the pericardial reflection. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a haemangiosarcoma. Other findings in the heart included mild to moderate ventricular hypertrophy and moderate, acute perivascular myocardial necrosis. Sudden death was attributed to acute heart failure precipitated by cardiac tamponade.

  10. Lingual osteoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Grau-Roma, L; Roura, X; Majó, N

    2012-08-01

    An 11-year-old male Belgian shepherd dog was evaluated for a one-week history of progressive lethargy, decreased appetite and excessive panting. On physical examination, a pedunculated mass protruding from the right side of the tongue base was observed. The mass was solid, irregular and multi-lobulated, and it measured approximately 4 × 2 cm. The mass was surgically excised. The histological examination was consistent with a lingual osteoma and the margins were free of neoplastic cells. The dog was euthanased eight months after the diagnosis because of an unrelated problem and no evidence of recurrence at the surgical site was appreciated at that time. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a lingual osteoma in a dog, and, therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of masses on the tongue, especially pedunculated masses located at the base of the tongue.

  11. The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone after intramuscular administration to dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Fukui, Sho; Oyama, Norihiko; Kawase, Kodai; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone were evaluated after intramuscular (IM) administration to 6 healthy beagle dogs. The dogs received three IM doses each of alfaxalone at increasing dose rates of 5 mg/kg (IM5), 7.5 mg/kg (IM7.5) and 10 mg/kg (IM10) every other day. Anesthetic effect was subjectively evaluated by using an ordinal scoring system to determine the degree of neuro-depression and the quality of anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured using noninvasive methods. Alfaxalone administered IM produced dose-dependent neuro-depression and lateral recumbency (i.e., 36 ± 28 min, 87 ± 26 min and 115 ± 29 min after the IM5, IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively). The endotracheal tube was tolerated in all dogs for 46 ± 20 and 58 ± 21 min after the IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively. It was not possible to place endotracheal tubes in 5 of the 6 dogs after the IM5 treatment. Most cardiorespiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges, but hypoxemia was observed by pulse oximetry for 5 to 10 min in 2 dogs receiving the IM10 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure also occurred. The quality of recovery was considered satisfactory in all dogs receiving each treatment; all the dog exhibited transient muscular tremors and staggering gait. In conclusion, IM alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent anesthetic effect with relatively mild cardiorespiratory depression in dogs. However, hypoxemia may occur at higher IM doses of alfaxalone.

  12. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis.

  13. Dog ecology and demography in Antananarivo, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rasambainarivo, Jhon H; Raharimanana, Soloherilala; Rakotonandrasana, Hary; Andriamiarisoa, Marie-Perle; Rakalomanana, Fidilalao A; Richard, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and a serious public health problem in developing countries. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study of dog ecology in the Antananarivo urban community in Madagascar. A questionnaire survey of 1541 households was conducted in Antananarivo from October 2007 to January 2008. The study addressed both owned and unowned dogs. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size of dog population, relationship between dogs and humans, rabies vaccination. Results Dog ownership was common, with 79.6 to 94.1% (mean 88.9%) of households in the six arrondissements owning dogs. The mean owned dog to person ratio was 1 dog per 4.5 persons and differed between arrondissements (administrative districts), with ratios of 1:6.0 in the first arrondissement, 1:3.2 persons in the 2nd, 1:4.8 in the 3rd, 1:5.2 in the 4th, 1:5.6 in the 5th and 1:4.4 in the 6th arrondissement. Overall, there were more male dogs (61.3%) and the male/female sex ratio was estimated to be 1.52; however, mature females were more likely than males to be unowned (OR: 1.93, CI 95%; 1.39dogs were never restricted and roamed freely to forage for food and mix with other dogs. Only a small proportion of dogs (11.7%) were fed with commercial dog food. Only 7.2% of owned dogs had certificates confirming vaccination against rabies. The proportion of vaccinated dogs varied widely between arrondissements (3.3% to 17.5%). Conclusion Antananarivo has a higher density of dogs than many other urban areas in Africa. The dog population is unrestricted and inadequately vaccinated against rabies. This analysis of the dog population will enable targeted planning of rabies control efforts. PMID:19486516

  14. Consecutive CT-guided core needle tissue biopsy of lung lesions in the same dog at different phases of radiation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhongyuan; Deng, Sisi; Liang, Zhiwen; Wang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to set up a Beagle dog model of radiation-induced lung injury in order to supply fresh lung tissue samples in the different injury phases for gene and protein research. Three dogs received 18 Gy X-ray irradiation in one fraction, another three dogs received 8 Gy in each of three fractions at weekly intervals, and one control dog was not irradiated. Acute pneumonitis was observed during the first 3 months after radiation, and chronic lung fibrosis was found during the next 4–12 months in all the dogs exposed to radiation. CT-guided core needle lung lesion biopsies were extracted from each dog five times over the course of 1 year. The dogs remained healthy after each biopsy, and 50–100 mg fresh lung lesion tissues were collected in each operation. The incidence of pneumothorax and hemoptysis was 20% and 2.8%, respectively, in the 35 tissue biopsies. A successful and stable radiation-induced lung injury dog model was established. Lung lesion tissue samples from dogs in acute stage, recovery stage and fibrosis stage were found to be sufficient to support cytology, genomics and proteomics research. This model safely supplied fresh tissue samples that would allow future researchers to more easily explore and develop treatments for radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:27422930

  15. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  16. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  17. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  18. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  19. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A L; Montiani-Ferreira, F; Santos, V R; Salomão, S R; Souza, C; Berezovsky, A

    2013-03-01

    We compared two electroretinography (ERG) electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype) were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS) was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment.

  20. Antinociceptive efficacy and plasma concentrations of transdermal buprenorphine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Korbinian; Schuster, Tibor; Levionnois, Olivier; Matis, Ulrike; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    To assess the antinociceptive efficacy of transdermal (TD) buprenorphine (B) in dogs, a prospective, positive-controlled experimental study was performed in 10 healthy Beagles. In an open label crossover design, the dogs initially received intravenous B (IVB, 0.02 mg kg(-1)) as a positive control, followed by TDB (52.5 μg h(-1)) 4 months later. Blood was collected at regular intervals for determination of the plasma concentrations of B ([B]) and its metabolite norbuprenorphine. The antinociceptive efficacy was assessed using thermal and mechanical models of nociception. The peak concentration [B] was 1.54 ng mL(-1) (±1.98) 60 h after TDB application, although three dogs had no measurable [B] after TDB. Maximum thermal threshold (TT) was 52.6 °C (±0.48) at 1h after IVB administration and 51.63 °C (±1.01) 72 h after TDB application. The significant increase in TT indicated that effective antinociception was achieved beyond 36 h after the application of TDB, lasting until patch removal. There was hysteresis between [B] and the antinociceptive effect. PMID:20206560

  1. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-01

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being.

  2. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-01

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. PMID:26924739

  3. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  4. Serum tryptophan and its metabolites in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy as treatment of pyometra or as elective spay surgery.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Pastor, Josep; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2015-05-01

    This study compares serum concentrations of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in healthy bitches and bitches with bacterial uterine infection (pyometra). The effects of surgery were also assessed by measuring these variables in both groups of dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Presurgery, mean (±standard deviation) TRP, KYN, and KYNA concentrations and IDO activity were 68.44 ± 21.77, 2.00 ± 0.33, 112.11 ± 111.91 μmol/L, and 29.22 ± 10.10, respectively, in the healthy dogs; and 40.16 ± 12.11, 8.27 ± 3.94, 411.11 ± 199.60 μmol/L, and 205.92 ± 154.20, respectively, in the dogs with pyometra. Tryptophan and KYN levels had normalized on suture removal (10 days after surgery) though IDO activity and KYNA concentrations remained elevated during the postoperative period compared with presurgery values in both study groups. Our results suggest that KYNA concentrations and IDO activity could be useful indicators of the inflammation induced by pyometra and could be also used to monitor recovery following ovariohysterectomy in both healthy dogs and dogs with pyometra. PMID:25670154

  5. Evaluation of intraoperative fluorescence imaging-guided surgery in cancer-bearing dogs: a prospective proof-of-concept phase II study in 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Quentin; Sayag, David; Texier, Isabelle; Navarro, Fabrice; Boisgard, Raphaël; Virieux-Watrelot, Dorothée; Ponce, Frédérique; Carozzo, Claude

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to prospectively evaluate the application of intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IOFI) in the surgical excision of malignant masses in dogs, using a novel lipid nanoparticle contrast agent. Dogs presenting with spontaneous soft-tissue sarcoma or subcutaneous tumors were prospectively enrolled. Clinical staging and whole-body computed tomography (CT) were performed. All the dogs received an intravenous injection of dye-loaded lipid nanoparticles, LipImage 815. Wide or radical resection was realized after CT examination. Real-time IOFI was performed before skin incision and after tumor excision. In cases of radical resection, the lymph nodes (LNs) were imaged. The margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio or LN/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio was measured and compared with the histologic margins or LN status. Nine dogs were included. Limb amputation was performed in 3 dogs, and wide resection in 6. No adverse effect was noted. Fluorescence was observed in all 9 of the tumors. The margins were clean in 5 of 6 dogs after wide surgical resection, and the margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio was close to 1.0 in all these dogs. Infiltrated margins were observed in 1 case, with a margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio of 3.2. Metastasis was confirmed in 2 of 3 LNs, associated with LN/healthy tissues fluorescence ratios of 2.1 and 4.2, whereas nonmetastatic LN was associated with a ratio of 1.0. LipImage 815 used as a contrast agent during IOFI seemed to allow for good discrimination between tumoral and healthy tissues. Future studies are scheduled to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of IOFI using LipImage 815 as a tracer. PMID:26746803

  6. Evaluation of intraoperative fluorescence imaging-guided surgery in cancer-bearing dogs: a prospective proof-of-concept phase II study in 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Quentin; Sayag, David; Texier, Isabelle; Navarro, Fabrice; Boisgard, Raphaël; Virieux-Watrelot, Dorothée; Ponce, Frédérique; Carozzo, Claude

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to prospectively evaluate the application of intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IOFI) in the surgical excision of malignant masses in dogs, using a novel lipid nanoparticle contrast agent. Dogs presenting with spontaneous soft-tissue sarcoma or subcutaneous tumors were prospectively enrolled. Clinical staging and whole-body computed tomography (CT) were performed. All the dogs received an intravenous injection of dye-loaded lipid nanoparticles, LipImage 815. Wide or radical resection was realized after CT examination. Real-time IOFI was performed before skin incision and after tumor excision. In cases of radical resection, the lymph nodes (LNs) were imaged. The margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio or LN/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio was measured and compared with the histologic margins or LN status. Nine dogs were included. Limb amputation was performed in 3 dogs, and wide resection in 6. No adverse effect was noted. Fluorescence was observed in all 9 of the tumors. The margins were clean in 5 of 6 dogs after wide surgical resection, and the margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio was close to 1.0 in all these dogs. Infiltrated margins were observed in 1 case, with a margin/healthy tissues fluorescence ratio of 3.2. Metastasis was confirmed in 2 of 3 LNs, associated with LN/healthy tissues fluorescence ratios of 2.1 and 4.2, whereas nonmetastatic LN was associated with a ratio of 1.0. LipImage 815 used as a contrast agent during IOFI seemed to allow for good discrimination between tumoral and healthy tissues. Future studies are scheduled to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of IOFI using LipImage 815 as a tracer.

  7. First report of Babesia gibsoni in Central America and survey for vector-borne infections in dogs from Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although many vector-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas and potential zoonoses, there is little information on these conditions in Central America. Methods Seven qPCRs for vector-borne pathogens were performed on a Roche LightCycler PCR Instrument to investigate their prevalence in a convenience sample of whole blood samples from apparently healthy dogs in Nicaragua. Also, a qPCR targeting the canine hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) gene was used as an endogenous internal control and verified the quality and quantity of DNA in the samples was appropriate for the study. Results We found DNA of Rickettsia felis (5%), Babesia spp. (26%), Hepatozoon canis (51%), Anaplasma platys (13%) and Ehrlichia canis (56%) in the 39 dogs studied. The qPCRs for Coxiella burnetii and Dirofilaria immitis were negative. Of the 30 (80%) dogs that were positive by qPCR, 12 (31%) were positive for one agent, 11 (28%) for two, 3 (8%) for three, and 4 (10%) for four agents. Conclusions This is the first report of B. gibsoni in dogs from Central America and the first recording of vector-borne agents in dogs from Nicaragua. Dogs in Nicaragua are commonly infected with a variety of vector-borne pathogens, some of which may also infect people. PMID:24667065

  8. Vaccination of dogs with Duramune DAPPi+LC protects against pathogenic canine parvovirus type 2c challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; Stirling, C; Borowski, S; Thomas, A; King, V; Salt, J

    2013-06-22

    In this study, we determined whether vaccination with Duramune DAPPi+LC containing canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2b protects against challenge with virulent CPV antigenic type 2c. Seven healthy dogs, seronegative for CPV2, were enrolled into two treatment groups; five were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with minimum titre vaccine, and two were given saline. Dogs were challenged with CPV 2c three weeks later. Clinical observations, body weight and rectal temperature measurements, blood samples for serology and white blood cell counts and faecal samples for virus excretion were collected. Control dogs remained seronegative until challenge; vaccinated dogs seroconverted and were positive for antibodies to CPV2 from day 21. Four days after challenge, clinical signs associated with parvovirus infection (vomiting, paroxysmal shivering, depression, loose stools) were observed in the control dogs. Both animals were withdrawn from the study for welfare reasons one day later. On day 47, leucopenia was observed in controls, with white blood cell counts less than 50 per cent prechallenge values. No specific clinical sign of parvovirus infection were observed in the vaccinated dogs, nor was (detectable) challenge virus shed in faeces suggesting that antibodies generated contributed sterilising immunity. We conclude that vaccination of dogs with Duramune DAPPi+LC protects against challenge with a virulent field strain of CPV 2c.

  9. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  10. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  11. Compound odontoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hale, F A; Wilcock, B P

    1996-09-01

    Compound odontomas are rare tumors of dental origin. Though benign, their effect as a space occupying lesion can be dramatic. A large compound odontoma in the caudal right mandible of a five and a half month old dog was managed by surgical enucleation of the abnormal tissues. No recurrence was evident 6 months later.

  12. Selective imitation in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Viranyi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig

    2007-05-15

    The transmission of cultural knowledge requires learners to identify what relevant information to retain and selectively imitate when observing others' skills. Young human infants--without relying on language or theory of mind--already show evidence of this ability. If, for example, in a communicative context, a model demonstrates a head action instead of a more efficient hand action, infants imitate the head action only if the demonstrator had no good reason to do so, suggesting that their imitation is a selective, interpretative process [1]. Early sensitivity to ostensive-communicative cues and to the efficiency of goal-directed actions is thought to be a crucial prerequisite for such relevance-guided selective imitation [2]. Although this competence is thought to be human specific [2], here we show an analog capacity in the dog. In our experiment, subjects watched a demonstrator dog pulling a rod with the paw instead of the preferred mouth action. In the first group, using the "inefficient" action was justified by the model's carrying of a ball in her mouth, whereas in the second group, no constraints could explain the demonstrator's choice. In the first trial after observation, dogs imitated the nonpreferred action only in the second group. Consequently, dogs, like children, demonstrated inferential selective imitation.

  13. Effect of road transportation on the serum biochemical parameters of cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    OCHI, Takehiro; YAMADA, Azusa; NAGANUMA, Yuki; NISHINA, Noriko; KOYAMA, Hironari

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of long-distance (approximately 600 km) road transportation on the blood biochemistry of laboratory animals, we investigated the changes in serum biochemical parameters in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs transported by truck from Osaka to Tsukuba, Japan. The concentrations of serum cortisol, total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase in monkeys increased during transportation. Serum cortisol and total bilirubin levels in dogs also increased during transportation, but serum triglyceride decreased. Serum parameter values in truck-transported monkeys and dogs returned to baseline levels within two weeks following arrival. Taken together, these results suggest that a two-week acclimation period is the minimum duration required for adaptation following road transportation. PMID:26833142

  14. Sperm Morphological Features Associated with Chronic Chagas Disease in the Semen of Experimentally Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010

  15. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  16. Comparison of Oxidative Stress Status in Dogs Undergoing Laparoscopic and Open Ovariectomy

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jae Yeon; KIM, Myung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study evaluated and compared the oxidative stress status of dogs undergoing laparoscopic or open ovariectomy. Twelve healthy female dogs were divided into two groups according to the type of the surgical procedure, laparoscopic or open ovariectomy. Plasma total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels for the evaluation of oxidative stress were determined. Increases in plasma TOS and OSI levels and decreases in TAS levels were observed in both groups after surgery. The TOS level was significantly lower in the laparoscopic ovariectomy group compared with the open surgery group. Laparoscopic ovariectomy is a safe and beneficial surgical alternative to traditional ovariectomy with respect to oxidative stress status in dogs. PMID:24107463

  17. Distal renal tubular acidosis associated with concurrent leptospirosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Stephen A; Hostutler, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    A 9 yr old spayed female boxer was presented for evaluation of vomiting, lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a hyperchloremic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with alkaline urine that was consistent with a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Targeted therapy was initiated with Na bicarbonate (HCO3) and potassium (K) gluconate. Leptospirosis was subsequently diagnosed with paired microagglutination testing (MAT), and doxycycline was added to the other treatments. Clinical signs resolved, and 6 mo after diagnosis, although the dog remained on alkali therapy (i.e., NaHCO3 and K gluconate) and a mild metabolic acidosis persisted, the dog remained otherwise healthy with a good quality of life. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe the concomitant association of those two disorders. Leptospirosis should be considered for any case of RTA in dogs. PMID:24659721

  18. Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the Relationship between Selected Reticulocyte Parameters and Inflammation determined by Plasma C-reactive Protein in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Lazo, A; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Cerón, J J; Planellas, M; Pastor, J

    2015-05-01

    Anaemia secondary to inflammatory disease is one of the main causes of anaemia in veterinary and human medicine and impairment of iron homeostasis due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is one of the aetiological mechanisms involved. Because reticulocytes are recently produced cells, reticulocyte indices are early indicators of iron deficiency anaemia in man and dogs and reticulocyte indices may be affected during the course of inflammatory processes earlier than indices related to mature red blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of inflammation on reticulocyte parameters including concentration, mean reticulocyte volume, volume distribution width, percentage of microcytic reticulocytes, percentage of macrocytic reticulocytes, mean reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr), haemoglobin distribution width, cell haemoglobin concentration, mean percentage of hypochromic reticulocytes, percentage of reticulocytes with low CHr and immature reticulocyte factor medium and high, and on white blood cell concentration by using C-reactive protein (CRP) as an inflammatory biomarker. Samples from 175 diseased dogs and 16 healthy dogs were included in the study. The diseased dogs were grouped according to plasma CRP and ferritin concentrations, the presence and type of anaemia and different aetiopathological categories. Dogs with high plasma CRP concentrations had lower CHr (median 23.3 pg) and percentage of reticulocytes with high CHr (median 35.5%) and higher percentage of reticulocytes with low CHr (median 14.6%) compared with dogs without inflammation (median 24.9 pg, median 50.9% and median 7.8%, respectively) and healthy dogs (median 25.1 pg, median 50.0% and median 6.1%, respectively), with no differences between the last two groups. Reticulocyte parameters, particularly those related to haemoglobin concentration, are therefore affected by inflammatory conditions in anaemic and in non-anaemic dogs.

  20. Clinical usefulness of intradermal fluorescein and patent blue violet dyes for sentinel lymph node identification in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wells, S; Bennett, A; Walsh, P; Owens, S; Peauroi, J

    2006-06-01

    The first lymph node receiving drainage from a specific anatomic region is referred to as the sentinel lymph node (SLN). This study sought to evaluate the intradermal use of two dyes, patent blue violet (PBV) and fluorescein (FL), for SLN mapping in the dog. Multiple intradermal injections were performed in five healthy dogs using two dyes, PBV in 0.9% NaCl and FL in solutions of 0.9% NaCl and 6% hetastarch. Skin flaps were raised and followed to the first area of discrete stain uptake. Areas of uptake were identified as lymph nodes grossly and by cytology. Identification of a SLN for each area of intradermal injection was accomplished for 98% of the injection sites. Intradermal injections of both PBV and FL dyes produce readily visible staining of lymphatic vessels and SLNs in healthy dogs and are sufficient to allow ready identification of these structures during postmortem dissection.

  1. Evaluation of heart rate variability in dogs during standard and microburst vagus nerve stimulation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Martlé, Valentine; Bavegems, Valérie; Van Ham, Luc; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Raedt, Robrecht; Sys, Stanislas; Bhatti, Sofie

    2014-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for epilepsy and depression in human patients, but in both humans and dogs, optimal stimulation parameters remain unknown. Delivering afferent bursts of stimulation may be promising as a means of increasing efficacy, but evaluation of potential effects on the heart due to unavoidable efferent stimulation is required. The present study investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy Beagle dogs treated with 1 h of sham, standard or microburst left-sided VNS in a crossover design. No significant differences were found between the stimulation paradigms for any of the cardiac parameters. Short-term left-sided VNS, including a novel bursting pattern (microburst VNS), had no statistically significant effect on HRV in ambulatory healthy dogs. Studies in a larger number of animals with long-term VNS are recommended.

  2. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  3. Changes in Foxp3-Positive Regulatory T Cell Number in the Intestine of Dogs With Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Intestinal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Ohno, K; Fujiwara-Igarashi, A; Uchida, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2016-01-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an integral role in immunologic tolerance and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, their involvement in canine gastrointestinal diseases, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma, remains unclear. Here we show altered numbers of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive Tregs in the intestine of dogs with IBD and intestinal lymphoma. IBD was diagnosed in 48 dogs; small cell intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in 46 dogs; large cell intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in 30 dogs; and 25 healthy beagles were used as normal controls. Foxp3-positive Tregs in the duodenal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Duodenal expression of interleukin-10 mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The number of Foxp3-positive lamina propria cells and the expression of interleukin-10 mRNA were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs and dogs with intestinal lymphoma. The number of Foxp3-positive intraepithelial cells was higher in dogs with small cell intestinal lymphoma. Some large cell intestinal lymphoma cases had high numbers of Foxp3-positive cells, but the increase was not statistically significant. Double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that CD3-positive granzyme B-negative helper T cells expressed Foxp3. In small cell intestinal lymphoma cases, the overall survival of dogs with a high Treg density was significantly worse than that of dogs with a normal Treg density. These results suggest that a change in the number of Foxp3-positive Tregs contributes to the pathogenesis of canine IBD and intestinal lymphoma by disrupting mucosal tolerance and suppressing antitumor immunity, respectively.

  4. Safety Evaluation of Parastar® Plus in Dogs and Assessment of Transferable Residue of Fipronil and Cyphenothrin from Dogs to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Case, Katharine M.; Vega, Natalia M.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Lasher, Michelle A.; Canerdy, Terry D.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar® Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20.5 and 27.3 kg) received topical application of Parastar® Plus (2.68 mL; fipronil, 9.8%, and cyphenothrin, 5.2%) on the back between the shoulder blades. At predetermined intervals, dogs were given a full physical exam, and residues of fipronil and cyphenothrin were determined in dog blood and cotton glove extracts using GC/MS. Fipronil and cyphenothrin peaks eluted at 7.453 and 9.913 min, correspondingly, and the compounds were confirmed based on characteristic ions. At no time was fipronil or cyphenothrin residue detected in blood samples. In glove extracts, residues of fipronil and cyphenothrin were maximally present at 24-h posttreatment (43.84 ± 5.69 and 59.26 ± 8.97 ppm, respectively). By 48 h, the residue levels sharply declined (16.89 ± 2.82 and 17.98 ± 2.07 ppm, respectively). The insecticides’ residues were detected in insignificant amounts after 1 week (5.69 ± 2.16 and 10.00 ± 1.51 ppm, respectively), and only in trace amounts after 2 weeks. At no time did any dog show side effects, except itching at the site of Parastar® Plus application. The findings suggest that Parastar® Plus was safe for dogs, and transferable residues of fipronil and cyphenothrin were minimal, posing very little or no health concern to pet owners or veterinary personnel. Of course, veterinary personnel, who handle many dogs daily, may require proper protection to avoid cumulative exposure

  5. Effects of short-term cattle exclusion on plant community composition: Prairie dog and ecological site influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant community composition is an important indicator of healthy, proper functioning rangelands. We evaluated the impacts prairie dog grazing, ecological site and short term cattle exclusion on Northern Mixed-Grass prairie near McLaughlin, SD. Modified Daubenmire frames provided canopy cover, litte...

  6. Are bacterial load and synovitis related in dogs with inflammatory stifle arthritis?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Zeev; Zitzer, Nina C; Racette, Molly A; Manley, Paul A; Schaefer, Susan L; Markel, Mark D; Hao, Zhengling; Holzman, Gerianne; Muir, Peter

    2011-03-24

    It has been proposed that small quantities of microbial material within synovial joints may act as a trigger for development of synovitis. We have previously identified an association between intra-articular bacteria and development of inflammatory stifle arthritis and cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs, and now wished to quantify bacterial load and markers of synovitis in dogs with and without stifle arthritis and CCLR. Joint tissues were collected from dogs with CCLR (n=51) and healthy dogs with normal stifles (n=9). Arthritis was assessed radiographically in CCLR dogs. Bacterial load was assessed using qPCR and broad-ranging 16S rRNA primers. qRT-PCR was used to estimate expression of the T lymphocyte antigen receptor (TCR Vβ), CD3ɛ, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), IL-4, IL-17, and TNF-α genes. Severity of synovitis was assessed histologically. Bacterial load was increased in arthritic stifles, when compared with healthy stifles. Histologic synovitis in arthritic stifles was mononuclear and was significantly correlated with bacterial load (1 of 2 primer sets) (S(R)=0.49, p<0.001). In arthritic stifles, expression of TRAP in synovium was increased relative to healthy stifles. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes was not correlated with bacterial load, histologic inflammation, or radiographic arthritis. Translocation of bacterial material to the canine stifle is related to the presence of joint inflammation. The lack of a strong positive correlation suggests that bacterial load is unlikely to be a primary pro-inflammatory factor. However, dysregulation of immune responses within synovial tissues may be dependent upon an environmental microbial trigger. PMID:21036494

  7. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  8. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gugjoo, M. B.; Hoque, M.; Saxena, A. C.; Shamsuz Zama, M. M.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body weight and gender on these parameters. The data obtained were also compared with that of the other dog breeds. Conscious clinically healthy Labrador Retriever dogs (n=24) of both sexes were made the subject of the study. All the measurements were made from a right parasternal long axis left ventricular outflow tract view and the parameters measured were: left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular function, left ventricular volumes, left atrial and aortic root diameter and mitral valve parameters. Data obtained were also compared with that available for other dog breeds. Significant correlation (P<0.05) with body weight was obtained for some of the left ventricular, atrial and mitral valve parameters, being strong for LAD, AOD, LVIDd, LVIDs, IVSd and IVSs (r>0.5); moderate for LVPWd, LVPWs, EPSS, EF Slope and SV (r=0.3 to 0.5); weak for EDV and ESV (r<0.3). Non-significant effect of gender was seen on all the echocardiographic parameters. However, some of the parameters had a significant breed effect. It is expected that the obtained data will be valuable for the progress of studies on small animal cardiology. PMID:27175128

  9. A New Sandwich ELISA for Quantification of Thymidine Kinase 1 Protein Levels in Sera from Dogs with Different Malignancies Can Aid in Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Jagarlamudi, Kiran Kumar; Moreau, Laura; Westberg, Sara; Rönnberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a DNA precursor enzyme whose expression is closely correlated with cell proliferation and cell turnover. Sensitive serum TK1 activity assays have been used for monitoring and prognosis of hematological malignancies in both humans and dogs. Here we describe the development of a specific sandwich TK1-ELISA for the quantification of TK1 protein levels in sera from dogs with different malignancies. A combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-dog TK1 antibody and a mouse monoclonal anti-human TK1 antibody was used. Different concentrations of recombinant canine TK1 was used as standard. Clinical evaluation of the ELISA was done by using sera from 42 healthy dogs, 43 dogs with hematological tumors and 55 with solid tumors. An established [3H]-dThd phosphorylation assay was used to determine the TK1 activity levels in the same sera. The mean TK1 activities in dogs with hematological tumors were significantly higher than those found in healthy dogs. In agreement with earlier studies, no significant difference was observed in serum TK1 activities between healthy dogs and dogs with solid tumors. However, the mean TK1 protein levels determined by new TK1-ELISA were significantly higher not only in hematological tumors but also in solid tumors compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD = 1.30 ± 1.16, 0.67 ± 0.55 and 0.27± 0.10 ng/mL, respectively). Moreover, TK1-ELISA had significantly higher ability to distinguish lymphoma cases from healthy based on receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve, AUC, of 0.96) to that of the activity assay (AUC, 0.84). Furthermore, fluctuations in TK1 protein levels during the course of chemotherapy in dogs with lymphoma closely associated with clinical outcome. Overall, the TK1-ELISA showed significant linear correlation with the TK1 activity assay (rs = 0.6, p<0.0001). Thus, the new TK1-ELISA has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for routine clinical use in veterinary oncology. PMID:26366881

  10. A New Sandwich ELISA for Quantification of Thymidine Kinase 1 Protein Levels in Sera from Dogs with Different Malignancies Can Aid in Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jagarlamudi, Kiran Kumar; Moreau, Laura; Westberg, Sara; Rönnberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a DNA precursor enzyme whose expression is closely correlated with cell proliferation and cell turnover. Sensitive serum TK1 activity assays have been used for monitoring and prognosis of hematological malignancies in both humans and dogs. Here we describe the development of a specific sandwich TK1-ELISA for the quantification of TK1 protein levels in sera from dogs with different malignancies. A combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-dog TK1 antibody and a mouse monoclonal anti-human TK1 antibody was used. Different concentrations of recombinant canine TK1 was used as standard. Clinical evaluation of the ELISA was done by using sera from 42 healthy dogs, 43 dogs with hematological tumors and 55 with solid tumors. An established [3H]-dThd phosphorylation assay was used to determine the TK1 activity levels in the same sera. The mean TK1 activities in dogs with hematological tumors were significantly higher than those found in healthy dogs. In agreement with earlier studies, no significant difference was observed in serum TK1 activities between healthy dogs and dogs with solid tumors. However, the mean TK1 protein levels determined by new TK1-ELISA were significantly higher not only in hematological tumors but also in solid tumors compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD = 1.30 ± 1.16, 0.67 ± 0.55 and 0.27± 0.10 ng/mL, respectively). Moreover, TK1-ELISA had significantly higher ability to distinguish lymphoma cases from healthy based on receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve, AUC, of 0.96) to that of the activity assay (AUC, 0.84). Furthermore, fluctuations in TK1 protein levels during the course of chemotherapy in dogs with lymphoma closely associated with clinical outcome. Overall, the TK1-ELISA showed significant linear correlation with the TK1 activity assay (rs = 0.6, p<0.0001). Thus, the new TK1-ELISA has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for routine clinical use in veterinary oncology.

  11. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  12. Daily Rhythms of Serum Lipids in Dogs: Influences of Lighting and Fasting Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Bertolucci, Cristiano; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Circadian clocks organize a wide array of metabolic functions in a coherent daily schedule and ensure synchrony of this schedule with environmental rhythms. Daily rhythmicity of lipid metabolism occurs in rodents and ruminants. We examined daily level variations of serum lipids (nonesterified fatty acids [NEFA], triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol and total lipids) in healthy dogs, particularly focusing on their temporal relationship to lighting and fasting cycles. Whereas serum NEFA levels did not change across the day, levels of total lipids, total cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides occurred in dogs maintained under 12:12-h light:dark cycles and fed a single meal daily. Only the rhythmic pattern of triglycerides responded to a 6 h delay in light onset, suggesting a cardinal role of a light-entrained circadian oscillator in its generation. To investigate whether temporal variations in serum lipids depend to physiological postprandial changes, we measured lipid levels in fasted dogs. Rhythms of total lipids, total cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides vanished when dogs were food-deprived, indicating that these rhythms are driven by the digestive process. Levels of serum NEFA patterns were significantly higher during fasting than after food intake. The increase of NEFA concentrations during fasting may reflect the mobilization of adipose tissue NEFA mediated by the decrease in insulin with its lypolitic effects. Elucidating the daily rhythmicity of lipid levels is fundamental to understanding the metabolism of the dog, an animal model frequently used for research in metabolic pathophysiology. PMID:19004375

  13. Lidocaine, Dexmedetomidine and Their Combination Reduce Isoflurane Minimum Alveolar Concentration in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Arcique, Carlos M.; Ibancovichi, José A.; Chavez, Julio R.; Gutierrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Moran-Muñoz, Rafael; Victoria-Mora, José M.; Tendillo-Cortijo, Francisco; Santos-González, Martín; Sanchez-Aparicio, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (IV) lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination delivered as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO) in dogs were evaluated. Seven healthy adult dogs were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. For each dog, baseline MAC (MACISO/BASAL) was determined after a 90-minute equilibration period. Thereafter, each dog received one of the following treatments (loading dose, CRI): lidocaine 2 mg kg−1, 100 µg kg−1 minute−1; dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg−1, 2 µg kg−1 hour−1; or their combination. MAC was then determined again after 45- minutes of treatment by CRI. At the doses administered, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination significantly reduced MACISO by 27.3% (range: 12.5–39.2%), 43.4% (33.3–53.3%) and 60.9% (46.1–78.1%), respectively, when compared to MACISO/BASAL. The combination resulted in a greater MACISO reduction than the two drugs alone. Their use, at the doses studied, provides a clinically important reduction in the concentration of ISO during anaesthesia in dogs. PMID:25232737

  14. Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs.

    PubMed

    Buranakarl, C; Trisiriroj, M; Pondeenana, S; Tungjitpeanpong, T; Jarutakanon, P; Penchome, R

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress parameters and erythrocyte characteristics were studied in 15 normal healthy dogs and 33 renal azotaemic dogs from Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. Dogs with renal azotaemia had reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (P<0.01), packed cell volume (PCV) (P<0.001) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P<0.001). The relationship was found between degree of azotaemia and MCV, PCV and MCHC. Dogs with severe renal azotaemia had higher intraerythrocytic sodium contents (RBC-Na) (P<0.05). The red blood cell catalase activity and glutathione and plasma malondialdehyde were unaltered while urinary malondialdehyde-creatinine ratio (U-MDA/Cr) increased significantly (P<0.001). The U-MDA/Cr was correlated significantly with plasma creatinine concentration (P<0.05), urinary protein-creatinine ratio (P<0.05) and fractional excretion of sodium (P<0.001). The results suggest some changes in RBC characteristics and urine oxidative stress marker in renal azotaemic dogs. Moreover, the U-MDA/Cr is a sensitive biochemical parameter which increased along with degree of renal dysfunction.

  15. Multiple dermoid sinuses of type Vb and IIIb on the head of a Saint Bernard dog

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dermoid sinus, a congenital malformation of neural tube development, has been reported in humans and several animal species including dogs. It is typically found in the dorsal midline and commonly occurs in the Rhodesian Ridgeback breed. A case of multiple dermoid sinuses in the fronto-occipital region is described. An 11-month-old, intact female Saint Bernard dog was presented with a 2 day history of discharge from a large irregular subcutaneous mass in the fronto-occipital region. The dog was otherwise healthy. The dog had two circular skin lesions (approximately 4 × 4 and 4 × 2 cm diameter) surrounded by multiple irregular elevated masses. The masses had multiple small openings on the skin surface with tufts of hair protruding from the apertures. The masses were surgically removed, and the diagnosis of multiple dermoid sinuses was confirmed by histological examination. Histopathological examination showed multiple, variably sized, spherical to tubular cysts expanding the dermis and subcutis. Cysts were filled with hair shafts and lamellar keratin and were lined by a stratified squamous epithelium. Sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multiple dermoid sinuses of two different types in the head of a Saint Bernard dog. PMID:24006855

  16. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  17. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  18. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. PMID:27502802

  19. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family.

  20. Treatment of T cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Antony S

    2016-09-17

    Overall, canine lymphoma remains one of the most chemotherapy-responsive cancers in the dog. In addition to the stage and the substage of disease, T cell phenotype is the most consistently important prognostic factor. T cell lymphoma (TCL) in dogs is a heterogeneous disease; dogs with a separate entity of indolent TCL can have a considerably better prognosis than dogs with other forms of lymphoma, and indolent TCL may not always require immediate treatment. In contrast, high-grade TCL is an aggressive disease, and when treated with CHOP-based protocols, dogs with this high-grade TCL have a complete remission rate as low as 40 per cent, relapse earlier and have shorter survival time than dogs with a comparable stage, high-grade B cell lymphoma. This review describes the different disease entities that comprise canine TCL, discusses prognosis for each and treatment options that appear to give the best outcomes. PMID:27634860

  1. Treatment of T cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Antony S

    2016-09-17

    Overall, canine lymphoma remains one of the most chemotherapy-responsive cancers in the dog. In addition to the stage and the substage of disease, T cell phenotype is the most consistently important prognostic factor. T cell lymphoma (TCL) in dogs is a heterogeneous disease; dogs with a separate entity of indolent TCL can have a considerably better prognosis than dogs with other forms of lymphoma, and indolent TCL may not always require immediate treatment. In contrast, high-grade TCL is an aggressive disease, and when treated with CHOP-based protocols, dogs with this high-grade TCL have a complete remission rate as low as 40 per cent, relapse earlier and have shorter survival time than dogs with a comparable stage, high-grade B cell lymphoma. This review describes the different disease entities that comprise canine TCL, discusses prognosis for each and treatment options that appear to give the best outcomes.

  2. Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis in 24 dogs.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G; Collins-Kelly, L; Lappin, M; Tyler, D

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE) was diagnosed by intestinal biopsy in 24 dogs with chronic small intestinal diarrhea. Vomiting, weight loss, and reduced appetite were frequent. Breed predispositions were not documented, although four patients were German Shepherd dogs. Hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoglobulinemia were common and most likely a result of protein-losing enteropathy. Other biochemical abnormalities were uncommon. Intestinal malabsorption was common. Neutrophilia (sometimes with increased band neutrophils), monocytosis, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia were the most consistent hematologic abnormalities. The severity of the lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltration was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) between regions of small intestine. However, the severity of cellular infiltration often varied among different regions of small intestine in the same dog. Changes in villous architecture and lacteal dilation were common. Intestinal nematode infestation was diagnosed in five dogs, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was diagnosed in one dog. In the remaining 18 dogs, besides LPE, no other associated or concurrent intestinal disease was diagnosed.

  3. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Kazuki; AMANO, Shinjiro; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; KAGAWA, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Shiba dog was presented to a referring veterinarian with a complaint of chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasound and radiographs revealed an irregular mass in the pelvic cavity. The mass and the affected section of colon were surgically removed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas and effaced intestinal structures. Central necrotic debris surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils was observed. Numerous, irregularly branched hyphae with pale basophilic, thin walls and occasional bulbous enlargements at the tips were present. Polymerase chain reaction identified Basidiobolus ranarum, successfully confirming a definitive diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog. PMID:25960121

  4. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  5. Eosinophilia due to osteomyelitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seifollah N; Hajighahramani, Shahin

    2005-09-01

    A dog with a lesion in the left elbow area and presence of purulent materials was referred to hospital; history, clinical examination, laboratory test and radiological evaluation of the dog proved the presence of osteomyelitis. Eosinophilia was evident by haematologic test. Intensive antibiotic, anti-inflammatory medication, local wound management and restricted physical activity, improved osteomelitis condition and reduced eosinophil number. Therefore it seemed that osteomyelitis was the cause of eosinophilia in this dog.

  6. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. PMID:27185394

  7. Discrimination of human and dog faces and inversion responses in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Amadei, Eleonora; Ligout, Séverine; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Although domestic dogs can respond to many facial cues displayed by other dogs and humans, it remains unclear whether they can differentiate individual dogs or humans based on facial cues alone and, if so, whether they would demonstrate the face inversion effect, a behavioural hallmark commonly used in primates to differentiate face processing from object processing. In this study, we first established the applicability of the visual paired comparison (VPC or preferential looking) procedure for dogs using a simple object discrimination task with 2D pictures. The animals demonstrated a clear looking preference for novel objects when simultaneously presented with prior-exposed familiar objects. We then adopted this VPC procedure to assess their face discrimination and inversion responses. Dogs showed a deviation from random behaviour, indicating discrimination capability when inspecting upright dog faces, human faces and object images; but the pattern of viewing preference was dependent upon image category. They directed longer viewing time at novel (vs. familiar) human faces and objects, but not at dog faces, instead, a longer viewing time at familiar (vs. novel) dog faces was observed. No significant looking preference was detected for inverted images regardless of image category. Our results indicate that domestic dogs can use facial cues alone to differentiate individual dogs and humans and that they exhibit a non-specific inversion response. In addition, the discrimination response by dogs of human and dog faces appears to differ with the type of face involved.

  8. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  9. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  10. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. Clonal dynamics of nasal Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dog-owning household members. Detection of MSSA ST(398).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Ceballos, Sara; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of nasal carriage by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) among healthy dog-owning household members involved in 7 previous index cases of suspected anthropozoonotic (n = 4) and zoonotic (n = 3) interspecies transmission [4 direct cases, identical SA (n = 3) or SP (n = 1) in owner and dog; three indirect, SP in owner (n = 2) or SA in dog (n = 1)]. Co-carriage with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) was also evaluated. Sixteen owners and 10 dogs were sampled once every three months for one year. In total, 50 SA and 31 SP were analysed by MLST, and SA also by spa typing. All isolates were subjected to ApaI/SmaI-PFGE and antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles were determined. All index owners were persistent SA carriers in all direct-anthropozoonotic transmission cases, while only one dog was persistent SA carrier. Owner and dog exhibited a persistent SP carriage status in the direct-zoonotic transmission case. SP was maintained in the index human over time in one indirect-zoonotic transmission case. Only one SP was methicillin-resistant. SA belonged to genetic backgrounds of MRSA pandemic clones: CC45, CC121, CC30, CC5 and CC398. Three individuals carried a MSSA t1451-ST398 clone with the erm(T)-cadD/cadX resistance genes. SA or SP were persistently detected in the nasal cavity of 7 (43.8%) and 2 (12.5%) owners, and in one and 2 dogs, respectively. SA was recovered as the single species in 10 owners and in one dog; SP in 3 owners and 4 dogs; and both bacterial species in one owner and 4 dogs. Co-carriage of SA or SP with MRCoNS isolates was common (30.7%). This is the first study on the dynamics of nasal carriage of SA and SP in healthy pet-owning household members. Dog-contact may play a role in the staphylococcal species distribution of in-contact individuals.

  12. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  13. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  14. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  15. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  16. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  17. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  18. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  19. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  20. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  1. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  2. Speckle tracking echocardiography in mature Irish Wolfhound dogs: technical feasibility, measurement error and reference intervals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken under normal clinical conditions. The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error. Methods Fifty- four healthy mature Irish Wolfhounds were used. These were scanned under normal clinical conditions to obtain in one session both standard echocardiographic parameters and STE data. Measurement error was determined separately in 5 healthy mature Irish Wolfhounds. Results Eight dogs were rejected by the software algorithm for reasons of image quality, resulting in a total of 46 dogs (85.2%) being included in the statistical analysis. In 46 dogs it was possible to obtain STE data from three scanning planes, as well as to measure the rotation of the left ventricle at two levels and thus calculate the torsion of the heart. The mean peak radial strain at the cardiac apex (RS-apex) was 45.1 ± 10.4% (n = 44), and the mean peak radial strain at the base (RS-base) was 36.9 ± 14.7% (n = 46). The mean peak circumferential strain at the apex (CS-apex) was -24.8 ± 6.2% (n = 44), and the mean peak circumferential strain at the heart base (CS-base) was -15.9 ± 3.2% (n = 44). The mean peak longitudinal strain (LS) was -16.2 ± 3.0% (n = 46). The calculated mean peak torsion of the heart was 11.6 ± 5.1 degrees (n = 45). The measurement error was 24.8%, 26.4%, 11.5%, 6.7%, 9.0% and 10 degrees, for RS-apex, RS-base, CS-apex, CS-base, LS and torsion, respectively. Conclusions It is concluded that this technique can be included in a normal

  3. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  4. Safety of fluralaner chewable tablets (BravectoTM), a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in dogs after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide that provides long acting efficacy in dogs after a single oral treatment. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner in chewable tablets to dogs at the highest recommended treatment dose and at multiples of this dose. Methods Thirty-two (16 male and 16 female) healthy 8-week old Beagle dogs weighing 2.0 - 3.6 kg at first administration were included in the study. Fluralaner was administered on three occasions at 8-week intervals at doses of up to 56, 168, and 280 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 1, 3, and 5 times the highest recommended treatment dose of fluralaner; sham dosed dogs served as controls. During the study, all dogs were clinically observed, and their health was carefully monitored including body weight development, food consumption and measurement of hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry (including measurement of levels of ACTH and C-reactive protein) and urinalysis. Following euthanasia of the dogs, complete gross post mortem examination, including organ weight determination, and histopathological examination of multiple tissues were conducted. Results There were no clinical findings related to fluralaner treatment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control group were observed for some clinical pathology parameters and organ weights; none of these findings were considered to be of clinical relevance. Conclusions Oral administration of fluralaner at the highest recommended treatment dose (56 mg/kg) at 8-week intervals is well tolerated and has a safety margin of more than five in healthy dogs eight weeks of age or older and weighing at least 2 kg. PMID:24606886

  5. Presence and density of domestic mites in the microenvironment of mite-sensitive dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Farmaki, Rania; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Leontides, Leonidas; Papazahariadou, Margarita G; Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the presence and density of domestic mites (DMs) in households with atopic dogs sensitive to these mites (group A; n=20), in households with clinically healthy, nonatopic dogs (group B; n=20) and in households without pets (group C; n=25). Dust samples were vacuum-collected from the owner mattress (all groups) and dog sleeping area (groups A and B) or living room couch (group C) on four consecutive occasions, reflecting the four seasons of the year. DMs were found, at least once, in 19 of 20 (95%) group A, 13 of 20 (65%) group B and 21 of 25 (84%) group C households. DM numbers per gram of dust were 0-159 (median, 8.8), 0-302 (median, 3) and 0-1473 (median, 6.9) for group A, B and C, respectively. Dermatophagoides farinae predominated in all groups, since it was identified in 60% of group A, 40% of group B and 64% of group C households. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was found in 45%, 35% and 48% of households, in group A, B and C, respectively. No differences were found between households with (groups A and B) or without dogs (group C). When considering both sampling sites together, frequency of DM recovery was higher in group A than in group B (P=0.044). Also, both mite frequency (P=0.011) and density (P=0.015) in dog sleeping area were higher in group A than in group B. In conclusion, presence and density of DMs is higher in the microenvironment of mite-sensitive dogs with atopic dermatitis than in that of clinically healthy nonatopic dogs.

  6. Evaluation of trace elements, oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M; Dar, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine zinc, copper and iron levels, erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and β-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis. A total of 23 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis by trichogram and positive fungal culture and six dogs as control were included in this study. On cultural examination 52.17% fungal isolates were found to be Microsporum canis, 30.43% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 17.39% were M. gypseum. In comparison to healthy control, the dogs with dermatophytosis had significantly lower levels of zinc (P < 0.01), copper (P < 0.05), β-carotene and vitamin C levels (P < 0.05) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05) and catalase (P < 0.01), whereas the iron (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) levels were significantly increased. On correlation analysis, SOD activity was observed to be positively correlated (P < 0.05) with zinc and copper in both healthy and dermatophytosis affected dogs. In dermatophytosis affected dogs the MDA levels were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with iron, β-carotene levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes; SOD and catalase. Our results demonstrated that dermatophytosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance and trace elements. It might be secondary consequence of dermatophytosis infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis.

  7. Increased bone morphogenetic protein 7 signalling in the kidneys of dogs affected with a congenital portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Astrid M; Heuving, Susanne M; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C

    2015-05-01

    Dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) often have enlarged and hyper-filtrating kidneys. Although expression of different growth factors has been well-described in the livers of dogs affected with a CPSS, their expression in the kidneys has yet to be determined. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β have been implicated in renal development (BMP-7, HGF) or the onset of renal fibrosis (TGF-β). Moreover, BMP-7 and HGF have protective properties in renal fibrosis. In this study, the expression and activity of BMP-7 were investigated in renal biopsies obtained from 13 dogs affected with a CPSS and compared to similar samples from age-matched healthy control dogs. Both quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blotting showed up-regulated BMP-7 signalling in kidneys of CPPS-affected dogs. These research findings may help to explain the renal pathology/dysfunction in dogs affected with a CPSS.

  8. Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities.

  9. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  10. Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Aaron L.; Schwebel, David C.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog. PMID:23066411

  11. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    PubMed

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities.

  12. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P < 0.001), but not disc degeneration (P = 0.97). In the German Shepherd dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs.

  13. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of staphylococci isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci are normal commensals of the skin and mucosa, but are also opportunist pathogens. Meticillin-resistant (MR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Healthy humans and other animals harbour a variety of staphylococci, including MR-CoPS and MR-CoNS. The main aims of the study were to characterise the population and antimicrobial resistance profiles of staphylococci from healthy non-vet visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers in the UK. Results Nasal and perineal samples were collected from 73 Labrador retrievers; staphylococci isolated and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods. They were also confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), PCR of the nuc gene and PCR and sequencing of the tuf gene. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials. In total, 102 CoPS (S. pseudintermedius n = 91, S. aureus n = 11) and 334 CoNS isolates were detected from 99% of dogs in this study. In 52% of dogs CoNS only were detected, with both CoNS and CoPS detected in 43% dogs and CoPS only detected in 4% of dogs. Antimicrobial resistance was not common among CoPS, but at least one MDR-CoNS isolate was detected in 34% of dogs. MR-CoNS were detected from 42% of dogs but no MR-CoPS were isolated. S. epidermidis (52% of dogs) was the most common CoNS found followed by S. warneri (30%) and S. equorum (27%), with another 15 CoNS species isolated from ≤ 15% of dogs. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were detected in 44% and 8% of dogs respectively. Conclusions MR- and MDR-CoPS were rare. However a high prevalence of MR- and MDR-CoNS were found in these dogs, even though they had no prior antimicrobial treatment or admission to veterinary premises. These findings are of concern due to

  15. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  16. Dog bites: how big a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, J. J.; Kresnow, M.; Houston, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the dog bite problem in the US. METHODS: Data on dog bites were gathered as part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: The weighted total number of dog bites was 4,494,083 (estimated incidence = 18/1,000 population); of these, 756,701 persons sustained bites necessitating medical attention (incidence rate = 3/1,000). Children had 3.2 times higher medically attended bite rates than adults (6.4/1,000 children v 2/1,000 adults). CONCLUSIONS: More attention and research needs to be devoted to the prevention of dog bites. Potential prevention strategies include: educational programs on canine behavior, especially directed at children; laws for regulating dangerous or vicious dogs; enhanced animal control programs; and educational programs regarding responsible dog ownership and training. Unfortunately, the relative or absolute effectiveness of any of these strategies has not been assessed. Continuing surveillance for dog bites will be needed if we are to better understand how to reduce the incidence of dog bites and evaluate prevention efforts. Images PMID:9346056

  17. Benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J W; Sameck, J H; Burgard, F J

    1979-12-01

    Methemoglobinemia developed in three dogs after the owners' use of benzocaine-containing products for topical treatment of the dogs' pruritic skin conditions. The products were intended for use in man. In two of the dogs, clinical signs of shock were observed within a few hours after the application of a skin lotion containing 5% benzocaine. Methemoglobin was assayed in one case and found to be 51% of total hemoglobin. Both dogs recovered after whole blood transfusions were given. The third dog, which had been treated for several weeks with small amounts of an anesthetic aerosol containing 20% benzocaine, was anorectic and lethargic when examined. Methemoglobin content was 30%, and Heinz bodies were observed in 20% of the erythrocytes. The methemoglobin content and proportion of Heinz bodies decreased rapidly after use of the spray was discontinued. The two benzocaine-containing products incriminated in development of the methemoglobinemia did not induce measurable increases in methemoglobin content in clinically normal dogs, when applied to unbroken skin. Small increases in methemoglobin content were measured, however, when these products were given orally to clinically normal dogs. It was concluded that the skin lesions in the three clinically affected dogs enhanced absorption of the drug, resulting in methemoglobin formation.

  18. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  19. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  20. Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Nadine; Redman, Paula; Speakman, John; Jackson, Sue; Starck, J Matthias

    2010-04-01

    We explored how seasonal changes in temperature, exercise and food supply affected energy metabolism and heart rate of Inuit dogs in Greenland. Using open flow respirometry, doubly labeled water, and heart rate recording, we measured metabolic rates of the same dogs at two different locations: at one location the dogs were fed with high energy food throughout the year while at the other location they were fed with low energy food during summer. Our key questions were: is resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased during the winter season when dogs are working? Does feeding regime affect RMR during summer? What is the proportion of metabolic rate (MR) devoted to specific dynamic action (SDA), and what is the metabolic scope of working Inuit sled dogs? The Inuit dogs had an extremely wide thermoneutral zone extending down to -25 degrees C. Temperature changes between summer and winter did not affect RMR, thus summer fasting periods were defined as baseline RMR. Relative to this baseline, summer MR was upregulated in the group of dogs receiving low energy food, whereas heart rate was downregulated. However, during food digestion, both MR and HR were twice their respective baseline values. A continuously elevated MR was observed during winter. Because temperature effects were excluded and because there were also no effects of training, we attribute winter elevated MR to SDA because of the continuous food supply. Working MR during winter was 7.9 times the MR of resting dogs in winter, or 12.2 times baseline MR.

  1. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Sandra E.; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr). PMID:23024385

  2. Dogs' Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog's body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 "hand motion" cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog's behavior, focusing on the dog's eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate.

  3. "The Dog Project:" Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Joanne Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this photo essay, I examine the social contexts of literacy development through an exploration of a unique organization called "The Dog Project." In this descriptive narrative, I document the ways children's interactions with their peers, the instructors, and the dogs in the project fostered their sense of self-efficacy, their…

  4. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  5. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

  6. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  7. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  8. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  9. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  10. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  11. Care of dogs and attitudes of dog owners in Port-au-Prince, the Republic of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Fielding, William J; Gall, Melanie; Green, Dick; Eller, Warren S

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the first known study on dogs in Port-au-Prince. Interviews with 1,290 residents provided information on 1,804 dogs. More than 57.7% of homes kept dogs. Not all the dogs received vaccinations for rabies (41.6%), even though 28.2% of households had had a household member bitten by a dog. Although the "owned" dog population had decreased as a result of the earthquake in January 2010, the number of roaming dogs appeared to have been uninfluenced by the disaster. Given that 64.8% of dogs probably had access to the street and only 6.0% of the females were spayed, to humanely contain the dog population will require both confinement and neutering. Although roaming dogs were considered a nuisance by 63.3% of respondents, 42.6% of households fed dogs they did not own.

  12. Dried blood spots for the enzymatic diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Adrian C.; Haskins, Mark E.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Background In people lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) can be diagnosed by assaying enzyme activities in dried blood spots (DBS). Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using DBS samples from dogs and cats to measure lysosomal enzymatic activities and diagnose LSD. Methods Drops of fresh whole blood collected in EDTA from dogs and cats with known or suspected LSD and from clinically healthy dogs and cats were placed on neonatal screening cards, dried, and mailed to the Metabolic Laboratory, University Children’s Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany. Activities of selected lysosomal enzymes were measured using fluorescent substrates in a 2-mm diameter disk (~2.6 μL blood) punched from the DBS. Results were expressed as nmol substrate hydrolyzed per mL of blood per minute or hour. Results Reference values were established for several lysosomal enzyme activities in DBS from dogs and cats; for most enzymes, activities were higher than those published for human samples. Activities of β-glucuronidase, N-acetylglucosamine-4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B), α-mannosidase, α-galactosidase, α-fucosidase, and hexosaminidase A were measureable in DBS from healthy cats and dogs; α-iduronidase activity was measureable only in cats. In samples from animals with LSD, markedly reduced activity of a specific enzyme was found. In contrast, in samples from cats affected with mucolipidosis II activities of lysosomal enzymes were markedly increased. Conclusions Measurement of lysosomal enzyme activities in DBS provides an inexpensive, simple, and convenient method to screen animals for suspected LSD and requires only a small sample volume. For diseases in which the relevant enzyme activity can be measured in DBS, a specific diagnosis can be made. PMID:23121383

  13. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples. PMID:26277060

  14. Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

  15. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples.

  16. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography for the detection of heart base masses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Quinci, Manuela; Romito, Giovanni; Luciani, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Diana, Alessia

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography (STR) for the detection of heart base masses (HBMs) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 30 dogs with an HBM and 120 breed-matched control dogs (60 healthy dogs and 60 dogs with heart disease and no HBM). PROCEDURES In a blinded manner, 2 observers (designated as A and B) evaluated STR views from each dog for a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart, tracheal deviation, cardiomegaly, findings suggestive of pericardial effusion or right-sided congestive heart failure, and soft tissue opacities suggestive of pulmonary metastases. Investigators subsequently provided a final interpretation of each dog's HBM status (definitely affected, equivocal, or definitely not affected). RESULTS Considering equivocal interpretation as negative or positive for an HBM, the sensitivity of STR for diagnosis of an HBM was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% to 57.5%) and 56.7% (95% CI, 38.9% to 74.4%), respectively, for observer A and 63% (95% CI, 46.1% to 80.6%) and 80.0% (95% CI, 65.7% to 94.3%), respectively, for observer B. The corresponding specificity was 96.7% (95% CI, 93.5% to 99.9%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer A and 99.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 100%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer B. The presence of a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart or tracheal deviation, or both, was significantly associated with a true diagnosis of HBM. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that STR is a highly specific but not a highly sensitive predictor of HBM in dogs. PMID:27270062

  17. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography for the detection of heart base masses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Quinci, Manuela; Romito, Giovanni; Luciani, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Diana, Alessia

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography (STR) for the detection of heart base masses (HBMs) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 30 dogs with an HBM and 120 breed-matched control dogs (60 healthy dogs and 60 dogs with heart disease and no HBM). PROCEDURES In a blinded manner, 2 observers (designated as A and B) evaluated STR views from each dog for a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart, tracheal deviation, cardiomegaly, findings suggestive of pericardial effusion or right-sided congestive heart failure, and soft tissue opacities suggestive of pulmonary metastases. Investigators subsequently provided a final interpretation of each dog's HBM status (definitely affected, equivocal, or definitely not affected). RESULTS Considering equivocal interpretation as negative or positive for an HBM, the sensitivity of STR for diagnosis of an HBM was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% to 57.5%) and 56.7% (95% CI, 38.9% to 74.4%), respectively, for observer A and 63% (95% CI, 46.1% to 80.6%) and 80.0% (95% CI, 65.7% to 94.3%), respectively, for observer B. The corresponding specificity was 96.7% (95% CI, 93.5% to 99.9%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer A and 99.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 100%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer B. The presence of a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart or tracheal deviation, or both, was significantly associated with a true diagnosis of HBM. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that STR is a highly specific but not a highly sensitive predictor of HBM in dogs.

  18. Comparative analysis of the frequency, distribution and population sizes of yeasts associated with canine seborrheic dermatitis and healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Yurayart, Chompoonek; Chindamporn, Ariya; Suradhat, Sanipa; Tummaruk, Padet; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2011-03-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of yeast associated with the degree of canine seborrheic dermatitis (SD) by anatomical sites. Fifty-seven samples were divided as 17 healthy skin, 20 with primary seborrheic dermatitis (PSD), and 20 with secondary seborrheic dermatitis (SSD). Yeast isolation and characterization were carried out based on microscopical features and biochemical properties. DNA analysis at the internal transcribed spacer I of 26S rDNA region was utilized for species confirmation. Four species of yeast consisting Malassezia pachydermatis, Malassezia furfur, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis recovered from examined dogs. M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis were isolated from all dogs, but C. tropicalis and M. furfur were recovered from 3 healthy dogs and one diseased dog, respectively. The number of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in diseased dogs was higher than that of healthy specimens (P<0.01). High frequency and population size of C. parapsilosis were closely associated to PSD, while those of M. pachydermatis were associated with both PSD and SSD (P<0.01). C. parapsilosis were predominant at the perianal area. This study demonstrated the co-colonization of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in large amounts and frequency associated with stage of disease and anatomical site. PMID:20961712

  19. Multifocal retinopathy of Great Pyrenees dogs.

    PubMed

    Grahn, B.H.; Philibert, H.; Cullen, C.L.; Houston, D.M.; Semple, H.A.; Schmutz, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-four related Great Pyrenees dogs were examined ophthalmoscopically. Focal retinal elevations, multiple gray-tan-pink subretinal patches, and discrete areas of tapetal hyper-reflectivity were seen in 19 dogs, ranging from 13 weeks to 10 years of age. These lesions varied in size from focal spots that were barely visible with the indirect ophthalmoscope to areas that were larger than the optic disc. Complete blood cell counts, serum biochemical profiles, urinalyses, and blood pressure measurements were completed on four affected dogs and all were within normal reference ranges. Photopic and scotopic electroretinography was completed and the a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and latencies were similar for affected and age-matched nonaffected Great Pyrenees and other normal dogs. Electroretinograms that were examined twice during a 3-year period on three affected adult dogs did not reveal significant progressive deterioration of the a or b-wave parameters. Fluorescein angiography was completed on four affected dogs of ages 1 (n = 2), 5, and 6 years. These angiograms were repeated in three of these dogs 1 year later. The blood ocular barrier was intact in these dogs but there was blocked choroidal fluorescence. Postmortem examination, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed on three affected puppies and two affected adult dogs. These examinations revealed that the lesions in the puppies were limited to bilateral multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelial vacuolation, hypertrophy, and apparent separation from Bruch's membrane, and multiple serous retinal detachments. The affected adult dogs had focal retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia and pigmentation. Pedigree analysis and test mating confirm that this condition is inherited, probably as an autosomal recessive trait. This condition develops at approximately 13 weeks of age and the focal areas of retinal detachment and retinal pigment

  20. Vulvar lipoleiomyoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A

    2005-01-01

    A vulvar neoplasm from a 5-year-old female Siberian Husky dog was removed surgically and examined histologically. Macroscopically, the neoplasm was firm, white, and measured 6 x 4 x 3 cm. Microscopically, the neoplasm was expansile, nonencapsulated, and composed of lobules of mature adipocytes ad-mixed with streams and bundles of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells had strong diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin, and no immunoreactivity for cytokeratin or vimentin. On the basis of gross, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of lipoleiomyoma was made. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first report of canine vulvar lipoleiomyoma.

  1. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  2. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  3. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  4. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 minutes. BREADS AND GRAINS Choose healthy breads, cereals, and pasta, such as: Whole-grain breads and ... grain.) All bran, 100% bran, and Shredded Wheat cereals (Look for cereals with at least 4 grams ...

  5. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  6. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  7. Application of B-mode ultrasonography in the assessment of the dog penis.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, Rita; Bessa, Ana Celeste M

    2008-06-01

    With the purpose to characterize the ultrasonographic features of the dog penis, 20 healthy dogs aged from 2 to 11 years old were used. Ultrasonography was performed using a 5-9MHz linear probe and a Philips HD3 scanner. Ultrasonograms were obtained at the penile body (pre- and post-scrotal sections) and at both the bulbus glandis and the pars longa glandis, with the dog placed in dorsal recumbency. The typical anatomy of the dog penis is easily demonstrated in ultrasonographic images, as revealed in this study. On ultrasonograms taken at the body level, the two corpora cavernosa showed a homogeneous, hypoechoic structure; ventrally, the corpus spongiosum appears as a slightly hyperechoic structure surrounding the urethra. In glans ultrasonograms, the most typical feature is the os penis, observed as a strong hyperechoic structure, whose acoustic shadow impairs the screening of adjacent tissues. Lining on its concavity, the corpus spongiosum is observed as a slightly hyperechoic tissue around the urethra. An ovoid, regularly hypoechoic tissue corresponding to the erectile tissue of the pars longa, surrounds these structures. The bulbus glandis is visualized as a regular hypoechoic structure with small anechoic areas, corresponding to sinusoidal spaces. The albuginea is evidenced as a well-defined, hyperechoic external layer. The preputial cavity appears as a thin anechoic layer surrounding the albuginea. The results of this study demonstrate that ultrasonographic assessment of the dog penis is easily performed and accurate enough for penile examination. Furthermore, ultrasonography of the dog penis can become an interesting diagnostic tool to explore in the canine practice, during breeding soundness evaluation and also whenever penile exposition is impossible to achieve.

  8. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs...

  9. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  10. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs...

  11. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  12. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  13. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs...

  14. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  15. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  16. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  17. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  18. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  19. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs...

  20. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  1. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  2. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  3. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  4. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  5. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  6. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  7. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  8. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  9. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs...

  10. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the property for other than...

  11. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  12. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  13. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  14. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  15. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  16. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-01

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population.

  17. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

  18. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  19. A sociobiological origin of pregnancy failure in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bartoš, Luděk; Bartošová, Jitka; Chaloupková, Helena; Dušek, Adam; Hradecká, Lenka; Svobodová, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Among domestic dog breeders it is common practice to transfer a domestic dog bitch out of her home environment for mating, bringing her back after the mating. If the home environment contains a male, who is not the father of the foetuses, there is a potential risk of future infanticide. We collected 621 records on mating of 249 healthy bitches of 11 breed-types. The highest proportion of successful pregnancies following mating occurred in bitches mated within their home pack and remaining there. Bitches mated elsewhere and then returned to a home containing at least one male had substantially lower incidence of maintained pregnancy in comparison with bitches mated by a home male. After returning home, housing affected strongly the frequency of pregnancy success. Bitches mated elsewhere but released into a home pack containing a home male were four times more likely to maintain pregnancy than bitches which were housed individually after returning home. Suppression of pregnancy in situations where a bitch is unable to confuse a home male about parentage may be seen as an adaptation to avoid any seemingly unavoidable future loss of her progeny to infanticide after birth and thus to save energy. PMID:26917034

  20. The Healthy Heart: Lessons from Nature's Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrie M; Bengtson, Penni; Steller, Diana L; Croll, Donald A; Davis, Randall W

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease in humans is more than three times that of many wild and domestic mammals despite nearly identical heart morphologies and responses to exercise. A survey of mammalian species from 0.002-kg shrews to 43,000-kg whales shows that the human heart is more dog-like than cat-like and that neither body size nor longevity accounts for the relative vulnerability to cardiovascular disease. Rather, a major difference is daily activity patterns, which may underlie the comparatively healthy hearts of wild mammals. PMID:26328880